financing plan (in us$) - Global Environment Facility



financing plan (in us$) - Global Environment Facility
Submission Date: 2 September 2008 (w/o PPG Request)
Re-submission Date: 3 September 2008 (with PPG Request)
COUNTRY: Jamaica
PROJECT TITLE: Strengthening the operational and financial
sustainability of the national Protected Area System
OTHER EXECUTING PARTNERS: National Environment and
Planning Agency – NEPA (Leading Executing Agency), Forestry
Department, Jamaica National Heritage Trust, Ministry of Health and
Environment, The Nature Conservancy
GEF FOCAL AREA: Biodiversity
Work Program (for FSP)
CEO Endorsement/Approval
GEF Agency Approval
Implementation Start
Mid-term Review (if planned)
Implementation Completion
Expected Dates
November 2008
January 2010
February 2010
April 2010
August 2012
February 2016
Project Objective: To consolidate the operational and financial sustainability of Jamaica’s National System of Protected Areas
TA, or
Expected Outcomes
Expected Outputs
1. Strengthening of Investment - Protected Area Trust
planning and
and TA
Fund with stabilized
revenue generation
capital and generating
revenue required to fill
the National System of
Protected Areas
(NSPA) funding gap
(funding gap, Trust
Fund feasibility and
capitalization level to
be determined during
PPG phase).
- Annual government
funding for PAs
increased by 20% from
US$716,000 by project
- Annual non government
resources increased by
20% from US$800,000 by
project end.
2. Rationalizing
- 100% of PAs with
and integrating the
clearly designated lead
and support institutions,
resulting in improved
effectiveness and
increased efficiency.
- 2 new coastal and
marine PAs established,
economies of scale and
landscape/seascapewide approaches to
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
Indicative Co- Total ($)
- Protected Area Trust Fund
- Operational regulations for
- Mechanisms and legislation
for levying fees from
international visitors in support
of the NSPA and the PATF.
- Site-level business plans
- Review of system-wide
business plan
- Business case for PA system
finance made, building on
PoWPA early action project.
900,000 16
4,607,959 84 5,507,959
815,585 43
1,091,192 57 1,906,777
Legislation, policies and
operational instruments
clarifying arrangements and
divisions of roles between the 4
agencies responsible for PA
- Zoning guidelines for PAs.
- Model regulations governing
resource use in different PA
- Programmatic monitoring and
evaluation system and
associated indicators.
- Management plans and
3. Increasing PA
combating PA threats.
infrastructure for new PAs
- An average 25%
increase in management
effectiveness scorecard
rating across the whole
NSPA (baseline value
to be determined during
PPG phase), resulting in
reduction in threats to
BD and ensuing
stabilization of
populations of key
biological indicator
species by project end.
- 100% of PAs have
access and contribute to
biological information
through Clearing House
- 35% of PAs have
management and
business plans,
incorporating baseline
information which
meets minimum
- New or updated management
and business plans for PAs.
- Guidelines on minimum
standards of information
requirements for PA planning
and management.
- Monitoring and evaluation
system for PA management.
- Curricula on PA management,
incorporating concepts of
financial and operational
sustainability, for application in
training centres for potential
PA managers.
- Training materials for PA
- Pilots of land use projects
compatible with PA legislation
and biodiversity-compatible
livelihood support activities.
- Operational guidelines and
legal instruments for PA
establishment on private lands.
- Strategy and tools for public
communication and awareness
raising for decision makers.
- Information and data for
high priority areas, made
available to stakeholders and to
the Clearing House Mechanism
database on PAs.
