The Benguela Current Large Marine - URI EDC

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The Benguela Current Large Marine - URI EDC
The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: A Social, Cultural, and Ecological Profile Nicole E. Rohr Hosts: Drs. Kenneth Sherman and Marie‐Christine Aquarone National Marine Fisheries Service Large Marine Ecosystems Program June 27, 2008 Presented in partial fulfillment of EVS 614
LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystem conservation and management often starts and stops at country borders, which seldom correlate with the boundaries of ecosystems (Rickelefs, 1987; Graham et al, 1991). This can result in the disjunctive regulation and management of large ecosystems that encompass several countries. To address this issue, scientists at the National Marine Fisheries Service in the United States created 64 distinct large marine ecosystems (LMEs) from the world’s major coastal and estuarine ecosystems. These ecological delineations were based on marine bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophodynamics (Sherman and Alexander, 1986) with no regard to existing political boundaries (figure 1). Seventeen LME Projects in Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe currently exist (table 1), and each project is a collaboration among the countries that lie within the boundaries of the respective LME. The countries may be politically distinct but they work together with a shared goal of sustaining the ecological integrity of an ecosystem through integrated transboundary ecosystem management (Sherman, 1994; Shannon, 2006). In order to develop ecological and socioeconomic baselines and monitor the effects of management of each LME, a set of Five Modules and Indicators were developed (Sherman and Duda, 1999). These five modules incorporate many aspects of management ranging from the evaluation of physical and biological processes to stakeholder involvement and participation (figure 2). The three science‐based modules (productivity, fish and fisheries, and pollution and ecosystem health) were designed to provide assessment information on which to base management recommendations. The socioeconomics and governance modules were defined to assess the extent to which management options are effective in contributing to resource sustainability (Edwards and Murawski, 1996; Murawski, 1996). Rohr | 2 The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Programme (BCLME Programme) completed its first decade in 2007, which presents an opportunity to evaluate its successes. The end of the first decade is also a good juncture to revise the program in order to improve its performance. This white paper summarizes the accomplishments of the governance module of the BCLME, and highlights remaining challenges and areas of potential improvement. The following section describes the BCLME including physical oceanographic properties and the most significant industries in the coastal regions. Next, the BENEFIT and BCLME Programme are described including how they were established and the major objectives of each initiative. Then, I describe the Benguela Current Commission including how it is politically structured, why it is unique among other commissions, and what the Commission hopes to achieve in the future. Finally, I discuss how the BCLME Programme will move forward into the next decade, celebrating its successes while making improvements to better understand, manage, and protect its marine resources and the economic opportunities that rely on these resources. BENGUELA CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is located along the coast of southwest Africa and its name is derived from the current which it encompasses (figure 3). The BCLME stretches from the Angola Front in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south and eastward past the boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ); encompassing the entire Namibian coast, the complete western coast of South Africa, and part of the Angolan coast (Shannon, 2006). The Benguela Current is an upwelling system with a center located around Lüderitz in southern Namibia (Shannon 1985). The Benguela upwelling system has a mean annual primary productivity of 1.25 kilograms of carbon per meter square per year (Shannon and O’Toole, 2003), which makes it one of the four most productive upwelling systems in the world. Strong upwelling events are responsible for the high level of primary and secondary productivity that characterizes the BCLME but can also contribute to hypoxic and anoxic Rohr | 3 events that are common in the region (Chapman and Shannon, 1985; Monterio and van der Plas, 2006). Other oceanographic phenomena contribute to the uniqueness of the BCLME; these include but are not limited to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Colberg et al, 2004), Agulhas Current Retroflection with concurrent Agulhas Rings (Duncombe Rae et al, 1992), and the net transport of heat towards the equator (Shannon and O’Toole, 1999). In addition to being extremely biologically productive, the BCLME also offers many prominent economic opportunities. The oil and natural gas industry has expanded in the last three decades, primarily in Angola, due largely to an extensive surveying effort by the oil and natural gas companies (Morant, 1999). As of 2006, the offshore oil and gas industry accounted for 69% of the BCLME marine economy, which was estimated at US$ 15 billion (O’Toole, 2008). Many positive socio‐economic effects have resulted from this expansion but these come at the expense of the ecosystem. In addition to the obvious threat of oil and natural gas spills, the disruption and smothering of the benthos by drilling and discharge respectively can cause large disturbances. The shipping industry, which is prominent in the distribution of oil and natural gas, is a large contributor to the potential spread of invasive species because of ballast water exchange in foreign ports (Carlton and Geller, 1993; Ruiz et al, 1997). Sewage, food and galley waste, and oily water discharge are a few other threats that oil ships pose to the natural environment (Morant, 1999). Led by DeBeers and its affiliates, diamond mining is prominent in the BCLME region and, in 2006, accounted for 15% of the BCLME marine economy (O’Toole, 2008). Mining is conducted on‐shore, near‐shore, and off‐shore and, similar to the oil and gas industry, has both positive and negative impacts (Clark et al, 1999). The positive effects generally include socio‐economic benefits derived from employment and tax revenue while negative effects can include harmful socio‐economic impacts associated with an influx of people into small towns. These include inadequate waste management systems for the sudden increase in human population, which can result in an increase of nutrient Rohr | 4 pollution to the adjacent marine ecosystem. An increase in nutrients results in harmful algae blooms that contaminate the waters, cause fish kills, and prevent human activities. Diamond mining also has negative environmental impacts but the extent of these impacts is currently unknown (Clark et al, 1999). Fisheries rank very high in national importance in Angola and Namibia. While fisheries are less important in South Africa as a whole, they are vital to coastal communities (Hampton et al, 1999). Overall, fisheries account for 5% of the economy in the BCLME region (O’Toole, 2008). In general, fisheries have been declining since the late 1960’s (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2003) with one of the most drastic reductions seen in the South African and Namibian sardine fishery (figure 4). A few species such as the sardinella have seen increases in populations but it is unclear at this point whether this is due to an actual increase in numbers or a range shift due to the changing climate (Hampton et al, 1999). Currently, there are major gaps in information regarding life history characteristics of the major economic fish species. This information is vital for effective catch regulations and management of artisanally and commercially important fish species (Hampton et al, 1999) and the BCLME Programme is making an effort to close these gaps. GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF BENEFIT AND THE BCLME PROGRAMME In the mid‐1990’s, the countries that border the BCLME recognized the need for a holistic approach to the study of the marine environment. Data evolving from such a study would provide the basis for responsible and effective management that promotes the sustainability of the ecosystem (Shannon, 2006). In 1995, the Namibian Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources hosted a Workshop/Seminar on Fisheries Resource Dynamics in the Benguela Current Ecosystem in Swakopmund, Namibia. From this workshop, the initiatives for two regional programs were developed: Bengeula‐
Environment‐Fisheries‐Interaction and Training (BENEFIT) and the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) Program. Rohr | 5 BENEFIT commenced in 1997. With ten years of financial support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) from 1997 through 2007, BENEFIT was dedicated to the development of enhanced science capabilities for assessing the Benguela Current ecosystem through improving the understanding of its ecosystem dynamics (Shannon, 2006). Capacity building for marine science and technology was also identified as a high priority for the three countries. In the same year following the initiation of BENEFIT, a basic plan for the BCLME Programme was laid out. In contrast to the strictly science‐based goals of BENEFIT, the BCLME Programme is aimed at the sustainable and integrated management of the Benguela Current ecosystem as a whole with a focus on transboundary management (United Nations Development Programme – Global Environment Facility, 2001) through the use of the Five Modules and Indicators (Sherman and Duda, 1999). From 1997 to 2001, the basic plan for the BCLME Programme was developed into a comprehensive program through the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) (BCLME Programme Co‐ordinating Unit, 1999) and the Strategic Action Plan (SAP) (BCLME Programme Co‐ordinating Unit, 2002). The TDA identifies basic underlying transboundary problems and indicates areas in the BCLME requiring action. Three main areas were identified for regional action: •
sustainable management and utilization of resources; •
assessment of environmental variability, ecosystem impacts, and improvement of variability; •
and maintenance of ecosystem health and management of pollution. The SAP outlines the regional policy for the sustainable integrated management of the BCLME as agreed upon by Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. The SAP summarizes the regional framework for the BCLME Programme, including: •
details of challenges facing the BCLME in regards to transboundary management; •
establishes the principles that are fundamental to integrated management; •
specifies the nature, scope, and timetable for deliverable management policy actions; Rohr | 6 •
details the institutional arrangements for ensuring delivery; •
elaborates on cooperation between the BCLME region and external institutions; •
specifies how the BCLME Programme will be financed during the start‐up and implementation phase; and •
outlines approaches to ensure the long‐term self‐funding of the integrated management of the BCLME. The BCLME Programme was formally approved in 2002 (BCLME Coordinating Unit, 1999; Shannon, 2006). In 2007, the two five‐year funding cycles of the BENEFIT Project by the GEF came to an end with the three countries involved being dedicated to moving forward with continued improvement through the BCLME Programme (de Barros et al., 2007). BENEFIT was formed through a bottom‐up initiative not only concerned with science but also with the capacity building and education that allowed for the science to be conducted. Perhaps the most impressive accomplishment was the establishment of the Interim Benguela Current Commission (IBCC), which recently became the permanent Benguela Current Commission (BCC). The IBCC/BCC is the first international commission established specifically to manage an entire ecosystem shared by several nations in the world and now serves as an example to other LME countries (such as in the Guinea Current LME) of what can be achieved regardless of the individual countries political and civil statuses (Juda and Hennessey, 2005; Olsen et al., 2006). BENGUELA CURRENT COMMISSION (BCC) By the end of the ten‐year funding period for BENEFIT, a major goal with collaboration of the BCLME Programme was to have a self‐sufficient Benguela Current Commission (BCC) established to implement an ecosystem‐based management approach in the three countries of the BCLME (Sherman, 2006). This goal was met in 2007 (United Nations Development Programme, 2007). The BCC’s main Rohr | 7 objectives are to develop a better understanding of the BCLME, to improve the management of human impacts, to facilitate regional capacity building, and to increase the benefits derived from transboundary management and harvest of fish stocks (Programme Coordination Unit Report PCU/BCC/04/01, 2004). A phased approach was undertaken to establish the BCC. First, a draft of the intergovernmental agreement was prepared. Next, working groups and joint management committees were brought into operation to address the most pressing concerns of the BCLME. Finally, the Interim Benguela Current Commission (IBCC) was created as a preliminary step towards a permanent commission (Juda and Hennessey, 2001; Sherman, 2006). The IBCC/BCC was a bottom‐up commission of three politically tumultuous countries. Angola was a very poor country until the recent discovery of oil, Namibia had no way of protecting its EEZ from international fishing fleets until it was recognized as an independent country until 1990, and Sout Africa struggled with apartheid. In addition, all three of these countries also experienced civil wars. Aside from civil problems, the countries struggled with a lack of trust among the governments, single‐species management was the established approach to fisheries, and there was an absence of cross‐sectoral communication. There was also little or no regional cooperation and a lack of stakeholder participation in the management process (Tapscott, 1999). Despite all obstacles, representatives from each country realized they share a unique and fragile ecosystem, and came together to better understand and manage the BCLME (Vousden and Ngoile, 2005). Research, capacity building, and management conducted through the BCLME Programme are equally distributed among Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. Three Activity Centers were established, one in each country, and each has a different focus (Appendix A). The Center for Biodiversity, Ecosystem Health, and Pollution is headquartered in Luanda, Angola. This Center is responsible for projects such as mapping of