Agricultural Landscape Development Along US 77

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Agricultural Landscape Development Along US 77
Texas Department of Transportation
Environmental Affairs Division, Historical Studies Branch
Historical Studies Report No. 2003-02
Agricultural Landscape
Development Along US 277
By Martha Doty Freeman
Agricultural Landscape
Development Along US 277
A Case Study of the Cotton Industry in Haskell, Texas
May 2003
Prepared For
Environmental Affairs Division
Historical Studies Report No. 2003-02
Prepared by Martha Doty Freeman
as a sub-contractor for
Prewitt and Associates, Inc.
2105 Donley Drive, Suite 400
Austin, Texas 78758
i
Agricultural Landscape
Development Along US 277
A Case Study of the Cotton Industry in Haskell, Texas
Copyright © 2003 by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)
All rights reserved.
TxDOT owns all rights, title, and interest in and to all data and other information
developed for this project. Brief passages from this publication may be reproduced
without permission provided that credit is given to TxDOT and the author.
Permission to reprint an entire chapter or section, photographs, illustrations, and maps
must be obtained in advance from the Supervisor of the Historical Studies Branch,
Environmental Affairs Division, Texas Department of Transportation,
118 East Riverside Drive, Austin, Texas, 78704.
Copies of this publication have been deposited with the Texas State Library
in compliance with the State Depository requirements.
For further information on this and other TxDOT historical publications, please contact:
Texas Department of Transportation
Environmental Affairs Division
Historical Studies Branch
Bruce Jensen, Supervisor
Historical Studies Report No. 2003-02
By Martha Doty Freeman
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................
vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................. vii
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................
1
METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................
1
SETTING ..........................................................................................................................................
2
Introduction .........................................................................................................................
2
Geology, Climate, and Weather ...........................................................................................
4
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF A PORTION OF THE U.S. HIGHWAY 277 CORRIDOR ..............
6
Introduction .........................................................................................................................
6
Historical Context ...............................................................................................................
7
Summary ............................................................................................................................. 43
A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COTTON INDUSTRY AND
COTTON-RELATED PROPERTIES IN HASKELL, HASKELL COUNTY, TEXAS ..................... 46
BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................. 73
APPENDIX: Population, Crop, and Livestock Data from Agricultural and
Population Censuses for Wichita, Archer,
Baylor, Knox, Haskell, Jones, and Taylor Counties .................................................. 87
INDEX .............................................................................................................................................. 103
COVER IMAGE: Sanborn Map, Haskell Oil Company Cotton Gin on block 15, Haskell (1908).
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
1.
Routes of the Wichita Valley Railway (1890), Wichita Valley Railroad (1905–1906),
and Abilene & Northern Railroad (1906) ..............................................................................
3
2.
Natural regions of Texas .......................................................................................................
5
3.
Population in the project area, 1880–1960 ............................................................................ 13
4.
Wheat production, 1879–1959 ................................................................................................ 14
5.
Cotton production, 1879–1959 ............................................................................................... 15
6.
Cattle production, 1879–1959 ................................................................................................ 16
7.
Rainfall and cotton production record for the Haskell County region ................................. 20
8.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1908 .................................... 21
9.
Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1908 .................................... 22
10.
Sanborn maps of portions of Stamford, Jones County, Texas, 1908 ..................................... 23
11.
Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones County, Texas, 1908 ............................................. 24
12.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1916 .................................... 27
13.
Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1913 .................................... 29
14.
Sanborn maps of portions of Stamford, Jones County, Texas, 1913 ..................................... 30
15.
Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones County, Texas, 1914 ............................................. 31
16.
Numbers of farms and acres in farms in the project area, 1880–1960 ................................ 32
17.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1925 .................................... 33
18.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1925 .................................... 34
19.
Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1925 ........................................ 35
20.
Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1921 .................................... 36
21.
Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones County, Texas, 1922 ............................................. 37
22.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1930 .................................... 38
23.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1940 .................................... 39
24.
Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1940 .................................... 40
25.
Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1942 ........................................ 41
26.
Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1942 ........................................ 42
27.
Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1931 .................................... 43
28.
Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1941 .................................... 44
29.
Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones County, Texas, 1930 ............................................. 45
30.
Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones County, Texas, 1939 ............................................. 45
31.
Cotton-processing facilities in Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, ca. 1889–2002 ................. 56
32.
Sanborn maps of the Haskell Oil Company Cotton Gin and W. T. McDaniel Cotton Gin ... 58
33.
Sanborn maps of the Farmers Union Cotton Warehouse and McDaniel-Sanders Gin ........ 60
iv
34.
Sanborn map of the Electric Gin Company on block 66 ....................................................... 62
35.
Sanborn maps of the Farmer’s Co-Operative Society Gin No. 2 and The Farmers Gin
Company and Haskell Electric Company Cotton Gins ......................................................... 65
36.
Sanborn maps of the Harrison & Herrin [Herren] Gin and Wair & Dulaney Gin .............. 66
37.
Sanborn maps of cotton processing facilities in Haskell, 1949 ............................................. 68
LIST OF TABLES
1.
Population, crop, and livestock data from the 1879 agricultural and 1880
population censuses ...............................................................................................................
9
2.
Population, crop, and livestock data from the 1889 agricultural and 1890
population censuses ............................................................................................................... 12
3.
Cotton processing facilities in Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, ca. 1889–2002 ................. 49
4.
Population, crop, and livestock data from the Agricultural and Population
Censuses for Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Knox, Haskell, Jones, and Taylor Counties .......... 89
v
ABSTRACT
In February 2002, Prewitt and Associates, Inc., contracted with the Texas Department of
Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, to complete tasks describing the history and
architectural resources of the U.S. Highway 277 Wichita Falls, to Abilene, Texas, corridor. Task 1
involved producing a broad overview of the corridor focusing on railroad construction and development
of an agricultural landscape. The overview, constituting the first part of this report, provides a
history of agriculture, transportation, and community development along the corridor, and identifies
the forces at play in the development of the corridor that resulted in construction of specific properties.
Task 2 involved creating a case study of Haskell focusing on the development of the cotton industry
in the town and surrounding area, identifying the forces at play in the creation and growth of the
town and agricultural and related industries, and briefly describing cotton-related cultural properties;
this study constitutes the second part of this report. Task 4 resulted in an annotated bibliography
pertaining to subjects associated with Task 1; the bibliography also appears in this report. The
results of Task 3, which involved producing an illustrated field guide to industrial property types,
are more fully described in another volume.
vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Recognition and thanks are due to the many individuals and institutions whose cooperation
made possible the completion of this project. In Austin, the staffs of The Center for American
History and Perry-Castañeda Library at The University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Library and
Archives, and Secretary of State’s office provided guidance to secondary sources, censuses, legislative
records, and corporation files. In Lubbock, the staff of The Southwest Collection at Texas Tech
University made important collections available and guided the author through the intricacies of
the voluminous records of the Fort Worth & Denver City Railway. The staff of the State Historical
Society of Iowa promptly responded long-distance to requests for documents in the Grenville M.
Dodge Collection.
Local assistance in Haskell, Texas, was outstanding. Mr. Leon Jones of the Haskell
Cooperative Gin spent several hours patiently answering questions about the history of the
cooperative. He also guided the historian through the gin, carefully explaining the processes in
language that was understandable, even to a novice. The personnel at the Haskell County Appraisal
District and Assessor’s and County Clerk’s offices were patient to a fault, providing access to early
tax records and helping the historian locate some of the less-commonly used record sets in the
basement of the clerk’s office. Employees of the City of Haskell shared their carefully preserved
copies of early city council minutes.
The historian also owes a debt of gratitude to the staff of Prewitt and Associates, Inc.: to Mr.
Ross C. Fields and Ms. Audra L. Pineda for their critical reading of the manuscript, to Ms. Pineda
for producing the report, to Ms. Karen M. Gardner for her production of statistical tables, and to
Ms. Sandra L. Hannum for her inspired reinterpretation of those statistics into graphs, tables, and
figures. Finally, thanks are due to Mr. Bruce Jensen at the Environmental Affairs Division of the
Texas Department of Transportation and Mr. Bob Brinkman at the History Programs Division of
the Texas Historical Commission for their guidance throughout the project and their helpful
suggestions that brought focus and clarity to the research effort.
vii
INTRODUCTION
population trends from the late nineteenth century to the last quarter of the twentieth century. In addition, issues of the Texas Almanac
that included community and county histories,
and agriculture, oil, and transportation statistics were consulted. Histories of the Fort Worth
and Denver-Colorado and Southern Railways
and a biography of Morgan Jones also were
used.
The historian contacted the State Historical
Society of Iowa and requested copies of specific
items of correspondence from the Grenville M.
Dodge Papers. Staff at the Society forwarded
documents from the period 1898–1907 that contained information about planning associated
with construction of the Wichita Valley Railroad.
The documents complemented those copied
from the Fort Worth and Denver City Railway
Collection in The Southwest Collection at Texas
Tech University during Task 2 of the project.
Following the data-gathering phase, census
information was organized in tabular and
graphic forms to create a visual representation
of trends along the U.S. Highway 277 corridor
from 1880 to 1960. Annotations required by
Task 4 occurred concurrently with research associated with Task 1. Sources were ranked by
their usefulness to production of a broad overview of the context area as well as to histories
of the development of communities, agriculture,
transportation, and the oil and gas industry. As
each source was used, the historian wrote descriptive remarks about the contents of the
source and assessed its value to the project and
potential interest to residents in the project
area.
Research for Task 2, a case study of Haskell,
Texas, focusing on the development of the cotton industry in the town and surrounding area,
occurred in Austin, Haskell, and Lubbock, Texas.
In Austin, collections of maps by the Sanborn
Map Company at The Center for American History were copied in paper form and used to compile a preliminary list of industries in Haskell
in 1908, 1913, 1921, 1931, 1941, and 1949. A
limited number of issues of The Haskell Free
Press were available on microfilm and were reviewed. The Center also had copies of all published histories of Haskell County. Those that
focused on genealogical material were used to
identify families, public institutions, and companies that were producers of cotton and cotton products. Research in Austin also occurred
Work on Contract #572XXSA005 (Work
Authorization #57204SA005) was undertaken
for the Environmental Affairs Division of the
Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)
as part of an effort to mitigate the impacts of
TxDOT’s proposed rerouting of U.S. Highway
277 around Haskell, Texas. As a result of consultation among representatives of the Environmental Affairs Division, the History
Programs Division at the Texas Historical
Commission, and the project historian, a fivepart scope of work was developed. The purpose
of the scope was to produce research documents
that would be of use and interest to residents
along the U.S. Highway 277 corridor (Task 1,
historical overview; Task 2, a case study of
Haskell and its cotton industry; and Task 4, an
annotated bibliography of historical sources)
and to staff of TxDOT and the Texas Historical
Commission (Task 3, an illustrated, descriptive
field guide to industrial property types in the
U.S. Highway 277 corridor).
METHODOLOGY
Methodology associated with Tasks 1 and 4
(production of a historic overview of the corridor and an annotated bibliography of sources)
started with a review of Diane Williams’s historic context for a portion of the corridor prepared in 2000 for the TxDOT and of materials
collected by Amy E. Dase for Task 3 of this
project. The balance of the research occurred in
Austin at the Perry-Castañeda Library and The
Center for American History at The University
of Texas at Austin. At the Perry-Castañeda
Library, census records for the decades 1880–
1960 and the years 1925, 1935, 1945, and 1955
were copied for Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Knox,
Haskell, Jones, and Taylor Counties; and data
pertaining to population, number of farms,
amount of land in farms, and production records
for wheat, corn, cotton, and cattle were abstracted. Research at The Center for American
History focused on a review of county and local
histories for the seven counties in the context
area, using Williams’s study as a starting point.
A total of 33 county-level and 10 communitylevel sources were consulted. These ranged from
genealogy-based treatments to general and institutional studies that identified economic and
1
at the corporation division of the Secretary of
State’s office. Company names compiled from
Sanborn maps, local history sources, and records
in the Haskell County Courthouse were checked
against corporation records, and data about incorporators, dates of incorporation, purposes of
the businesses, shareholders, and other topics
were copied.
Haskell County records at the offices of the
city and county clerks, tax assessor, and appraisal district were voluminous and rich
sources of data. All known companies associated with cotton-related activities were
searched in the deed records, and their properties and relative values were recorded from
block books available in the tax assessor’s office. In addition, deed indexes, mechanics’ liens,
and chattel mortgage records on realty were
searched to identify as many cotton-related
businesses as possible, gather information
about nonlocal companies with which Haskellbased companies had associations, and identify
the periods when investment occurred. These
records also were invaluable when it became
evident that some Sanborn Map Company plats
contained erroneous information. City council
minutes were used to assess the extent to which
city policies affected industrial development.
Because the city had renamed all of its
streets sometime in the early to mid-twentieth
century, effort was put into locating and copying accurate plat maps. These were used in conjunction with deed records and in the field to
visit each cotton-related property in the vicinity of the historic Wichita Valley Railroad line
through Haskell. Chains of title were compiled
for each of those properties, and block books
were reviewed for evidence of construction
dates. Contact was made with the manager of
Haskell’s oldest continually operating cotton
gin, and he was interviewed. A tour of the gin
plant and associated structures was helpful in
identifying the constituent parts of a typical
facility.
In Lubbock, manuscripts in The Southwest
Collection at Texas Tech University were used.
The historian particularly focused on the papers of Morgan Jones, who was instrumental
in the construction of portions of the Wichita
Valley Railroad and invested in various local
businesses; Seaman Asahel Knapp, who worked
with agriculturists along the Wichita Valley line;
Virgil Sonnamaker, whose collection included
photographs of Haskell in the early twentieth
century; and the Fort Worth and Denver City
Railway, with particular use being made of microfilm rolls on which pre-1920 documents pertaining to the Wichita Valley Railway Company
had been consolidated. The historian also made
liberal use of The Haskell Free Press, targeting
dates mentioned in Sherrill’s 1965 history of
Haskell County and in records examined in the
Haskell County Clerk’s records, but also looking at as many nonspecific dates as time would
allow.
SETTING
Introduction
The project area includes parts of seven
counties in the North-Central Plains region of
Texas—Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Knox, Haskell,
Jones, and Taylor—and stretches along approximately 150 miles of U.S. Highway 277. The counties are transected by the historic routes of the
Wichita Valley Railway, which ran from Wichita
Falls in Wichita County to Seymour in Baylor
County beginning in 1890; the 1905–1906
Wichita Valley Railroad extension of the 1890
line from Seymour through the communities of
Bomarton in Baylor County, Goree and Munday
in Knox County, Weinert and Haskell in Haskell
County, to Stamford in Jones County; and the
1906 Abilene & Northern Railroad from Abilene
in Taylor County to Anson and Stamford in
Jones County, where it joined the Wichita Valley
Railroad (Figure 1).
Linked by a historic railroad line that operated under the auspices of the Colorado &
Southern Railway Company, and by the moremodern U.S. Highway 277, the project area has
a specific geographic identity, being part of the
Permian Plains, a major subarea within the
North-Central Plains. Stretching from the vicinity of Abilene in Taylor County to the Red
River, the region is characterized by a topography with surfaces dominated by the deposition
of materials brought in from elsewhere by erosion. Soils both support the growth of grasses
preferred by livestock and form the basis for
highly successful commercial plant cultivation.
The project area is typified by patterns of
rainfall and drought that have made it only
marginally reliable to agriculturists and commercial interests that have depended on livestock
2
Figure 1. Routes of the Wichita Valley Railway (1890), Wichita Valley Railroad (1905–1906), and Abilene &
Northern Railroad (1906).
3
and crop production for their success. The area
also has a history of oil and gas production that
has rivaled and, in some areas, far surpassed
the impact of either railroad or agricultural
development. While this impact has weighed
disproportionately on the northern end of the
U.S. Highway 277 corridor, all counties within
the corridor from Wichita to Taylor have benefited from oil and gas production during the
twentieth century.
The balance of the project area, from
Mabelle in Knox County to Dundee, Mankins,
and Holliday in Archer County and Wichita
Falls in Wichita County, is in the Red River
Rolling Plains (see Figure 2). This area embraces rolling strips of country covered with
alluvial and wind-blown deposits. Land north
of the Wichita River is characterized by soils
that sometimes are dark in color and are underlain with a heavy subsoil. Land south of the
Wichita River is characterized by heavy, dark
soils that make excellent grazing lands and are
suitable for farming (Johnson 1931:122–123),
like much of the Abilene-Haskell Plains to the
southwest.
Land in the project area is conducive to
large-scale farming and ranching because of the
soil types there. The North-Central Region also
is characterized by geologic formations that are
the source of significant oil and gas deposits.
While such deposits are found throughout the
project area, the largest fields by far are in the
northern portion where the Wichita/Wilbarger
and Petrolia fields were the source of approximately 48 percent of all oil produced in Texas
between 1911 and 1925 (A. H. Belo & Company
1926:165). The presence of these deposits has
had far-reaching implications for local and regional economies and frequently has mitigated
the negative impacts of climate and weather.
The project area is climatologically marginal, at best, being in a zone identified as “critical.” The seven counties receive an average
rainfall of 23.59 inches per year in Taylor
County in the extreme south to 27 inches per
year in Wichita County in the extreme north
(Hart 1996:952; Leffler 1996b:224). With an
overall average of 25.14 inches of rain, the area
is close to the 20 inches of precipitation identified by Webb as being marginal for agriculture
that is carried on “by ordinary means . . .” (Webb
1931:323–324).
Hardships created by marginal moisture
are exacerbated by the recurrence of severe
droughts. In Texas generally, the worst droughts
in order of severity occurred in 1954–1956,
1916–1918, 1909–1912, 1901, 1953, 1933–1934,
1950–1952, 1924–1925, 1891–1893, 1937–1939,
and 1896–1899 (Pool 1975:9). In the project
area, the droughts of 1886–1887, ca. 1909–1911,
and 1917–1918 were so severe that many of the
counties lost much of their population; the impact of the 1950s drought on agriculture was
Geology, Climate, and Weather
The project area, which runs from Wichita
Falls in Wichita County to Abilene in Taylor
County, is located in the Middle Texas Province
as defined by geographer Elmer Johnson
(1931:54, Figure 19) (Figure 2). This natural
area includes the North-Central Plains, which
are comprised of plains and low plateaus cut
across by the Wichita and Brazos Rivers. Permian outcrops occur in the plains, and in some
areas the land is comprised of silts and sandy
silts that have been developed as “the important farming sections which extend from San
Angelo by way of Abilene and Haskell to the
Red river lowlands” (Johnson 1931:54–56). According to Johnson (1931:116), portions of the
North-Central Plains are dominated by surfaces
characterized by the deposition of materials
brought in by agents of erosion (constructional
surfaces), and these surfaces are important agriculturally.
Most of the project area is Permian and is
characterized by constructional topography. It
includes the region from Abilene (Taylor
County) to Anson and Stamford (Jones County),
Haskell and Weinert (Haskell County), Munday
and Goree (Knox County), and Bomarton,
Seymour, and Mabelle (Baylor County). This
area is called the Abilene-Haskell Plains (see
Figure 2) and is a subdivision characterized as
well by a thick growth of short grasses that is
desirable for grazing. Influenced by this growth
and by a combination of rainfall and temperature conditions, the subdivision also is characterized by “a black colored soil, high in basic
constituents, whose physical conditions of friability and mellowness allow it to be worked
readily. This type of soil is a form of the famous
‘Black Earth’ group of soils which is so important in present-day commercial agriculture the
world over” (Johnson 1931:117–118).
4
Figure 2. Natural regions of Texas. Johnson’s map depicts the state’s natural regions. The seven-county
study area is comprised mostly of the Abilene-Haskell Plains to the south and west and the Red River Rolling
Plains to the northeast. Figure taken from Johnson (1931:Figure 19).
5
so devastating that the industry never recovered. Drought in the early 1890s and 1930s
heightened economic problems engendered by
a national panic and depression that were alleviated only by the strength of the oil and gas
industries.
Plentiful rainfall at the right times of the
year, on the other hand, created plenty for agriculturists and the merchants, bankers, suppliers, construction industries, and railroadmen
who were dependent upon the success of crops
and stock. As Frank Hastings of Stamford wrote
in his crop letter of February 1915, favorable
weather had resulted in cotton crops that inspired farmers to buy freely. They purchased not
only agricultural implements but also furniture,
dry goods, and clothing. Lumber was “moving”
quite freely, and residents of town and country
were repairing granaries, building storage
sheds, building new homes, and adding on to
older ones (Hastings 1915).
Attracted to the region because of the communities and populations already there, the
promise of agricultural productivity, and a sense
of competition with other lines that threatened
this particular trade territory, the Fort Worth
and Denver City Railroad and its feeder lines
penetrated the project area between 1890 and
1906. Thereafter, the fortunes of the railroad
were dependent on the agricultural success of
the project area, while the fortunes of late-nineteenth- and twentieth-century agriculturists
were tied not only to the railroad but also to
weather, markets, international events, government policies, and sources of supplemental income, such as oil and gas. Depressions or serious
recessions spawned by national events, changes
in markets, and severe droughts occurred in the
mid-1880s, the early 1890s, 1909–1912, 1917–
1918, the mid-1930s, and the early 1950s. Periods of economic prosperity, with their
accompanying building booms, occurred during
1881–1885, 1887–1891, 1903–1908, 1913–1914,
the 1920s, sporadically during the 1930s, and
in the 1940s. Particularly after the drought of
the early 1950s, populations stagnated or declined in rural areas but increased markedly in
Wichita Falls and Abilene, farms declined in
number but increased in size, production of
wheat was strong, and farming populations
turned again to livestock raising.
Promotion of the area to the railroads and
potential immigrant communities is reflected
primarily in architectural resources dating from
ca. 1890–1910, while periods of unusual prosperity, often resulting from agricultural bounty,
oil and gas development, or events associated
with World War II when military facilities were
built near major cities are reflected in architectural resources dating from ca. 1912–1914,
1919–1929, and 1940–1946 and beyond, if the
communities were fortunate enough to retain
the facilities.
With the advent of automobiles and trucks,
and of long-distance telephone service, all of
which became available before World War I, reliance on the railroad began to decrease. Construction of paved roads was relatively slow, the
seven counties having an average of 84 miles of
paved roads by 1925 (A. H. Belo & Company 1926).
But the development of a more-comprehensive
system during the 1930s may have contributed
to a stagnation or gradual loss of population in
those counties lacking large cities (Archer,
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
OF A PORTION OF THE
U.S. HIGHWAY 277 CORRIDOR
Introduction
The project area includes portions of seven
counties in north-central Texas—Wichita, Archer,
Baylor, Knox, Haskell, Jones, and Taylor—that
stretch along approximately 150 miles of U.S.
Highway 277. The area is anchored at each end
by two of the largest cities in the region—
Wichita Falls in the north and Abilene in the
south—and the land in between is largely rural. The highway connects a series of small communities that serve as county seats and local
trade centers.
Agriculture, transportation, and the oil and
gas industries have shaped the project area’s
economic development, social organization, and
building history. The counties and their communities have a common geography, geology,
and climate and, as a result, also have a common social and economic heritage. Buffalo hunting and the cattle industry provided the impetus
for early forays into the area, while railroad and
highway construction defined mobility in the
twentieth century. Both forms of transportation
supported stock raising, crop cultivation, and
the movement of people, goods, and energy resources into and out of the region.
6
Baylor, Knox, Haskell, and Jones) and the
steady growth of Wichita and Taylor Counties
whose two large urban centers of Wichita Falls
and Abilene continued to attract industry. A
decline in population and agricultural production together with competition from trucking
adversely impacted the Fort Worth and Denver
City rail system in the project area. By the
1960s, rail service was cut back or discontinued, and the line was abandoned in the 1990s,
at which time it was part of the Burlington
Northern Railroad.
Continuing agricultural productivity in the
project area has resulted in the on-going use of
some historic buildings, despite an absence of
rail service. Other historic properties have been
abandoned or adapted to new uses. Those that
remain reflect the area’s development patterns.
To understand what was built, why it was built,
and how it was built, it is helpful to understand
the broad historical trends that shaped the
project area.
1996b:224; Lewis 1996:224; Odintz 1996:994).