- Pilot conservation easement
4. Project management
830,000 41
225,000 27
2,770,585 27
Total project costs
1,182,125 59 2,012,125
608,224 73
7,489,500 73 10,260,085
Project Preparation
Agency Fee
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
C. INDICATIVE CO-FINANCING FOR THE PROJECT (including project preparation amount) ($)
Sources of Co-financing
Project Government Contribution (NEPA)
Government Contribution (NEPA)*
GEF Agency (UNDP Jamaica TRAC)
NGO (TNC) for on the ground activities
GEF Agency (UNDP Jamaica TRAC)
NGO (TNC) for Trust Fund
Bilateral Agency KfW for Trust Fund*
Debt for nature swap*
Total co-financing
Type of Cofinancing
Cash (to be confirmed)
Cash (to be confirmed)
1. Jamaica has a diverse physical environment, with a wide range of microclimates, soils, and physical features that
support a great variety of forest types, including lower montane mist, montane mist, dry limestone, wet limestone,
mangrove, woodland, herbaceous swamp and marsh forest. It is also an important refuge for long-distance migratory birds
from North and Central America. It has 417 IUCN Red Listed species and very high levels of endemism in several
vertebrate (100% for amphibians) and invertebrate taxa (there are over 500 endemic species of snails). There are 31
species of endemic birds (Jamaica is ranked 18th in the world in terms of the number of endemic birds) and 60 endemic
species of orchid (29% of the total). Jamaica has seven endemic plant genera and over 900 endemic plant species. The
coastal zone includes a variety of habitats including several large wetlands, extensive mangroves, offshore cays, and coral
reefs. Perhaps the most important wetland is the Black River Morass, a game reserve of approximately 20,000 ha which
includes one of Jamaica’s three Ramsar sites and has high levels of biodiversity and strong ecotourism potential, but no
conservation status at this time. Offshore, the rugged topography of the sea floor gives rise to a diverse pattern of marine
environments including deep water trenches, coral reefs and extensive offshore banks. Coastal wetland ecosystems play
an important role in maintaining shoreline stability and preserving biodiversity, by functioning as a sediment trap and
providing a habitat for wildlife, such as Trichechus manatus (West Indian Manatee).The country is home to 65 species of
corals and 38 species of gorgonians. The Pedro Bank, one of the largest and most productive fishing grounds in the
country, are the habitat for one of the largest global populations of Queen Conch (Strombus gigas), as well as being a
regionally important seabird nesting and roosting area (for endangered masked boobies, roseate terns and others) and
containing nesting grounds for endangered hawksbill and loggerhead turtles.
2. Protected areas (PAs) provide important ecosystem functions and services to Jamaica’s economy. The headwaters of
many of Jamaica’s main rivers are located in the Blue Mountain and the Cockpit Country forest reserve, which are the
main sources of water for Kingston and the major tourist area of Montego Bay respectively. Jamaica’s tourism industry
relies on the scenic beauty and good coastal water quality that are provided by healthy forests and wetlands. Coral reefs
are of major social, economic and biophysical importance. Reefs act as natural barriers by protecting coastlines from
erosion, are a source of food and income or local communities, and support tourism and recreational activities. A
significant part of the Jamaican fishing industry relies on reefs as well as the stocks renewed in the mangrove swamps and
on the offshore cays for both commercial and artisanal fishing. PAs also provide spill-over effects, such as strengthening
sustainable livelihood opportunities (for example by protecting water supplies and reproduction areas for valued fish
species), building food and nutritional security and building resilience to the impacts of climate change, on coasts
especially. The physical nearness of all ecosystems to human activities (because Jamaica is a small island) means that the
value of stakeholder empowerment, awareness and support for PA declaration and management is even more heightened.
3. Virtually all reef communities have been affected by human and natural causes, such as over-fishing, algal
overgrowth due to pollution from sewage disposal, industry and agricultural runoff and siltation due to poor land use
practices and tourism-related activities. Storm damage from hurricanes and coral reef bleaching due to periodic high sea
water temperatures have compounded the problem. The reefs surrounding Montego Bay are perhaps the most seriously
degraded: although they are protected, reefs in the Montego Bay Marine Park continue to be affected by poaching,
pollution from the city and airport, runoff from inland agricultural activity and sewage. Coral cover in nine reefs on the
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
north coast at a depth of 10m fell from 52% in the late 1970s to 3% in the late 1990s, which the fleshy macroalgae on
reefs increased from 4% to 92%. Conversion of coastal habitats to hotel and other developments have significantly
reduced the mangrove and other coastal habitats and thereby the ecosystem functions and benefits.