habitats, biodiversity and species composition assessments, as well as the assessment of the effects of diamond and oil mining. The Center for Living Marine Resources is in Swakopmund, Namibia. Rohr | 8 This Activity Center is primarily focused on the assessment and management of artisanal and commercial fisheries. The Center for Environmental Variability in Cape Town, South Africa, handles the monitoring and assessment of oceanographic data, harmful algal blooms, and the shellfish sanitation program (United Nations Development Programme – Global Environment Facility, 2001). (For a list of completed projects in each of the activity centers, see Appendix B). All three Centers actively work on capacity building with a special focus on Angola due to its lower level of education and the need for an upgraded communications system. One of the most effective capacity building techniques utilized in all three countries was scholarship support for employees who wanted to continue their education. Between 1998 and 2007, over 50 students received financial support to continue their education (de Barros et al., 2007). Upon their completion, many students then returned to BENEFIT and the BCLME Programme, bringing with them improved knowledge and renewed enthusiasm for contributing to the success of these programs, as well as for improving their countries as a whole. MOVING FOREWARD The BCLME Program has been successful to date in achieving a collaborative effort from three nations that have not always been cooperative, and that have faced many internal challenges. One of their largest achievements was the establishment of the BCC, which could serve as a model of cooperative research and management for other LMEs, and indeed for a wide spectrum of international cooperation. As the BCLME Programme moves forward, the Science Plan for the next four years (2008‐2011) includes: •
living marine resources and monitoring; •
ecosystem health and conservation Rohr | 9 •
ecosystem‐based management (EAF); •
state of the environment assessment and monitoring; •
climate change; •
capacity building and training program; •
State of Ecosystem Information System (SEIS). As in the past, forecasting remains at the forefront of objectives. The BCLME Programme hopes not only to monitor and assess previous data and physical and biological trends, but also to be able to identify the underlying drivers of these processes so early‐warning systems can be established. Global climate change is at the forefront of worldwide scientific concerns and the BCLME is not excluded from this phenomenon. It is important to determine how climate change will affect the physical process of the upwelling system, to identify how these physical changes will manifest themselves biologically, and to determine the steps needed to mitigate or adapt to the changes. In this manner, climate change can serve as an evolutionary driver. One example where this evaluative process is occurring involves the distribution and abundance of South African penguins. Due to physical changes regarding temperature of water and the strength of upwelling, there has been a shift in fisheries distribution, specifically the shift of the sardine and anchovy populations (Crawford, 1998; Crawford et al., 2006). These two fish species compose a large portion of the diet of penguins but in order to find a sufficient amount of the fish to support the population, the penguins have moved into new areas, which has exposed them to novel predators for which they do not have defense or escape mechanisms. This has caused a decline in the penguin population (Crawford et al, 1995; 2007). Also, as with much of the world, greenhouse gas reduction is a priority as a means to combat global climate change. The BCLME Programme has been very successful in collecting large amounts of data, but perhaps less so to date in analyzing the data. While there has been a constant and dedicated effort to process the large amounts of data, the analyses continue to lag well behind the collection. More capital Rohr | 10 and time should be dedicated to this effort in order to determine trends, to interpret these trends in relation to large‐scale ecosystem processes, and to incorporate the information into policies and management. To date, the BCLME Programme has been successful in procuring outside funding, and is in the process of securing addition funds to continue the program for another five years. A remaining challenge is to make research and management by the three countries self sustaining. Possible funding sources include supplemental funds and technical support from other countries, particularly Norway and Iceland (Duda and Sherman, 2002). The use of revenues from the oil and natural gas industry, diamond mining companies, and even a portion of fisheries revenues being retained to help support further research and management has also been suggested. While there have been many advances in scientific knowledge, there have also been many socioeconomic successes as well. The BCLME Programme has been successful in breaking down geopolitical borders between adjacent southern African countries with a history of hostility and distrust. These countries are now working together toward a common goal that requires much collaboration and agreement. On a worldwide scale, cooperative ties are being built between northern hemisphere first‐
world countries and southern hemisphere third‐world countries as Norway and Iceland have dedicated many in‐kind contributions to the BCLME Programme in hopes of preserving the world’s fisheries. Capacity building has also been very successful, particularly with regards to educational scholarships. By providing the means for employees to complete their bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in fields related to the needs and goals of the BCLME Programme (i.e. natural sciences, oceanography, communication, computers), many benefits are attained. Firstly, many employees return to the BCLME Programme with an increased education level that manifests itself in a greater understanding of the ecological and social workings of the BCLME. Second, the increased educational level allows for the employee to earn a higher income and therefore invest more money into the local Rohr | 11 economy through the increased purchase of goods and services. Future research should include more focus on the socioeconomic module to specifically determine how the investment in education manifests itself in improvements to society outside of the BCLME realm. Overall, the BCLME Programme has made large advancements in the improvement of scientific knowledge and the management of marine resources within the boundaries of Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. The Programme has also made ground‐breaking socioeconomic and governance improvements by creating intergovernmental infrastructure through the establishment of the BCC. While there have been many perceived successes there are also many areas that would benefit from additional development. If given the financial opportunity, the BCLME Programme will continue to improve and serve as an example for other developing LME programs. Rohr | 12 Figure 1: Map of the 64 Large Marine Ecosystems. Each ecosystem is characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, bathymetry, and trophodynamics (from Sherman, 2006). The Benguela Current LME is represented by number 29. Rohr | 13 Figure 2: The Five Modules and associated Indicators as used for the evaluation of Large Marine Ecosystems (adopted from Sherman and Duda, 1999). Pollution & Ecosystem Health PRODUCTIVITY MODULE INDICATOR Photosynthetic activity Zooplankton biodiversity Oceanographic variability Productivity Socioeconomics Fish & Fisheries POLLUTION & ECOSYSTEM