Immigration to the project area spread more
evenly along the corridor in the early to mid1870s. Silas Baggett and John B. Gholson
settled in Archer County in 1868–1869, while
C. C. Mills settled in Baylor County in 1870.
Daniel and Tom Waggoner moved to Wichita
County in 1871, and the 99 Ranch built its headquarters in Archer County about the same time,
as did Will Ikard and E. F. Ikard who set up the
Circle Ranch. An early settlement started in
Jones County near the abandoned Fort Phantom Hill site in 1872; and Creed, John, and
Emett Roberts, and Mode Johnson and J. G.
Johnson established ranches in the same area
in 1873. To the south, buffalo hunters in Taylor
County included prospective settlers such as
James W. Holmes, John B. Clack, and A. J.
Tucker (Anderson 1996c:786; Baylor County
Historical Society 1972:2; Duff 1970:30; Graves
1996:427; Loftin 1979:96; Odintz 1996:994;
O’Keefe 1969:3–4).
The successful conclusion of the Red River
War of 1874–1875 created the impression that
the Texas plains west of the burgeoning city of
Fort Worth were open for settlement and the
cattle industry. Agriculturists such as R. O.
Prideaux settled in Archer County, J. W. Stevens
and C. C. Mills in Baylor County, and John
Simpson and his Hashknife outfit in Taylor
County. About the same time, groups of farmers were attracted to the area, including the
W. W. Hutton family from Canada who arrived
in Archer County in 1875 and not only raised
sheep but also put in a few acres of farmland. A
community of nine families congregated in the
Round Timbers community of Baylor County,
and J. R. McClain led a group of farming settlers from Oregon to the present-day site of
Seymour, also in Baylor County (Baylor County
Historical Society 1972:3; Duff 1970:34; Graves
1996:427; Lewis 1996:224; Loftin 1979:94–95).
Intensification of interest in the project area
from ranchers, primarily, and farmers, secondarily, and the beginnings of nascent communities were accompanied by the establishment of
formal towns. In the south, the town of Buffalo
Gap in Taylor County began to emerge as a
trade center, while the townsite of Wichita Falls
at the opposite end of the corridor was platted
in 1876. No doubt its few inhabitants looked to
Fort Worth some 120 miles to the southeast
where the arrival of the Texas & Pacific Railroad
Historical Context
Euro-American interest in the project area
began in the early 1850s when the Texas legislature approved an act enabling the Texas
Emigration and Land Company to survey a
tract that became known as the Peters Colony
lands and included portions of Archer and
Baylor Counties. Within 2 years, surveyors also
had surveyed tracts in present-day Wichita
County, and an individual named Mabel Gilbert
became the area’s first semipermanent resident
when he built a house on a bluff 10 miles north
of present-day Wichita Falls in 1855 (Baylor
County Historical Society 1972:2; Hart
1996:952; Kelly 1982:5).
Gilbert was driven from the area by Indian
depredations the following year, but the creation
of the seven counties by 1858 must have
sparked some interest among potential settlers
despite the risk of attack. Gilbert returned to
Wichita County in 1859 where he was joined
by the Tom Buntin family in the 1860s. On the
other end of the project corridor, in Taylor
County, William E. Cureton moved his cattle
from Palo Pinto County into the area south and
east of present-day Abilene (Anderson and
Leffler 1996:1,150; Casey 1974:12; Graves
1996:427; Hart 1996:952; Hendrickson
1996:955; Kelly 1982:5; Leffler 1996a:501,
7
in July 1876 signaled a turning point in the
destiny of that city and of the region to the west
and southwest. Within a year, Fort Worth’s population had reached 6,000, and traders headquartered there extended operations into the
Panhandle to capture business that previously
had gone to Kansas. The agricultural trade
boomed as well, and a new cotton compress and
grain elevator were constructed in Fort Worth
in 1878. According to Overton (1953:37), “trade
in lumber broke all records.”
The Texas & Pacific stalled in Fort Worth,
and construction of the Fort Worth and Denver
City, which had been chartered by the Texas
legislature in 1873 to create a connection between Denver and the Gulf of Mexico by way of
Fort Worth, was delayed by the Panic of 1873.
Nonetheless, immigration by ranchers and
farmers to the project area continued. By 1877,
Taylor County to the south had a population of
ca. 100, and the following year, when 200 Russian immigrants attempted to colonize land on
Lytle Creek, the county became an independent,
organized entity with its population clustered
around Buffalo Gap. Two counties north,
George T. Reynolds and John A. Matthews established a ranch on California Creek in Haskell
County, and Thomas F. Tucker joined them in
1879. Shortly after, W. R. Standifer brought a
flock of sheep to Willow Springs at the future
location of the town of Haskell (Billingsley
1996:1,125; Duff 1970:34–37; Leffler 1996a:501;
Overton 1953:35; Spence 1971:55; Werner
1996a:847).
In Knox, the next county north from Haskell
County, W. M. Gulick and Ham Colthrop settled
on Knox Prairie, bringing a herd of cattle with
them. Baylor County, which was immediately
east of Knox County, was more heavily populated and formally organized in 1879 with
Seymour as the county seat. But relations between ranchers and farmers there, as in neighboring Archer County, were highly contentious.
Cowboy employees of the Millett Brothers, who
had moved to Baylor County from Guadalupe
County, attempted to run farmers off of their
holdings, and rancher opposition to a movement
for political organization by farmers and smallscale ranchers delayed county designation of
Archer for a year, until 1880 (Baylor County
Historical Society 1972:4–5; Graves 1996:427;
Hunt 1996:983; Knox County History Committee 1966:101–102; Lewis 1996:224).
By 1880, the seven counties in the project
area had become attractive to ranchers who
sought open range and farmers beginning to
exploit the prairie’s fine black soils. But counties differed greatly in population. Probably
because of the immediate promise of a railroad,
Taylor with its 1,736 individuals was by far the
most populous, having approximately more than
double the number of residents in Baylor
County (Table 1). Baylor’s large population relative to the other five counties probably was the
result of the extraordinary promotional efforts
carried on by land companies such as The
Western Land Company, which had moved its
headquarters from Weatherford to Seymour by
1880. From its new location, the company advertised Baylor County land to land agents, correspondents, speculators, tourists, immigrants,
and homeseekers. It promised that Seymour,
which supposedly had seven rail lines headed
its direction and probably would attract the
Texas & Pacific, would become the “largest city
southwest of St. Louis, Missouri.” Indeed, if
Grant were elected president, and if the states
elected Republican senators, and if the Texas
legislature could be induced to divide Texas into
two parts, then Seymour would become the capital of the new state of Mexicano. There was
enough water to support large-scale agriculture,
and The Western Land Company promoted the
suitability of the area to cultivation of wheat.
Local farmers were said to be sowing large acreages in wheat, and the company predicted that
in fewer than 10 years there would be “forty
large flouring mills located here on the Wichita
river.” Seymour would become a veritable Minneapolis with “30,000,000 acres of wheat land
to support it” (The Western Land Company
[1880]:2–3, 6–7, 14–15).
Taylor and Baylor Counties experienced
considerable growth by 1880, and Wichita, Archer, and Jones Counties were not far behind,
the last because it was considered a contender
for the Texas & Pacific Railroad route. Knox and
Haskell, the two counties most remote from any
rail potential, on the other hand, had populations of only 77 and 48. Similarly, they had by
far the smallest number of farms and the least
amount of land in farms, and they produced no
wheat or cotton, crops that had already begun
to appear in the 1879 agricultural census for
Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Jones, and Taylor Counties (see Table 1).
8
9
Population
433
596
715
77
48
546
1,736
County
Wichita
Archer
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
# of Farms
107
24
2
3
56
53
60
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
30,213
6,152
2,055
120
13,506
14,979
9,612
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
3,099
1,191
55
120
2,489
3,614
3,442
Acres of Wheat
157
91
112
59
50
Bushels of Wheat
1,610
860
567
371
532
Acres of Cotton
81
326
104
103
19
53
43
43
Bales of Cotton
Table 1. Population, crop, and livestock data from the 1879 agricultural and 1880 population censuses
Acres of Corn
73
409
60
1,308
404
1,361
Bushels of Corn
1,000
4,110
1,200
13,407
4,095
18,525
30,423
179
16,334
9,285
10,489
56,021
33,537
Cattle (NonDairy)
Thanks to rail construction through the
northernmost and southernmost portions of the
project area, the accompanying promotional efforts by railroads and townspeople, and beneficial weather conditions, the period from 1881
to 1885 encompassed the first boom years for
the seven-county region. In 1880, an eastern
combine headed by Jay Gould had taken control of the Texas & Pacific Railroad Company
and had hired General Grenville M. Dodge to
head construction. Dodge identified the most
desirable route as being through country that,
“when settled is capable of supporting its local
trade.” He therefore directed surveyors to “note
carefully the quality and capacity of the agricultural, grazing and mineral capacities of each
townsite and county.” By March 1881, the Texas &
Pacific had reached the new Abilene townsite,
which the railroad had promoted through an
extensive advertising campaign as “The Future
Great City of West Texas.” By July, the town had
approximately 50 businesses and 800 residents,
and the local newspaper touted the communities as “the natural market for all of Jones
county and north of that” and the region as one
that was evolving from exclusively stock country to farming country. While production of
wheat and cotton remained modest, resident
John Estes was sufficiently sure of the grain
and cotton crops growing in surrounding counties to build the Abilene Flour and Grist Mills
and Cotton Gin by 1884, the same year the town
began to hold fairs to promote the region’s agricultural products (The Abilene Reporter
1884:14–15; Downs 1996:8; Duff 1970:49, 51, 57,
59–60).
At the northern end of the project area,
Wichita Falls was about to become the terminus for another rail line. In April 1881, Grenville
Dodge contracted to build the Fort Worth and
Denver City line northwest from its terminus
in Fort Worth, and by July 1881, the rails
reached Wichita Falls, 1 month after Wichita
County was organized. The first train pulled
into the depot at the town, bringing with it prospective settlers from Fort Worth and points
east who hoped to buy city lots. With their arrival and the creation of a major railhead, farmers gradually became more of a force in the
surrounding region. Able to plant crops for
more-distant markets, the farmers and stockmen of the Wichita County area, like those to
the south in Taylor County, began to abandon
subsistence farming. Interest in cash crops such
as wheat and cotton increased, and the availability of barbed wire encouraged the introduction of blooded stock (The Abilene Reporter
1884:14–15; Bureau of Business Research
1949:1.03; Duff 1970:43–44, 102; Hendrickson
1996:955; Kelly 1982:20; Laxson 1958:n.p.;
Odintz 1996:995; Spence 1971:52, 68, 76;
Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce [1908?]:2).
Completion of rail lines in the general area
encouraged immigration to and growth of the
five “interior” counties, as well. Archer and Jones
Counties organized, and Robert D. Goree in
Knox County opened up lands formerly used for
grazing to farming, encouraging immigrants
from other states and Texas counties to come
there and farm. The community around Rice
Springs flourished and was renamed Haskell
in 1882; 3 years later, the county organized. To
the south, Swante M. Swenson established the
Ellerslie Ranch in Haskell and Jones Counties
and Ericsdahl Ranch in Jones County east of
present-day Stamford. Dedicated to the improvement of livestock, Swenson also was interested in the benefits that might accrue from
opening range land to farming (Anderson
1996b:738; Leffler 1996a:501; Lewis 1996:224;
Odintz 1996:994–995).
The promise of prosperity created by rail
service via the Texas & Pacific through Abilene
and the Fort Worth and Denver City to Wichita
Falls was interrupted between 1885 and 1887
by weather events that decimated livestock in
the region. A bitterly cold winter in 1885–1886
that was repeated in 1887 killed thousands of
cattle, and a number of ranches went bankrupt.
A drought that began in February 1886 and
lasted until July 1887 followed the first severe
winter. Creeks and rivers went dry, and vegetation was nonexistent. Calls for help solicited a
carload of meal, flour, and bacon from St. Louis
as well as a visit from Red Cross representative Clara Barton. Fort Worth and Denver City
president Morgan Jones reminisced about the
disaster of 1885–1887, when the countryside
along the railroad’s route had “suffered its most
protracted drought in memory, crops were a total failure, there was not enough grain produced
to seed the land, grass and water on the pasture lands dried up, beef cattle did not fatten,
and settlers ceased coming to the area.” His
plan to alleviate the suffering by donating seed
to the farmers and hiring as many of them as
10
possible until the next planting season had only
limited success, and counties such as Archer lost
population (Baylor County Historical Society
1972:5; Duff 1970:104; Graves 1996:427; Gray
1963:117; Lewis 1996:224; Loftin 1979:105, 107;
Spence 1971:85–86).
The drought of the mid-1880s ended with
flooding rains in 1887, and the change in
weather, together with Morgan Jones’s tireless
promotion of the area, resulted in bumper crops
for several years and a flood of new immigrants.
Growth resumed in Archer County, and people
moved into adjacent Baylor County as well,
where the 1889 wheat crop was outstanding.
More settlers moved to Knox County and established the town of Goree in 1887. Nearby,
two farmers—M. L. Arnolds and A. Parks—
planted a cotton crop that they had to haul to
Albany and Wichita Falls for ginning. J. F.
Bolander near present-day Munday in Knox
County, who also made his first cotton crop in
1887, hauled it to a gin in Abilene, 80 miles distant. That city organized its own major promotional effort the next year with the formation
of the Abilene Progressive Committee, which
published booklets describing the glories of the
Abilene region (Baylor County Historical Society 1972:6; Britton 1955:17; Duff 1970:168–169;
Gray 1963:69; Jenkins 1996:252; Knox County
History Committee 1966:104; Leffler
1996a:1,150; Lewis 1996:224; Munday Historical
Society 1981:16).
The reversal of fortunes for the project area
after 1886 was so remarkable that Morgan
Jones’s 1888 annual report boasted of the
region’s wheat production, increasing cattle
shipments, and new immigrants who had responded to the Fort Worth & Denver’s advertising program. The next year, Jones was
sufficiently impressed by the area’s growth to
urge Grenville Dodge to consider building a
branch line to Seymour. Convinced of the agricultural richness of Baylor County and of the
Abilene area, and concerned that the Missouri,
Kansas and Texas Railroad, or the Rock Island
Railroad would move into the territory, Jones
offered to furnish one third of the funds needed
for the 50-mile project (Spence 1971:120, 125–
126, 128n).
New immigration after the disastrous
weather of 1885–1887 had been encouraged, as
well, by organizations such as the Abilene
Progressive Committee (later the Abilene Board
of Trade) and the Wichita Falls Country Emigration Association, which published a brochure
about the assets of the area tributary to Wichita
Falls. For the purposes of the promotional effort, Wichita Falls considered its distribution
and trade territory to include nearby counties
and towns (Archer County and Seymour in
Baylor County) as well as more-distant areas
(Knox County and Haskell in Haskell County).
Wheat was identified as the staple money crop;
and the availability of transportation on the
Fort Worth & Denver Railway meant that farmers had access to markets in Colorado, Texas,
and the southeastern states. Such promotions
bore fruit, and by 1889 new communities in the
project area included Mankins and Holliday in
Archer County (Duff 1970:168–169; Lewis
1996:485; Loftin 1979:227–228; Wichita Falls
Country Emigration Association [ca. 1889]).
By 1890, censuses for the seven counties in
the project area showed remarkable growth,
much of which had occurred after the recordbreaking winters and drought of 1885–1887 and
before construction of secondary rail lines between the Fort Worth and Denver City and the
Texas & Pacific (Table 2; Figure 3). Taylor
County, with 6,957 individuals, had the largest
population, followed by Wichita County with
4,831, Jones County with 3,797, Baylor County
with 2,595, Archer County with 2,101, Haskell
County with 1,665, and Knox County with
1,134. The county with the greatest rate of
growth during the 1880s was Haskell, which
grew by a factor of 34.69. But population clearly
remained weighted toward the counties that
had railroad lines through them (Wichita and
Taylor) or were in close proximity to those lines
(Archer, Baylor, and Jones) (see Figure 3). The
1889 agricultural schedules expressed the popularity of wheat at this time, which found its largest production in Wichita, Baylor, Jones, and
Taylor Counties (Figure 4). Cotton production
had its largest production in Jones and Taylor
Counties (Figure 5), while the greatest amount
of cattle production occurred in the two northernmost counties—Wichita and Archer (Figure
6).
The good weather that had boosted immigration in 1887–1889 continued in 1890, the
year Grenville M. Dodge and Morgan Jones
chartered the Wichita Valley Railway Company.
Prohibited by the charter of the Fort Worth and
Denver City from building branch lines, the two
11
12
2,101
2,595
1,134
1,665
3,797
6,957
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
4,831
Wichita
Archer
Population
County
# of Farms
587
500
105
76
169
278
326
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
195,621
321,875
33,093
206,477
75,086
430,762
168,727
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
98,682
60,120
31,257
30,029
54,662
33,961
38,973
Acres of Wheat
2,724
3,142
237
603
4,286
2,082
5,300
Bushels of Wheat
44,159
54,737
3,336
8,544
71,258
34,096
83,053
Acres of Cotton
3,793
5,676
1,340
336
77
221
1,250
1,420
1,898
470
124
24
78
470
Bales of Cotton
Table 2. Population, crop, and livestock data from the 1889 agricultural and 1890 population censuses
Acres of Corn
3,870
3,477
1,491
1,496
2,804
1,433
4,992
Bushels of Corn
105,297
93,022
32,669
30,765
70,655
28,206
139,293
24,691
20,779
3,270
9,319
17,034
73,630
86,715
Cattle
Figure 3. Population in the project area, 1880–1960 (data from decennial censuses). Black bars are relative
to vertical axes on the right, which have a constant maximum value (for comparisons among counties). Gray
bars are relative to vertical axes on the left, the maximum values of which are controlled by the population
figures for each county (for looking at time-related trends within counties).
13
Figure 4. Wheat production, 1879–1959 (data from decennial and interdecennial agricultural schedules).
Black bars are relative to vertical axes on the right, which have a constant maximum value (for comparisons
among counties). Gray bars are relative to vertical axes on the left, the maximum values of which are controlled by the production figures for each county (for looking at time-related trends within counties).
14
Figure 5. Cotton production, 1879–1959 (data from decennial and interdecennial agricultural schedules).
Black bars are relative to vertical axes on the right, which have a constant maximum value (for comparisons
among counties). Gray bars are relative to vertical axes on the left, the maximum values of which are controlled by the production figures for each county (for looking at time-related trends within counties).
15
Figure 6. Cattle production, 1879–1959 (data from decennial and interdecennial agricultural schedules).
Black bars are relative to vertical axes on the right, which have a constant maximum value (for comparisons
among counties). Gray bars are relative to vertical axes on the left, the maximum values of which are controlled by the production figures for each county (for looking at time-related trends within counties).
16
men were determined to charter the Wichita
Valley, which would serve as a feeder line to the
Fort Worth & Denver City. Such a line would be
desirable for the traffic it bore into and out of
an agricultural area that had already proven
itself productive and as protection against invasion from competitive lines. The communities
that hoped to profit from the new line raised
$50,000 to encourage construction, and
Seymour, particularly, went on a building spree.
Property values soared there, and investors
borrowed heavily, initiating construction
projects. State legislation pricked the bubble,
however, and loan companies withdrew their
support, leaving numerous buildings unfinished. By August 1890, when the Wichita Valley Railway Company train rolled into Seymour,
the boom was essentially over, despite heavy
advertising in the Fort Worth Daily Gazette that
touted the potential of “The Great Wichita Valley”
(Cravens 1996:960; Hunt 1996:983; Overton
1953:259–160).
Morgan Jones himself anticipated a rush
of new immigration to the Wichita Valley along
the new line, and he organized the Western
Industrial Company with Dodge, G. P. Meade,
W. F. Somerville, and John Grant Jones for the
purpose of marketing 150,000 acres in Archer
and Baylor Counties. On a smaller scale, land
agent R. D. Goree promoted Knox County as the
“finest country on earth for diversified farming
and stock raising.” In Wichita Falls, investors
Joseph A. Kemp and Frank Kell, who had contributed significantly to the growth of the city,
saw an opportunity to extend the influence of
Wichita Falls along the new rail line and into a
productive farming area. With the construction
of a new terminus at Seymour, the two men had
a grain elevator built and bought wheat in
Baylor, Knox, Haskell, and Throckmorton Counties (Baylor County Historical Society 1972:45;
Goree [1890s]:n.p.; Spence 1971:129–130).
With improved transportation and good
weather, wheat production increased in the
project area during the early 1890s, and investors constructed new facilities to handle the
crop. By 1892, Wichita Falls had three flour
mills, and Seymour was the location of the new
McMillan Elevator near the railroad tracks.
Growers began to pay increasing attention to
cotton cultivation, as well, and the Seymour
Monitor recorded an early Baylor County cotton crop in September 1891 (Britton 1955:24;
Kelly 1982:87; Sanborn Map Company 1892).
The early years of operation for the Wichita
Valley Railway Company were profitable. But
drought returned to the region in 1892 and persisted until the mid-1890s, creating economic
hardships that were exacerbated by the national Panic of 1893. According to Overton, virtually all the principal crops in the territory of
the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad and
the Wichita Valley Railway Company failed for
5 successive years. Revenues from crop production dropped precipitously, and immigration and
development of new communities almost ceased.
New building came to a standstill, reducing the
movement of lumber and other building materials. The cattle trade was hard hit, and cotton
production suffered as well. In October 1893,
the Fort Worth and Denver City went into receivership (Britton 1955:17; Overton 1953:331–
332; Spence 1971:139).
Responses to the hard times focused on relief and experimentation. Realizing that farmers might need to modify their techniques, the
state established an experimental farm about
1.5 miles from Wichita Falls where the owner,
John W. Phillips, planted wheat, corn, cotton,
grasses, oats, rye, barley, beans, hemp, and other
crops. Presaging the Campbell method of dry
farming, Phillips “recommended plowing deep
and stated that he had made a fair crop every
year since the drought of 1886.” Another response recognized the need to secure more reliable water resources, and farmers between the
Wichita and Brazos Rivers began to make surveys and raise funds for irrigation. For its part,
the railroad distributed 16,000 bushels of wheat
to farmers, taking a mortgage on their crops as
security. Officers such as Grenville Dodge used
the opportunity to urge diversification so that
the failure of a crop such as wheat would not
result in the collapse of the regional economy
(Kelly 1982:17; Overton 1953:347–348).
A repeat of wretched weather in spring 1896
destroyed wheat, corn, and oat crops, and hundreds of farming families abandoned the land.
Livestock that had been fed cotton and cottonseed in Knox County were driven to Indian
Territory, Kansas, and beyond. Nonetheless,
Morgan Jones managed to bring the railroad
through receivership, and the Fort Worth and
Denver City Railway Company regained control of its property in October 1896 (Overton
1953:349, 351).
17
The end of the railroad’s legal woes was
accompanied by a significant improvement in
the regional weather patterns that lasted for a
decade. Revenues for the full year 1896 touched
a decade-long low point, but rain returned during winter 1896–1897, and spring crops promised excellent yields. By the end of 1897,
recovery was in full swing with grain production burgeoning and cotton cultivated in increasing amounts. The next year was even more
encouraging, and with railroad receipts on the
rise, Jones remarked on the inextricable linkage between the prosperity of the railroad and
“sufficient rainfall.” He also began to express
an interest in building another feeder line to
the Fort Worth and Denver City (Overton
1953:352; Parfet 1956:20; Spence 1971:143).
With agricultural prosperity came building
projects. Agriculture-related improvements in
towns and cities along the project area included
a broom company in Holliday (Archer County);
a grain mill, elevators, gins, and cotton platform
in Seymour; a gin in Bomarton (Baylor County);
a gin, mill, and elevator in Munday (Knox
County); a cotton gin in Stamford (Jones
County); and a cotton gin in Abilene (Baylor
County Historical Society 1972:37; Gray
1963:35, 115; Hunt 1996:886; Kelly 1982:87;
Knox County History Committee 1966:23;
Sanborn Map Company 1904; Spence 1971:162;
Zachry 1980:62).
Agricultural prosperity and the construction of facilities to process crops were accompanied by improvements to urban infrastructure.
By 1897, H. D. Hockersmith had started construction of Seymour’s first telephone line.
Three years later, Stamford installed electric
lights, and Abilene got a second telephone system that supplemented the one installed in
1895. By 1905, the city’s water and electricity
systems had been consolidated into the Abilene
Light and Water Company (Baylor County Historical Society 1972:7; Downs 1996:9; Duff
1970:171; Spence 1971:162).