4. Terrestrial PAs are affected by conversion of natural habitat to farmland, grazing land, and other intensive economic
uses, illegal appropriation of territories, introduction and proliferation of non-native species, and illegal hunting. As
landscapes become more degraded, the impact of invasive and opportunistic species increases as does the risk of
extinction for endemic species. Of the 26 watershed management units in the country, 17 are in a critical state or in need
of remedial action to return them to normal ecological function. Habitats continue to be fragmented especially by mining
operations, which often affect lowland dry forest and upland wet forest. This increases the extent of forest margins and
also creates changes in microclimate that impact species regeneration and habitat composition.
5. The first national park in the country was established in 1992 and the Policy for the National System of Protected
Areas (NSPA) was developed in 1997. The NSPA today consists of three marine parks; one National Park; five other
Protected Areas and two fish sanctuaries, as well as forest reserves covering 110,000ha. The protected areas relate to
various IUCN categories such as wilderness reserve for some forest reserves, habitat species management areas,
sustainable resource use areas and others. The terrestrial and marine parks have at their core the protection of the
resources and sustainable use to generate revenue for the Parks. Approximately 18% of the total land area is under legal
protection (mostly as Forest Reserves). Sixty-four percent of the forest is unprotected and mainly under private
ownership, though 73% of the closed canopy broadleaf forest is under protection. Over a third of forest reserves and other
protected areas have been significantly disturbed. The areas in the NSPA have been declared by the Forestry Department,
Fisheries Division, National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA) and the Jamaica National Heritage Trust, under
their respective institutional legislation. Under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act there is the provision
for aspects of management to be delegated and carried out by local partners, other government entities or private sector
and combinations thereof in co-management arrangements. The NSPA management framework today includes local
forest management committees, local NGOs, government and quasi-government entities managing the PA sites. The
Government’s inter-institutional Protected Areas Committee (PAC) is now developing a Protected Areas System Master
Plan (PASMP) as the primary tool to improve and expand PA management, which will be completed by December 2008.
6. The long-term solution to the ongoing loss of biodiversity (BD) in PAs in Jamaica is the consolidation of the NSPA in
line with the recommendations of the PASMP. This would involve: a) making provision for policy and institutional
frameworks and coordination; b) ensuring financial sustainability; c) increasing capacities among PA stakeholders at local
and national levels; and d) improving targeting of investments in line with identified priorities for ecological coverage.
The PASMP initiative will lay the bases for this but without GEF support will remain a blueprint with limited potential.
The following barriers exist to the achievement of this solution:
7. Barrier 1: Inadequate funding sources and financial management mechanisms. The financial sustainability of the
NSPA is hindered by its limited income sources and the inadequate mechanisms for the effective management of financial
resources. Existing financial mechanisms such as the Environmental Foundation of Jamaica (EFJ), the Jamaica National
Parks Trust Fund (JNPTF) and the Forest Conservation Fund are not capable of providing the sustained financial support
required by the NSPA, given that they were not designed so to do. The EFJ was the result of a debt-for-nature-swap and
has thereby a limited mandate, funding projects written by NGOs. The JNPTF is a fund created under a USAID PARC
project. It was undercapitalized at the start and although it was originally intended to fund all protected areas, an
administrative decision was made to fund the following parks – the Montego Bay Marine Park and the Blue and John
Crow Mountains National Park. Currently the limited funding that is available to fund PAs comes from GoJ (the majority
since all forest reserves, which cover a total of 110,000ha, are protected with GoJ funds), the JNPTF, income from visitors
and ad hoc grants to NGOs from sources such as the EFJ. The Forest Conservation Fund will also provide funding to
NGOs for terrestrial protected areas. One of the reasons for outsourcing management of the PAs in the past was that the
respective organizations were expected to be instrumental in mobilizing resources for their maintenance. However, the
entire system is now under financial stress, partly because funding for NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs)
has become more limited.