HEALTH MODULE INDICATOR Eutrophication Biotoxins Pathology Emerging diseases Health indices Governance SOCIOECONOMIC MODULE INDICATOR Integrated assessment Human forcing Sustainability of long‐term Socioeconomic benefits GOVERNANCE
MODULE INDICATOR Stakeholder participation Adaptive management FISH & FISHERIES MODULE INDICATOR Biodiversity Finfish Shellfish Demersal Species Pelagic Species Rohr | 14 Figure 3: Left: A map of Africa with the BCLME region outlined (map courtesy of NOAA NMFS and URI Environmental Data Center, http://www.lme.noaa.gov/Portal/). Right: The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem with the major oceanographic currents (Shannon, 2006). Rohr | 15 Figure 4: The level of commercial fisheries in the BCLME region by amount landed (top) and by the economic value of that catch (bottom) since 1950. The data are grouped by commercial group. (Sea Around Us Project, 2008). The top graph illustrates the decrease in catch biomass of many commercially important fish species since the late 1980’s. The bottom graph translates this decrease in catch biomass into a decrease in revenue. Rohr | 16 Table 1: The 17 Large Marine Ecosystem Programs currently funded by or in the preparation stages for the Global Environment Facility and their participating countires (adopted from Sherman, 2006). Large Marine Ecosystem (# of countries) Gulf of Guinea (6) Yellow Sea (2) Patagonia Shelf/Maritime Front (2) Baltic (9) Benguela Current (3) South China Sea (7) Black Sea (6) Mediterranean (19) Red Sea (7) Western Pacific Warm Water Pool‐SIDS (13) Canary Current (7) Bay of Bengal (8) Humboldt Current (2) Guinea Current (16) Gulf of Mexico (3) Agulhas/Somali Currents (8) Caribbean (23) Participating Countries Benin, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo China, Korea Argentina, Uruguay Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden Angola, Namibia, South Africa Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine Albania, Algeria, Bosnia‐Herzegovina, Croatia, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea‐Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Chile, Peru Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Guinea‐Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Principe, Sierra Leone, Togo Cuba, Mexico, United States Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela Rohr | 17 Appendix A – Activity centers in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem, location, main research targets and projects that are in progress and/or completed. For a complete description of the Activity Centers and associated projects, please see the BCLME Programme website at http://www.bclme.org. Centre for Biodiversity, Ecosystem Health, and Pollution Location: Luanda, Angola TARGETS PROJECTS Ecosystem type and •
Map and classify shoreline, shallow water, and estuarine habitats for suitable biodiversity aquaculture areas •
Assess biodiversity and species composition •
Assess long‐line fisheries by‐catch Mining, oil, and diamonds • Assess current policies and legislation • Determine environmental effects of these activities • Determine effects of sediment discharge from on‐shore and near‐shore diamond mining • Develop an oil spill contingency plan Pollution • Assess land‐based marine pollution • Develop a common set of management friendly water and sediment quality guides • Monitor trans‐boundary pollution • Integrate urban expansion in Luanda Bay, Angola Capacity building Centre for Living Marine Resources Swakopmund, Namibia TARGETS PROJECTS Outreach •
Assess ways to involve local communities •
Create an interactive web‐site to promote outreach Artisanal fisheries • Promote regional harmonization • Promote management • Create a demonstrational website for the Artisanal Fisheries Institute Commercial fisheries • Assess fisheries catch data • Determine optimal harvesting strategies Commercially important • Conduct surveys and assess mesopelagic, demersal, and pelagic fish with fish stocks special focus on economically important species • Conduct a feasibility study of the establishment of fish aging center • Conduct a feasibility study of the use of genetics for fish stock identification • Analyze revenue raising instruments • Determine the ability to use top predators as indicators of ecosystem change Management • Develop a management plan for the Bronze whaler shark • Develop responsible aquaculture policy • Conduct a feasibility study for the Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries (EAF) Management Social Aspects • Conduct baseline socio‐economic surveys • Conduct an economic and legal study of trade of fish and fish products • Harmonize socio‐economic policies and legal provisions Capacity building • Sponsor working group meeting of researchers • Purchase catamaran type ski‐boats Rohr | 18 Centre for Environmental Variability Cape Town, South Africa TARGETS PROJECTS Historical oceanographic •
Assess Namibian data data •
Compile, review, and reinterpret Angolan data •
Assess present state of oceanographic monitoring in South Africa Implement current • Conduct a feasibility study, purchase, and retrieve a moored array in the technologies in data Tropical Atlantic collection • Conduct a feasibility assessment of a towed undulating oceanographic recorder
• Use a continuous underwater fish egg sampler to characterize the spawning habitats of harvested pelagic species • Develop satellite remote sensing products • Purchase and install tidal gauges Plankton community • Analyze ichthyoplankton to develop an index of long‐term change Harmful algal blooms (HAB) • Harmonize the regulations of toxins • Determine the distribution and diversity of HAB cysts • Develop a monitoring protocol Low oxygen water (LOW) • Complete a critical review of LOW • Improve the monthly State of the Environment reporting on LOW • Assess transboundary processes that contribute to LOW Shellfish • Develop a shellfish sanitation program Cold and warm water event • Analyze and assess predictability • Develop a better understanding of South Atlantic variability Capacity building • Sponsor two attendees to the Climate Variability Program Workshop on South Atlantic Climate Observing System in Brazil • Provide training for ichthyoplankton monitoring • Develop operational capacity building for shellfish sanitation program • Develop operation capacity building for monitoring HABs • Sponsor an international workshop on forecasting and data assimilation • Special focus on capacity building and upgrading communication system in Angola Rohr | 19 Appendix B – The projects completed by BENEFIT and BCLME Programme, the project number, and the module indicator of the project. The prefixes represent the following: •
BCLME or PCU stands for projects that are managed by the Programme Coordination Unit in Windhoek; •
BEHP stands for projects that are managed by the Activity Centre for Biodiversity, Ecosystem Health and Pollution in Luanda, Angola; •
LMR stands for projects that are managed by the Activity Centre for Living Marine Resources in Swakopmund, Namibia; and •