Finally, while large-scale exploitation of the
resource was still a decade away, the first showings of oil had appeared in the Wichita County
area. Oil was found seeping into water wells as
early as 1901, and in about 1903, the same year
Abilene saw its first automobile, oil was discovered just east of Wichita Falls in Clay County.
Morgan Jones, quick to see the economic potential of the new Petrolia Oil Field, constructed a
new branch of the Wichita Valley Railway Company northeast from Wichita Falls in 1903–1904
(Duff 1970:177; Hart 1996:952; Hendrickson
1996:956; Spence 1971:155–156).
Jones appears to have been sufficiently impressed with the agricultural-based revenues
coming from the Wichita Valley Railway from
Wichita Falls to Seymour during the productive
years after 1896 to consider extending the line
farther southwest. A line northeast of Wichita
Falls into Indian Territory, though desirable
because of the potential productivity of the territory, was essentially placed off-limits when the
U.S. Congress failed to pass legislation necessary to open the Comanche and Kiowa reservations. In 1901, Jones made an exploratory trip
through Knox County, where he visited Benjamin, Rheinland, Munday, Goree, and Eussaga.
Unimpressed by the country around Benjamin,
where there was “not much business in sight
except cattle and no new settlers, . . .” Jones
described the cotton that had been ginned in
Munday in 1900–1901 and the attractiveness of
the soils in the part of the county south of the
Brazos (sandy loam that held moisture) versus
those north of the river (mesquite lands similar
to those between Seymour and Dundee). He
interviewed farmers about the areas where they
preferred to farm, and he learned that water
south of the Brazos was more readily obtainable, being as close as 16 to 30 ft from the surface. He noted that trade from Rheinland,
Munday, Goree, and Eussaga went to Stamford,
though those communities were nearer to
Seymour and Benjamin, because the roads were
better and the Brazos River was a barrier. Building a railroad bridge would be costly, but Jones
believed the Wichita Valley should cross the
river 10 miles west of Seymour “and go near
enough to these settlements to take all their
business.” Once across, it seemed inevitable
that the line would go on to Abilene and intersect with the Texas & Pacific line. There was,
after all, “a fine country all the way for one hundred miles south of Seymour.” Jones concluded,
however, that it would not be wise to commit to
any route until he and Grenville Dodge saw
“what the crops will do, I mean cotton, corn,
etc. . . .” (Jones 1898a, 1898b, 1901).
A year later, in 1902, Morgan Jones was
approached by “the Haskell folks,” who lobbied
him to build south and, with Stamford, Anson,
and Abilene or Merkel, promised to raise
18
$150,000 to help pay for the road. Employing a
combination of diplomacy and blackmail, the
Haskell representatives mentioned that they
had been approached by representatives of the
Frisco line, but that they would rather be associated with the Wichita Valley line. However,
they required an answer soon before they closed
with other parties. Jones noticed that the area
in question was filling up, despite a “drought”1
(Figure 7), largely because of the availability of
underground water (Jones 1902a).
Despite the strong lobbying for an extension of the Wichita Valley line through Knox,
Haskell, Jones, and Taylor Counties, Morgan
Jones delayed a decision, concluding that a line
into Indian Territory would be more profitable,
once the country opened, and that a southern
route would be dependent “almost entirely on
the seasons.” Approximately 3 years later, however, the citizens of Wichita Falls, Munday, and
Haskell reapproached Jones with an offer of
$120,000 to subsidize construction of the
Wichita Valley line from Seymour to Stamford.
When “outside parties” approached Stamford
about another line to that town, Grenville Dodge
got wind of the possible intruder to what he
considered to be Wichita Valley territory, and
he sent an engineer over the potential route.
He also stopped the competition by entering into
negotiations and agreeing to extend the line if
citizens along the future line would turn over
rights of way, terminals, and subsidies totaling
$63,000. In attempting to convince the Colorado & Southern Railroad Company—which
would take over the Wichita Valley line in
November 1905—of the wisdom of his plans,
Dodge wrote that he had “no doubt that the
extension is a good one. The country is filling
up and being settled [v]ery rapidly, and will
make the Wichita Valley property all right”
(Dodge 1905; Jones 1902b; Leffler 1996a:501).
Two months later, on October 12, 1905, the
Wichita Valley Railroad was chartered. The
board of directors were Frank Trumbull of
Denver; Morgan Jones of Baylor County; W. E.
Kaufman and D. T. Bomar of Fort Worth; and
Grenville M. Dodge, H. Walters, Benjamin F.
Yoakum, and Edward Hawley of New York.
The corporate office was in Seymour, and
Morgan Jones was in charge of construction,
which began soon after and continued through
much of 1906. In the meantime, Abilene, which
was determined to become a “two-railroad
town,” became concerned that the Wichita Valley line would stop in Stamford. The city’s
25,000 Club, named for its desired population,
went to work and lobbied the Colorado & Southern with the help of W. G. Swenson and Ed S.
Hughes of the club, and Morgan Jones. On
February 8, 1906, investors headed by Swenson
received a charter for the Abilene & Northern
Railway Company, and they hired Morgan Jones
to build their railroad, as well. A contract was
let to Fidelity Construction Company of Wichita
Falls for the 39 miles of Abilene & Northern
line from Abilene (Taylor County) to Anson and
Stamford (Jones County), where it would connect with the 60 miles of Wichita Valley Railroad line from Seymour through the existing or
soon-to-be towns of Bomarton (Baylor County),
Goree, Munday (Knox County), Weinert, Haskell
(Haskell County), and Stamford (Jones County)
(Duff 1970:194; Sanders and Sanders 1986:59;
Spence 1971:162–163; Werner 1996c:960).
Railroad construction, the return of good
weather between 1903 and 1908, and an accompanying good showing of crops, particularly of
cotton (see Figure 7), resulted in a significant
increase in population, the formation of new
companies, and the construction of numerous
agriculture-related business in the project area.
Population growth was second only to the phenomenal increases experienced following the
agriculturally productive years of 1887–1890,
with Wichita County population growing 177.2
percent, Archer County 160.2 percent, Baylor
County by 175.6 percent, Knox County by 314.5
percent, Haskell County by 516.2 percent, Jones
County by 244.5 percent, and Taylor County by
150.4 percent (see Figure 2). Certain of the favorable impact of railroad construction, D. T.
Bomar, J. M. Abbott, F. C. Weinert, and B. E.
Sparks formed the Wichita Valley Townsite
Company for the purpose of surveying three
townsites along the new line. The most ambitious of the sites was Weinert, and the company
ran ads in Fort Worth and Dallas newspapers
and offered free train rides to Bomarton and
Weinert. The Haskell Free Press, attempting to
promote that town, urged its citizens to “go to
1
The drought Jones referred to was caused by a
noticeable decrease in rainfall (1901–1904). The
weather subsequently turned more favorable to
agriculture, which rebounded quickly (see Figure 7).
19
Figure 7. Rainfall and cotton production record for the Haskell County region. Data are taken from Sherrill
(1975:136–137) and are typical of the context area, based on reports in county histories and primary sources,
such as the Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection.
and there were plans in Munday (Knox County)
for a new cottonseed oil mill. Weinert (Haskell
County) had two new gins, one of which was
owned by the Swenson interests in Stamford.
Haskell had a cottonseed oil mill, a new gin
owned by Fred Sanders, and a cotton warehouse
(Figure 9); while Stamford (Jones County) had
a new flour mill and elevator, compress, a cottonseed oil mill and waterworks, both owned
by the Swensons (Figure 10),2 and livestock
shipping pens. Anson (Jones County) had a gin
(Figure 11) and a mill, while Abilene (Taylor
County) was the location of a new cottonseed
oil company (Baylor County Historical Society
1972:7; Bomar 1907; Gray 1963:116; Hunt
1996:54; Jenkins 1996:252; Kean 1909; [Keeler]
1907; Keeler 1908, 1909b; Knox County History
Committee 1966:23, 134; Sanborn Map Company 1908a, 1908b, 1908c, 1908d; Sanders and
Sanders 1986:35–36; Stamford Commercial
Club [1908?]:n.p.; Trumbull 1907; Wichita Falls
Weinert, meet the special train and invite the
travelers to come to Haskell, ‘Where they could
get a good drink of water.’” Elsewhere along the
route, new towns were platted and older towns
incorporated, among them Mankins in Archer
County, Mabelle and Bomarton in Baylor
County, and Munday and Goree in Knox County.
Seymour, in Baylor County, was able to reincorporate after the fiasco of 1890, thanks not only
to improved agricultural conditions and the
broader markets that the railroad extension
opened up, but also to the discovery of oil that
set off another boom (Baylor County Historical
Society 1972:7, 76; Davis 1996:359; Hunt
1996:983; Knox County History Society
1966:101; Lewis 1996:485; Sanders and Sanders
1986:8).
The communities along the new lines also
benefited from investments by individuals and
companies that built new agricultural-related
facilities adjacent to the railroad. In Wichita
Falls, there was a new compress and the Wichita
Mill and Elevator, Texas’s second largest.
Seymour (Baylor County) had a new cottonseed
oil company, compress and ice company, warehouses, two grain elevators (Figure 8), and livestock pens; Goree (Knox County) had a new gin
2
Initially, many of Stamford’s agricultural
businesses were adjacent to the Texas Central
Railroad, which built through the town about 6 years
before the Wichita Valley Railroad line was completed.
20
Figure 8. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1908.
21
Figure 9. Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1908.
Chamber of Commerce [1908?]:12, 14, 16).
Economic prosperity also was accompanied
by the installation of infrastructure. Seymour
(see Figure 8), particularly, saw numerous improvements, including a combined ice plant and
cotton compress, and waterworks and sewerage
system. Munday was the location of a combined
water, light, and ice plant; while Haskell benefited from a light, ice, and water company (see
Figure 9). Stamford (see Figure 10) had a waterworks system, electric light and power system, sewerage system, ice plant, bottling plant,
and telephone connections; while Anson had
power provided by the Western Light & Power
Company; and Abilene received gas service and
established a street railway (Baker 1909; Baylor
County Historical Society 1972:7; Downs
1996:9; Duff 1970:176; Gray 1963:116; Keeler
1908; Sanborn Map Company 1908b, 1908c,
1908d; Stamford Commercial Club [1908?]:n.p.).
Initially, relations between the Wichita
Valley line officers and citizens and organizations in the project area were cooperative and
mutually beneficial. The railroad board of di-
rectors included residents of Wichita Falls,
Seymour, Haskell, Stamford, Anson, and
Abilene, and the line valued their local connections and influence. Directors and organizations, for their part, pressed the railroad to
provide special privileges to specific communities, or to implement policies that would benefit the entire region. H. G. McConnell of
Haskell, for example, asked Vice President
D. B. Keeler in Fort Worth to promote Haskell’s
October–November 1907 street fair by offering
passengers excursion rates from Fort Worth and
all points between there and Haskell to the
town, and to offer favorable rates after the fair
so that people would have a chance to drive
through the countryside in the general area. The
secretary of Abilene’s 25,000 Club suggested
that Keeler inaugurate excursions of “Home
Seekers” to the “Great Central West Texas
Country” so that “entire train loads” could be
brought through. Homer D. Wade, secretary of
the Commercial Club in Stamford, made similar importunities and was rewarded with the
news that the Wichita Valley line would sponsor
22
Figure 10. Sanborn maps of portions of Stamford, Jones County, Texas, 1908.
23
cotton crop and, later, a wheat crop (see Figure
3). The 1908–1909 cotton crop was a “great failure” in the vicinity of Munday, and conditions
were particularly harsh in the Abilene area,
where grain crops had suffered as well. By 1910,
local businessmen were lobbying the railroad
companies to provide farmers with cottonseed,
which had “about run out.” In the vicinity of
Stamford (Jones County), there was a shortage that necessitated the hauling of water and
worries that the water necessary for the
Wichita Valley Railroad engines wouldn’t be
available (Anonymous [ca. 1909?]; Baker 1909;
Hastings 1911; Keeler 1910; [Wade] 1910).
Continuation of the drought and a plague
of grasshoppers further impacted both farmers and the Wichita Valley line. In the vicinity
of Holliday in Archer County, residents were
forced to use what small amount of water was
available in the Little Wichita River and the
one good well in the creek bed at the Reunion
Grounds. Wheat failed or was short from
Dundee in western Archer County to Seymour
and Bomarton in Baylor County and Weinert
and Haskell in Haskell County. Frank Hastings,
Jones County manager for the Swenson interests, wrote to his employers in New York City
that “the rainfall of [May 1911] has been the
lowest since 1886 when only 1/3” fell” (Anonymous 1911; Hastings 1911).
The severity of the drought of ca. late 1908
to mid-1911 had significant implications for the
project area. Many settlers left the region
around Holliday. Homer Wade in Stamford reported that “a great many farmers, especially
of the tenant class,” had left the country; and
for the most part, that population was not being replaced by new farmers. One railroad official reported in August 1911 that the deficits of
1909–1911 arose from “drouthy conditions.”
Local homeseeker tickets decreased in number
and there was a decline in revenue as well from
transportation to specific important occasions
such as reunions, the state fair, meetings, holiday excursions, shows, carnivals, circuses, expositions, and lectures. Revenues from
amusement companies and from private parties moving in equipment decreased by about
58 percent. As a result, freight revenue on the
Wichita Valley lines during 5 months of 1911,
alone, decreased $49,224.68 (Glisson 1911;
Keeler 1911; Lewis 1996:668; Sterley 1911;
Wade 1913).
Figure 11. Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones
County, Texas, 1908.
an excursion from Abilene to Fort Worth by way
of Hawley, Anson, Stamford, Haskell, Weinert,
Munday, Goree, Bomarton, Seymour, and
Wichita Falls (Bomar 1907; Glisson 1908;
McConnell 1907; Thomas 1907b).
Other times, however, local and regional
requests were met with resistance. A committee in Haskell that made demands for a new
depot at a cost of $15,000 was characterized by
a railroad official as having “an exalted idea of
their needed depot facilities.” And with their
eyes focused primarily on the agricultural aspect of the regional economy, railroad officials
rebuffed early inquiries from oil companies that
were increasingly interested in the area’s potential reserves. The first block of oil leases had
been taken up in Archer County in 1907–1908,
about the same time the manager of The Texas
Company in Beaumont approached Morgan
Jones, then president of the Wichita Valley
Railroad Company, about the possibility of purchasing locations in Abilene, Wichita Falls, and
Amarillo for refined oil distributing stations.
Jones, despite his earlier interest in the Petrolia
Field near Wichita Falls, responded that the
railroad was not interested in selling or leasing any of its properties to the company (Cotter
1909; Dodge 1907; [Jones] 1907; O’Keefe
1969:98).
The good weather, abundant crops, and rail
prosperity of 1900 to early 1908 began to fail
when rainfall declined (see Figure 7), ruining a
24
In the northern portion of the project area,
drought conditions were somewhat alleviated
by the expansion of oil exploration and production, particularly in Wichita County, where The
Texas Company leased oil properties on the
Waggoner Ranch as early as December 1909,
and the same company built a warehouse in
Seymour that opened on July 1, 1910, and sold
kerosene to the community. The opening of the
Electra field in 1911 triggered a major shift in
the economic base of Wichita County and
Wichita Falls, and the impact quickly spread
with the discovery of oil in Archer County the
same year (Baylor County Historical Society
1972:32; Hendrickson 1996:956; Kelly 1982:32;
Lewis 1996:255).
Railroad executive A. A. Glisson, himself,
acknowledged that negative impacts on railroad
revenues had not resulted from weather conditions alone. Declines in passenger revenues, for
example, had not been entirely due to “droughty
conditions.” He also believed that “quite likely
long distance phone service and automobile service have considerably affected our local shortdistance travel, and I suspect that this as a
condition will be even stronger in the future
than it has been in the past” (Glisson 1911).
The drought broke in fall 1911, but its severity had left railroadmen, local promoters, and
some farmers concerned about the future of
agriculture in the light of the apparently marginal character of the region. Many of them
urged not only diversification but also agricultural education. W. A. Baker, who rented a
Wichita Valley Railroad Company farm at
Munday, suggested planting crops other than
cotton, which had been such a failure recently,
and his idea was reiterated by railroad official
D. B. Keeler, who expressed himself “much in
favor of [Baker’s] diversification idea . . . both
as a proposition and as an object lesson to the
people around [Munday].” Later in the year, H. D.
Wade of The Stamford Commercial Club suggested that the railroad company send half a
dozen representative farmers from Texas on a
“trip thru the North Central States [to] study
the methods of farming that are in vogue there.
One of our greatest troubles is in getting the
farmers here to use their brains as well as their
muscle in farming.” Wade pointed to the efforts
of Benjamin F. Yoakum, one of the original partners in the Wichita Valley Railroad, who recently had made a trip to Texas and had “decided
to establish experimental farms in every county
thru which his lines passed, said farms to be
operated under the direction of the State
Farmer’s union” (W. A. Baker 1909; Keeler
1909a; Wade 1909).
Indeed, the drought had so impressed agriculturists in the area that, despite a significant
improvement in weather conditions by late summer 1911, farmers and businessmen congregated in Abilene for the second annual meting
of the Central West Texas Dry Farming Congress
on September 27–28, 1911. Topics covered in
sessions clearly expressed concerns that had
developed about the region. They included “Seed
Selection and Development of Drouth Resistant
Varieties,” “Forage [C]rops and Legumes for Dry
Regions,” “Dry Farming Methods and What the
System is Accomplishing in Semi-Arid Countries,”
“Diversification and Crop Rotation in Dry Farming,” “Growing Cotton in Semi-Arid Regions,”
“Preparation of the Soil, the Seed-Bed in Dry
Farming Practice,” and “Dry Land Cropping
Systems for West Texas.” Interestingly, the Congress was aware of the potential significance of
transportation other than that provided by the
railroads, and one session focused on “Good
Roads, How to Build, Their Importance” (Central
West Texas Dry Farming Congress 1911).
Nonetheless, the involvement of the railroads remained of paramount importance. One
session was entitled “The Railroads’ Interest in
the Dry Farming Congress,” and a second dealt
with farm demonstration work. This latter topic
was reiterated when the Congress adopted a
resolution that recognized the pioneering work
of the railroads in promoting farm demonstration work and urged them to establish a farm
demonstration department that would introduce a more appropriate system of farming and
comply with existing local conditions of soil,
rainfall, and climate. If the Congress and railroads cooperated, their efforts would be mutually beneficial, bringing additional immigration
and increased crop production and railroad tonnage (Central West Texas Dry Farming Congress
1911; Poole 1911a, 1911b).
Weather and crop conditions improved dramatically between 1912 and 1916. Gradually,
the trend of emigration that had occurred prior
to 1912 reversed as agriculturists became encouraged by reports of record crops. Homer Wade
was able to report from Stamford in September
1912 that the cotton crop was better than that
25
of 1911, and the feed crop was the best since
1906. Frank Hastings, also from Stamford, reported that rain had fallen and crops had improved by “leaps and bounds.” A year-and-a-half
later, Wade remarked that many of the farmers
who had left a short time before were returning. There was a big demand for land, and “a
feeling of confidence permeates the entire country.” Other observers had some concern about
the potential negative effect of war on the movement of export products, but that conflict
seemed to be “the only cloud on the horizon. . . .”
Soon after, Hastings reported that Texas looked
as though it would have the largest crop ever,
with demand heavy for cottonseed among stock
raisers and cottonseed oil in Europe. By winter
1914–1915, immense cotton crops had been
gathered (see Figure 7), and spring 1915
brought wheat and oats crops that were the best
in “a great many years . . .” (Anonymous 1915;
Hastings 1912, 1914, 1915; Keeler 1914; [Wade]
1912).
Oil production in the northern portion of the
project area increased noticeably in the 1912–
1916 period as well, with new drilling between
Iowa Park and Holliday, an oil refinery constructed in Iowa Park (Wichita County), and the
Panther oilfield opened 4 miles from Holliday
in Archer County in 1916. No such finds were
made in the rest of the project area, but their
significance was not lost on residents there.
Clearly understanding the ameliorating effect
that oil and gas production could have on communities wracked by the highs and lows of crop
and livestock production, Homer D. Wade wrote
in his crop report of September 1913 that “The
hope of finding oil or gas is lending considerable interest, and if we could be lucky enough
to develop something along this line it would
be a God-send to the entire country” (Keeler
1913; Lewis 1996:668–669; Wade 1913).
Lacking oil and gas production, observers
such as Hastings and Wade fully understood the
interconnectedness of beneficial weather; large
crop and livestock yields; mercantile, banking,
and railroad success; and construction. Frank
Hastings wrote at the beginning of the recovery in 1912 that improvements in crops due to
abundant rainfall had resulted in rapidly increasing bank deposits and the settling up of
store accounts that had been due for 2 years.
Those stores, in turn, had been able to clear
themselves of obligations to eastern interests.
He predicted further increases in business.
“ . . . [P]eople who have lived on syrup and beans
will probably add bacon, and the changes are
that women will not have to rely on flour sacks
for their underclothes. . . . [S]ome farmers[’]
wives will even have a new dress. . . .” Two-anda-half years later, Hastings reported after the
“immense cotton crop” that farmers were “buying pretty freely; not only agricultural implements, but they have been buying quite a bit of
furniture and dry goods and clothing. . . . I learn
too that lumber is moving quite freely—better
than in several years. A great many are correcting their graniaries [sic], or building sheds in
which to store maize. Quite a few are putting
additions on their houses, and several houses
are going up” (Hastings 1912, 1915).
Indeed, thanks to oil and gas development
in the northern part of the project corridor and
to agricultural success along the entire line,
building and the development of infrastructure
were booming as well. From Goree and Munday
in Knox County to Haskell, Morgan Jones, often with W. G. Swenson, purchased or established public utility companies, and at Haskell
they installed “the first intercity power line ever
constructed in West Texas—a 6,600-volt power
line from Haskell to Rule.” Wichita County residents planned to pass bonds to fund public road
construction, and a concrete grain elevator with
a capacity of 600,000 bushels was erected in
Wichita Falls by the Wichita Mill and Elevator
Company, which owned plants in Waco, Amarillo, Oklahoma City, and approximately 100
smaller towns. Seymour experienced significant
changes, getting electric streetlights. By 1916,
the Seymour Cotton Oil Company had expanded
with the additions of oil tanks, a larger seed
house, and other improvements. A number of
older companies were still in business, including the Seymour Mill, Elevator, and Light
Company. New companies and improvements
included Fuller Grain Company, Pierce-Fordyce
Oil Association, Magnolia Petroleum Company,
The Texas Company, W. B. Bowman Lumber
Company, a freight house, and a wagon yard
(Figure 12). J. D. Avis’s 1913 compress, which
had burned in 1915, had been replaced by a factory run by Guitar Industries of Abilene. Baylor
County voters as a whole approved the first of
a series of bonds to construct roads (Baylor
County Historical Society 1972:7–8; Belo &
Company 1912:365; Kelly 1982:87; Sanborn
26
Figure 12. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1916.
27
Map Company 1916; Spence 1971:206).
Down the road in Munday (Knox County),
26 men organized in 1914 to form the Farmers’
Cooperative Gin, which eventually became the
second-oldest Farmers’ Union gin in Texas and
symbol of the Farmers’ Union gin association
movement of 1905. In the next town south along
the Wichita Valley line, another group of farms
organized and built the Union Gin in Weinert
(Haskell County) just east of the railroad.
Haskell, the county seat, was approached by an
investor interested in building a new rail line
at right angles to the Wichita Valley line, and
the Western Cotton Oil & Gin Company, which
had expanded the earlier Haskell Oil Mill operation, expressed interest in expanding their
real estate holdings near the railroad to accommodate a larger feed lot operation. Fred T.
Sanders and Newsom & Son had begun operations of cotton gins, while R. E. Sherrill had built
a grain elevator (Figure 13) (Cogdell 1912;
Keeler 1912; Sanborn Map Company 1913a;
Sanders and Sanders 1986:36; White 1957:117,
120–121).
