matter - Old Saybrook Public Schools

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matter - Old Saybrook Public Schools
MATTER
States of Matter
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Question ??
• How are temperature and kinetic energy
related?
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Matter
– anything that has mass and takes up space.
Kinetic theory
– explains how particles in matter behave
 All matter is composed of particles
 Particles are in constant, random motion
 Particles collide with each other and walls of their container
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STATES OF MATTER
STATE
CHARACTERISTICS
PARTICLES
SOLID
Definite shape and
definite volume
Closely packed in
geometric arrangement
LIQUID
Indefinite shape and
definite volume
Have more space and
slide pass each other
GAS
Indefinite shape and
indefinite volume
Have energy to spread
out evenly in container
PLASMA
High temperature
gas
BOSE-EINSTEIN
CONDENSATE
Low temperature
gas
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Positively and negatively
Charged
Clumped together
all have same energy
The state of a sample of matter depends on
temperature
Temperature
related to the average kinetic energy of an object.
• When the temperature increases kinetic energy
increases and slows down or contracts when cooled.
# Exception to Rule: Water when cooled it expands
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Composition
of
Matter
Question???
• What's the difference between substances
and mixtures?
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Substance
– type of matter with a fixed composition that
cannot be separated by physical means
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Element
– substance made up of atoms with same
identity
Examples: gold, helium, aluminum
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Compound
– atoms of two or more elements chemically
combined
Examples: water (H2O), carbon dioxide
(CO2)
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Mixture
materials made of two or more substances that can
separated by physical means
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• Heterogeneous
• mixture in which different materials can
be easily distinguished
 Examples: Pizza, Fruit salad Granite
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Homogeneous
mixture in which two or more substances are
Uniformly spread out
Examples: Vinegar, Salt water
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Types Of Matter
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Solution
– homogeneous mixture of particles so small that
they cannot even be seen with a microscope and
will never settle to the bottom of their container.
Examples: Vinegar,
Soda (unopened), and
Hydrogen Peroxide.
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Colloid
– type of mixture with particles that are larger than those in
solution, but still too light to settle out.
Examples: Milk (Water & Fat)
Fog (Water & Air), Cool Whip
# Detecting colloids is sometimes
difficult so shining a beam of
light at colloid will make the light
scatter – this scattering of light by
a colloid is called the Tyndall Effect.
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Suspension
– heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which
visible particles settle.
Examples: Italian dressing,
muddy pond water,
chocolate milk.
* HINT: If it needs shaking to mix, then it’s a suspension
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Describing Matter
Physical Property
– characteristic of a material that
you can observe without
changing the substance
Examples: color, size, shape,
density, melting point, boiling
point
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Chemical Property
– characteristic of a
substance that indicates
whether it can undergo a
certain chemical change
Examples: flammable,
combustible, may react to
light
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Physical Change
– a change in size, shape or state of matter; substance
DOES NOT change identity when it undergoes
physical change
Examples: melting ice,
cutting paper, breaking glass
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Chemical Change
– a change in one substance to another substance
Examples: fireworks explode, rusting metal
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The Law of Conservation of Mass
- says that the mass of ALL substances
present before a chemical change equals
mass of ALL substances after the
change.
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