Wild perennial sorghum Annual grain sorghum Inter

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Wild perennial sorghum Annual grain sorghum Inter
Inter-species hybrid
x
Annual
grain
sorghum
Wild perennial sorghum
Sorghum halapense
Highly
diverse
breeding
population
Perennial
grain
sorghum
160 cm
BULK06-10
perennial
legumes
1. The Land Institute is
domesticating Illinois
bundleflower (IBF)
– Adapted to Great Plains
conditions
– Nitrogen fixation and seed
protein content similar to
soybean
Dehiscent
Indehiscent
Pod dropping score (0=marcescent, 2=highly deciduous)
2008 families:
0
0.5
1
2
Indehiscent families
11
13
36
48
Dehiscent families
18
2
2
1
Pod dropping score (0=marcescent, 2=highly deciduous)
2008 families:
0
0.5
1
2
Indehiscent families
11
13
36
48
Dehiscent families
18
2
2
1
2. Existing forage legumes as
nitrogen source for perennial cereals
Mowed legume intercrop
Multi-row mower tractor attachment
Late spring:
Mow between each row of
cereal
Early summer:
Mowing triggers legume to
drop fine roots; nitrogen from
decomposing roots and
leaves is taken up by the
cereal crop
3. Existing perennial grain
legumes
– but usually grown as annuals
• pigeonpea
• lab-lab
• runner bean
• Lima bean
Pigeon Pea
•Deeply-rooted,
perennial
•4.92 million hectares
worldwide (3.58 million
in India alone)
•Average yield 898 kg/ha
―The pigeonpea
plants, especially of
the perennial
varieties, have a
strong root system,
which helps hold the
soil on sloping
hillsides. ―
―’Pigeonpea has been found to be very
successful in covering the soil and reducing
soil erosion," says Dr Zong Xuxiao, from the
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences at
Beijing.’‖
http://www.cgiar.org/newsroom/releases/news.asp?idnews=536
Lab-lab or hyacinth bean
(Lablab purpureus)
Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus)
Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)
Protecting fragile landscapes,
reclaim degraded farmland
In Haiti alone,15,000 acres are
―abandoned to erosion‖ each
year (Paskett and Philoctete,
1990)
Perennials:
•No tillage: protect steep
slopes
•Perform well despite
crusted, degraded soil
•Deep taproots access
moisture in droughts
IBF: seed yields of 3000 kg/ha on mine
spoils in Florida!
http://www.spiralmonkey.com/nepal/nepal.0084.jpg
Protein consumption (per capita)
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_map_of_Protein_consumption
_1979-1981.svg by Lokal_Profil
Perennial Oilseed Grains
Sunflower family (Asteraceae)
Helianthus
maximiliani
:
Helianthus annuus
Silphium
integrifolium:
modern
domestic
cultivar
many
heads,
large
seeds,
few seeds
per head
wild accession (Kansas)
many heads,
small seeds,
many seeds
per head
Strategies for perennial sunflower
Domestication
Wild perennial
species in Asteraceae
A
B
Interspecific
X
Annual crop
sunflower (2x)
F1 mostly
perennial (4x)
Small seed,
shattering
C
Perennial wild
sunflower (6x)
Annual
crop
sunflower
(4x)
(nearly)
random mating
to create a
diverse 4x
population
X
BC1
No shatterresistance
found
Annuals & perennials
X
X
X
X
Large seed,
non-shattering
Moderate
yield
High
yield
Cycles of
selection for
seed size and
seed yield
Backcross breeding to give
a tuberous Helianthus
annuus (4x)
University of Minnesota
The Land Institute
Perennial sunflower domestication program:
Variation in plant form in recurrent selection populations of
Kansas rosinseed
1 meter
Domestication:
Helianthus maximilianii
(Maximilian sunflower)
Growing in natural
grassland ecosystem
Growing in research plots
Perennial sunflower domestication program:
Recurrent phenotypic selection of H. maximiliani for various agronomic traits.