Observers in Stamford (Jones County) remarked on the amount of building going on in
that town. According to Frank Hastings, lumber was moving freely. Homer D. Wade wrote to
the Swensons in September 1915: “There are
more people hunting land, renters and buyers,
than any time within the past six years, and as
stated in a previous letter, there is more building going on in the town of Stamford, than any
time within the past five or six years. I think
the same conditions prevail in other towns.” Due
to continuing competition from the Texas Central
Railroad, construction near the Wichita Valley
line was relatively modest, consisting of a produce company facility, railroad freight house,
and meat-packing plant owned by Armour &
Company (Figure 14). Improvements in Anson
(Figure 15) were limited to the Pipes & Son Gin
(see Figure 15), although other gins had been
constructed elsewhere in town. Abilene saw the
consolidation of its streetcar, gas, electric, water, and ice companies under the ownership of
eastern business giant, American Public Service
Company. About the same time, Taylor County
residents voted for road bonds to support further improvements to the existing 55 miles of
surfaced highway (Belo & Company 1912:355;
Duff 1970:177; Hastings 1915; Sanborn Map
Company 1913b, 1914; [Wade] 1915; Wade 1914).
The years of prosperity from ca. 1912 to mid1916 left residents in the project area unprepared for one of the worst droughts in West
Texas history (see Figure 7). Almost no rain fell
from mid-1916 to 1918, and conditions reached
a crisis stage. The Wichita Valley Railway was
cut off from water entirely at Stamford and had
to haul daily from Abilene. Few crops were made
in the seven-county region and beyond, and so
many farms failed that the effects were felt as
late as 1920, when the census recorded population losses in six of the seven counties: Archer
lost 19.5 percent of its population, Baylor 16.5
percent, Knox 4.0 percent, Haskell 12.7 percent,
Jones 8.1 percent, and Taylor 8.4 percent. Of
the seven, only Wichita County gained (453.0
percent), due entirely to the phenomenal
strength of the oil and gas industry. Discovery
of the Burkburnett oil fields in 1918 during the
worst of the drought fueled a boom in Wichita
Falls, which grew from ca. 17,000 in July 1918
to more than 40,000 in 1920. The Texas Company
became the county’s largest taxpayer in 1918,
the same year thousands of families left their
failing farms to find work in the oil fields of
Wichita County and in the area of Abilene,
which was experiencing the beginnings of oil
development (Duff 1970:211; Gausewitz 1917;
Parfet 1956:52).
The record drought was followed immediately by an extraordinarily favorable year in
1919 (see Figure 7) that not only produced tremendous wheat and cotton crops3 (see Figures
4, 5, 7) but also inaugurated an almost decadelong period of growth. Supported by generally
favorable weather, by the expansion and growth
of the oil and gas industry south from Wichita
County and north from Taylor County, and by
the construction of municipal and regional water storage facilities to prevent a recurrence of
the recent water shortages, the project area
prospered. County-wide population grew in all
seven counties between 1920 and 1930, especially in Taylor and Archer Counties (see Figure
3
Baylor County farmers in the northern part of
the project area harvested more grain per acre in 1919
than at any time in the past, even during the 1914
season that produced record crops across the entire
western United States. Similarly, Taylor County
farmers had record-breaking cotton crops (Baylor
County Historical Society 1972:8–9; Zachry 1980:59).
28
Figure 13. Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1913.
3), while population growth in towns between
1920 and 1925 was significant as well,
Wichita Falls increasing by 46 percent,
Munday by 81 percent, Goree by 30 percent,
Haskell by 52 percent, Stamford by 75 percent,
Anson by 111 percent, and Abilene by 27 percent (A. H. Belo & Company 1926:209, 212, 251,
255, 280, 303, 317).
General prosperity was fueled in the early
1920s by the discovery and development of oil
and gas fields in Wichita County, which represented about 21 percent of total state production in 1921; by discovery of 47 pools in Archer
County in 1922–1926;4 and by discovery of oil
deposits in Baylor County in 1924 that were
sufficiently large to help diversify the local
economy. Discoveries in the southernmost counties occurred later, the first in 1926 when
Phillips Petroleum Company struck oil southwest of Anson at Noodle Creek. Haskell
County’s first oil wells were drilled and spudded in 1929, the same year major oil discoveries were made in Taylor County (Graves
1996:427; Leffler 1996a:501, 1996b:224; Loftin
1979:170; Odintz 1996:995; Ricci 1996:193).
4
In 1925–1926, Archer County ranked third in
the state in production. A total of 51 pools was
discovered in Archer between 1911 and 1926; 93
percent of them were discovered in 1922–1926 (Loftin
1979:170).
29
49 percent by 1929, even though
farmers in all counties planted
an average of 17 percent more
land in the crop in 1929 than
they had in 1924 (see Figure 5).
Such statistics demonstrate a
persistent dedication to the
crop despite the devastation
wrought by the boll weevil,
which was moving toward the
High Plains area.
The region’s prosperity was
reflected in what one author
called a “building spree” that
was expressed in agriculturalrelated buildings and in town
and country infrastructure.
Dundee, for example, benefited
during the 1920s from the construction of Lake Kemp, Lake
Diversion, and an irrigation
ditch that provided ready
sources of water for agriculture.
Seymour citizens built a hospital in 1923 and a city hall and
hotel in 1924. Property adjacent to the Wichita Valley line
also continued to develop: in
1925, lots were the locations of
improvements owned by Pierce
Petroleum, Magnolia Petroleum,
Texhoma Oil, Gulf Refining,
and The Texas Companies;
Figure 14. Sanborn maps of portions of Stamford, Jones County, Texas,
1913.
Seymour Mill & Grain, Graham
Mill & Elevator, and Stallings
Grain & Coal Companies;
Seymour Cotton Oil and
Seymour Compress Companies; Musser Lumber
Agricultural-based prosperity increased as
Company; and the Texas Public Utilities Comwell as agriculturists remained buoyed by the
pany, which ran an ice plant on its site (Figures
record harvests of 1919. Between 1919 and
17, 18). The following year, a farmers’ coopera1924, the number of farms grew in all seven
tive constructed a gin in the town, adhering to
counties, the greatest increases occurring in
a trend that developed in Texas between 1921
Baylor (19 percent), Knox (49 percent), Haskell
and 1930 when many of the cooperative orga(27 percent), and Taylor (43 percent) Counties
nizations were formed. On a county-wide ba(Figure 16). The amount of land in farms insis, Baylor County citizens approved bonds to
creased, most notably in Baylor (27 percent) and
build roads (Baylor County Historical Society
Knox (120 percent) Counties. Throughout the
1972:8, 37; Loftin 1979:238; Sanborn Map
region, wheat (which decreased in all counties
between 1919 and 1924 and again between 1924
and 1929) [see Figure 4] took a back seat to cot5
ton, whose production burgeoned in six of the
Archer County, whose production fell slightly
seven counties5 between 1919 and 1924. Cotbetween 1919 and 1924, actually increased its acres
ton production then decreased by an average of
devoted to cotton production by 77 percent.
30
Company 1925b; White 1957:121).
In adjacent Knox County, citizens in Goree
voted bonds to sink a city well and pipe water
to homes in the town, and Sanborn Map Company maps recorded healthy development along
the Wichita Valley tracks in Munday (Figure
19). Unlike Seymour, which was more proximate
to the Wichita and Archer County oil fields and
had a greater number of oil- and gas-related
properties as a result, Munday’s improvements
were almost exclusively agriculture related.
Adjacent to or near the Wichita Valley line, they
included the Munday Gin, People’s Gin, Farmers
Union Gins, and McElreath & Frost Cotton Gin;
the Munday Cotton Oil Company;6 Farmers
Elevator Company and Munday Mill & Elevator
Company; and the West Texas Utilities Company,
an entity organized in Abilene in 1923 that
quickly acquired local utility companies in four
of the seven counties by 1927 (Downs 1996:1:9;
Knox County History Committee 1966:167;
Sanborn Map Company 1925a; West Texas
Utilities Company 1927:24–25).
Weinert in Haskell County got a movie
house, the Rex Theater, in 1921, while agricultural improvements included a gin built by Bill
Donnigan and George Williamson in 1923 and
purchased by Will Stith of Abilene and Ernest
Griffith of Weinert in 1928. The owner of the
Newsom Gin added new machinery in 1924 and
replaced the entire complex with a new building and new machinery in 1928, the same year
a group of farmers organized a new co-op gin.
To the south, Haskell’s industries along or near
the Wichita Valley line included the Fred T.
Sanders Cotton Gin, Irby & Vose Cotton Gin,
Haskell Electric Gin Company, Farmers Gin
Company, the expanded Western Cotton Oil &
Gin Company Cotton Oil Mill, the expanded
R. E. Sherrill Grain Warehouses and Elevator,
and the Haskell Light & Ice Company (Figure
20). In Jones County, Stamford’s improvements
consisted of a Wichita Valley Railroad round
house, while Anson’s improvements were
weighted to the cotton industry as evidenced
Figure 15. Sanborn map of portion of Anson, Jones
County, Texas, 1914.
by two gins adjacent to the rail lines (CranstonWilliamson and Pipes & Son) (Figure 21). Finally, in Taylor County, the number of cotton
gins in Abilene increased markedly beginning
in 1926, with acres planted in the crop breaking all past and future records (Sanborn Map
Company 1921, 1922; Sanders and Sanders
1986:11, 36–37; Zachry 1980:62).
The late 1920s represented something of a
nadir for most of the counties in the project area,
insofar as population was concerned. Thereafter, Archer, Baylor,7 Knox, Haskell, and Jones
Counties lost population at an average rate of
8.0 percent during the 1930s, 6.0 percent during the 1940s (when an influx of military populations may have slowed the rate of decline),
and 15.6 percent during the 1950s, statistical
trends that may have contributed to cessation
of passenger service on the Wichita Valley line
in 1949 (Kelly 1982:21). In contrast, during the
same 30-year period, populations in Taylor
County increased by 8 percent (1930s), 44 percent (1940s), and 60 percent (1950s), while the
population of Wichita County, which decreased
by 1 percent during the 1930s, increased by 34
6
The Munday Cotton Oil Company, which built
its facility in 1921, was on the former site of the
Swenson Gin. The Swenson Gin burned in 1917 and
never was rebuilt (Sanders and Sanders 1986:35),
probably because of the disastrous weather and small
crops of 1917–1918.
7
Baylor County’s population actually grew by 5
percent during the 1930s but declined thereafter.
31
Figure 16. Numbers of farms and acres in farms in the project area, 1880–1960.
32
Figure 17. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1925.
33
Figure 18. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1925.
34
Figure 19. Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1925.
35
Figure 20. Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1921. The Harris, Irby & Vose Cotton
Gin is erroneously identified as being in block 34. Its actual location was on block 36.
36
percent in the 1940s and 25 percent in the 1950s
(see Figure 3).
Cotton production during the same period
was relatively stagnant between 1929 and 1939
and then steadily increased in some counties
to levels in 1949 that were beyond even the
highs that typified the 1920s (see Figure 5).
However, there appears to have been little correlation between bales produced and acres cultivated between 1929 and 1944. Acres cultivated
precipitously declined in most counties between
1929 and 1944, probably due to the requirements of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of
1933 and successor acts that placed quotas on
production and later rewarded withdrawal of
acreage in 1950. But bales harvested remained
constant between 1929 and 1939 and then increased disproportionately to the acreage cultivated after that date, perhaps because of the
introduction during the 1940s of mechanized
machinery (Tyler 1996a:56–57).
Wheat production between 1924 and 1939
lagged far behind the record harvest of 1919,
although the 1934 harvest was modestly larger
than that of 1929 (see Figure 4). The harvests
of 1944–1959 were notably greater, however,
clearly outstripping even the 1919 amounts
except in Wichita and Archer Counties. Unlike
cotton acreage versus bales gathered, patterns
in wheat acreage usually mirrored patterns in
bushels harvested.
While significant outside factors such as
depression, drought, a world war, and government policies impacted the economy after 1930,
the region’s reliance on agriculture was remarkably persistent and displayed itself in the communities between Wichita Falls and Abilene.
Between 1930 and 1950, for example, Seymour,
Munday, Haskell, Stamford, and Anson all grew
even though Baylor, Knox, Haskell, and Jones
Counties lost population. The strength of these
communities and persistence of agricultural
traditions, despite irregular and often smaller
crop yields, were expressed in the continued
operation of commercial properties associated
with processing. For example, Seymour’s five
grain- and cotton-related companies near the
Wichita Valley line in 1930 (Figure 22) were still
in existence in 1940 (Figures 23, 24) despite a
56 percent decrease in cotton harvested between 1929 and 1934, followed by a 69 percent
increase between 1934 and 1939 that still left
an overall decrease of 26 percent in Baylor
County for the decade. Munday (Knox County),
which had seven grain- and cotton-processing
plants in 1925 (see Figure 19), had eight such
properties in 1942 (Figures 25, 26) and had seen
its population grow by 47 percent when the census was taken in 1950. Haskell, which had six
cotton- and grain-related properties adjacent to
the railroad in 1931 (Figure 27) had 10 such
companies in 1941 (Figure 28). It had seen its
population grow by 18 percent in the 1930s, and
it grew another 26 percent in the 1940s (Hunt
1996:886; Sanborn Map Company 1930, 1931,
1940, 1941, 1942). Stamford, in Jones County,
gained population during the 1930s and grew
again by 21 percent in the 1940s. However, development of agriculture-related properties
adjacent to the Wichita Valley line remained
stagnant, although they appear to have flourished near the other two railroads. By 1939,
Anson had actually lost one of the two cotton
gins that had been adjacent to the tracks in
1930 (Figures 29, 30), making it the only town
in the project area for which Sanborn maps exist that showed a loss of such a property prior
to World War II.
Oil production, such as that from the Lasson
field near Haskell, continued to be a mitigating
factor for local economies after 1950, as did the
presence of large military installations in
Wichita Falls and Abilene. In addition, agriculturists turned increasingly to livestock production, particularly after the devastating
Figure 21. Sanborn map of portions of Anson, Jones
County, Texas, 1922.
37
Figure 22. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1930.
38
Figure 23. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1940.
39
Figure 24. Sanborn maps of portions of Seymour, Baylor County, Texas, 1940.
40
Figure 25. Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1942.
41
Figure 26. Sanborn maps of portions of Munday, Knox County, Texas, 1942.
drought of the early 1950s. By 1963, cattle
ranching was the leading agricultural industry
in Wichita County. In Knox County, the League
Feed Lot started in 1963 as a way to counter a
reduction in cotton acreage. The company emphasized production of grains and feeds for
cattle. By the 1980s, Haskell County was largely
dependent on ranching, farming, and petroleum,
and cotton lost much of its allure as prices fell,
expenses rose, and production became difficult
in the face of a multiyear drought in the 1990s.
During the same period, more than half of Tay42
Figure 27. Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1931. The Farmers Co-operative
Society Cotton Gin No. 1 is erroneously located on block 114 instead of on block 95.
lor County’s agricultural income was derived
from livestock, a characteristic of the economy
that was typical of the project area as a whole
(Knox County History Committee 1966:31;
Leffler 1996b:224; Sanders and Sanders
1986:111; Tyler 1996b:500; Wichita Program
Building Committee 1963:7).
Summary
The seven-county project area between
Wichita County in the north and Taylor County
in the south is characterized by soils conducive
to commercial-scale agriculture and oil- and
gas-bearing geological structures that have been
43
Figure 28. Sanborn maps of portions of Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, 1941.
among the most productive in Texas. The area
also is in a marginal climatic region where years
of adequate rainfall resulting in abundant crops
have created opportunities for capital investment,
formation of agriculture-related companies, and
construction of agriculture-related improvements.
Such episodes have been irregularly but effectively punctuated by years of drought that have
44
Goree in Knox County. Attracted by the rate of
immigration and convinced of the agricultural
productivity of the area, investors built the first
railroad feeder line from Wichita Falls to Seymour
and tapped into the wheat fields and cattle herds
in the region. They bought large tracts of land
that they promoted and sold to immigrants. Investors from Wichita Falls also extended their
reach along the line, building elevators and mills
and purchasing crops in Baylor, Knox, and
Haskell Counties. Interest in cotton cultivation
increased as well, with the greatest production
and largest number of cotton-processing properties occurring in Jones and Taylor Counties.
Agriculture, building, immigration, and the
railroads suffered from a drought during the
early-to-mid-1890s, but rains returned late in
1896. Agricultural prosperity was accompanied
by building projects in Holliday, Seymour,
Bomarton, Munday, Stamford, and Abilene,
where improvements associated with cotton and
wheat processing were constructed, and towns
began to improve infrastructure associated with
public services such as telephone lines and electrical and water systems. Crop production and
continuing immigration also encouraged railroad
investors to extend the rail lines once again, and
a route was chosen only after a careful examination of soils and crops, the rate of immigration,
and available water resources.
Completion of lines from Seymour to
Stamford and from Abilene to Stamford in
1905–1906 was followed by population growth,
formation of new towns such as Weinert in
Figure 29. Sanborn map of a portion of Anson, Jones
County, Texas, 1930.
ruined crops and resulted in significant emigration cycles and cessation of construction projects.
Development of the full agricultural potential of the region was made possible by the construction of major railroad lines through
Wichita Falls and Abilene in the early 1880s
and by extension of feeder lines between the
two cities through Archer, Baylor, Knox, Haskell,
and Jones Counties in 1890 and 1905–1906.
Completion of the lines facilitated movements
of goods, crops, and livestock during productive
years, making commercial agriculture feasible.
The railroad also was a mitigating factor in
droughty years as it provided seeds to farmers,
information about the benefits of crop diversification, and promotional efforts that encouraged immigration to the region.
The earliest period of noteworthy construction occurred in 1881–1884, when a livestockbased economy benefited from favorable
weather conditions and the availability of transportation and markets associated with the Fort
Worth and Denver City Railroad on the north
and the Texas & Pacific on the south. Improvements clustered around the region’s two centers of population—Wichita Falls and
Abilene—and occurred sporadically in moreisolated, rural settings.
Drought and severe cold between 1885 and
1887 were followed by beneficial weather conditions that encouraged immigration, the beginnings of concentrated crop production, and
consolidation of populations in small towns such
as Mankins and Holliday in Archer County and
Figure 30. Sanborn map of a portion of Anson, Jones
County, Texas, 1939.
45
Haskell County, and new construction of agricultural processing facilities until approximately 1908, when the first of several droughts
ruined crops. For approximately 3 years, crops
failed, farmers emigrated, and the railroad lost
income. Construction came to a standstill except in the northern part of the project area
where early oil production attracted workers and
sparked building episodes in Wichita County.
Improvement in weather conditions between 1912 and 1916 was accompanied by large
crop yields and new building projects in towns
along the rail line, but it was followed by the
worst drought in 60 years. Counties lost most
of their populations in 1917–1918 as emigrants
flooded to the booming oil fields of Wichita
County, they recuperated only after record rains
and crop production in 1919.
An extended period of prosperity, largely
based on the strength of cotton cultivation, occurred between 1919 and the late 1920s and
was accompanied by growth of town and county
populations, increases in the numbers of farmers and acres of land cultivated, construction of
agricultural processing facilities, and development of alternative sources of water. The
strength of the oil and gas industry is revealed,
as well, in the spread of marketing facilities
along the length of the project area, construction of roads, and the increasing availability of
cars and trucks.
The spread of the boll weevil in the late
1920s and the effects of a national depression
in the 1930s placed burdens on agricultural
production. However, while counties lost population during the 1930s, towns in the project
area grew, and facilities associated with cotton
and wheat processing not only persisted but
even expanded in some communities.
The 1950s saw a movement away from an
emphasis on cotton cultivation and a renewal of
emphasis on wheat and stock raising. Cultural
properties such as feed lots became increasingly
common, while the number of properties associated with cotton processing declined.
characterized by a rolling landscape that is
drained by tributaries of the Brazos River. Soils
are sandy and gray, black, and chocolate loams
that provide fertile sustenance for short grasses
and are readily cultivated. The average rainfall for the county is 24.14 inches, approximately
the average for the seven counties between
Taylor and Wichita Counties through which U.S.
Highway 277 passes.
Anglo-American exploration of the area occurred first in 1849 when an immigrant group
crossed California Creek in the southeast part
of Haskell County. A member of the group described the area, and 6 years later, William
Armstrong and I. G. Searcy led a party to survey the land (Leffler 1996a:501). According to
Biggers (The Haskell Free Press, September 8,
1906:2), Armstrong also discovered a set of
springs near the present-day Haskell townsite
while establishing lines and boundaries.
The Texas legislature established Haskell
County on February 1, 1858, carving it out of
Shackelford County (Felker 1975:5; [Haskell
County (Tex.)], Program Building Committee
1970:n.p.), but even tentative settlement was
delayed because of Indian hostilities during the
1850s and 1860s. John Goff ’s enthusiasm for
Paint Creek in the southwest part of Haskell
County was only temporary, and the buffalo
hunters who moved in were not interested in
permanently locating there (Leffler 1996a:501;
Sanders and Sanders 1986:1; Sherrill 1965:49,
63). Decimation of the herds in the mid-to-late
1870s, however, removed the Indian threat, and
the first permanent settlers—George T.
Reynolds and J. A. Matthews and their wives—
moved to California Creek where they built a
stone ranch house (The Haskell Free Press,
September 8, 1906:7; Sherrill 1965:54, 63). They
soon moved away, and their place was taken by
Thomas F. Tucker, who occupied the stone ranch
until at least the mid-1880s (The Haskell Free
Press, September 8, 1906:7; Sherrill 1965:55–
56). Rice Springs near present-day Haskell was
rediscovered, as well, by Ryus Durrett (Clary
1956:181; Sherrill 1965:54–55).
Although some limited farming was done
by the late 1870s, when R. D. Wilfong grew corn,
sorghum, and melons on the Double Mountain
Fork of the Brazos River in western Haskell
County (The Haskell Free Press, August 11,
1906:1), cattlemen and their herds were dominant. By 1880, 48 individuals were living in the
A HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE COTTON INDUSTRY AND
COTTON-RELATED PROPERTIES IN
HASKELL, HASKELL COUNTY, TEXAS
Haskell County, Texas, in the North Central Plains division of Texas (see Figure 2), is
46
county (see Table 1), and they were joined soon
after by more ranchers eager to move their
herds to the fertile grasslands. Cattle prices
doubled in 1882, and rains and grass were abundant, leading to a boom that lasted until 1885
(Sherrill 1965:51, 52). At the same time, a small
community began to take form at Rice Springs.
W. R. and Elbridge Standifer (also spelled
Standefer) built a log hut at the springs in early
1883 (The Haskell Free Press, August 11, 1906:9;
Sherrill 1965:56), and they were joined by an
individual named Thistle, who built a log house
near the future square, and by John Labririe,
who built a small home nearby. The new settlers used elm and hackberry logs to construct
cabins; a few hauled lumber for frame buildings from Abilene. Commercial construction was
limited and consisted of two small stores (The
Haskell Free Press, August 18, 1906:9).
By late 1884, the community had a large
enough population to file a petition for county
organization. Haskell County was officially organized in January 1885, and the town of
Haskell near Rice Springs was selected as the
county seat ([Haskell County (Tex.)], Program
Building Committee 1970:n.p.; Leffler
1996a:501). Within a year, the citizens had built
a frame courthouse and a jail. W. F. Draper and
J. L. Baldwin established a grocery store, which
soon received competition from businesses
opened by William Harvey and L. M. Smith, all
constructed on the courthouse square. In the
county, individuals such as G. W. Cook had begun to experiment with crops; Cook planted a
large crop of millet, sorghum, hay, and wheat
during 1886, despite a persistent drought that
ruined spring crops (The Haskell Free Press,
January 1, 1926:1; Sherrill 1965:99).
The drought and hard winters of 1885–1887
were less kind to ranchers, who had overstocked
the ranges. According to Sherrill (1965:64), approximately 30 to 40 percent of the cattle died,
and thousands of sheep were lost as well. Small
farms that had opened were abandoned, and
the country around Haskell was thought to be
“wholly unfit for farming” (Sherrill 1965:64).
But the drought broke in April 1887, and the
response by potential settlers, businesses, developers, and farmers was rapid and dramatic.
By mid-1887, there were 10 businesses in
Haskell, 6 law firms, 4 land companies, and
numerous carpenters despite the drought that
had “very much retarded the development of the
county . . .” (The Haskell Free Press, January 1,
1926:1). About the same time, a developer acquired 50,000 acres to subdivide and sell to
farmers (Sherrill 1965:110). Within 2 years,
30,000 acres of land sold, and immigrants
poured into Haskell County using the recently
surveyed Haskell-to-Benjamin and Haskell-toSeymour Roads (Sanders and Sanders 1986:3;
Sherrill 1965:110, 112).