EV stands for projects that are managed by the Activity Centre for Environmental Variability in Cape Town, South Africa . Online access to all final reports can be found at http://www.bclme.org. PROJECT TITLE Development of and making operational, a viable and integrative environmental early warning system (EEWS) for the BCLME A cross‐cutting simulation modeling capability for the BCLME The marine scientific status of the Angola‐Benguela Front: The synthesis of scientific inputs into the Angola‐Benguela Front workshop: April 2006 Angola‐Benguela Front workshop report: BCLME‐
BENEFIT, April 2006 BCLME Southern Boundary workshop report: May 2006 Northern Benguela transboundary small pelagic and mid‐water resources research planning workshop – A synthesis of the scientific input discussions and outputs from the workshop with annexes Report on potential shared hake stocks – research planning meeting between Namibia and South Africa Report on outcomes of consultations undertaken, gaps in information and data and necessary amendments to the TOR’s for SEIS Integration and review of training and capacity PROJECT NUMBER BCLME/EEWS/05/01 MODULE INDICATOR Environmental Variability and Oceanography BCLME/MODEL/05/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanography BCLME/BOUNDARY/05/01 Fish and Fisheries BCLME/BOUNDARY/05/01 Fish and Fisheries BCLME/BOUNDARY/06/01 Fish and Fisheries BCLME/LMR/CF/03/10 Fish and Fisheries BCLME/LMR/CF/03/06 Fish and Fisheries BCLME/SEIS/05/01 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) PCU/T&CB REVIEW/06/01 Training and Capacity Building Rohr | 20 building in the BCLME Programme Assessing potential to produce final ocean colour maps of Namibia’s marine environment Report on MARPOL 73/78: Adoption, compliance and monitoring in the BCLME region Training course report: impact assessment and decision making in the BCLME region Report on the legislative, policy and governance frameworks in the BCLME region Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Strategic Action Programme: Stakeholders participation plan Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Strategic Action Programme: Training and Capacity Building Plan The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem – State of stocks review 2007 Appraisal of environmental management guidelines in the seabed mining industry A legal study to determine interim financial management services for the Benguela Current Commission Harmonisation of national environmental policies and legislation for marine mining, dredging and offshore petroleum and production activities in the BCLME region Ecosystem mapping and biodiversity: Consultative workship, Swakopmund, April 2004 Baseline assessment of sources and management of land‐based marine pollution in the BCLME region Assessment of the cumulative effects of sediment discharges from on‐shore and near‐shore diamond mining activities on the BCLME The development of a common set of water and sediment quality guidelines for the coastal zone of the BCLME Marine litter program Optimal line sink rates: mitigating seabird mortality in the South African longline fisheries By‐catch of threatened seabirds, sharks and turtles in longline fisheries in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: An integrated approach Assessment of cumulative impacts of scouring of sub‐tidal areas and kelp cutting by diamond divers in near‐shore areas of the BCLME region Mapping of the BCLME shoreline, shallow water and marine habitats – Physical Mapping Project Analysis of threats and challenges to marine biodiversity and marine habitats in Namibia and Angola Angola’s needs for multi‐sectoral management of marine environment information: Scoping PCU/MARPOL/07/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Governance PCU/EIA/07/01 Training and Capacity Building PCU/POLGOV/07/01 Governance PCU/STKPT/07/01 Governance PCU/TCBPLN/07/01 Governance PCU/SSR/07/02 Fish and Fisheries PCU/RSM/07/01 Ecosystem Health and Pollution PCU/BCCFINMGT/08/01 Governance BEHP/IA/03/01 Governance BEHP/BAC/WORKSHOP/0
4/01 BEHP/LBMP/03/01 Marine Biodiversity and Conservation Ecosystem Health and Pollution BEHP/CEA/03/03 Ecosystem Health and Pollution BEHP/LBMP/03/04 Ecosystem Health and Pollution BEHP/ML/03/01 BEHP/EEF/03/01/02 Ecosystem Health and Pollution Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) PCU/POLYTECH/05/01 BEHP/EEF/03/01/02 BEHP/CEA/03/04 Ecosystem Health and Pollution BEHP/BAC/03/02 Marine Biodiversity BEHP/BTA/04/01 Marine Biodiversity BEHP/WS/03/02 Monitoring and Evaluation Rohr | 21 workshop, 7 April 2003: Alte Brucke Conference Centre, Swakopmund, Namibia Development of institutional capacity in biodiversity management in BCLME countries Regional oil spill contingency planning in the BCLME region Identification of communities, biotopes and species in the offshore areas and along the shoreline and in the shallow subtidal areas in the BCLME region: Section A – Namibian coastal data acquisition Identification of communities, biotopes and species in the offshore areas and along the shoreline and in the shallow subtidal areas in the BCLME region: Section B – Angolan coastal field survey report Identification of communities, biotopes and species in the offshore areas and along the shoreline and in the shallow subtidal areas in the BCLME region: Section C – Demersal fish assemblages analysis Marine environmental survey of bottom sediment in Cabinda Province, Angola – Survey of the bottom fauna and selected physical and chemical compounds in October 2006 A strategy for developing ballast water management activities in Angola Implementation plan for BCLME regional aquaculture policy options Determination of optimal harvesting strategies for the hake trawl and longline fisheries in Namibia and South Africa A review of aquaculture policy and institutional capacity in the BCLME region with recommended regional policy options An assessment of the state of the commercial fisheries catch data in the BCLME region A BCLME regional integration study regarding trade in fish and fish products – equitable trade An analysis of commercial law in the BCLME countries – equitable trade in fish and fish products Recommendations on benefication and commercialization of fishing activities in the BCLME countries Assessing the role and impact of eco‐labeling in the three BCLME countries Marketing analysis of major fish products markets in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem As assessment of the legislation and regulations controlling access to key export markets in the three BCLME countries Micro‐economic systems analysis of the BCLME commercial marine fisheries BCLME commercial fisheries rights holder and vessel analysis BEHP/CD/03/01 Training and Capacity Building BEHP/OSCP/03/01 Ecosystem Health and Pollution BEHP/BAC/03/03 Marine Biodiversity BEHP/BAC/03/03 Marine Biodiversity BEHP/BAC/03/03 Marine Biodiversity BEHP/NANSEN/06/01 Pollution and Ecosystem Health BEHP/SWB/08/01 Ecosystem Health and Pollution LMR/MC/03/01 Governance LMR/CF/03/07 Fish and Fisheries LMR/MC/03/01 Governance LMR/CF/03/02 Fish and Fisheries LMR/SE/03/02 Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/03 LMR/SE/03/03 Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Governance Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Rohr | 22 The desirability of balanced trade in fish and fish products among the three BCLME countries Transformation in the marine fishing industries of the BCLME countries An analysis of fisheries management protocols in the BCLME countries Comparative legal analysis and report on law reform A transboundary study with emphasis on deep water hake in the Luderitz‐Orange River Cone Area A transboundary