Grade-3-Text-Features-Science

Comments

Transcription

Grade-3-Text-Features-Science
Teaching Third-Grade TEXT FEATURES Using EXPLORING DANGERS IN SPACE: ASTEROIDS, SPACE JUNK, AND MORE
Features that help students understand how an informational text is organized:
FEATUREPURPOSE
Title page
Confirms title, author’s name, and publisher
Contents page
Identifies the topics to be presented and their order
Chapter name, heading, or subheading
Helps students identify main topics on a quick pass through the text
Page number
Helps students with sequence of ideas and aids in using the index
Glossary
Defines new and important words
Further Reading and WebsitesHelps students expand their knowledge of the topic by listing other informational texts in print or on the Internet
Index
Lists the main ideas in the text, with page numbers to help students find them
Visual aids that help students understand informational texts:
VISUAL AID
Photo, drawing, or illustration
Diagram
PURPOSE
Shows how something in the text looked or might have looked
Gives a more detailed view of a complex topic
Features that point out important or additional information:
FEATUREPURPOSE
Copyright page
Tells students how current the information in a book is
Bold print
Tells students a word is new and important; sometimes a glossary term
Italic printTells students the word is supposed to stand out. It may be for emphasis or because it is a book name, a newspaper, a movie
title, a foreign word, or the directional for a photo or an illustration.
CaptionPoints out what’s in a photo, a drawing, or an illustration and relates it to the informational text; often gives more information
LabelIdentifies important points of interest in a diagram or photograph that students might otherwise miss
™
Copyright © 2011 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
1
What’s
Amazing
about Space?
TITLE PAGE: This
page tells you what
the name, or the title,
of the book is. It also
tells you who wrote
the book and who
published it.
TITLE
Exploring
Dangers
in Space
Asteroids, Space Junk, and More
AUTHOR
Buffy Silverman
a
Lerner Publications Company
Minneapolis
PUBLISHER
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
2
COPYRIGHT
YEAR
COPYRIGHT
PAGE: This page tells
you the year in which
the book was published.
This may be important
for report writing when
you need up-to-date
information. On this
page, you can also
find the address of the
publisher.
S
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. International copyright secured. No part of this book may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the prior written
permission of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc., except for the inclusion of brief quotations in
an acknowledged review.
Lerner Publications Company
A division of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
241 First Avenue North
Minneapolis, MN 55401 U.S.A.
AN
Website address: www.lernerbooks.com
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Silverman, Buffy.
Exploring dangers in space : asteroids, space junk, and more / by Buffy Silverman.
p. cm. — (Searchlight Books™—What’s amazing about space?)
Includes index.
ISBN 978–0–7613–5446–8 (lib. bdg. : alk. paper)
1. Collisions (Astrophysics)—Juvenile literature. 2. Near-Earth objects—Juvenile
literature. 3. Asteroids—Collisions with Earth—Juvenile literature. 4. Comets—
Collisions with Earth—Juvenile literature. 5. Space debris—Juvenile literature.
6. Meteoroids—Juvenile literature. I. Title.
QB466.C64S55 2012
551.3’9—dc22
2010046078
Manufactured in the United States of America
1 – DP – 7/15/11
SMALLER
CRATERS, CRASHE
SPACE
Learn More about As
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
3
Contents
Chapter 1
CONTENTS
PAGE: This lists
SPACE ROCKS
the chapters in your
book by chapter
title and the pages
on which they
begin. The contents
might also list
features, such as the
index, that are at
the end of the book.
. . . page 4
Chapter 2
ASTEROIDS
AND COMETS
. . . page 9
Chapter 3
SMALLER SPACE OBJECTS
. . . page 15
Chapter 4
CRATERS, CRASHES, AND DINOSAURS
. . . page 22
Chapter 5
SPACE WATCH
. . . page 30
Glossary 38
Learn More about Asteroids, Space Junk, and More 39
Index 40
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
4
Chapter 2
CHAPTER
TITLE: This tells
ASTEROIDS
AND COMETS
you what topic will
be discussed in the
chapter. Chapter
titles often give you
the main ideas of
the book.
Many small space rocks orbit
the Sun. Asteroids and comets
are much bigger. Some of their
orbits bring them close to Earth.
TEXT OR
MAIN TEXT:
These are the words
and sentences that
explain the main
ideas. Main text
looks different from
chapter titles or
captions.
The asteroid in this drawing
orbits near Earth. What is
the name for another kind
of large space rock?
PHOTOS: The
photos or pictures in
a book show what
the words, or the text,
describe. Looking
at photos can help
you understand the
meaning of the text.
CAPTION: These
words tell you what
is in the photo or
picture on the page.
A caption is usually
close to the picture it
goes with. Sometimes
a caption will tell
you if the picture is a
photo or a drawing.
A caption may also
give you additional
information that is not
in the main text.
9
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Image © Science Faction/SuperStock.
5
This is an artist’s idea
of what the Sun looks
like from the surface
of an asteroid.
HEADINGS
AND
SUBHEADINGS:
These separate the
main text into smaller
chunks of information.
A heading tells you
what the section
below it is about.
Asteroids
Asteroids are large, rocky objects that orbit the Sun.
Astronomers think asteroids are the leftover material
from when planets formed.
PAGE
NUMBERS: Page
numbers are on the
lower part of most
pages in a book.
They tell you how far
along you are in the
book. They also help
you find information
from the index.
10
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Image © Ron Miller.
6
Most asteroids travel in the asteroid belt. This area
is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Millions of
asteroids are in the asteroid belt.
LABELS: These
ASTEROID BELT
Jupiter
are words in a
diagram or photo
that point out
important parts