On October 13, 1887, George Baggett (also
spelled Baggot) sold the first bale of cotton
raised in Haskell County (Sherrill 1965:110),
and 2 years later, J. L. Jones and N. C. Smith
erected a gin on the block east of the square in
Haskell where they ginned cotton brought from
as far away as Dickens and Cottle Counties
(Sherrill 1965:76, 112) (Table 3; Figure 31). With
construction of the Wichita Valley Railway to
Seymour, only 4 miles to the northeast, Haskell’s
citizens began to agitate, as well, not only for
an extension of the rail to their own town, but
for construction of a mill in Seymour so that
Haskell County farmers would have a convenient outlet for their substantial wheat crops
(The Haskell Free Press, November 22, 1890:4).
In November 1890, The Haskell Free Press
boasted that the wheat crop along the Double
Mountain and Salt Forks of the Brazos River
looked so promising that flat boats would be
necessary to carry all of it out. If only Seymour
would build a roller mill, that town would benefit from the countryside that was tributary to
it (The Haskell Free Press, November 22,
1890:4).
In the early 1890s, Haskell lobbied hard for
its own rail line. But plans by likely investors
were shelved following the 1893 Panic and the
drought and hard winters of 1896–1898. Crops
were short, cattle and sheep prices were low,
and the two-bank town became a town of one
as the First National Bank sold out to the
Haskell National Bank (Felker 1975:16; Sherrill
1965:65–66, 77, 114). As many as 25 percent of
the farmers in Haskell, Jones, and adjoining
counties left (Sherrill 1965:113) and did not
return until 1898, after a good season of weather
and crops in 1897 induced immigration. In 1899,
Haskell County produced 830 bales of cotton,
and farmers poured into the area, encouraged
by both the crops and prices (Sherrill 1965:68,
79, 114). The cotton crop increased to 2,510 bales
the next year, when the county had 256 agricultural units and cotton cultivation had expanded
47
to 3,674 acres (Leffler 1996a:501; Sherrill
1965:114–115).
Agricultural prosperity encouraged railroads to look at the region and build lines
through it. The first trains of the Texas Central
ran into Stamford in early 1900, and a committee went to Sweetwater in 1901 to try and convince the managers of the Kansas City, Mexico
and Orient to route their road through Haskell
(Sherrill 1965:165). Perhaps in anticipation of
such construction, William A. Earnest and F. T.
Sanders purchased lots 5–6, block 15, Haskell,
from William E. Hughes of Arapahoe County,
Colorado, on July 1, 1901, and constructed a
cotton mill soon after (Deed Record 16:504)8 (see
Table 1). In 1902, the railroad committee contacted Morgan Jones to try and induce him to
extend the Wichita Valley line from Seymour,
but the effort failed when Jones cancelled the
agreement (Felker 1975:4; Sherrill 1965:165).
The following January, C. C. Waller and M. W.
Whittemore of Chicago contracted with the committee to build the Omaha, Kansas & Texas
Railroad, and in August, M. L. Healey offered
to contract for construction of the Denton,
Decatur & Western Railroad through Haskell
(Sherrill 1965:16, 165–166). But despite all the
smoke, there was no fire, and Haskell in 1904
found itself tantalizingly close to the Texas
Central in Stamford and the Wichita Valley in
Seymour, but without a railroad of its own.
According to Sherrill (1965:166–167), it was
the committee’s 1905 negotiations with J. D.
Beardsley, who agreed to build a rail line from
Abilene to Haskell, that convinced Morgan
Jones to negotiate with Haskell to extend the
Wichita Valley line south from Seymour. In
October, the committee agreed on a contract
with Jones, whose surveyors were in the field
the next month.
Rumors of a railroad and good cotton crops
attracted the attention of farmers from other
parts of the state that were suffering from early
boll weevil infestations.9 Haskell’s numerous
real estate agents heavily promoted the county
to Central Texas farmers, in particular those
from the cotton-growing center of Bell County.
Haskell Real Estate Company, for example,
opened offices in Temple and Belton (Bell
County), Taylor (Williamson County), Waco and
Mart (McLennan County), Hubbard City (Hill
County), Gatesville (Coryell County), Rosebud
(Falls County), and Whitewright (Grayson
County), while Buie and Sparks announced
plans to open an office in Taylor (Williamson
County) (The Haskell Free Press, December 23,
1905:4; January 6, 1906:5; February 2, 1906:5).
The promotional efforts soon bore fruit: in 1.5
months The Haskell Free Press announced the
arrivals of H. L. Sherrill of Temple; J. H. Rogers,
Will Dwyer, J. M. Carlisle, J. C. Carlisle, and A. J.
Pryor of Bell County; and C. S. Burns and G. B.
Hooper of Williamson County, all of whom had
bought Haskell County farms. Morgan Brothers of Hill County bought lots in Haskell to build
a lumberyard, and W. A. Flowers of McLennan
County made a proposal to the executive committee of the Commercial Club to build an ice,
electric light, and water plant (The Haskell Free
Press, December 23, 1905:1, 5; December 30,
1905:5; January 20, 1906:5; January 27, 1906:5;
February 3, 1906:8).
The strong wave of immigration from the
Blackland Prairie brought farmers and investors who were deeply involved in cotton culture,
and production of that crop boomed in Haskell
County, reaching 9,043 bales in 1904, 13,948 in
1905, 11,678 in 1906, and 23,207 in 1907 before falling to 19,667 in 1908 and 15,050 in 1909
(Sherrill 1965:118), when drought returned to
the region (see Figure 7). Naturally, improvements related to cotton culture soon became the
talk of Haskell. In December 1905, Cason, Cox &
Company were rumored to be making preparations to build a large warehouse (The Haskell
Free Press, December 23, 1905:5), and construction actually started on the south side of the
original townsite early in February 1906 (The
Haskell Free Press, February 3, 1906:5; Sherrill
1965:116) (see Table 3). In January 1906, the
Haskell Commercial Club met to discuss the
need for a cottonseed oil mill. Members resolved
9
According to The Haskell Free Press (May 19,
1906:6), using statements provided by the
Department of Agriculture, the counties beginning
with Throckmorton and extending west from Haskell
almost doubled their production of cotton between
1904 and 1905, while the counties in a large part of
Central and East Texas “fell far short” in 1905 of their
1904 crops.
8
All county-level legal records cited here are for
Haskell County.
48
49
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50
12. Haskell
District Union
Gin Company
[operating under
the name
Farmers Gin
Company]
9. Fred T.
Sanders Gin
10. Farmers’
Union Cotton
Warehouse’
11. Newson &
Son Cotton Gin
8. Western
Cotton Oil & Gin
Company
Name
7. F. T. Sanders
Cotton Gin
32736
Charter
No.
Table 3, continued
1918
Date
Chartered
Haskell District
Union Gin
Company
Newsom & Son
cotton gin
cotton gin
Farmers Union
J. H. Chancellor
(Bastrop Co.), J.
C. Duke (Dallas
Co.), Earl Cogdell
(Haskell Co.), D.
C. Cogdell (Hood
Co.), William
Butterworth
(Rock Island Co.,
Illinois)
Fred T. Sanders
cotton
warehouse
cotton gin
cotton gin;
cotton
seed
oil
and feed
mill
Function
cotton gin
Owners/Incorporators
F. T. Sanders
lots 7–8, Block
32, Haskell
block 35, Brown
& Roberts
lots 7–8, block
32, Haskell
lot 2, block 15,
Haskell
lots 5–6, block
15, Haskell
(gins); part of
outlots 21 and
O, Brown &
Roberts (mill)
Location
Lots 3–4, block
2, Brown &
Roberts
7-21-13
[by June
1913]
[by June
1913]
12-19-11
10-05-11
Date
Property
Acquired
6-03-08
5 gin stands
with 80 saws
each; presses,
cookers,
hullers, oil
tanks, seed
and boll
cleaners,
warehouses
Equipment
Continental
Gin Company
Deed Record 53:447
Sanborn Map
Company 1913
Deed Record
60:339–341
Sanborn Map
Company 1913
Sources
Deed Record
33:412, 464; 63:373;
78:114; 87:463;
Deed of Trust
Record 10:139–141;
Sanborn Map
Company 1908
Deed Record
60:125–127;
Sanborn Map
Company 1913
see W. T.
McDaniel Gin
property owned
by George E.
Courtney
There are no
references to
Newsom & Son in
deed records;
assessor’s
abstracts do not
list the company;
the name of the
street on the
north side of
Block 35 is
Travis, not
French
see Fred T.
Sanders Gin
successor to
Haskell Oil Mill
Company;
partnership 1911–
1918; corporation
1918–
Comments
sold to T. H.
Wright, 1-16-20
51
cotton gin
cotton gin
16. T. H. Wright
Gin Company
1932
Function
cotton
warehouse
cotton gin
61891
Date
Chartered
1915
15. Harriss, Irby
& Vose
14. [Haskell
Electric Gin
Company]
Name
13. Haskell
Bonded
Warehouse
Company
Charter
No.
29178
Table 3, continued
Owners/Incorporators
Paul Zahn, J. C.
Lewellen
(Haskell), I. H.
Grindstaff
(Haskell), J. U.
Fields, Hardy
Grissom, R. V.
Robertson
(Haskell)
R. W. Maxwell
(Taylor County),
Eula T. Stith
(Taylor County),
Emmett M.
Whatley (Taylor
County), C. A.
Dulaney (Haskell
County)
Richard T.
Harriss, Robert
F. Irby, Alden H.
Vose, Mrs.
William Bierce
(Oklahoma City);
Baylis E. Harriss
(Galveston);
Raymond F.
Harriss (New
Orleans; W. L.
Harriss and R.
M. Harriss (New
York City)
T. H. Wright
lots 3–4, block
2, Brown &
Roberts [?]
lots 3–8, block
36, Brown &
Roberts
lots 3–4, block
66, Haskell
Location
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
1-16-20
4-11-17
4-09-17
Date
Property
Acquired
12-15-15
four 80-saw
Munger huller
gin feeders,
condenser,
elevator, press,
engine, wagon
scale
four 80-saw
Munger
specials, one
double square
bale press
five 80-saw
Munger huller
gins;
condenser,
press, suction
elevator
Equipment
Chattel Mortgage
Record on Realty
1:1; Deed Record
78:361
City Council
Minutes [1]:278;
Deed Record 83:420
assessor’s abstracts
1917–1938; Chatt
Mortgage Records
on Realty 1:1; Deed
Record 122:596–
599; Texas.
Secretary of State
1932
Sources
Deed Record 59:634
3
Harriss, Irby &
Vose received a
permit to build a
gin on 4-05-17;
sold to Duncan
Gin Company, 225-24
Purchased from
Maxwell, Stith,
Dulaney, and
Whatley, 6-13-32;
sold to Producers
Gin Company, 822-38
Comments
sold by Courtney
to Haskell Bonded
Warehouse
Company
52
cotton gin
cotton gin
23. Texas Farm
Bureau Gin
Company of
Dallas
cotton gin
cotton gin
22. Harrison and
Spurlock Gin
1928
1922
cotton gin
Function
cotton gin
cotton gin
50959
38339
Date
Chartered
ca.
December
1922
21. [Harrison
Cotton Gin]
20. Farmers Gin
Company
18. McGregor
Gin [?]4
19. Duncan Gin
Company
Name
17. Farmers Gin
Company
Charter
No.
Table 3, continued
E. B. Harrison,
W. B. Harrison,
Mary Kate
Kennedy
J. T. Orr (Dallas),
W. W. Pitts
(Wills Point)
Lynn Stokes
(Ballinger), M. S.
Hudson (Hale
Center), E. M.
Baldwin
(Colorado, Texas)
E. B. Harrison,
Jones County
R. H. Darnell and
J. A. Gilstrap
Charley
McGregor
W. A. Duncan
(Haskell County),
C. M. Francis
(Jones County),
M. L. Williams
(Nolan County)
Owners/Incorporators
Farmers Gin
Company
lots 1–8, block
32, Brown &
Roberts
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
lots 1–2, block
66, Haskell
lots 7–8, block
32, Haskell
lots 3–8, block
36, Brown &
Roberts
Location
lots 7–8, block
32, Haskell
7-06-28
[1924–
1929]
3-01-24
by April
26, 1923
3-27-23
2-09-23
Date
Property
Acquired
permit
received
to
rebuild
after
1922 fire
Munger
system gins,
one double
square bale
press
Munger
system, one
double square
bale press
Equipment
five 70-saw
Munger huller
two-story gins,
seed hoppers,
feeders, lint flue
system,press,
distributor
Deed Record
116:496–497;
Sanborn Map
Company 1931
Deed Record
175:339
Deed Record
96:412–413
Assessors Abstracts
1917–1938; Deed
Record 93:5
Deed Record
101:170–171
Chattel Mortgage
Records on Realty
1:7; Deed Record
93:627; Sanborn
Map Company 1931
Sources
Chattel Mortgage
Records on Realty
1:3; Haskell City
Council Minutes
[1]:429; Sanborn
Map Company 1921
[name changed to
Texas Cotton
Growers Gin
Company, 5-0630]
sold to Haskell
Cooperative Gin
Company, 8-26-35
see Fred T.
Sanders Gin
purchased from
Harriss, Irby &
Vose; sold
property and
improvements to
L. B. Watson, 531-32
property and
improvements
sold to L. B.
Watson, 5-31-32
purchased from
Haskell Bonded
Warehouse
Company; sold to
Farmers CoOperative Society
No. 2, 8-20-29
old gin operating
with new
manager
Comments
see Fred T.
Sanders Gin
53
29. Haskell
Bonded
Warehouse No. 1
cotton
warehouse
cotton gin
28. Haskell
Cooperative Gin
Company
1935
cotton gin
27. Wair Gin
cotton gin
Function
cotton gin
cotton gin
67472
Date
Chartered
1929
26. Watson Gin
25. Farmers Cooperative Society
Number One
Name
24. Farmer’s CoOperative
Society Number
2
Charter
No.
55227
Table 3, continued
D. H. Persons
Haskell
Cooperative Gin
Company
A. H. Wair
L. B. Watson
Owners/Incorporators
B. M. Gregory,
W. E. Johnson,
W. T. Morgan, W.
J. Jeter, M. H.
Guinn, R. E.
McLennan, W.
W. Goodwin (all
of Haskell)
Farmers Cooperative Society
Numer One
lots 2–4, block
5, Brown &
Roberts
lots 1–8, block
32, Brown &
Roberts
lots 1–2, block
66, Haskell
lots 1–2, block
66, Haskell
10.97 acres in
Block 95, Peter
Allen Survey
Location
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
12-06-37
8-30-33;
12-11-39
(new
equipme
nt)
8-26-35
8-23-32
post-624-29;
pre-May
1931
Date
Property
Acquired
8-20-29
Munger
system gins,
one double
square bale
press
four gin stands
equipment
from
Continental
Gin Company
(unspecified),
and from
HardwickeEtter
Company and
Murray
Company (air
line cleaner,
revolving
screen
separator, burr
machine, etc.)
Equipment
Deed Record
137:222
Deed Record
129:247–249;
Sanborn Map
Company 1941
Deed Record
124:399–400;
146:25–27
Deed Record
123:168–169
Chattel Mortgage
Records on Realty
1:27; Deed Record
117:63–64; Sanborn
Map Company 1931
Sources
Deed Record
117:421–422
purchased from
Farmers Gin
Company 8-23-32;
sold to A. H. Wair
8-30-33
purchased from L.
B. Watson, 8-3033; sold to
Courtney Hunt, 116-50
purchased from
Texas Cotton
Growers Gin
Company of
Dallas, 8-26-35
sold to Courtney
Hunt, 2-16-44
Comments
purchased from E.
B. Harrison
54
cotton gin
38. [W. E.
Wooten Gin]
W. E. Wooten
Buford Cox
cotton gin
cotton gin
Rule-Jayton
Cotton Oil
Company
[expansion
of
1938
facility]
35. Ed. F. Fouts
Warehouse &
Storage
Company
36. Rule-Jayton
Cotton Oil
Company
37. [Buford Cox
Gin]
Ed. F. Fouts and
J. M. Crawford
and wives
cotton gin
E. B. Harrison,
W. B. Harrison,
Mary Kate
Kennedy
Charles Motz,
Jr., and Mrs. M.
A. Curtis (Taylor
County)
cotton gin
34. Motz &
Curtis
Ed. F. Fouts, J.
M. Crawford, and
wives
cotton
warehouse
32. Ed. F. Fouts
Warehouse &
Storage
Company
33. Harrison and
Gilstrap Gin
Function
cotton gin
Owners/Incorporators
E. B. Harrison,
W. B. Harrison,
Mary Kate
Kennedy
Producers Gin
Company
cotton gin
Date
Chartered
31. Producers
Gin Company
[Haskell]
Name
30. Harrison and
Herren Gin
Charter
No.
Table 3, continued
lots 1–2, 7–8,
Block 15,
Haskell
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
lots 3–4, block
2; lots 1–6,
block 3, Brown
& Roberts
lots 3–4, block
4, Brown &
Roberts
lots 3–4, block
66, Haskell
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
lots 5–6, block
11, Brown &
Roberts
lots 3–4, block
66, Haskell
Location
lots 1–2, 7–8,
block 15,
Haskell
4-22-54
12-08-52
8-09-47
[by 1141]
9-17-40
[1940–
1946]
9-17/3038
8-22-38
Date
Property
Acquired
[1938–
1940]
Equipment
Deed Record
238:59–60
Deed Record
225:348
Deed Record
178:523–524
Sanborn Map
Company 1941
Deed Record
149:24–25
Deed Record
175:341
Deed Record
140:449–450, 618
Deed Record
140:420–421
Sources
Deed Record
175:341
purchased from F.
T. and Roy
Sanders, 1947;
sold to Market
Poultry & Egg
Company, 1958
purchased from
W. B. and L.
Harrison, 1952;
sold to W. E.
Wooten, 1954
purchased from B.
and G. Cox, 1954
old gin operating
under new
manager; sold to
Buford Cox, 1952
purchased from
Producers Gin
Co., 9-17-40; sold
to Ernest Griffith,
9-11-42
sold to Roy A.
Sanders, 2-21-44
purchased from
Haskell Electric
Gin Company, 822-38; sold to
Motz & Curtis, 917-40
sold to A. D.
Drew, 6-12-47
Comments
old gin operating
under new
manager
55
Date
Chartered
Function
cotton
warehouse
Owners/Incorporators
Haskell County
Warehouse and
Compress
Company, Inc.
Location
31.16 acres in
outlot 100,
Brown &
Roberts
Date
Property
Acquired
6-04-59
Equipment
Sources
Deed Record
275:400–401
Comments
McGregor paid the Farmers Gin Company $1,500 for block 32 on February 9, 1923 (Deed Record 101:170–171). The value of the property decreased
considerably afterwards. The old gin plant had burned on October 10, 1922, and the Farmers Gin Company received a permit to rebuilt 1 month later. It
is not clear if the company did rebuild before selling the property to McGregor, or if they simply erected a new plant on lots 1–2, block 66, Haskell.
McGregor may or may not have operated a gin on block 32.
4
Wright’s name appears as the assessed party on lots 3–4, block 2, Brown & Roberts, in 1920, but his name is crossed out and does not reappear. T. H.
Wright’s gin is depicted on lots 1–2, block 3, in 1921 (Sanborn Map Company 1921), even though he was not assessed for the property at that time. In
addition, Chattel Mortgage Records on Realty (1:2) indicates Wright’s plant was on block 2 in 1920. On the other hand, assessors’ abstracts show that F. T.
Sanders under the name F. T. Sanders (1920–1925), Sanders & Crawford (1926–1940), Sanders & Son (1941–1944), and Sanders & Son Gin (1945–) paid
taxes on lots 3–4, block 2, Brown & Roberts, even after he supposedly had sold the property to T. H. Wright in 1920. Sanborn maps for 1908, 1913, and
1921 depict Sanders on block 2, while maps for 1931 and 1941 depict his operation on block 3. It appears that Wright may have operated the gin on lots
1–2, block 3, Brown & Roberts, in 1920–1921, but that Sanders owned the gin on lots 3–4, block 2, and on lots 1–4, block 3. By 1931, the gin on lots 3–4,
block 2, was gone.
3
Locations designated “Haskell” refer to the original townsite. Those designated “Brown & Roberts” refer to the Brown & Roberts Addition to the
townsite. This addition is on both sides of the Wichita Valley Railroad line east of the courthouse square.
2
Numbers assigned to cotton-processing facilities appear on Figure 28. Facilities that do not appear on the figure, either because their exact locations are
unknown or because they fall outside the figure boundaries, have not been assigned a number.
1
Name
Haskell County
Warehouse and
Compress
Charter
No.
Table 3, continued
Figure 31. Cotton-processing facilities in Haskell, Haskell County, Texas, ca. 1889–2002. (Information is
taken from Haskell city council minutes; Haskell County deed, deed of trust, chattel mortgage, lien, and
probate records; and secretary of state corporation records.)
56
to organize and charter a company to fund construction of a $40,000 oil mill, and an initial
solicitation of subscriptions raised several
thousand dollars “in a few minutes.” Other
businessmen at the meeting pledged to begin construction of large stone or brick business houses in town (The Haskell Free Press,
January 20, 1906:1).
As grading on the new railroad moved
southward from Seymour, The Haskell Free
Press editorialized about the advantages that
a cottonseed oil mill, flour mill, and public utilities would bring to Haskell. The newspaper
drew its readers’ attention to the number of
people who came to town because there was a
gin there (Earnest & Sanders Gin). Those visitors benefited the community because they did
other business while there. Many others would
come if there were an oil mill (The Haskell Free
Press, February 17, 1906:4). Perhaps encouraged
by the prospects of serving all those new visitors, and knowing of the recent immigration
from the Blackland Prairie area, C. D. Long of
Haskell County; William B. Brazelton, Charles L.
Johnson, and W. W. Pryor of McLennan County;
and Charles Brewington of Jones County incorporated the Haskell Lumber Company on
March 16, 1906 (Texas. Secretary of State
1906b). The same month, a group of Haskell citizens formed the Haskell Ice, Light and Water
Company (also appears as the Haskell Light,
Ice and Water Company and Haskell Light,
Ice & Water Company) with a capital stock of
$20,000 (The Haskell Free Press, April 14,
1906:8).
Substantive action to build improvements
for the processing of cotton and cotton products
lagged, however. No apparent progress had been
made in planning for mills or new gins, and on
August 2, 1906, when the Wichita Valley rails
were laid into Haskell, the town was still a onegin community despite the newspaper’s designation of it as the “Queen City of the West” (The
Haskell Free Press, August 4, 1906:1). Indeed,
only the Haskell County Farmers Union appears to have been active. After purchasing lots
7–8, block 2, Brown & Roberts Addition, on
August 30, 1906, from Joe Irby of the light company (Deed Record 27:604), the Union set about
to erect a cotton warehouse immediately west
of the new rail line and south of the future
Haskell Light, Ice and Water Company (see
Table 3, Figure 9) (Sanborn Map Company
1908). The iron-clad building was intended to
hold cotton so that the farmers union could better reap the rewards of holding crops until
prices were good, purchasing seed when prices
were low, and dealing directly with consumers
(The Haskell Free Press, June 9, 1906:10). On
the other hand, the much-heralded Brazos Oil &
Light Company failed to build a new oil mill at
all, choosing instead on September 25, 1906, to
purchase Earnest & Sanders’s older gin outfit
that consisted of five gin stands with 80 saws
each on lots 5–6, block 15, Haskell townsite
(Deed Record 40:53–54) (see Table 3, Figure
32).10
Very little cotton manufacturing activity
occurred during the balance of 1906, but the
next year a new plant with six Munger gins was
constructed on lots 7–8, block 32, Haskell, by
W. T. McDaniel (see Table 3). McDaniel, who
contracted with Continental Gin Company to
outfit his property, built a gin building, seed
room, and seed house. Fuel was coal, wood, and
oil; lights were electrical; and water was provided from an elevated water tank that filled
from a well next to the gin building (Assessors
Abstracts of City Lots 1907; Probate File No. 190;
Sanborn Map Company 1908) (see Figure 32).
Later that year, in October 1907, the Brazos
Oil & Light Company sold its gin on lots 5–6,
block 15, Haskell, to the Haskell Oil Mill Company, which also was busy acquiring land adjacent to the rail line in block 14 and in outlots O
and OO of the Brown & Roberts Addition (Deed
Record 33:412, 464, 531; 37:602–608; 40:620–
621) (see Table 3).