8. Barrier 2: Limited consolidation of the NSPA at programmatic level. The effectiveness of the NSPA in protecting
BD, and the corresponding cost-effectiveness of the use of PA budgets, has also been constrained by the limited
integration of its constituent PAs. This has been corrected to some extent by the creation of the Protected Areas
Committee (PAC), which is comprised of the heads of the four government entities mandated by law to declare and
manage PAs, together with the Environment Ministry. There is also a geographical overlap between different types of4
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
protected areas and consequently an overlap in jurisdiction (e.g., National Park and Forest Reserve boundaries may
coincide), resulting in limited management efficiency and duplication of efforts. Although some co-management
arrangements exist (i.e., are under development or are currently being revised) which outline the roles and responsibilities
of different parties, some room still exists for conflicts and uncertainty. This means that advantage is not taken of
opportunities for non-Government actors to contribute to PA management. While protocols for exchanging information
among agencies responsible for regulating development of protected areas exist, there are often deficiencies in
implementation. This happens even when information is available, meaning that the targeting and design of PA
investments is not optimized. PA management entities have limited ability to influence development projects on the
boundaries of protected areas, given that, for example, mining and prospecting licenses may supersede forest laws and
protected area regulations, meaning that these continue to pose threats which require Government investment. The
availability of funding is also limited by the fact that separate institutional arrangements and approaches apply in respect
of each of the International Environmental Agreements to which the country is signatory. To address these issues and
increase the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation, Jamaica is seeking to increase coordination between the
government agencies, NGOs and other organizations involved in enforcement and management of the system, through the
Protected Areas System Master Plan (PASMP). This will be a Government White Paper which will formalize and
document the existing arrangements and where necessary create new methodologies and processes for coordination,
collaboration and decision-making amongst the primary PA entities. The Plan will also be taken into account in the
preparation of development plans and orders.
9. Barrier 3: Inadequate capacities and tools for effective PA management. The operational effectiveness of individual
PAs is constrained by the inadequate technical, managerial and financial capacities of PA managers, as noted in the
National Report on Management Effectiveness and Capacity Development Planning prepared in January 2007. Advantage
is not taken of the potential for stakeholders near protected areas to contribute to the effectiveness of PA management,
thereby increasing the burdens placed on Government resources. Although the Forest Act, the NRCA Act and their
regulations allow for stakeholder participation through delegation of functions, co-management arrangements and in
advisory boards and councils respectively, local stakeholders have limited capacities to fulfill these foreseen roles.
Practical experiences with mechanisms for conserving BD on private lands are still limited and in addition some changes
are needed in the legal and institutional framework. Consequently, local stakeholders obtain few direct benefits from PAs,
and therefore view them principally as potential sources of natural resources from which income can be derived through
extraction. The formulation of strategies for effective PA management and the targeting of PA investments are also
hindered by the fact that biological data is not widely available to PA managers nor translated and channeled in a useful
manner into the decision-making process. The local CBD Clearing House Mechanism website collects and shares
biological information of all sorts, however in general, biological data is not at this time analyzed in a consistent and
integrated manner. The limited availability of data on the location of endangered and endemic species has recently
become more of an issue of concern as pressure to develop the ecologically sensitive and economically valuable coastal
zones increases.
10. The project will adopt the following strategies to remove these barriers. Component 1: Strengthening of planning and
revenue generation. Building on the PASMP preparation process, the project will support the development and
implementation of more unified and coordinated approaches to funding of the NSPA, including a combination of policy
reforms, and the use of appropriate economic instruments. The project will also address issues related to financial
management capacities necessary to effectively manage PAs, including the formulation of site-level business plans and
the implementation of site and system level financial strategies. At the core of project’s design is the capitalization and
implementation of a national Protected Area Trust Fund (PATF), which will generate long-term funding from a variety of
sources for the NSPA and allow for increased effectiveness, via improved coordination and planning. Subject to
confirmation by the PASMP and the PPG phase, the PATF may function as an umbrella fund with both a true endowment
and a revolving fund. The capitalization level of the Endowment Fund is estimated at US$5 million, made up of GEF
funds (US$750,000), co-financing from TNC (US$1 million), KfW (US$1 million), and at least US$2.25 million from the
2nd Tropical Forest Conservation Act debt swap, which is to be negotiated by the US, GoJ and TNC in 2009 and is
planned to add approximately US$1 million per year to the pool of resources available to the national marine and
terrestrial PA system. Subject to analysis during the PPG phase, additional funds may be raised through fees levied on
international visitors. The interest level and corresponding rates of disbursement from the fund in support of the NSPA
will be calculated during the PPG phase. This formula allows disbursements to be buffered against annual fluctuations in
investment return, while ensuring that the endowment grows over time. The Revolving Fund would be funded by a
number of mechanisms, such as user and entrance fees for PAs or the attractions that they contain, and multi-lateral and
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
bi-lateral funding designated for the NSPA. In order to avoid exceeding capacities for budgetary execution, which are as
of now limited, GEF funds will be used to support the development of operative regulations for the revolving part of the
fund, allowing such income sources to be channeled into it in this way. The project will draw upon relevant experiences
with similar instruments such as that of the EFJ.