Maximilian sunflower
Trait
“Heritability”
Lodging score
0.39
Yield per area
0.32
Yield per stalk
0.51
Seed weight
0.46
Shattering
0.56
Plant Height
0.61
Seed size
Foliar disease (2007)
Seeds/head
1838
Foliar disease (2008)
Yield per head
Index
Plant dwarfing
Yield per stalk
2108
8
Head clustering
Yield per plant
Stalk density
Stalk diameter
Shatter resistance (3)
Shatter resistance (2)
Average of the ―top 50‖ genotypes
chosen for combined scores for
seed size, yield, etc. Overall these
are better than the population
mean, but never the best for any
one trait.
Seed size
Foliar disease (2007)
Seeds/head
1838
Foliar disease (2008)
Yield per head
-
Plant dwarfing
Index
- -
Yield per stalk
2108
8
Head clustering
Stalk density
Yield per plant
Stalk diameter
1104
Shatter resistance (3)
+ +
Shatter resistance (2)
This genotype had reduced
shattering but also small heads—
would not have been included in
the ―top 50‖
Seed size
Foliar disease (2007)
Seeds/head
1838
+
Foliar disease (2008)
Yield per head
Index
-
Plant dwarfing
Yield per stalk
2108
8
Head clustering
Yield per plant
- Stalk density
1104
Shatter resistance (3)
Shatter resistance (2)
Stalk diameter
This genotype had huge seeds
but higher-than-average
shattering.
Perennial sunflower domestication program:
Variation among the half-sib progeny of a single unusually apically dominant plant
•head size
•ligule number
•branching pattern
•leaf size/shape
Normal, branched form
Unbranched
type
No-branching types
???
No heads!
= extreme
apical dominance?
Hexaploid perennials
--H. tuberosus
--H. rigidus
Eggs: 51
chromosomes
X
Eggs: 51
chromosomes
X
Pollen: 17
chromosomes
Pollen: 17
chromosomes
Diploid Annuals
--H. annuus (wild)
--H. annuus (crop)
--H. petiolaris
Tetraploid Breeding Population (68 chromosome)
containing genes from many species
Diploid perennials
--H. maximiliani
--H. salicifolius
--H. grosseserratus
--H. giganteus
2009 Sunflower populations
2009 Sunflower populations
Interspecific perennial sunflower program:
Variation in head size between half-sib progeny of a cross between H. annuus and H. tuberosus.
Average annual seed yield (kg/ha)
Long-lived trees
Annuals
Shrubs, short-lived trees
Herbaceous
perennials
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Average annual seed yield (kg/ha)
Long-lived trees
Herbaceous
perennials
Annuals
Shrubs, short-lived trees
?
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
structures frequently
lost due to ecological
disturbance:
Stems, leaves (herbivory, frost, fire)
Annual reproductive effort
Roots, rhizomes
(drought, tillage, flooding)
Long-lived trees
Annuals
Shrubs, short-lived trees
Herbaceous
perennials
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Stems, leaves (herbivory, frost, fire)
Roots, rhizomes
(drought, tillage, flooding)
Strongest
Competition: Competition to colonize:
Competition for water, nitrogen, space:
Invest in roots, rhizomes
Annual reproductive effort
Invest in seeds
Competition for light:
invest in trunks
Long-lived trees
Annuals
Shrubs, short-lived trees
Herbaceous
perennials
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Stems, leaves (herbivory, frost, fire)
Few losses:
ability to invest in dispersal
(seeds, fruits), once established.
Annual reproductive effort
Roots, rhizomes
(drought, tillage, flooding)
Competition to colonize:
Invest in seeds
Competition for water, nitrogen, space:
Invest in roots, rhizomes
Competition for light:
invest in trunks
Long-lived trees
Annuals
Shrubs, short-lived trees
Herbaceous
perennials
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Annual reproductive effort
Annual grains
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Nuts,
fruits
Annual reproductive effort
Annual grains
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Crop
Product
Malus x domestica
(apple)
Fruit (diaspore)
Dry matter
yielda
(kg ha-1)
13,000 to
17,000
Annual net
reproductive
effortb
0.65
Basis of
Source and
reproduct location
ive effort
Mass
Palmer (1988),
New Zealand
Elaeis guineensis (oil Fruit plus seed
palm)
5000 to 9000 0.34
0.52
Mass
Energy
Corley (1983),
Malaysia
Cocos nucifera
(coconut palm)
Copra (seed
endosperm)
3000 to 6000 0.20
0.31
Mass
Energy
Corley (1983),
Malaysia
Elaeis guineensis
Oil (kernel &
6800
mesocarp)
Bunches (fruit &
peduncles)
16,800
Energy
Wahid et al. (2004),
0.32
Malaysia
0.55
Energy
Olea europaea (olive) Fruit (whole,
with seed)
4600
0.54
Mass
Villalobos et al.