10
The Brazos Oil & Light Company was
incorporated by William A. Earnest of Munday (F. T.
Sanders’s partner in the gin on block 15), Edmond P.
Bomar of Gainesville, and David T. Bomar of Fort
Worth (on the board of directors for the Wichita Valley
Railroad). They formed the company on January 3,
1906, for the purposes of constructing or purchasing
and maintaining mills and gins; manufacturing and
supplying ice, gas, light, heat, water, and electric motor
power; and erecting mills for the manufacture of
cottonseed products. The principal place of business
was in Munday; a branch office was in Seymour.
Capital stock was $75,000, and the board of directors
were residents of Munday, Seymour, Wichita Falls,
Gainesville, Sherman, and Fort Worth. The principal
place of business changed to Dallas on August 30, 1906
(Texas. Secretary of State 1906b).
57
a
b
Figure 32. Sanborn maps. (a) Haskell Oil Company Cotton Gin on block 15, Haskell. In 1906, this plant was
owned by the Brazos Oil & Light Company; (b) W. T. McDaniel Cotton Gin on block 32, Haskell.
58
Perhaps encouraged by the record cotton
crop of 1907 (see Figure 7), the Haskell Oil Mill
Company kept its gin running on block 15,
Haskell, and committed to building a new oil
mill on blocks O and OO, Brown & Roberts Addition, adjacent to the Wichita Valley line
(Sanborn Map Company 1908) (see Table 3, Figure 9). They made verbal contracts with the
Haskell Lumber Company and McNeill & Smith
Hardware to provide materials for the plants.
However, the Haskell Oil Mill Company failed
to pay, and the lumber and hardware companies filed liens against the property in March
1908 (Materialsman Lien 1:72–74, 78–87).
Weighted down by its debts, including a debt to
the gin manufacturing Murray Company of
Dallas County, the board of the Haskell Oil Mill
met on September 16, 1908, and authorized its
president, Carl Cogdell, to borrow $10,000 from
the First State Bank of Smithville so that the
company could pay its debts and place its mills
and gins in operation (Deed Record 91:361–362;
Deed of Trust Record 8:226–232). The company
was successful in its application, and for a time
it was out of the financial woods and able to
operate its concrete brick mill (Sanborn Map
Company 1908).
In the meantime, Earnest’s former partner,
F. T. Sanders, was having more success with his
own business. On June 3, 1908, he purchased
lots 3–4, block 2, Brown & Roberts Addition,
near the new rail line immediately west of the
Haskell Light, Ice and Water Company plant and
the Farmer’s Union Cotton Warehouse and began construction of a cotton gin that he furnished
with Continental Gin equipment (Deed Record
33:412, 464; 63:373; 78:114; 87:463; Deed of
Trust Record 10:139–141; Sanborn Map Company 1908) (see Table 3, Figure 9). However, the
storms and worms of 1909 that cut the cotton
crop short, drought in 1910 and 1911, and a
grasshopper scourge in 1913 took their toll
(Sherrill 1965:117–120). The note held on the
property belonging to the Haskell Oil Mill came
due, and the company was unable to pay. As a
result, the First State Bank of Smithville forced
a sale of the property, which included lots 5–6,
block 15, Haskell; outlots O and OO, Brown &
Roberts Addition; other lots in Haskell and
Haskell County; and the gin and mill plants.
D. C. Cogdell of Hood County was the successful bidder at $11,000 on August 3, 1909. Two
months later, he sold most of the property to
the Western Cotton Oil & Gin Company (also
appears as Western Cotton Oil and Gin Company), a partnership composed of J. H. Chancellor
of Bastrop County, J. C. Duke of Dallas County,
Earl Cogdell of Haskell County, D. C. Cogdell of
Hood County, and William Butterworth of Rock
Island County, Illinois (Deed Record 46:304–
307; 60:125–127) (see Table 3). As a result, the
Western Cotton Oil & Gin Company became the
new owner and operator of the gin plant on block
15 and the mill on outlot OO.
Other companies utterly failed during the
same period. A streetcar system that began with
great intentions in 1909 closed down in 1910
(Felker 1975:16), and the Haskell Light, Ice and
Water Company defaulted on a note and its
property sold at a trustee’s sale on October 5,
1909 (The Haskell Free Press, October 2, 1909:2).
The Haskell Creamery, organized in May 1910,
soon closed (Sherrill 1965:139; Texas. Secretary
of State 1910). A company formed by Haskell
County citizens in September 1911 to construct
or purchase cottonseed oil mills and gins dissolved fewer than 2 years later (Texas. Secretary of State 1911). Indeed, only one investor,
Fred T. Sanders, seems to have successfully
assumed risk. Sanders, who owned and operated the new gin on lots 3–4, block 2, Brown &
Roberts Addition, purchased lots 7–8, block 32,
Haskell, and the gin plant on it from the estate
of W. T. McDaniel on December 19, 1911 (Deed
Record 60:339–341; Probate File No. 190) (see
Table 3).
With improvement in weather and crop conditions in 1912, acquisition and construction
activities resumed. The Farmers Union, whose
warehouse previously had been near the railroad on lots 7–8, block 2, Brown & Roberts
Addition, moved its operations to lot 2, block
15, Haskell, where it erected a storehouse of
corrugated iron on studs on property owned by
George E. Courtney (Deed Record 49:277;
59:634; Sanborn Map Company 1913) (see Table
3, Figure 33). In July 1913, Sanders sold lots 7–
8, block 32, Haskell, and the old W. T. McDaniel
([ca. 1907]–1911) and Fred T. Sanders (1911–
1913) cotton gin plant (see Figure 33) to the
Haskell District Union Gin Company (Deed
Record 53:447).11 Two years later, with a large
cotton crop of 31,281 bales ready for sale on a
rising market (Sherrill 1965:121), the Haskell
Bonded Warehouse Company purchased lots 1–
2 and 7–8, block 15, Haskell, from George E.
59
a
b
Figure 33. Sanborn maps. (a) Farmers Union Cotton Warehouse on block 15, Haskell; (b) McDaniel-Sanders
Gin on block 32, Haskell. Sanders sold the plant for the Haskell District Union Gin Company in 1913.
a lumberman, ginners, a physician, a machinist, banks, a druggist, merchants, and a stockman. The purpose of the company was to “erect,
purchase or lease and operate warehouses,
buildings, elevators, storage tanks, silos and
such other places of storage and security as may
be necessary for the storage, grading, weighing
and classification of cotton, wool, wheat, corn,
rice, alfalfa, fruits, silage, and all other farm,
orchard and ranch products.” The corporation
would have the authority to act as a warehouseman, charge for services, sell products in the
market, and loan money (Texas. Secretary of
State 1915b). Its members operated under the
terms of an act passed by the Texas legislature
in 1914 for the purpose of creating a regulated
system of State-bonded warehouses and creating “a method of co-operative marketing for
those engaged in the production of farm and
ranch products” (Texas. Thirty-Third Legislature
1914:15–33).
and Louthene Courtney for $1,250 in December
1915 (Deed Record 59:634).12 The newly formed
company had incorporated only a week before,
when it provided the state with a list of 82 subscribers from Haskell, Vontress, Weinert, and
Rule. Most of the men were farmers, but community support was broad, and shareholders
also included attorneys, the county and district
clerks, the county tax collector, a laundry man,
11
The Haskell District Union Gin Company
purchased the property from Sanders, but until 1923,
the county assessor rendered the property under the
name “Farmers Gin Co.,” which is the name that
appears on the Sanborn map of April 1921 and in a
deed of February 9, 1923.
12
The relatively high price of the lots probably
reflected the presence of the metal warehouse that
had been operated on the property by the Farmers
Union since at least 1913 (see previous note).
60
The economically favorable climate of 1912–
1916 also encouraged other forms of investment.
Morgan Jones, G. T. Scales, and W. G. Swenson
organized to form the Haskell Ice and Light
Company in 1915, which bought out the Haskell
Ice, Light and Water Company (organized in
1906) and began to extend lines west to Rule
and north toward Weinert (Broad & Bonner
[1915]; [Jones] 1915, [1915–1916]; Sanders and
Sanders 1986:62; Sherrill 1965:122; Texas. Secretary of State 1915a). On a less positive note,
a portion of the Western Cotton Oil & Gin
Company plant (see Figure 13) burned in 1916
at a purported loss of $75,000. But the company was sufficiently prosperous to rebuild immediately (Sherrill 1965:85, 122).13
The beneficial weather of 1912–early 1916
changed abruptly during the latter part of 1916
(see Figure 7), but advancing prices helped offset short crops (Sherrill 1965:122). Perhaps
banking on a return of the larger crops of
recent years, two companies purchased property in Haskell and began construction of gins
(see Table 3). Both companies were backed
largely by nonlocal investors. The first of these—
the Haskell Electric Gin Company—was on lots
3–4, block 66, Haskell, land that had been purchased by J. M. Dunagin in March 1917 for a
gin site (City of Haskell [Vol. 1]:275; Deed
Record 58:583). About 2 weeks later, he sold the
lots to Will Stith and R. W. Maxwell of Jones
County (City of Haskell [Vol. 1]:275; Deed
Record 122:598–599), and they erected a gin
plant that they called the Haskell Electric Gin
soon after (Assessors Abstracts of City Lots
1917–1918) (see Table 3, Figure 34). The second company—Harriss, Irby & Vose—was
owned by a partnership composed of Richard T.
Harriss, Robert F. Irby, Alden H. Vose, and
Mrs. William Bierce of Oklahoma County,
Oklahoma; Baylis E. Harriss of Galveston;
Raymond F. Harriss of New Orleans; and W. L.
Harriss and R. M. Harriss of New York City.
The partnership purchased lots 3–8, block 36,
Brown & Roberts Addition on April 11, 1917
(Deed Record 83:420), and received a permit
from the Haskell City Council to build a cotton
gin on their property (City of Haskell [Vol. 1]:275)
(see Table 3, Figure 20). But the record-breaking
drought that began late in 1916 and persisted
for 2 years was inexorable. By September 1917,
Proctor & Gamble’s cotton crop report stated
that the drought over central, western, and
southwestern Texas was unbroken. The high,
steady temperatures experienced just during
July had brought about such a sharp deterioration that the crop was “practically a failure”
(Proctor & Gamble 1917:24). Twelve months
later, the situation was no better. “Sharp deterioration” in the 1918 cotton crop continued,
with the West Texas crop “practically a failure”;
Central and East Texas were suffering as well
(Proctor & Gamble Co. 1918:38–39). In Haskell
County, the meager crop of 12,844 bales ginned
in 1917 (half the 1916 crop) dropped precipitously
to 891 bales in 1918. Rainfall for the years 1916–
1918 averaged 15.66 inches, with rainfall in 1917
totaling only 12.26 inches (Sherrill 1965:135–
136) (see Figure 7).
The effects of the weather and poor crop
yields were devastating. The West Texas Utilities
Company, a private corporation formed by
Taylor County citizens to carry on the energy
business, filed papers with the Secretary of
State on November 7, 1917, but never issued
stock, elected officers, or transacted business
(Texas. Secretary of State 1917). Up to 50 percent of the farmers left Haskell County (Sherrill
1965:122), and the local newspaper frequently
listed residents of the town of Haskell who
moved elsewhere. George Courtney, who had
operated a successful broom factory for 12 years,
closed up and moved his family and factory to
Fort Worth. S. A. Huskey, who had helped run
the Haskell Bottling Works, moved to Amarillo
(The Haskell Free Press, August 31, 1918:2). Dry
goods businesses such as Hancock & Co. ran
ads stating their intention to remain in Haskell,
but Hunt’s announced that “On account of the
extreme bad conditions of our country we were
forced to move part of our goods to North Texas
where we would have a better outlet for them.”
Nonetheless, Hunt’s was “still in Haskell,” contrary to rumors otherwise (The Haskell Free
Press, August 31, 1918:2, 3). Hundreds of families moved to Wichita Falls, attracted by plentiful jobs in the booming oil fields. Those who
stayed were urged by the town doctor to “Be
13
Sherrill states in one portion of his Haskell
County history that the oil mill burned and in another
that the seed house burned. A comparison of Sanborn
plans from 1913 and 1921 suggests that the mill
survived the fire, but that extensive rebuilding of a
seed house and hull house occurred.
61
Figure 34. Sanborn map of the Electric Gin Company on block 66.
The farmers left in the county after the
mass exodus of 1917–1918 planted intensively,
not only during the last 4 months of 1918, when
rainfall averaged 2.61 inches per month or 61
percent of the total for 1918, but throughout
1919 as well, when rainfall totaled 35.93 inches
(see Figure 7). Haskell resident R. E. Sherrill
wrote:
In the fall of 1918, the largest grain crop
ever planted in the county was planted
by a small number of farmers; many
farmers having moved away or were
away in the army or navy. After two dry
years, 1917 and 1918, when the land
had produced no crops, no weeds, no
grass, it needed no plowing. It was already prepared and ready for planting.
Farmers got seed wheat from any possible
faithful . . . to your own county and people and
e’re long . . . the drought will cease, [and] bountiful harvests, peace and contentment will be
our reward” (The Haskell Free Press, September 7,
1918:3).
Dr. Woods’s message was apocryphal. His
letter was written during the last days of the
drought, and a postscript published on
September 7, 1918, carried the news that “splendid rains have fallen and the long drouth is broken” (The Haskell Free Press, September 8,
1918:3). Fortuitously, President Woodrow Wilson
had already set aside $5 million to extend aid to
drought-stricken regions by advancing money
to help farmers buy seed approved by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, which also would
regulate the planting methods (The Haskell Free
Press, September 7, 1918:4).
62
source, and planted till oat planting
time. They planted oats till feed planting time. They planted feed till cotton
planting time. They harvested, threshed
and marketed grain till time to gather
feed. They gathered and marketed feed
till cotton gathering time. They gathered and sold cotton till the winter
1919–20 was well nigh over, and till
farmers in this country, with no cultivation, were worn out planting,
gathering and marketing the largest
crop per man they ever raised or probably ever will receive again. For there
never before came together such crops
and such prices, and probably never will
come again. . . . Deposits in the two
Haskell Banks ran over a million dollars in November, 1919 (Sherrill
1965:128–129).
the old McDaniel-Sanders gin plant on lots 7–8,
block 32, Haskell, lost its plant to fire on October 10, 1922, about the same time officers R. H.
Darnell and J. A. Gilstrap applied to incorporate (City of Haskell [Vol. 1]:429). They then
acquired lots 1–2, block 66, Haskell, two blocks
west of the railroad and adjacent to the Electric
Gin Company plant (Sanborn Map Company
1921), where they built a new gin (Assessors
Abstracts of City Lots 1923–1924) (see Table 3,
Figure 31). They sold the older gin property on
block 32 to Charley McGregor on February 9,
1923 (Deed Record 101:170–171), but it is not
clear if a new plant was on that property as well
(see Table 3).
The town lost its oil mill in 1923 to a fire
that was so costly that the owners were unable
to rebuild. Thereafter, investors focused on gin
and warehouse construction. In March 1924, the
Haskell Bonded Warehouse Company voted to
dissolve and sell its lots (1–2, 7–8, block 15,
Haskell) and warehouse to E. B. Harrison of
Jones County for $1,500 (Deed Record 96:412–
413) (see Table 3, Figure 31). Harrison then
hired Jones and Son Sheetmetal to build a gin
plant, Jones’s first in a business that eventually expanded to include gin cleaning services
(Felker 1975:24–25). The plant was owned by
Harrison and operated under his name and that
of the plant manager, M. F. Spurlock, from 1924
to 1929 (Deed Record 175:339) (see Table 3).
Harrison and his family then sold the property
to the Farmer’s Co-operative Society Number 2
of Haskell, which incorporated on August 26,
1929 (Texas. Secretary of State 1929b) under
the terms of the Farmers’ Co-Operative Society
Act of 1925 14 (Texas. Secretary of State
1925:659–661). The new corporation joined the
Texas Farm Bureau Gin Company of Dallas
County which had purchased block 32, Brown &
Roberts Addition, on July 6, 1928, and erected
a gin plant there soon after (Deed Record
116:496–497; Texas. Secretary of State 1928)
(see Table 3, Figure 31). In the northern part of
town, two blocks west of the railroad, the
Farmers Co-operative Society Number One
(also appears as “Farmers Cooperative Society
Reaction among investors who were involved with processing agricultural products
was quick and presaged a decade-long flurry of
company formation and construction of industrial plants as weather and markets remained
generally beneficial and strong. As early as
November 1918, the partnership of the Western Cotton Oil & Gin Company filed incorporation documents. Investors were W. A. Earnest
of Haskell, J. H. Chancellor of Smithville, D. C.
Cogdell of Granberry, and J. C. Duke of Dallas,
and they intended to purchase, operate, and
maintain a cottonseed oil mill; to buy cottonseed, cottonseed cake, hulls, and meal; and to
sell the products of the mill, which was on their
property in Haskell adjacent to the Wichita
Valley line (Texas. Secretary of State 1918) (see
Table 3, Figure 20).
A drop in the price of cotton in 1920 brought
a short-term financial setback (Sherrill
1965:129–130), but prosperity returned almost
immediately, attracting men such as W. A.
Duncan, who moved to Haskell in July 1922 and
immediately formed the Duncan Gin Company
with C. M. Francis of Jones County and M. L.
Williams of Nolan County (Felker 1975:163;
Texas. Secretary of State 1922). Eight months
later, the Duncan Gin Company bought the
Harriss, Irby & Vose plant on lots 3–8, block 36,
Brown & Roberts Addition (Deed Record 93:624)
(see Table 3, Figure 20).
The Farmers Gin Company, which operated
14
Spellings of works such as “Farmers,”
“Farmer’s,” “Co-operative,” and “Co-Operative” reflect
the variety of spellings used in corporation and other
legal records.
63
Number One,” “Farmers Cooperative Society
No. 1,” and “Farmers Co-Operative Society No. 1)
purchased 10.97 acres from C. W. and Lola Bell
Shelley on June 24, 1929 (Deed Record 117:63–
64). The society immediately erected a gin plant
and furnished it with equipment from Continental, Murray, and Hardwicke-Etter Gin Companies
(Chattel Mortgage Records on Realty 1:27) (see
Table 3, Figure 31).
The strength of the 1920s agricultural
economy in Haskell County was apparent in the
new gin companies that acquired property in
Haskell and built plants there. It also was evident in the willingness of gin operators to go
into debt and invest in new equipment for their
plants: between 1920 and 1929, the Haskell
Electric Gin Company, Farmers Gin Company,
Farmers Co-Operative Society No. 1, T. H.
Wright, F. T. Sanders, Sanders & Crawford, and
E. B. Harrison took out substantial loans with
the Continental, Murray, and Hardwicke-Etter
Gin Companies; San Antonio Machinery &
Supply; and Tips Foundry & Machine (Chattel
Mortgage Records on Realty [1917–1969]). The
prosperity of the 1920s also was evident in the
formation of enterprises such as the Haskell
Laundry Company (1923); Jones and Son
Sheetmetal (1923), which diversified into the
manufacture of gin cleaning machinery in 1926;
Haskell County Fair Association (1924); Haskell
Hotel Company, to which numerous gin and
other companies subscribed (1925); and Haskell
Amusement Company (1929) (Sherrill 1965:88,
139; Texas. Secretary of State 1923, 1924, 1925,
1929a). Finally, actual or planned improvements
to local and county-wide infrastructure included
extension of the Haskell-Weinert Road to
Munday by the State Highway Department in
1926 (Sanders and Sanders 1986:5). In 1928,
the Stamford & Western Gas Company ran a
line into town (Sherrill 1965:88). The Haskell
National Bank entirely remodeled its building, the
Haskell Telephone Company erected a new office
building (Sherrill 1965:88), and the town promoted itself as an outstanding location for the new
Texas Technological College after garnering the
support of 16 other West Texas communities.
Haskell offered the locating board a tract of 2,000
acres northwest of town and extolled the assets
of the county, where “the corn and cotton lands of
central and south Texas and the grain and forage-crop regions of North and West Texas, overlap each other” (Grissom et al. [ca. 1925]:n.p.).
Sanborn Map Company maps of Haskell in
May 1931 reveal a town with seven operating
gins (Haskell Electric Gin Company and Farmers Gin Company on block 66, Haskell; Duncan
Gin Company on block 36, Brown & Roberts
Addition; Texas Cotton Growers Association on
block 32,15 Brown & Roberts Addition; Farmers
Co-operative Society No. 1 on block 95, Peter
Allen Survey; Sanders & Crawford on block 3,
Brown & Roberts Addition; and Farmer’s Cooperative Society No. 2 on block 15, Haskell)
(Figure 35) (see Table 3, Figures 27 and 31). In
addition, there were five oil depots in the Brown
& Roberts Addition run by Humble Oil & Refining (block 5), The Texas Company, Continental
Oil, Magnolia Petroleum (block 12), and Gulf
Refining (block 13) (Sanborn Map Company
1931).
Rainfall was average in 1931 but went well
over the average in 1932, when Haskell County
farmers refused to reduce cotton acreage voluntarily (see Figure 7). Production increased to
ca. 82,000 bales, or 118 percent more than the
1931 crop, and the largest, by far, in the history
of the county. Perhaps in response to the large
harvest, L. B. Watson bought the Farmers Gin
Company plant on lots 1–2, block 66, Haskell,
on August 23, 1932 (Deed Record 123:168–169)
(see Table 3). But size was not of long-term benefit because prices dropped precipitously to 4¢
per pound in 1932 from 11.5¢ per pound at the
beginning of the 1931 season (Sanders and
Sanders 1986:107–108; Sherrill 1965:133).
Weather remained favorable in 1933, when
Watson sold his plant to A. H. Wair (Deed Record
124:399–400) (see Table 3), and cotton yields
(50,369 bales) responded accordingly (Sherrill
1965:134). But the size of the crop dropped precipitously in 1934 to 11,916 bales, following
unfavorable weather (Sherrill 1965:134). Yields
rose again in 1935 to 41,717 bales with a guaranteed price of 12¢ per pound thanks to an allotment and control plan, and nine individuals
from Haskell, Weinert, Rule, and Sagerton were
sufficiently encouraged by the economics to form
the Haskell Cooperative Gin Company. Probably
formed under the auspices of the Co-operative
15
This was the plant owned by the Texas Farm
Bureau Gin Company since 1928. That corporation
changed its name to Texas Cotton Growers Gin
Company in 1930 (Texas. Secretary of State 1928).
64
b
a
Figure 35. Sanborn maps. (a) Farmer’s Co-Operative Society Gin No. 2 on block 15, Haskell; (b) The Farmers
Gin Company and Haskell Electric Gin Company Cotton Gins on block 66, Haskell.
but there is no evidence in deed records that
the co-operative purchased property to operate
a gin. However, activity in the rest of the ginning and warehouse community was busy between 1937 and 1938: on December 6, 1937, D. H.
Persons purchased lots 2–4, block 5, Brown &
Roberts Addition, from Clyde F. and Eula H.
Elkins of Lubbock and constructed the Haskell
Bonded Warehouse No. 1 soon after (Assessors
Abstracts of City Lots 1938; Deed Record
164:20–21). In 1938, E. B. Harrison, whose plant
was on lots 1–2 and 7–8, block 15, Haskell,
changed operating managers from M. F.
Spurlock to R. W. Herren (Deed Record 175:341);
Producers Gin Company bought out the Haskell
Electric Gin Company (lots 3–4, block 66,
Haskell) (Deed Record 40:420–421), and Ed.16 F.
Fouts bought lots 5–6, block 11, Brown & Roberts
Marketing Act of the State of Texas (1925)
amended in 1934 (Texas. Thirty-Third Legislature 1934:81–84), the corporation intended to
market, manage, handle, and sell the agricultural products or byproducts of its members; to
manufacture, sell, or supply members with
machinery, equipment, or supplies; and to finance any of those activities (Texas. Secretary
of State 1935). They purchased the Texas Farm
Bureau Gin Company (Dallas) plant (lots 1–8,
block 32, Brown & Roberts Addition) on August 26, 1935 (Deed Record 129:247–249) and
began operations there (see Table 3).