11. Component 2: Rationalizing and integrating the NSPA. The project will ensure that the NSPA is integrated and
supported by an enabling legal institutional and operational framework that provides for clear mandates and
responsibilities, sound enforcement mechanisms, and a supportive economic policy framework, thereby improving the
effectiveness and efficiency of the funds available for PA management at the same time as ensuring that additional funds
are available. The project will build upon and facilitate the implementation of the PASMP which is due to be finalized and
formally approved in December 2008. The execution of the GEF project will be designed to directly support and make
operational key recommendations of the PASMP, making the project highly strategic for Jamaica. During the preparatory
phase, requisite assessments of relevant policy, legal, and institutional frameworks would be undertaken, in line with the
PASMP recommendations. The FSP would therefore have the appropriate assessments to put in place the requisite
reforms related to PA planning, policy development, coordination, management and monitoring, including clarification of
the thematic and geographic jurisdictions of all PA management agencies.
12. Integration, geographical coverage and management effectiveness of the NSPA will also be increased by the
establishment of two new PAs, - subject to confirmation and in conformity with the findings of the National Ecosystem
Gap Analysis report, these might include for example certain sections of the Pedro Bank and Canoe Valley. These will
provide the opportunity to introduce the “ridge to reef” concept into the NSPA, which will allow for threats such as the
sedimentation of reefs due to upstream erosion (a phenomenon which is widespread in the NSPA) to be addressed
effectively. The fact that this concept links diverse landscape components also provides economies of scale compared to
the more current pattern of disconnected PAs spread across the landscape. Canoe Valley also has the potential to act as a
model for low impact eco-tourism and for the integration of sustainable livelihood programmes into PA management. In
addition, existing Marine Protected Areas may be expanded and remodeled, leading to improved protection against threats
and more relevant boundary definition and zoning. These sites will be amongst those for which site management and
business plans will be developed, providing for their financial and operational effectiveness. The targeted PAs have
important BD values in their own right which will be promoted through these interventions: Pedro Bank, for example, is
the habitat for the largest global population of Queen Conch (Strombus gigas), a regionally important nesting and roosting
area for masked boobies and roseate terns and a nesting ground for endangered hawksbill and loggerhead turtles.
13. Component 3: Increasing the effectiveness of PA management. The project will enhance capacities for PA
management. A revised and formalized management structure currently being designed through the PASMP process will
be implemented through the project. Based on capacity assessments to be carried out during the PPG phase, the project
will build technical and managerial capacities at the individual, institutional and systemic levels, and in private and public
sectors as well as civil society, for the effective management of existing PAs and the establishment of new PAs to cover
critical unprotected ecosystems. This would take into account information on best practices throughout the region and
build upon experiences of on-the-ground interventions and management models in various PAs in the country. The
management effectiveness of PAs will further be promoted by supporting the development of mechanisms for increasing
the involvement of private landowners, community-based organizations and NGOs. These efforts will build on lessons
derived from the two private sites which have been declared to date under the authority of the Forest Department. In order
to make involvement in PAs attractive to local stakeholders, the project will identify possibilities for sustainable
alternative livelihoods in PAs and buffer areas, in accordance with PA management objectives. Using the examples of
work being done under a USAID Protected Areas and Rural Enterprise project to develop alternative livelihood
programmes within 2 sites and the successful local efforts to develop eco-tourism in upper watersheds, such as
Ambassabeth in the Rio Grande area, lessons learned and approaches will be assessed and shared with the communities
and government stakeholders for their concept development and design. The project will also ensure that the legal and
institutional framework is modified as needed to support the conservation of private land with high biodiversity,
specifically continuing the work of the Environment Ministry to develop conservation easement legislation to manage PA
expansion which involves private lands. Improved targeting and impacts of PA management will be achieved by
supporting the development and adaptation of tools and systems to carry out monitoring and evaluation, as well as the
development of methods for enhancing the management of BD data in support of M&E and zoning. Indicators for system
effectiveness will be agreed on by stakeholders and will be measured and assessed on a regular basis. The project will
harmonize existing data to: a) provide for effective in situ conservation planning and b) guide physical development in
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
ecologically sensitive areas. It will also strengthen the capacities of all entities involved in PA management to monitor
the state of the environment in the areas for which they are responsible.