of the diagram or
photo.
DIAGRAM:
A diagram is a
type of drawing.
Short labels point
out important
parts of the
drawing.
Earth
Mars
Sun
Mercury
Venus
Asteroid Belt
11
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Image © Laura Westlund/Independent Picture Service.
7
Glossary
GLOSSARY: This
is a list of important
new words that you
have learned by
reading the book.
Each glossary word
is in bold print. After
the bold word is a
phrase that tells the
meaning of the word.
asteroid: a large, rocky object that orbits the Sun
asteroid belt: an area in space where most asteroids travel. The
asteroid belt is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
astronomer: a scientist who studies outer space
atmosphere: the layer of gases surrounding a planet
comet: a chunk of ice. Dust and rocks are packed into the ice.
Comets travel in long, oval orbits around the Sun.
gravity: a force that pulls objects together
impact crater: a mark left on a planet when an asteroid or a
comet crashes into it
meteor: a meteoroid that has entered Earth’s atmosphere
meteorite: a meteor that has reached Earth’s surface
BOLD PRINT:
meteoroid: a small space rock that orbits the Sun
Words in bold print
have thick, black
letters. You might
not know what
these words mean.
They are usually in
the glossary.
near-Earth asteroid (NEA): an asteroid that orbits close to Earth
orbit: the path an object takes as it travels around another object
satellite: a spacecraft used to send signals back and forth
between Earth and space
spacecraft: a vehicle that carries people and supplies to outer
space
space junk: satellites and other spacecraft that have stopped
working
telescope: an instrument that makes faraway objects appear
bigger and closer
38
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
8
ITALIC: This
type is slanted to
make a word or a
phrase stand out.
Italicized words
may be names of
books, newspapers,
movies, ships, or
foreign words. They
may also tell you
which caption goes
with which photo.
Learn More about Asteroids,
Space Junk, and More
LEARN
MORE: This is a
Books
Florian, Douglas. Comets, Stars, the Moon, and Mars: Space Poems and
Paintings. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2007. Fun poems and paintings
teach about outer space.
list of books and
websites on the
same subject as
the book you just
read. The list is at
the end of your
book.
Sparrow, Giles. Destination Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors. New York:
PowerKids Press, 2010. Take an imaginary journey through space to
see asteroids, comets, and meteors.
Vogt, Gregory L. Meteors and Comets. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications
Company, 2010. Learn more about meteors and comets in this lively
and informative book.
Websites
Ask an Astronomer for Kids!
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml
Astronomers answer common questions about asteroids, comets,
and more.
Keeping an Eye on Space Rocks
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/neo/spaceRocks.html
Discover how astronomers watch asteroids and comets on this site
from NASA.
StarChild
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level1/
solar_system.html
Learn more about asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and other parts of
the solar system.
39
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
9
Index
INDEX: This is an
alphabetical list of
words at the end of
your book. The index
tells some of the book’s
main ideas. Each
word is followed by
page numbers. These
numbers tell you where
to go in the book to
find that main idea.
asteroid belt, 11
impact craters, 22–24
asteroids, 9–12, 16, 24–27, 30,
33–37
meteorites, 17–18
astronomers, 6, 10, 29, 33–35, 37
meteoroids, 15–17
atmosphere, 4, 8, 17, 20, 31
meteors, 17–18, 23
comets, 9, 13–14, 16, 27–30, 33, 35,
37
orbit, 5, 9–12, 14, 19–21, 28, 35
Earth, 4, 6–9, 12, 14, 17, 19–24, 27,
29, 31, 33–35, 37
gravity, 7, 28
shooting star, 4
space junk, 20–21
space rocks, 4–6, 9, 15, 22
Sun, 5, 9–10, 13–15
Photo Acknowledgments
The images in this book are used with the permission of: © Mark Bowler/Photo Researchers, Inc.,
p. 4; © Take 27 Ltd/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 5; © Joyce Photographics/Photo Researchers, Inc.,
p. 6; © Science Faction/SuperStock, pp. 7, 9; © Jonathan Burnett/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 8;
© Ron Miller, pp. 10, 31, 34, 37; © Laura Westlund/Independent Picture Service, p. 11; © Detlev van
Ravenswaay/Photo Researchers, Inc., pp. 12, 16, 35, 36; © Mike Agliolo/Photo Researchers, Inc.,
p. 13; NASA, NOAO, NSF, T. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage), Z. Levay and L. Frattare
(Space Telescope Science Institute), p. 14; © Equinox Graphics/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 15;
© Stan Honda/AFP/Getty Images, p. 17; © F1 Online/SuperStock, p. 18; © Mehau Kulyk/Photo
Researchers, Inc., p. 19; U.S. Navy photo, p. 20; © Science and Society/SuperStock, p. 21; © RIA
Novosti/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 22; © Francois Gohier/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 23; © David
A. Hardy/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 24; © Mary Evans/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 25; © New York
Public Library Picture Collection/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 26; © Julian Baum/Photo Researchers,
Inc., p. 27; Hubble Space Telescope Comet Team, p. 28; © Mount Stromio and Siding Spring
Observatories, ANU/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 29; © Richard Bizley/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 30;
© Mark Garlick/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 32; © David Parker/Photo Researchers, Inc., p. 33.
Front cover: © Chris Bell/Taxi/Getty Images.
Main body text set in Adrianna Regular 14/20
Typeface provided by Chank
40
™
Copyright © 2012 by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc. Lerner DigitalTM and Lerner eSourceTM are trademarks of Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
All rights reserved. www.lernerbooks.com. From Exploring Dangers in Space: Asteroids, Space Junk, and More. © by Lerner Publishing Group, Inc.
10