In 1936, six residents of Haskell and six
from Rochester met and formed the Haskell
County Farmer’s Co-operative Gin Company of
Haskell (Texas. Secretary of State 1936) under
the auspices of the Co-operative Marketing Act,
65
Addition (Deed Record 140:449–450, 618), and
constructed a cotton warehouse (see Table 3).
Simultaneously, companies invested heavily
in new equipment in the 1930s. These companies included the Farmers Cooperative Society
No. 1, Farmers Gin Company, Inc., A. H. Wair,
Harrison & Gilstrap, Haskell Cooperative Gin
Company, and Sanders & Crawford. They contracted with the Continental, Gullette, Munger,
and Cen-Tennial Cotton Gin Companies, and
with John E. Mitchell Company of Dallas. Improvements included sprinkler systems, new gin
stands, saws, and other ginning equipment
(Chattel Mortgage Records on Realty [1917–
1969]).
Haskell County lost approximately 10 percent of its population during the 1930s, but its
cotton processing industries appear to have
flourished, six of its seven cotton gins of 1931
having persisted, some under new ownership,
until 1941 (Duncan Gin Company on block 36,
Brown & Roberts Addition; Haskell Cooperative
Gin Company on block 32, Brown & Roberts
Addition; Farmers Co-Operative Society on
block 95, Peter Allen Survey; F. T. Sanders &
Son on block 3, Brown & Roberts Addition;
Wair & Dulaney on block 66, Haskell; and
Harrison and Herrin [also spelled Herren and
Harren; also spelled Harrison & Herrin] on
block 15, Haskell) (Figure 36) (see Table 3, Figure 28). Cotton warehouse facilities had expanded from one in 1931 on block 54, Haskell,
and probably associated with the Farmer’s Cooperative Society Cotton Gin No. 2 on block 15,
Haskell, to three facilities in 1941. The first of
these, Haskell Bonded Warehouse No. 1 was on
lots 2–4, block 5, Brown & Roberts Addition. The
other two were owned by Ed. F. Fouts who had
expanded his large warehouses and cotton yards
on block 11, Brown & Roberts Addition, to block
4, Brown & Roberts Addition, where he built a
third warehouse and cotton yard (Sanborn Map
Company 1941) (see Figure 28).
During the 1940s, the rate of population loss
in Haskell County slowed to 7.8 percent, but
the town’s population grew by almost 26 percent. The rate of growth in Haskell then slowed
until 1970, after which it decreased until, by
1990, the population of the town was 3,362 and
of the county, 6,820—less than half that of 1950
(Leffler 1996a:501–502; Tyler 1996b:500–501).
By the mid-1980s, cotton had lost some of its
16
The use of a period after “Ed” is intentional, as
this is how it appears in the records.
a
b
Figure 36. Sanborn maps. (a) Harrison and Herrin [Herran, Herren] Gin on block 15; (b) Wair & Dulaney Gin
on block 66. The Producer’s plant which had been sold in 1940, was not in operation the following year.
66
popularity as prices fell and expenses rose (Sanders and Sanders 1986:111), and a tenacious
drought in the 1990s drove many agriculturists
to turn from cotton to livestock production.
Investment in cotton-related industries
slowed as well, despite the appearance of mechanical cotton harvesters in the 1950s and an
increasing tendency toward fewer, but much
larger, farms (Sanders and Sanders 1986:106,
110). In the 1940s, Fouts expanded his warehouse operation, but one of the old ginning companies simply changed names—Harrison &
Herrin to Harrison & Gilstrap in 1940—and
then sold out its plant on block 15, Haskell, to
Buford Cox in 1952; Cox sold out to W. E. Wooten
2 years later (Deed Record 175:341; 225:348;
238:59–60). Charlie Motz Jr. and Mrs. M. A.
Curtis bought the old Producers Gin Company
plant on block 66, Haskell, in 1940, and resold
it to Ernest Griffith in 1942; Griffith appears
to have disassembled the plant shortly thereafter (Deed Record 149:24–25; 153:462;
154:122–123, 216–217; 156:418; 178:96–97).
The Rule-Jayton Cotton Oil Company, which
owned much of the property formerly owned by
Western Cotton Oil & Gin Company but never
rebuilt the burned plant, also owned the gin
plant on blocks 2–3, Brown & Roberts Addition,
that it had purchased from Fred Sanders and
his son in 1947. However, operation had ceased
by 1958, when Rule-Jayton sold the property to
the Market Poultry & Egg Company (Deed
Record 178:457–458, 523–524; 273:1–2). By
1949, operating gins included the Duncan Gin
(block 36, Brown & Roberts Addition), Haskell
Cooperative Gin (block 32, Brown & Roberts
Addition), and the Harrison & Herrin Gin (block
15, Haskell) (Sanborn Map Company 1949) (Figure 37) (see Table 3). By the 1970s, the old
Duncan Gin had been sold to the K-G Gin Company, which later went out of business. In 2002,
the only historic gin company still in operation
of the many that had been adjacent to the
Wichita Valley Railway line was the Haskell
Cooperative Gin Company.
In summary, cotton production began in
Haskell County in 1887, when George Baggett
sold the first bale. The first gin in Haskell was
erected in 1889 east of the square by J. L. Jones
and N. C. Smith. Cotton production increased
steadily until the early 1900s, when a combination of boll weevil-induced crop failures in the
Blackland Prairie region of Texas and heavy
promotion of the North Central Plains by newspapers and real estate agents brought a flood of
immigrants who were experienced in cotton
culture. Their arrival and the ensuing increase
in cotton production did much to convince officers of the Wichita Valley Railway to extend the
rail line south from Seymour in Baylor County.
Completion of the Wichita Valley Railroad
in 1906 provided impetus to local and outside
investors in cotton processing plants, and two
cotton warehouses and three cotton gins began
or continued operation between 1906 and 1908.
While one new gin plant was erected west of
the courthouse and the Haskell Oil Mill Company continued to use an older mill south of the
courthouse, the balance of the plants were adjacent or near the new Wichita Valley Railroad line.
Sufficient rain and large crops between
1911 and 1915 were accompanied by another
round of buying and selling plants and of new
construction and expansion of existing plants.
Due to drought, activity then ceased, for the
most part, until the 1920s, when numerous new
companies and farmers cooperatives either
bought old gin plants or built new ones. Contrary to conventional wisdom, which has represented the 1930s as a decade of depression and
inactivity, Haskell experienced a continuation
of company formation and the use of ginning
plants as Haskell and surrounding counties
enjoyed large cotton harvests in 1932–1933 and
1935. Indeed, stagnation does not appear to
have occurred until the 1940s, with significant
decline in the number of cotton processing facilities occurring during the drought years of
the 1950s.
Three properties associated with the cotton
industry that are adjacent to the Wichita Valley Railroad line in Haskell still survive; two of
them are in operation:
1. Block 32, Brown & Roberts Addition—Texas Farm Bureau Gin
(1928–1935), Haskell Cooperative
Gin (1935–present): J. T. Orr (Dallas), W. W. Pitts (Wills Point), Lynn
Stokes (Ballinger), M. S. Hudson
(Hale Center) and E. M. Baldwin
(Colorado, Texas) associated on
April 10, 1928, for the purposes of
forming a ginning and storage corporation to be called Texas Farm
Bureau Gin Company. The principal
place of business was Dallas, the life
67
Figure 37. Sanborn maps of cotton processing facilities in Haskell, 1949.
of the corporation was 50 years, and
the capital stock was $200,000. On
July 6, 1928, the company bought
lots 1–2 and 7–8, block 32, Brown &
Roberts Addition, from J. M. and
Irene Davis and lots 3–6, block 32,
from Catherine E. and Mart Clifton
(Deed Record 116:496–497) and built
a gin plant soon thereafter.
On May 6, 1930, the stockholders voted to change the name of the
company to Texas Cotton Growers
Gin Company and increase the capital stock to $1,000,000 (Texas. Secretary of State 1928). One year later,
the company’s facility in Haskell
consisted of a gin, seed house, office,
cotton house, and shed. It operated
68
ton industry, and the cooperative has
had trouble getting enough cotton.
Crops of ca. 15,000 bales in 1992 and
1997 have been offset by crops averaging 7,000 bales or less from 1993
to 1996, 2,300 bales in 1998, and 396
bales in 1999. In addition, local competition has increased in recent
years due to the reopening and modernization of the ca. 1929 Farmers
Cooperative Society Number One
Gin plant on Block 95, Peter Allen
Survey (Jones 2002).
using a Munger system and had one
double-square bale press (Sanborn
Map Company 1931).
On August 26, 1935, the Texas
Cotton Growers Gin Company sold
its plant to the Haskell Cooperative
Gin Company, a corporation formed
on May 13, 1935, by A. L. Adams,
W. F. Wells, J. F. Simmons, Willis
Harrell, J. C. Lewellen, and F. A.
Linville of Haskell; G. L. Walker of
Weinert; J. S. Hays of Rule; and R. T.
Jeter of Sagerton. The term of the
corporation was to be 50 years, and
capital stock was $50,000 (Texas.
Secretary of State 1935). The cooperative appears to have made few,
if any, changes to the plant by 1941
(Sanborn Map Company 1941). By
1949 the cooperative had added a
conveyor north of the gin plant,
which led to a burr burner in the
apparently abandoned right of way
of North 5th Street (Sanborn Map
Company 1949).
2. Block 36, Brown & Roberts Addition—Harriss, Irby & Vose Gin
(1917–1923), Duncan Gin (1923–
1970s), K-G Gin Company (Jerry
Don Klose) (1970s–1990s): On
April 11, 1917, a partnership composed of Richard T. Harriss, Robert F.
Irby, Alden H. Vose, and Mrs. William Bierce of Oklahoma County,
Oklahoma; Baylis E. Harriss of
Galveston; Raymond F. Harriss of
New Orleans; and W. L. Harriss and
R. M. Harriss of New York City, purchased lots 3–8, block 36, Brown &
Roberts Addition, from Edward W.
and Daisy Hill of Robertson County,
Texas, for $500 (Deed Record
83:420). The partnership constructed
a gin plant soon after (Assessors Abstracts of City Lots 1918) and operated it despite the ravages of the
1917–1918 drought. In 1921, the
plant consisted of a T-shaped facility. The southernmost element was
a seed house, which was separated
from the press and gin building on
the north by a concrete platform.
The press and gin room, containing
one double-square bale press and
four 80-saw Munger specials, was
adjacent to an offset, iron-clad engine room. A cotton house formed
the base of the T and centered on
the press and gin room. Other buildings on the site included a roofless
coal bin, wagon shed, and office
(Sanborn Map Company 1921).
The original gin building is intact, as is the burr burner, and the
plant still operates with ContinentalMurray equipment. Since 1949,
however, there have been numerous
alterations and additions. A seed
house on the east side of the gin
building has been removed and replaced with an open seed pad. A row
of cyclones, to handle trash from the
gin, has been installed on the north
side of the gin building between it
and the burr house. The cotton
house south of the gin has been replaced by a large, multicomponent
metal building that houses a module feeder, separator, and storage or
warehouse space. These last additions were constructed after 1991,
when the cooperative also installed
a new Continental press. Construction was done by Terry Joe Brigaman,
a local contractor (Jones 2002).
Since 1991, there have been
only 2 good years for the local cot-
On March 27, 1923, Harriss,
69
Irby and Vose sold lots 3–8, block
36, Brown & Roberts Addition, to the
Duncan Gin Company for $14,000
(Deed Record 93:627). The company
was formed by W. A. Duncan of
Haskell County, C. M. Francis of
Jones County, and M. L. Williams
of Nolan County, who received a
charter in July 1922 for the purposes
of constructing, purchasing, and
maintaining cotton gins (Texas. Secretary of State 1922). On February 5,
1924, the company purchased the
balance of block 36 (lots 1–2) at a
tax sale (Deed Record 96:185).
This warehouse complex is on 31.16
acres in outlot 100, Brown & Roberts Addition, on the west side of and
adjacent to the Wichita Valley Railroad line. The property was owned
in 1920 by M. H. and C. C. Gilliam,
who sold it to F. A. and Nora Linville
on January 19, 1920, for $2,325
(Deed Record 111:501–502). The
Linvilles’ property was valued at an
unimproved rate by the county. However, F. A. Linville was one of the
incorporators of the Haskell Cooperative Gin Company in 1935
(Texas. Secretary of State 1935), and
a local informant (Jones 2002) believed that the cooperative had
stored cotton at the 31.16-acre site
“almost since it began.”
Duncan’s gin plant retained the
1921 configuration through 1931
(Sanborn Map Company 1931). By
1941, Duncan had added a room to
the north end of the office and a collector to the east side of the gin
room (Sanborn Map Company
1941). A more-major change occurred by 1949, with the removal of
the cotton house to a position west
of its earlier location and the addition of a burr burner on the block
north of the plant (Sanborn 1949).
By the late 1970s, the plant had
been sold to K-G Gin Company
(Jones 2002). Either the Duncan
family or the gin company removed
the detached cotton house and engine room, leaving a two-story,
wood-frame building clad in corrugated metal. The roof retained its
gable configuration, and windows
were six-light industrial metal awning units. The office and scale
house was a wood-frame, gable-roof
building clad in asbestos shingles
and having a shed-roof addition on
the west side. A concrete apron adjacent to the building included
scales and other equipment.
On May 22, 1959, F. A. Linville,
now a widower, sold the property to
R. W. Herren for $9,318.75 (Deed
Record 274:459–460). Two weeks
later, Herren sold the property to
the Haskell County Warehouse and
Compress Company, Inc. (Deed
Record 275:400–401), which had
incorporated on May 20, 1959
(Texas. Secretary of State 1959). The
five-man board of directors included
Herren, who had run E. B.
Harrison’s gin on block 15 in
Haskell from 1938 to 1940 (Deed
Record 175:341), and Buford Cox,
who had purchased Harrison’s gin
in 1952 (Deed Record 225:348). The
company constructed improvements on the 31.16 acres, the value
of which increased from $12,000 in
1972 to $19,500 in 1976, and
$78,000 in 1981 (Assessors Abstracts of City Lots 1972–1981).
On January 19, 1989, the shareholders of the Haskell County Warehouse and Compress Company voted
to dissolve the company (Texas. Secretary of State 1959) and on April
18, they sold the 31.16 acres and six
lots in block 43, Frisco Addition,
Haskell, to the Texas Compress and
Warehouse Corporation for $175,000
3. A part (31.16 acres) of outlot 100,
Brown & Roberts Addition—
Haskell County Warehouse and
Compress Company, Inc. (1959–
1989), Texas Compress and Warehouse Corporation (1989–present):
70
each warehouse. A continuous linear loading dock constructed of concrete extends along the east side of
each warehouse adjacent to the railroad. East of the warehouse are four
buildings, including an office and
scale house, garage, and two sheds.
The office and scale house is a gableroof, wood-frame building with a
corrugated metal roof and stuccoed
exterior walls. Windows are oneover-one wood sash, and doors are
wood panel types. The sheds are
wood frame and metal clad.17
(Deed Record 445:186–187). The
Texas Compress and Warehouse Corporation, formed in February 1984
by A. C. Culpepper, Annette D.
Culpepper, A. W. Culpepper, and J. R.
Culpepper, all of Kennett, Missouri,
initially used an agent in Seymour
(Texas. Secretary of State 1984). In
2002, the complex was operated by
R. Culpepper of Stamford (Jones
2002).
The plant consists of a threebuilding warehouse complex, loading docks, and several small offices,
sheds, and outbuildings. The warehouses are one-story, gable-roof
buildings clad in corrugated metal
siding and roofing. Sliding metalclad doors are at the gable ends of
17
Architectural descriptions of the cotton-related
properties are taken from materials prepared by Joe C.
Freeman for the Texas Department of Transportation.
71
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abilene Reporter, The
1884
Illustrated Northwest Texas; or the Third Annual Special Edition of the Abilene Reporter.
The Abilene Reporter, Abilene, Texas.
Description of Abilene, Taylor County, and surrounding counties in the 1880s; promotional brochure published during the height of the livestock industry and beginning of
crop cultivation.
A. H. Belo & Company
1912
Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide, 1912. A. H. Belo & Company, [Dallas].
Helpful descriptions of counties and towns along the present-day Highway 277 route.
1926
The Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide. A. H. Belo & Company, Dallas.
Excellent statistics documenting petroleum production in Texas by fields, 1896–1925.
Anderson, H. Allen
1996a
Abilene and Northern Railway. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 10.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Helpful general treatment of the subject that provides a broad overview and bibliographic
references for the reader interested in more in-depth treatments. Not always a reliable
source of information, but good for general data. 18
1996b
SMS Ranches. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 5, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 738–739. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
1996c
Waggoner Ranch. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 785–786.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Anderson, H. Allen, and John Leffler
1996
Knox County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 3, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 1,149–1,150.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Anonymous
[1909?]
Report on conditions in the Wichita Valley, [April 1909?]. File 50077, Box 205, Fort Worth &
Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
With Sherrill (1965), the documents within the Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection
are the most fundamental sources for understanding the relationships among weather,
regional agricultural trends, economic development, human behavior, and railroad construction.19
1911
Report on crop conditions, May 16, 1911. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway
Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1915
Memorandum of Crop Conditions, May 29, 1915. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver
Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Archer County Family History Committee, The
1986
Archer County Family History: Shortgrass Saga. Archer County Family History Committee,
n.p.
Genealogies and family histories of Archer County residents.
18
This comment generally pertains to entries from the Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection.
19
This comment generally pertains to entries from the Grenville M. Dodge Papers.
73
Aynesworth, Mrs. Jos. H. (arranger)
1942
Jos. H. Aynesworth: a Texan: Life and Writings. Childress County News, Childress, Texas.
Description of Joseph H. Aynesworth, a Wichita Falls lawyer who represented oil interests. Includes his history of the Wichita County area, reprinted from the Wichita Falls
Daily Times.
Baker, V. E.
1909
Baker, W. A.
1909
Letter from V. E. Baker, Stamford, Texas, April 23, 1909, to D. B. Keeler, Ft. Worth, Texas.
File 50421, Box 208, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from W. A. Baker, Munday, Texas, February 23, 1909, to O. E. Maer, Wichita Falls,
Texas. File 50044, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Baylor County Historical Society
1972
Salt Pork to Sirloin: The History of Baylor County, Texas[,] from 1879 to 1930. Nortex Offset
Publications, Inc., [Quanah].
General overview history of Baylor County with more in-depth histories of businesses,
schools, social organizations, and founding families. Excellent photographs of early gins,
compresses, mills, ice houses, bottling companies, and oil and gas properties.
Billingsley, William C.
1996
Fort Worth and Denver Railway. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 2, edited by Ron Tyler,
p. 1,125. The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Bomar, D. T.
1907
Letter from D. T. Bomar, on Wichita Valley Railway, Stamford, Texas, February 12, 1907, to W. A.
Baker, Munday, Texas. File 50044, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Britton, Sarah Ann
1955
The Early History of Baylor County. The Story Book Press, Dallas.
Personal account of Baylor County history that includes reprinted material.
Broad & Bomar
[1915]
Letter from Broad & Bomar, [Fort Worth, Texas], [1915], to Morgan Jones, Abilene, Texas.
Morgan Jones Collection, Financial documents, 1902–1944, Microfilm J78C, Reel 1, p. 230.
The Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Financial documents in the Morgan Jones Collection detail his involvement in businesses
along the route of the Wichita Valley Railway and Railroad.
Caffey, David L.
1981
The Old Home Place: Farming on the West Texas Frontier. Eakin Press, Burnet, Texas.
History of the Caffey family, farmers south of Anson, Jones County. Does not include information of particular use to the region.
Casey, Clifford B.
1974
A Baker’s Dozen. We Were Thirteen: The Caseys of Tuscola, Taylor County, Texas. Pioneer
Book Publishers, Inc., Seagraves.
Family and community history in Taylor County, ca. 1870s–1974 with emphasis on the
1899–1974 period.
Central West Texas Dry Farming Congress
1911
Official Program of the Central West Texas Dry Farming Congress. N.p., Abilene, Texas. File
50627, Box 209, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock.
74
The program illuminates, through the titles of specific programs, the interests and concerns of farmers following an early twentieth-century drought.
Clack, Mary Hampton
1979
Early Days in West Texas. In Pioneer Days. . . Two Views. Zachry Associates Inc., Abilene,
Texas.
Interesting reminiscence of rural Taylor County life during the earliest days of settlement
south of present-day Abilene, Texas.
Clary, Annie Vaughan
1956
The Pioneer Life. American Guild Press, Dallas.
General treatment of Haskell County history that borrows heavily from Sherrill (1975).
Cogdell, Earl
1912
Cotter, G. F.
1908
1909
Cravens, Chris
1996
Letter from Earl Cogdell, Haskell, Texas, March 28, 1912, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas.
File 50816, Box 211, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from G. F. Cotter, Fort Worth, [Texas], February 10, 1908, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth,
Texas. File 50297, Box 207, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from G. F. Cotter, At Haskell, Texas, August 25, 1909, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth,
Texas. File 50458, Box 208, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Wichita Valley Railway. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 960.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Davis, Charles G.
1996
Mabelle, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 4, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 359. The Texas
State Historical Association, Austin.
Dodge, C. P.
1907
Dodge, G. M.
1905
Downs, Fane
1996
Letter from C. P. Dodge, Beaumont, Texas, September 9, 1907, to Morgan Jones, Fort Worth,
Texas. File 50264, Box 207, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from G. M. Dodge, New York City, August 18, 1905, to H. Walters, New York City.
Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 18, State Historical Society of Iowa – Des Moines.
The Grenville M. Dodge Papers are an excellent source of information about the involvement of the Fort Worth & Denver City and Wichita Valley lines in the project area. Political
and economic concerns are clearly identified.20
Abilene, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 8–9. The Texas
State Historical Association, Austin.
Duff, Katharyn
1970
Abilene. . . On Catclaw Creek. The Reporter Publishing Co., Abilene, Texas.
Excellent overview of the pre-1870s history of Taylor County and the general region, settlement near Buffalo Gap, construction of the Texas & Pacific Railroad and its impact on
20
This comment generally pertains to entries from The New Handbook of Texas.
75
settlement patterns and regional economics, and economic trends in twentieth-century
Taylor County as the oil and gas industries become more important.
Felker, Rex A.
1975
Haskell: Haskell County and Its Pioneers. Nortex Press, Quanah, Texas.
Good bi-centennial history of Haskell County and its communities that helps bring Sherrill
(1975) forward to the 1970s. Information about pioneer families and businesses is particularly helpful.
Gausewitz, H. A.
1917
Letter from H. A. Gausewitz, Fort Worth, [Texas], March 15, 1917, to D. B. Keeler, Henrietta,
Texas. File 50085, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Gilbert, C. E.
1884
Glisson, A. A.
1908
1911
Goree, R. D.
[1890s]
Illustrated Northwest Texas, or the Third Annual Special Edition of the Abilene Reporter. C. E.
Gilbert, Abilene, Texas.
See Abilene Reporter, The.
Letter from A. A. Glisson, Fort Worth, Texas, March 2, 1908, to Homer D. Wade, Stamford,
Texas. File 50022, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from A. A. Glisson, Fort Worth, Texas, August 19, 1911, to D. B. Keeler, [Fort Worth,
Texas]. File 50748, Box 210, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Texas Supremacy Over All States. Clarke & Courts, Stationers, Galveston.
Brochure designed to encourage immigration to Knox County in the early twentieth century.
Graves, Lawrence L.
1996
Baylor County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 426–428. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Gray, Mrs. R. D.
1963
Early Days in Knox County. Carlton Press, New York.
County history focusing on local communities and including vignettes of early settlers
and residents of the county from about 1880 to the mid-twentieth century.
Grissom, Hardy, O. E. Patterson, R. E. Sherrill, B. Cox, and R. C. Couch [?]
[ca. 1925]
Haskell, the Strategic Location for the Texas Technological College, N.p., n.p.
A snapshot of Haskell in the mid-1920s, when the town hoped to be selected as the location
of the new state technological college.
Hart, Brian
1996
Wichita County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 952–953. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Haskell, City of
City Council Minutes
Excellent source of information about city policies vis-à-vis businesses in Haskell; building permits are recorded occasionally.
Haskell County
Assessors Abstracts of City Lots
Chattel Mortgage Records on Realty
76
Deed Records
Deed of Trust Records
Materialsman Liens
Probate Files
County records are the primary and essential sources of information about property ownership and construction of improvements.