14. The project will deliver major global benefits in the form of improvements in the protection status of globally
important biodiversity (ecosystems and species, including large numbers of endemics), resulting from improved financial
security for the PA estate (area 164,000ha) which allows the cost of PA functions needed to combat threats to be covered.
15. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) highlights the critical need to ensure a sustainable
financial framework for the protection and management of PAs in Jamaica and to add new areas to the PA system,
particularly to protect marine and coastal resources. The recommendations of the National Ecological Gap Assessment
Report (December 2007) and the Management Effectiveness and Capacity Development Plan (January 2007) similarly
focus on the need to fill gaps in BD representation in conservation actions, to increase Marine Protected Areas in size and
to improve governance and management effectiveness in PAs. These recommendations will form part of the PASMP,
which is intended to be approved by the government and adopted as a national policy by the end of December 2008.
Further, the Protected Areas System Policy, National Environmental Action Plan, Forest Policy, National Integrated
Watershed Management Programmatic Framework, and operational plans and programmes of the 5 PAC members all
refer to the development and implementation of the PA system as key plans of their work. The proposal to establish new
Marine PAs is in accordance with the finding of the National Ecosystem Gap Analysis Review that the representation of
critical marine conservation targets in the eastern coast is insufficient. Off particular concern is the complete absence of
Offshore Banks in any designated protected area throughout its distribution across Jamaica. Moreover, the current
protected areas system of Jamaica is not designed to accommodate seascape-scale connectivity, including functions and
processes that are necessary to maintain overall marine biodiversity health
16. The project is consistent with GEF Biodiversity Strategic Objective 1: Catalyze sustainability of protected areas
within the context of national systems, as it will adopt a system-wide approach to ensuring the management effectiveness
and sustainability of PAs. It will enable the NSPA to satisfy the three criteria for PA system sustainability by: 1)
developing instruments to ensure the existence of sufficient and predictable revenue for the system; 2) ensuring that PA
investments are targeted in a representative and therefore cost-effective manner across priority ecosystems; and 3)
ensuring the operational effectiveness of PA management. Actions in specific PAs will have clear justifications at
systemic level, as means of rationalizing PA coverage, increasing management effectiveness and generating replicable
models of financial sustainability and cost-effective management strategies.
17. The GEF Caribbean Large Marine Ecoystem (CLME) project will support reef fish and biodiversity demonstration
projects in Jamaica on the Pedro Bank (as well as in the Dominican Republic and Haiti), thereby complementing the
activities of this project in identifying livelihood support activities compatible with the conservation of marine protected
areas. The GEF Early Action Grant will enable Jamaica to assess the value of PAs to the national economy and to
understand how to incorporate natural resource valuation into policy, and create the capacity to consistently apply the
information to relevant decision-making. This will complement the activities of this project in relation to raising
awareness of the importance of the NSPA and developing commitment at political level. The GEF regional invasive
species project will provide data on invasives for the PA system database, complementing the initiatives of this project in
improving the flow of information to PAs and its incorporation into decision making.
18. This project forms part of the Caribbean Challenge, and, while the main motivation for the proposed establishment of
new PAs is to promote economies of scale and cost-effectiveness in PA management, this will also contribute directly to
the objective of the Caribbean Challenge of ensuring that Caribbean countries meet the goal of the CBD’s Programme of
Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) of achieving 10% protection of representative marine ecosystems by 2012. The
increased financial sustainability of the NSPA, which will result from project actions, will also increase the country’s
ability to meet this target and to manage the expanded PA estate in a sustainable and effective manner. Jamaica is one of
the countries included in the PoWPA Early Action project and the results of that project, in terms of making the business
case for PAs in the country, will provide a solid base for the political lobbying planned in this project in support of
increased allocation of funds to the NSPA.