study with emphasis on deep water hake in the Luderitz‐Orange River Cone Area Review of the state of knowledge and research on the distribution, biology, ecology and abundance of non‐exploited mesopelagic fish and the bearded goby in the Benguela ecosystem Report on the biological, social and economic impact of rights allocations in the BCLME region Retrospective analysis of Sardinella fisheries in Angola An assessment of how coastal communities can become involved and benefit from the BCLME Programme: Angolan visit As assessment of how coastal communities can become involved and benefit from the BCLME Programme: Final report Review and audit of the legal provisions and institutional arrangements that impact on the artisanal fisheries sector in the BCLME region: Final report – Angola Review and audit of the legal provisions and institutional arrangements that impact on the artisanal fisheries sector in the BCLME region: Final report – South Africa Review and audit of the legal provisions and institutional arrangements that impact on the artisanal fisheries sector in the BCLME region; Final report – Namibia Introducing the BCLME Programme to the wider audience within the coastal communities Overview and analysis of socio‐economic and fisheries information to promote management of artisanal fisheries in the BCLME region‐ Angola Overview and analysis of socio‐economic and fisheries information to promote management of artisanal fisheries in the BCLME region‐ Namibia Overview and analysis of socio‐economic and fisheries information to promote management of artisanal fisheries in the BCLME region‐ South Africa Socioeconomic baseline survey of coastal communities in the BCLME region – Angola Socioeconomic baseline survey of coastal LMR/SE/03/02 LMR/SE/03/03 Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Governance LMR/NANSEN/04/04 Fish and Fisheries LMR/NANSEN/04/01 Fish and Fisheries LMR/CF/03/08 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) LMR/SE/03/03 LMR/CF/03/11B Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Fish and Fisheries LMR/COM/03/01 Coastal Communities LMR/COM/03/01 Coastal Communities LMR/AFSE/03/01A Governance LMR/AFSE/03/01A Governance LMR/AFSE/03/01A Governance LMR/COM/03/02 Socioeconomic LMR/AFSE/03/01B Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/AFSE/03/01B Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/AFSE/03/01B Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/AFSE/03/01C Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/AFSE/03/01C Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/SE/03/03 LMR/SE/03/03 Rohr | 23 communities in the BCLME region – Namibia Socioeconomic baseline survey of coastal communities in the BCLME region – South Africa Ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) management in the BCLME: Report of the third regional workshop, Cape town, South Africa: 30 October – 3 November 2006 Management accounting and public finance: Fisheries sector – BCLME countries Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA): Sub‐region 44: The Benguela Current – final report Survey of the pelagic fish resources of Congo, Gabon, and Cabinda, Angola, 15th July – 28th july 2004: BCLME Sardinella recruitment studies A transboundary study of the pelagic fish stocks of southern Angola and northern Namibia Ecosystem approach to Fisheries (EAF) management in the BCLME : Report of the second regional workshop, Luanda, Angola: 20‐24 March 2006 Ecosystem approaches for fisheries (EAF) management in the BCLME – Report on the first regional workshop, Windhoek: 21‐24 September 2004 Transboundary survey between Namibia and South Africa with focus on spawning and the early life history of hakes Feasibility study into the establishment of a permanent regional fish‐ageing centre in one of the BCLME countries A review of the impacts of seismic surveying and toxicity of oil on pelagic fish, the benthos and the sardinella fishery in Angolan waters Feasibility study into the application of genetic techniques for determining fish stock identity of transboundary populations in the BCLME region Results and conclusions of the project “Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries Management in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem” Harmonisation of socio‐economic policies and legal provision for effective implementation of the BCLME Programme An analysis of revenue raising instruments for the important commercial fisheries in the BCLME countries Training course notes: Economics of natural resources Harmonisation of socio‐economic policies and legal provision for effective implementation of the BCLME Programme: Summaries, recommendations and measureable indicators Top predators as biological indicators of ecosystem LMR/AFSE/03/01C Fisheries Socioeconomic LMR/EAF/03/01 Fish and Fisheries LMR/SE/03/05 LMR/SE/03/05 Fisheries Socioeconomics and Trade Monitoring and Evaluation LMR/NANSEN/04/02 Fish and Fisheries LMR/NANSEN/02/05 Fish and Fisheries LMR/EAF/03/01 Fish and Fisheries LMR/EAF/03/01 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) LMR/NANSEN/05/03 Fish and Fisheries LMR/CF/03/01 Fish and Fisheries LMR/CF/03/12 Ecosystem Health and Pollution LMR/CF/03/04 Fish and Fisheries LMR/EAF/03/01 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) LMR/SE/03/04 Fisheries Socioeconomics LMR/SE/03/05 Fisheries Socioeconomics LMR/SE/03/03 Fisheries Socioeconomics LMR/SE/03/04 Fisheries Socioeconomics LMR/EAF/03/02 Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Rohr | 24 change in the BCLME: Final report with Annex 2: Manual of methods for monitoring Cap Fur Seals in the BCLME; Annex 3: Monitoring seabirds in the BCLME – data collection manual Migratory behaviour and assessment of the Bronze Whaler (Carcharinus brachyurus) Development of an operational capacity for real‐
time observations and forecasting of harmful algal blooms in the BCLME region: Detection of harmful algal blooms through deployment of bio‐optical moorings SADCO holdings of Namibian data: Assessment of historical oceanographic data available from SADCO Upgrade communications systems for Angolan BCLME core partners institutions Development of an operational capacity for monitoring of harmful algal blooms in countries bordering the northern part of the BCLME: Phase 1 – Design Proceedings of the BENFIT/BCLME Luderitz Upwelling Cell Orange River (LUCORC) Workshop, April 2004 Development of an operational capacity for monitoring harmful algal blooms in the northern Benguela: Phase 1 – Design pilot monitoring in the Luderitz area Low oxygen variability in the Benguela ecosystem: A review and new understanding Development of an operational capacity for real‐