(2006), Spain
Musa spp., genomes
AAB (plantain)
-
0.60
Mass
Baiyeri (2002),
Nigeria
Vaccinium
Fruit (whole fruit corymbosum
& seed)
(highbush blueberry)
0.55
Mass
Pritts and Hancock
(1985), United
States
Fruit (whole,
seedless)
Nuts,
fruits
Annual reproductive effort
Annual grains
?
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Reference
Common names
Part harvested
Species
Baileyb
beet
root
Beta vulgaris
pigeon pea, red gram
seed
Cajanus cajan
hyacinth bean, lablab
seed
Dolichos lablab
sweet potato
tuberous roots
Ipomoea Batatas
tomato
fruit
Lycopersicon lycopersicum
cassava, manioc,
tuberous root
Manihot esculenta
runner bean
seed
Phaseolus coccineus
lima bean
seed
Phaseolus lunatus
castor-bean
seed
Ricinus communis
potato
tuber
Solanum tuberosum
Ploschuk, 2005
bladderpod
seed
Lesquerella fendleri
Smartt, 1990
chickling pea, khesari
seed
Lathyrus sativus
seed, roots, fruit
Psophocarpus
tapioca, yucca
dhal
goa bean
tetragonolobus
Annual grains
Annual reproductive effort
Nuts,
fruits
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Perennial grasses harvested for grain
Bohrer (1972)
Poland
Mongolia
Bye (1985)
Southwestern N.
Vaughn et al. (2008)
China
Oryza rufipogond
Guo et al. (2007)
China
Zizania latifolia
Elymus giganteus
Griffin and Rowlett
Scandinavia
Leymus arenarius
Arundo villosa
(1981)
Festuca octoflora
Weiss et al. (2004)
Israel
Puccinellia distans
Glyceria fluitans
Alopecurus arundinaceus
America
Doebley (1984)a
Southwestern N.
Distichlis palmeri
Bar-Yosef and Kislev
Oryzopsis hymenoides b
(1989)
Israel
Secale montanum
America
O. miliacea
Piperno et al. (2004)
Israel
Puccinellia gigantea
Eragrostis oxylepis
Hordeum bulbosum
Glyceria spp.
Willcox et al. (2007)
Syria
H. bulbosum
Poa spp.
Hillman et al. (2001)
Syria
Stipa spp.
Elymus canadensis
Harlan (1989)
North Africa
Aristida pungens
Panicum turgidum
West Africa
Stipa speciosa
California
Piptatherum holciforme
Sporobolus spp.
Melica imperfecta
Powers (1874)
Elymus panormitanus
Latipes senegalensis
Muhlenbergia asperifolia
Oryza longistaminata
Bromus carinatus
Paspalum scrobiculatum
Smith (2006)
Chamberlin (1911)
California
B. marginatus
DeWet (1992)
Chile
B. mangoc
India
P. scrobiculatum
Coix lachrymale
Hillman et al. (1989)
Southwest
Asia
S. montanumf
Nuts,
fruits
Annual reproductive effort
Annual grains
Perennial root
and tuber crops
(potato, cassava,
yam, etc.)
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Nuts,
fruits
Asexual
propagation
(cuttings,
tubers,
grafts)
Annual reproductive effort
Annual grains
Perennial root
and tuber crops
(potato, cassava,
yam, etc.)
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000
Annual
grains
Perennial
grains
Annual reproductive effort
Nuts,
fruits
0.1
1
10
100
Greatest age of any plant structure (years)
1000

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