19. Additionally, the project will be implemented in close coordination with USAID’s recently funded US$12 million
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
Global Sustainable Tourism Alliance project, which will support the project’s initiatives related to livelihood support and
economic development activities with potential to contribute to PA management.
20. Jamaica is one of the leaders in the region in use of co-management for managing PAs, having delegated management
since 1996, and having material for case studies to be developed on this matter. The preparation of lessons learned from
the various types of co-management across the PA system could be beneficial for the Caribbean Government to share and
avoid some of the challenges experienced in Jamaica. CARICOM is interested in environmental management and,
through dialogue at the right levels, CARICOM could become a vehicle for sharing these tools.
21. Under the baseline situation, BD in Jamaica would receive inadequate protection due to the limited availability of
financial resources and inadequate management effectiveness of the PA estate. The PA estate would be fragmented and
would not adequately represent the country’s ecosystem diversity, leading to further inefficiencies. GEF involvement
would address both the income and cost sides of the PA ledger. On the one hand, it would allow the availability of
financial resources to be increased and stabilized through the introduction of financial mechanisms tailored to the
country’s needs and legal context. On the other hand, it would reduce PA management costs by improving management
effectiveness in PAs through the consolidation and rationalization of the NSPA, the promotion of alternative management
models, increases in technical capacities among PA managers, improved monitoring and increased public commitment to
and participation in PA management.
Changes in political circumstances
and economic priorities affect
Government commitment to
Weak management and technical
capacity undermines project
Climate change and natural
disasters affect the viability of
management options and distract
attention from PA issues.
Risk Mitigation Measure
The project will involve relevant institutional stakeholders, such as heads of
agencies/Ministries and boards, at the outset of the PPG phase, to ensure their
support for and participation in the project. In addition, the project will have
high-level political support from the relevant Ministers.
Increasing management effectiveness is one of the key components of the project.
The project will build the capacity of protected area managers and stewards of
public and private reserves. Management effectiveness tracking tools will deliver
information on progress of project activities.
The value of PAs will be informed to decision-makers especially their ecosystem
functions. Decision-makers will be aware that limited resources are better spent
in the protection of the resources that naturally protect Jamaica than in the repair
of coastal ecosystems which is a significantly more costly endeavor.
22. The project strategy of concentrating on BD conservation in protected areas is a cost-effective option because of the
large amount of the country’s globally important BD that is contained in situ in relatively intact areas that are suitable as
PAs. The alternative, of working in productive landscapes, could generate significant global benefits but would not permit
the conservation of intact ecosystems nor of natural patterns of species and population diversity in the biota in question.
The project’s strategy of promoting local involvement in PA management, meanwhile, would be socially and
operationally more sustainable, and therefore more cost-effective in the long run, than a strict “fences and fines” approach.
The use of a permanent PA Trust Fund is preferable to the alternative of a one-off “disappearing” fund as it will enable
PA management costs to be met in the long term and in a stable manner. This will reduce the amount of staff resources
that need to be invested in seeking funding sources on a recurrent basis. The strategy of including new PAs into the NSPA
will deliver cost-effectiveness in the long term as it will generate highly replicable models of landscape-wide approaches
to PA management which will result in significant economies of scale.
23. This project would take full advantage of UNDP’s comparative advantage in the areas of human resource
development and institutional strengthening. UNDP has a long-established Country Office in the country, which has
allowed it to develop strong relationships with diverse institutional actors at all levels in both public and private sectors. It
is thereby ideally placed as an agency to facilitate the kind of multi-stakeholder discussions which will be necessary in
this project, in relation to the raising of awareness in Government of the importance of adequate budget allocation for
protected areas, and the negotiation of public/private partnerships for the funding of protected areas.
PIF Template, August 27, 2007
(Please attach the country endorsement letter(s) or regional endorsement letter(s) with this template).
Leonie Barnaby for Permanent Secretary
Office of Prime Minister
Date: 2 September 2008
This request has been prepared in accordance with GEF policies and procedures and meets the GEF
criteria for project identification and preparation.
Yannick Glemarec
Executive Coordinator
Project Contact Person:
Santiago Carrizosa
Date: 3 September 2008
Tel. and Email:
T: (507)302-4510,
[email protected]
PIF Template, August 27, 2007

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