time observation and forecasting of harmful algal blooms in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem region: Utility of models in forecasting HAB events Feasibility study for cost effective monitoring for shellfish sanitation in Namibia and Angola with an analysis of the various options for implementation of shellfish safety programmes Investigation into the diversity and distribution of cysts of harmful algal blooms within the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem region A proposed Benguela regional shellfish sanitation monitoring programme BCLME/BENEFIT Luderitz Upwelling Cell/Orange River Cone (LUCORC) workshop report: A synthesis of the Luderitz Upwelling Cell Orange River Cone Area. The synthesis of the scientific inputs into the LUCORC workshop: April 2004 Report on the benthic workshops held in Angola and Namibia – November 2005: R.V. Alexander von Humboldt post‐cruise analysis and training Diagnosis of large scale South Atlantic modes that impact on the transboundary Benguela Currently Management (EAF) LMR/CF/03/16 Fish and Fisheries EV/HAB/02/05 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/SADCO/03/01 EV/ANGOLA/03/06 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Training and Capacity Building EV/HAB/02/02A Harmful Algal Blooms EV/PROVARE/02/02A Fish and Fisheries EV/HAB/05/02 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/LOW/02/01 EV/HAB/02/06 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Harmful Algal Blooms EV/HAB/02/02A Harmful Algal Blooms EV/HAB/02/03 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/HAB/02/01‐3 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/PROVARE/02/02A Fish and Fisheries EV/HUMBOLDT/04/01 Training and Capacity Building EV/LS/02/06 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic processes Rohr | 25 Large Marine Ecosystem: Investigation the potential for improved predictability and sustainable management Feasibility assessment for use of a towed undulation oceanographic recorder in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Harmful algal bloom workshop and distance learning course, 22 January to 2nd February 2007 Assessment of key transboundary processes and measurement scales in respect of low oxygen water (LOW) variability: Implement the LOW generation areas that provides input to transboundary models in project EV/LOW/02/03 Assessment of key transboundary processes and measurement scales in respect of low oxygen water (LOW) variability: Preliminary implementation and examination of the role of large scale and transboundary hydrodynamic control of LOW variability An interim report on the status of shellfish sanitation programmes in Namibia and Angola: Development of an operational capacity for a shellfish sanitation monitoring programme in countries bordering the northern part of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Phase 11 – Implementation Characterising the spawning habitat of harvested pelagic species (Sardinops sagax, Trachurus sp., Engraulis capensis) using continuous underwater fish egg samples (CUFES) and net sampling Assessment of appropriate surface forcing (SST) and initial comparison of output against quickscat wind Investigation into the diversity and distribution of cysts of harmful algal blooms within Luanda Bay (Angola) and Walvis Bay and Luderitz Bay (Namibia) Low oxygen variability in the Benguela Ecosystem: A review and new understanding Development of a satellite remote sensing product for operational application Development of an operational capacity for a shellfish sanitation monitoring programme in countries bordering the northern part of the BCLME: Phase 11 – Implementation The extension of PIRATA in the South East Atlantic including a cruise report on deployment of mooring s and buoy system A synthesis of requirements of various sectors of government and industry relating to microalgal toxins and other sanitary issues Compilation of inventory and acquisition of oceanographic environmental data in the Angola EV/PROVARE/02/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes EV/PROVARE/07/01 Capacity Building and Training EV/LOW/02/04 Environmental Monitoring and Oceanographic Processes EV/LOW/02/03 Environmental Monitoring and Oceanographic Processes EV/HAB/06/01 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/PROVARE/04/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes EV/MODEL/05/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes EV/HAB/05/01 Marine Biodiversity EV/LOW/02/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Harmful Algal Blooms EV/PROVARE/06/01 EV/HAB/06/01 EV/PIRATA/03/01 Environmental Variability and Oceanography EV/HAB/02/01 Harmful Algal Blooms EV/ANGOLA/03/01 Training and Capacity Building Rohr | 26 sector of the BCLME. Phase one – inventory Comprehension review and where appropriate re‐
interpretation of oceanographic information on the Angola sector of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Assessment of the present state of oceanographic environmental monitoring in the Angolan sector of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Retrospective analysis of plankton community structure in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) to provide an index of long‐
term change in the ecosystem Analysis of Benguela dynamic variability and assessment of the predictability of warm and cold events in the BCLME Review of existing information on harmful algal bloom in Angola including past and present monitoring of phytoplankton The BCLME mid‐term evaluation report BCLME strategic planning workshop on training and capacity building, Johannesburg Consultative meeting on capacity building and training for effective management of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) Benguela Current Commission: Interim agreement between Angola, Namibia and South Africa A compendium of legal instruments and conventions relevant to the BCLME countries (Angola, Namibia and South Africa): Draft document Regional zooplankton taxonomy and identification training workship, Swakopmund, 8‐19 Januray 2007 (BCLME‐BENEFIT‐CmarZ): Workshop Report Regional zooplankton taxonomy and identification training workshop, Swakopmund, 8 – 19 January 2007 (BCLME‐BENEFIT‐CmarZ): Guide to some common copepods in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Report on BCLME Highlights Symposium, 9‐10 May 2005, Breakwater Lodge, Cape Town The extension of PIRATA in the South East Atlantic – Final Report The changing state of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Expert workshop on climate change and variability and impacts thereof in the BCLME region: Workshop report, Kirsenbosch Research Centre, CapTown 15‐16 May, 2007 Assessment of the structure and functioning of the Angola Front (AF) Zone and associated natural resource exploitation issues: Workshop Report, Talatona Convention Centre, Luanda, Angola, 2‐3 October 2006. EV/ANGOLA/03/02 Training and Capacity Building EV/ANGOLA/03/03 Environmental Variability and Oceanography EV/PROVARE/02/05 Environmental Variability and Oceanography EV/LS/02/03 Environmental Variability and Oceanography EV/HAB/02/02A‐1 Harmful Algal Blooms RAF/00/G32/1G/31 Held in South Africa, July 2004 Held in Windhoek, March 2004 Monitoring and Evaluation Training and Capacity Building Governance Governance Training and Capacity Building Training and Capacity Building Monitoring and Evaluation Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Training and Capacity Building Environmental Variability and Oceanographic Processes Rohr | 27 On the assessment of the status of the Abidjan Convention in the Benguela Current region and implications for the Benguela Current Commission: Report commissioned by PCU for Abidjan and Nairobi CoP meeting, Johannesburg, November 2007 A regional assessment and management plan for port waste reception facilities in the BCLME region in accordance with MARPOL/73/78 Pollution and Ecosystem Health Ecosystem Health and Pollution Rohr | 28 LITERATURE CITED BCLME Programme Co‐ordinating Unit. 1999. Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis. BCLME Programme Co‐ordinating Unit. 2002. Strategic Action Programme. Carlton, JT and JB Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, 261: 78‐82. Chapman, P and LV Shannon. 1985. The Benguela Ecosystem Part II. Chemistry and related processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. 23: 183‐251. Clark, B.M., W.F. Meyer, C. Ewart‐Smith, A. Pulfrich, and J. Hughes. 1999. Synthesis and assessment of information on the BCLME Thematic Report No. 3: Integrated overview of diamond mining in the Benguela Current Region. Submitted to the United Nations Development Program, AEC Report #1016/1. Colberg, F, CJC Reason, and K Rogers. 2004. South Atlantic Respose to ENSO and induced climate variability in an OGCM. J. Geophys. Res. 100: 15835‐15847. Crawford, R.J.M. 1998. Responses of African penguins to regime changes of sardine and anchovy in the Benguela system. South African Journal of Marine Science, 19: 355‐364. Crawford, R.J.M., P.J. Barham, L.G. Underhill, L.J. Shannon, J.C. Coetzee, B.M. Dyer, T.M. Leshoro, and L. Upfold. 2006. The influence of food availability on breeding success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. Biological Conservation, 132: 199‐125. Crawford, R.J.M., L.G. Underhill, L. Upfold, and B.M. Dyer. 2007. An altered carrying capacity of the Benguela upwelling ecosystem for African penguins (Spheniscus demersus). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64: 570‐576. Crawford, R.J.M., A.J. Williams, J.H. Hofmeyr, N.T.W. Klages, R.M. Randall, J. Cooper, et al. 1995. Trends of African penguin Spheniscus demersus populations in the 20th century. South African Journal of Marine Science, 16: 101‐118. de Barros, P., M. O’Toole, H. Verheye, F. Vaz‐Velho, N. Sweijd, P. Pillay, C. Attwood, G. Bailey, P. Rabe, I. Hampton, G. Schneider, B. van Zyi, J. Augustyn, V. de Barros Neto, N. Luyeye, b. Tjizoo, C. Kuske, L. Staegmann, A. da Silva, G. D’Almeida, F. Botes, J. Titus, M. de Lourdes Sardinha, and V. Shannon. 2007. A decade of collaboration: to commemorate the final symposium of the BENEFIT and BCLME programmes. Duda, A.M. and K. Sherman. 2002. A new imperative for improving management of large marine ecosystems. Ocean and Coastal Management 45: 797‐833. Duncombe Rae, CM, FA Shillington, JJ Agenbag, J Taunton‐Clark and ML Grundlingh. 1992. An Aghulas ring in the South Atlantic Ocean and its interaction with the Benguela upwelling frontal system. Deep‐Sea Research 39: 2009‐2027. Rohr | 29 Edwards, S.F. and S.A. Murawski. 1996. Potential benefits from efficient harvest of New England groundfish. In Sherman, Jaworski, and Smayda (eds) The Northeast Shelf Ecosystem: Assessment, Sustainability, and Management, pp. 511‐526. Food and Agriculture Organization – United Nations. 2003. Trends in oceanic captures and clustering of large marine ecosystems: Two studies based on the FAO capture database. FAO Technical Paper 435, 71 pp. Graham, RL, CT Hunsaker, RV O’Neill, and BL Jackson. 1991. Ecological risk assessment at the regional scale. Ecological Applications 1:196‐206. Hampton, I., D.C. Boyer, A.J. Penney, A.F. Pereira, and m. Sardinh. 1999. Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Thematic Report No. 1: Integrated overview of fisheries of the Benguela Current region. Submitted to The United Nations Development Programme. Juda, L. and T. Hennessey. 2005. Governance profiles and the management of the uses of large marine ecosystems. In Hennessey and Sutinen (eds) Sustaining Large Marine Ecosystems: The Human Dimension pp. 83‐109. Monterio, Pedro MS and AK ven der Plas. 2006. Low Oxygen Water (LOW) Variability in the Benguela System: Key processes and forcing scales relevant to forcasting. In Shannon, Hempel, Malanotte‐
Rizzoli, Moloney, and Woods (eds) Benguela: Predicting a Large Marine Ecosystem. Morant, P.D. 1999. Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Thematic Report No. 4: Integrated overview of the offshore oil and gas industry in the Benguela Current region. Submitted to The United Nations Development Programme CSIR REPORT ENV‐S‐C 99057. Murawski, S.A. 1996. Can we manage our multispecies fisheries? In Sherman, Jaworski, and Smayda (eds) The Northeast Shelf Ecosystem: Assessment, Sustainability, and Management, pp. 491‐510. Olsen, S.B., J.G. Sutinen, L. Juda, T.M. Hennessey, and T.A. Gringalunas. 2006. A handbook on governance and socioeconomics of large marine ecosystems. Coastal Resource Center, University of Rhode Island. O’Toole, M. 2008. Presentation at the 4th Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands: Advancing Ecosystem Management and Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management by 2010 in the Context of Climate Change. Hanoi, Vietnam. April 7‐11, 2008. Programme Coordinating Unit. 2004. Institutional review and analysis for Benguela Current Commission. Project PCU/BCC/04/01. Rickelefs, RE. 1987. Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science 235: 167‐
171. Ruiz, GM, JT Carlton, ED Grosholz, and AH Hines. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non‐indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoology, 37: 621‐
632. Rohr | 30 Shannon, L.V. 1985. The Benguela ecosystem part I. Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Barnes, M., ed. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 23: 105‐182. Shannon, V. 2006. A Plan Comes Together. In Shannon, Hempel, Malanotte‐Rizzoli, Moloney, and Woods (eds) Benguela: Predicting a Large Marine Ecosystem, pp. 3‐10. Shannon, L.V. and M.J. O’Toole. 1999. Synthesis and assessment of information on the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) Thematic Report No. 2: Integrated overview of the oceanography and environmental variability of the Benguela Current region. Submitted to the United Nations Development Programme. Shannon, L.V. and M.J. O’Toole. 2003. Sustainability of the Benguela: ex Africa simper aliquid novi. In Hempel and Sherman (eds) Large marine ecosystems of the world: trends in exploitation, protection and research, pp. 227‐253. Sherman, K. 1994. Sustainability, biomass yields, and health of coastal ecosystems: an ecological perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series 112: 277‐301. Sherman, K and LM Alexander (editors). 1986. Variability and management of large marine ecosystems. AAAS Selected Symposium 99. Westview Press, Inc., Boulder, CO. 319 pp. Sherman, K and AM Duda. 1999. An ecosystem approach to global assessment and management of coastal waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series 190: 271‐287. Sherman, K. 2006. Forecasting within the context of large marine ecosystem programs. In Shannon, Hempel, Malanotte‐Rizzoli, Moloney, and Woods (eds) Benguela: Predicting a Large Marine Ecosystem, pp. 11‐34. Tapscott, C. 1999. An overview of the socio‐economics of some key maritime industries in the Benguela Current region Thematic Report No. 4: A report prepared on behalf of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project. Submitted to the United Nations Development Program. United Nations Development Programme – Global Environment Facility. 2001. Project Document: Integrated management of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME). Submitted to the United Nations Office for Project Services, Project # RAF/00/G32/A/1G/31. United Nations Development Programme. 2007. The Benguela Current Commission. Vousden, D.H. and M. Ngoile. 2005. GEF independent mid‐term evaluation: Integrated management of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME). Submitted to the United Nations Office for Project Services, Project # RAF/00/G32/A/1G/31. Rohr | 31 Did you pull together the reports, activity charts, etc. or were they extant? Rohr | 32 

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