[Haskell County (Tex.)], Program Building Committee
1970
Long Range County Program. N.p., n.p.
General information about Haskell County history with specific statistics about population trends; a snapshot of Haskell and Haskell County in 1970.
Haskell Free Press, The
Excellent source of information about events that were important to the development of
the community.
Hastings, F. S.
1911
Letter from F. S. Hastings, [Stamford, Texas], May 29, 1911, to S. M. Swenson & Sons, New
York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1914
Letter from F. S. Hastings, Stamford, Texas, August 21, 1914, to S. M. Swenson & Sons, New
York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1915
Letter from F. S. Hastings, Stamford, Texas, February 26, 1915, to S. M. Swenson & Sons,
New York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest
Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Hastings, Frank S.
1912
Letter from Frank S. Hastings, Stamford, Texas, September 21, 1912, to S. M. Swenson &
Sons, New York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr.
1996
Wichita Falls, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 955–956.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Hipple, Belle Maxine Burnison (compiler and editor)
1972
Legacy of the Knox County Prairie: A History of Gillespie-Thorpe Communities. San Felipe
Press, Austin.
Brief county-level treatment; focus is on the Gillespie and Thorp communities.
Hunt, William R.
1996
Seymour, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 5, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 983. The Texas
State Historical Association, Austin.
Jenkins, Edloe A.
1996
Goree, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 3, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 252. The Texas
State Historical Association, Austin.
Johnson, Elmer H.
1931
The Natural Regions of Texas. The University of Texas Bulletin No. 3113. Bureau of Business Research, Research Monograph No. 8. The University of Texas at Austin.
An under-used, but fundamental, text for historians and cultural geographers that clearly
describes climatic, geological, vegetational, and other variables that affect regional economics, human behavior, and history.
Jones, Leon
2002
Interviewed by Martha Doty Freeman, Haskell, Texas, 17 July 2002.
77
Source helpful to placing the cotton industry of the 1990s in context; good description of the
workings of a cotton gin.
Jones, Morgan
1898a
Letter from Morgan Jones, Fort Worth, Texas, May 28, 1898, to General G. M. Dodge, New
York City. Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 15, State Historical Society of Iowa–Des Moines.
1898b
Letter from Morgan Jones, Fort Worth, Texas, September 25, 1898, to General G. M. Dodge,
New York [City]. Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 15, State Historical Society of Iowa–
Des Moines.
1901
Letter from Morgan Jones, Wichita Falls, Texas, April 29, 1901, to General G. M. Dodge, New
York City. Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 16, State Historical Society of Iowa–Des Moines.
1902a
Letter from Morgan Jones, Wichita Falls, Texas, April 9, 1902, to General G. M. Dodge, New
York. Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 17, State Historical Society of Iowa–Des Moines.
1902b
Letter from Morgan Jones, Wichita Falls, Texas, June 20, 1902, to General G. M. Dodge, New
York City. Grenville M. Dodge Papers, Volume 17, State Historical Society of Iowa–Des Moines.
[Jones, Morgan]
1907
Letter from [Morgan Jones], [n.p.], September 24, 1907, to C. V. Dodge, Beaumont, Texas.
File 50264, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
1915
Letter from [Morgan Jones], [n.p.], April 9, 1915, to T. Bomar, Ft. Worth, Texas. Financial
documents, 1902–1944, Microfilm J78C, Reel 1, p. 231. Southwest Collection, Morgan Jones
Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Documents in this collection pertaining to the Wichita Valley line are helpful in illuminating Jones’s investments, not only in railroads, but also in land and a variety of companies
that dealt in agriculture and utilities.21
[1915–1916]
Statement of Expendatures [sic] from Fund Arising from Assessment Upon Stock of Haskell
Ice Light Co. Financial documents, 1902–1944, Microfilm J78C, Reel 1, n.p., Southwest Collection, Morgan Jones Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Kean, E. S.
1909
Keeler, D. B.
1907
Letter from E. S. Kean, Abilene, Texas, January 17, 1909, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas.
File 50383, Box 208, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas, May 31, 1907, to Frank Trumbull, New York
City. File 50140, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1908
Letter from D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas, February 8, 1908, to S. M. Hudson. File 50122,
Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1909a
Letter from D. B. Keeler, [n.p.], March 1, 1909, to G. F. Cotter, Ft. Worth, Texas. File 50044,
Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1909b
Letter from D. B. Keeler, On F. W. & D. C., June 10, 1909, to G. F. Cotter, Fort Worth, Texas.
21
This comment generally pertains to entries from the Morgan Jones Collection.
78
File 50425, Box 208, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
1910
Letter from D. B. Keeler, at Stamford, Texas, July 1, 1910, to H. A. Gausewitz, Wichita Falls,
Texas. File 50085, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1912
Letter from D. B. Keeler, On Line, March 8, 1912, to A. D. Parker, Denver [Colorado]. File
50808, Box 211, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock.
1913
Letter from D. B. Keeler, [n.p.], August 22, 1913, to A. D. Parker, Denver [Colorado]. File
50869, Box 211, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock.
1914
Letter from D. B. Keeler, [n.p.], August 10, 1914, to F. S. Hastings, Stamford, Texas. File
50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock.
Kelly, Louise (compiler)
1982
Wichita County Beginnings. Eakin Press, Burnet, Texas.
Summary history of Wichita County, focusing on historical Indian occupation, early European and Euro-American exploration, settlement beginning in 1855, establishment of
ranches, creation of the county, importance of farming, construction of railroads and branch
lines, and development of the oil industries. Includes biographies and community histories.
Knox County History Committee
1966
Knox County History. The Haskell Free Press, Haskell, Texas.
Broad overview of Knox County with helpful information about the development of the
cotton, grain, cattle, and oil and gas industries; includes community histories that provide
data about agricultural-related businesses.
Laxson, Homer C.
1958
Economic Survey of Wichita County, Texas. Bureau of Business and Economic Research at
Midwestern University, Wichita Falls.
Good treatment of county history and analysis of population changes; excellent analysis
of events that have impacted the county’s population statistics.
Leffler, John
1996a
1996b
Lewis, Monte
1996
Loftin, Jack
1979
Haskell County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 3, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 501–502. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Taylor County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 223–225. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Archer County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 224–225. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Trails Through Archer. Eakin Publications, Burnet, Texas.
General Archer County history beginning with prehistoric Indian occupation and extending through Spanish, French, and Anglo exploration and occupation; and development of
military and trade trails, the livestock and oil industries.
McConnell, H. G.
1907
Letter from H. G. McConnell, Haskell, Texas, October 12, 1907, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth,
Texas. File 50231, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
79
McDaniel, Mary Kerr
1977
Reflections of Ninety Years. G. McDaniel, Beverly Hills, California.
Highly personal memoir of life in and around Seymour, Baylor County.
Munday Historical Society (compiler)
1981
“My Home Town”: A History of Munday, Texas. McCrain Publishing Co., Archer City.
General information about the establishment and growth of Munday, agriculture in the
area, and the impact of the railroad; histories of churches, public schools, banks, the newspaper, and clubs; descriptions of local life and customs; biographies of residents.
Newberry, Mary Y., and Kirby Clayton
1963
Your County Program: Jones County. N.p., n.p.
Statistical analysis of labor, agriculture, industry, organizations, health and public welfare, human resources, and other topics.
Odintz, Mark
1996
Jones County. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 3, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 994–995. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
O’Keefe, Ruth Jones
1969
Archer County Pioneers. Pioneer Book Publishers, Inc., Hereford, Texas.
Overview history of Archer County that reprints pertinent articles from newspapers and
by a variety of authors; description of early ranches and oil development; biographies of
pioneer families.
Overton, Richard C.
1953
Gulf to Rockies: The Heritage of the Fort Worth and Denver-Colorado and Southern Railways, 1861–1898. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Excellent study of the creation, construction, and expansion of the Fort Worth and Denver-Colorado and Southern Railways and their feeder lines through the project area. Includes helpful reference materials, particularly to the Grenville M. Dodge Collection at
the State Historical Society of Iowa–Des Moines.
Parfet, Ion
1956
The Trail of the Diamond Duster. N.p., [Wichita Falls,].
An imaginative treatment of the history of Wichita County, focusing on Wichita Falls and
seen through the eyes of a fictitious character strongly reminiscent of Joseph A. Kemp.
Pool, William C.
1975
A Historical Atlas of Texas. Encino Press, Austin.
Like The New Handbook of Texas, not always a reliable source of information, but good for
general data, particularly regarding droughts and railroad construction.
Poole, J. E.
1911a
1911b
Letter from J. E. Poole, Haskell, Texas, September 30, 1911, to W. B. Shepperd, Wichita Falls,
Texas. File 50627, Box 209, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Letter from J. E. Poole, Haskell, Texas, October 6, 1911, to J. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas.
File 50627, Box 209, Fort Worth & Denver City Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Proctor & Gamble
1917
Proctor & Gamble Cotton Crop Report. In The Cotton Oil Press II (September):24.
Snapshot of the effects of the 1917–1918 drought on Texas cotton crops.
Proctor & Gamble Co.
1918
Special Report on the Cotton Crop. In The Cotton Oil Press II (September):38–39.
Snapshot of the effects of the 1917–1918 drought on Texas cotton crops.
80
Ray, Earl Vernon
1989
The Sailor’s Destiny. E. V. Ray, Cisco, Texas.
History of the development of the Samuel Butman Ranch in Jones County.
Ricci, Connie
1996
Anson, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 193. The Texas
State Historical Association, Austin.
Sanborn Map Company
1892
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1908a
Anson, Jones County, Texas.
1908b
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
1908c
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1908d
Stamford, Jones County, Texas.
1913a
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
1913b
Stamford, Jones County, Texas.
1914
Anson, Jones County, Texas.
1916
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1921
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
1922
Anson, Jones County, Texas.
1925a
Munday, Knox County, Texas.
1925b
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1930
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1931
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
1940
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas.
1941
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
1942
Munday, Knox County, Texas.
1949
Haskell, Haskell County, Texas.
Essential records of the development of towns and of their constituent businesses. However, mistakes do occur, and information on the maps should be used in conjunction with
county records.
Sanders, R. S., and Betty Sanders
1986
Just Passing Through Weinert: A History of Northeastern Haskell County, Texas. Quality
Printing Company, Inc., Abilene, Texas.
General historical treatment of exploration and settlement of northeast Haskell County
and Weinert; identification and history of business firms, the railroad, communication,
education, and rural community growth and decline; and family histories.
Shelton, Hooper, and Homer Hutto
1978
First 100 Years of Jones County, Texas. Shelton Press, Stamford, Texas.
81
General history of the county, with information about development of towns and early
settlers and their descendants.
Sherrill, R. E.
1965
Haskell County History. The Haskell Free Press, Haskell, Texas.
Sherrill occasionally misses dates by a year or two, but his is the single most important
source of information about the project area in general and Haskell and Haskell County
in particular. A businessman who kept detailed crop and weather records, Sherrill deftly
made the connections among weather events, population movements, crop failures and
successes, business development, and railroad construction.
Sledge, Robert Watson
1986
God’s Field, God’s Building: The Lytle Gap-Potosi Methodist Church, 1879–1982. Potosi United
Methodist Church, Abilene, Texas.
Church-based community history of the eastern Taylor and western Callahan Counties
area.
Spence, Vernon Gladden
1971
Colonel Morgan Jones, Grand Old Man of Texas Railroading. University of Oklahoma Press,
Norman.
Useful biographical treatment of Morgan Jones, who spearheaded construction of the
Wichita Valley Railway and Railroad and of the Abilene and Northern Railroad through
the project area.
Stamford Commercial Club, The
[1908?]
Stamford, the Hub of the Land of Opportunities, Central West Texas. The Fastest Growing
Town in Texas. The Place Where the Cotton Grows. Stamford News Print, Stamford, Texas.
Promotional brochure for Stamford, “where the cotton grows,” with brief descriptions of
local industries and lists of opportunities for investment.
Sterley, W. F.
1911
Letter from W. F. Sterley, Fort Worth, Texas, November 9, 1911, to D. B. Keeler, [Fort Worth,
Texas]. File 50780, Box 210, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Lubbock.
Texas. Comptroller of Public Accounts
1921–1959
Haskell County, Texas, ad valorem tax records.
See comments for Haskell County legal records.
Texas. Secretary of State
1906a
Charter No. 15136: Brazos Oil & Light Company.
1906b
Charter No. 15510: Haskell Lumber Company.
1910
Charter No. 21854: Haskell Creamery.
1911
Charter No. 23574: Knox City Cotton Oil Company.
1915a
Charter No. 28230: Haskell Ice & Light Company.
1915b
Charter No. 29178: Haskell Bonded Warehouse Company.
1917
Charter No. 31817: West Texas Utilities Company.
1918
Charter No. 32736: Western Cotton Oil Company.
1922
Charter No. 38339: Duncan Gin Company.
1923
Charter No. 39354: Haskell Laundry Company.
82
1924
Charter No. 41975: Haskell County Fair Association.
1925
Charter No. 44366: Haskell Hotel Company.
1928
Charter No. 50959: Texas Farm Bureau Gin Company.
1929a
Charter No. 55146: Haskell Amusement Company.
1929b
Charter No. 55227: Farmers Co-Operative Society No. 2 of Haskell, Texas.
1932
Charter No. 61891: Haskell Electric Gin, Inc.
1935
Charter No. 67472: Haskell Cooperative Gin Company.
1936
Charter No. 72147: Haskell County Farmer’s Co-operative Gin Company, of Haskell, Haskell
County, Texas.
1959
Charter No. 155925: Haskell County Warehouse and Compress Company, Inc.
1984
Charter No. 693644: Texas Compress & Warehouse Corporation.
An important primary source of information about company formation and the individuals involved.
Texas. Thirty-Third Legislature
[1914]
General Laws of the State of Texas Passed at the Second Called Session of the Thirty-Third
Legislature Convened August 24, 1914, and Adjourned September 22, 1914. N.p., [Austin].
Helpful information about state laws that affect agricultural production, investment, and
company formation.22
Texas. Thirty-Ninth Legislature
1926
Revised Civil Statutes of the State of Texas Adopted at the Regular Session of the ThirtyNinth Legislature 1925 Including Constitution of the United States and Constitution of the
State of Texas. Vol. I. A. C. Baldwin & Sons, Austin.
Texas. Forty-Third Legislature
[1934]
General and Special Laws of the State of Texas Passed by the Forty-Third Legislature at the
Second Called Session Convened at the City of Austin, January 29, 1934, and Adjourned
February 27, 1934. N.p., [Austin].
Thomas, O. P.
1907a
1907b
Letter from O. P. Thomas, Abilene, Texas, November 25, 1907, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth,
Texas. File 50022, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Lubbock.
Letter from O. P. Thomas, Abilene, Texas, December 6, 1907, to D. B. Keeler, Ft. Worth, Texas.
File 50022, Box 205, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Lubbock.
Trumbull, Frank
1907
Letter from Frank Trumbull, New York, May 31, 1907, to D. B. Keeler, Fort Worth, Texas.
File 50120, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
Tyler, Ron (editor in chief)
1996a
Agricultural Adjustment Administration. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by
22
This comment generally pertains to entries that refer to laws passed by the Texas legislature.
83
Ron Tyler, pp. 56–57. The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
1996b
Haskell, Texas. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 3, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 500–501. The
Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
University of Texas. Bureau of Business Research
1948
An Economic Survey of Jones County Prepared for The Texas and Pacific Railway Company.
University of Texas. Bureau of Business Research, Austin.
Economic survey of part of the area served by the Texas and Pacific Railway Company.
Includes statistical analyses of numerous aspects of natural, human, and capital resources;
population, agricultural, mercantile, and oil and gas data. Briefly reviews early economic
development and factors influencing growth of the county.
1949
An Economic Survey of Taylor County Prepared for The Texas and Pacific Railway Company.
University of Texas. Bureau of Business Research, Austin.
See comments for University of Texas. Bureau of Business Research 1948.
Voellinger, Melissa W., and Eugene R. Foster
1991
An Inventory and Assessment of Historic Architectural Resources With the Vera Project Area,
Knox and Baylor Counties, Texas. Espey, Huston & Associates, Inc., Austin.
General overview of county histories (Baylor and Knox), identification of historic properties, and association of architectural styles with historical overview.
Wade, H. D.
1909
Letter from H. D. Wade, Stamford, Texas, November 9, 1909, to D. Miller, Chicago. File 50381,
Box 208, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
[Wade, Homer D.]
1910
Letter from [Homer D. Wade], [Stamford, Texas], September 6, 1910, to [R. H.] Baker, [n.p.].
File 50734, Box 210, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
1912
Letter from [Homer D. Wade], [Stamford, Texas], September 10, 1912, to S. M. Swenson &
Sons, New York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1915
Letter from [Homer D. Wade], [Stamford, Texas], September 23, 1915, to S. M. Swenson and
Sons, New York City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Wade, Homer D.
1913
Letter from Homer D. Wade, [n.p.], September 1, 1913, to S. M. Swenson & Sons, New York
City. File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection,
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
1914
Letter from Homer D. Wade, [n.p.], January 8, 1914, to S. M. Swenson & Sons, New York City.
File 50232, Box 206, Fort Worth & Denver Railway Collection, Southwest Collection, Texas
Tech University, Lubbock.
Webb, Walter Prescott
1931
The Great Plains. Ginn and Company, Boston.
General study that sometimes over-generalizes but is helpful in delineating areas marginally suitable for agriculture.
Werner, George C.
1996a
Burlington System. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 1, edited by Ron Tyler, pp. 846–847.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
84
1996b
Colorado and Southern Railway. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 2, edited by Ron Tyler,
p. 230. The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
1996c
Wichita Valley Railroad. In The New Handbook of Texas, vol. 6, edited by Ron Tyler, p. 960.
The Texas State Historical Association, Austin.
Western Land Company
[1880]
A Descriptive Pamphlet of Northwest Texas, Issued Monthly by the Western Land Company,
Seymour, Baylor County, Texas. Miller & Ross, Weatherford, Texas.
A promotional piece that expresses the “hype” associated with development of this part of
Texas and reveals plans for its agricultural and urban development.
West Texas Utilities Company
1927
Out of the Dreams of Yesterday: West Texas Utilities Company. West Texas Utilities Company,
[Abilene].
Superb overview of the activities of the West Texas Utilities Company during the 1920s,
with excellent photographs and descriptions of the associated facilities. Largely through
inference, the company describes the connections among its affiliated companies and the
interdependence of electrical generation plants, dams, ice plants, gins, mills and elevators, oil and gas facilities, and municipal infrastructure.
White, Raymond Elliott
1957
The History of the Texas Cotton Ginning Industry, 1822–1957. Master’s thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.
A broad overview of the ginning industry from the plantation period to the twentieth
century. Includes helpful information about cooperative ginning and a bibliography that
references more in-depth studies, such as those published by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in its bulletins.
Wichita County Program Building Committee
1963
Long Range Program for Wichita County, 1963. Wichita County Program Building Committee, [Wichita Falls, Texas].
See comments for University of Texas. Bureau of Business Research 1948. A planning
document designed to meet the county residents’ needs. Good overview of Wichita County
at mid century.
Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce
[1908?]
The Land of Opportunity in the Wichita Falls County of Texas. Marlow & Huey, Wichita
Falls.
Good description of Wichita Falls early the last century, with descriptions of cotton and
grain production and specific agricultural-related companies.
Wichita Falls Country Emigration Association
[ca. 1889]
The Famous Wichita and Red River Valley Country. Worley, printer, Dallas.
Good promotional brochure with map labeling the area from Wichita County to Haskell as
“Wichita Falls County.” Crops are emphasized, primarily wheat. The role of the Fort Worth
and Denver City Railway is spelled out.
Wichita Falls, Texas. Bureau of Business & Economic Research. Midwestern University
Red River Valley Business Report.
Economic analyses of business enterprises in Wichita County; issues focus on the postWorld War II era.
Williams, Diane E.
2001
Historical Overview, Property Types, and National Register Eligibility Assessments; Environmental Investigations; Highway 277 Right-of-Way Construction, Portions of Archer, Baylor,
Knox and Wichita Counties, Texas (Goree to Holliday). Diane E. Williams, Austin.
Broad overview of the northern part of the project area. The historical synthesis is organized
on a county-by-county and community-by-community basis, rather than a regional basis.
85
Zachry, Juanita Daniel
1980
The Settling of a Frontier: A History of Rural Taylor County. Nortex Press, Burnet, Texas.
Provides county-wide information about ranching, crop raising, introduction of cotton,
impacts of weather and 1930s government programs; includes histories of communities in
Taylor County and associated families.
1999
A Living History: Taylor County and the Big County. Quality Press, Abilene, Texas.
A series of short articles describing different landmarks, events, and Taylor County topics,
including flight, the Paramount Theater, Wooten Hotel, oil, important residents, the West
Texas Fair, etc.
86
APPENDIX: Population, Crop, and Livestock Data from
Agricultural and Population Censuses for
Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Knox, Haskell,
Jones, and Taylor Counties
89
715
77
48
546
1,736
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
433
596
Population
Archer
Wichita
County
# of Farms
107
24
2
3
56
53
60
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
30,213
6,152
2,055
120
13,506
14,979
9,612
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
3,099
1,191
55
120
2,489
3,614
3,442
157
91
112
59
50
Bushels of Wheat
1,610
860
567
371
532
Acres of Cotton
81
326
104
103
Bales of Cotton
Acres of Wheat
1879 Agricultural and 1880 Population Censuses
19
53
43
43
Acres of Corn
73
409
60
1,308
404
1,361
1,000
4,110
1,200
13,407
4,095
18,525
Bushels of Corn
Table 4. Population, crop, and livestock data from agricultural and population censuses for Wichita, Archer, Baylor, Knox, Haskell,
Jones, and Taylor Counties
30,423
179
16,334
9,285
10,489
56,021
33,537
Cattle (Non-Dairy)
90
278
169
76
105
500
587
2,595
1,134
1,665
3,797
6,957
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
326
2,101
4,831
Wichita
# of Farms
Archer
Population
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
195,621
321,875
33,093
206,477
75,086
430,762
168,727
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
98,682
60,120
31,257
30,029
54,662
33,961
38,973
Acres of Wheat
2,724
3,142
237
603
4,286
2,082
5,300
Bushels of Wheat
44,159
54,737
3,336
8,544
71,258
34,096
83,053
3,793
5,676
1,340
336
77
221
1,250
Acres of Cotton
1889 Agricultural and 1890 Population Censuses
470
124
24
78
470
1,420
1,898
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
3,870
3,477
1,491
1,496
2,804
1,433
4,992
Bushels of Corn
105,297
93,022
32,669
30,765
70,655
28,206
139,293
24,691
20,779
3,270
9,319
17,034
73,630
86,715
Cattle
91
Taylor
1,152
820
10,499
667,366
256
2,637
Haskell
Jones
353,859
366
2,322
Knox
516,777
449,229
608,495
327
3,052
Baylor
658,483
580,017
356
423
# of Farms
2,508
5,806
Wichita
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
Archer
Population
County
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
79,699
77,970
25,552
45,706
47,032
155,402
106,152
Acres of Wheat
779
2,792
1,123
9,637
9,588
13,111
48,212
Bushels of Wheat
8,640
21,480
6,530
58,030
82,850
80,140
333,990
304
27,907
25,121
3,674
2,135
3,065
2,150
Acres of Cotton
1899 Agricultural and 1900 Population Censuses
669
491
602
377
45
6,414
4,858
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
9,690
10,312
3,512
7,327
8,789
5,249
8,414
Bushels of Corn
253,180
268,510
98,850
215,530
258,910
125,620
191,060
31,175
39,924
20,296
29,335
44,064
63,916
58,871
Cattle (Non-Dairy)
92
792
1,040
1,175
2,210
2,907
2,404
8,411
9,625
16,249
24,299
26,293
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
16,094
Wichita
6,525
1,039
Population
Archer
# of Farms
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
468,377
494,154
469,661
520,405
491,218
443,915
326,628
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
201,170
245,776
223,953
142,354
102,507
80,165
174,656
Acres of Wheat
1,557
1,792
1,893
13,188
2,621
4,018
33,000
Bushels of Wheat
8,320
8,844
9,762
126,197
13,677
17,858
197,637
101,075
110,458
75,984
36,219
38,014
18,058
23,294
Acres of Cotton
1909 Agricultural and 1910 Population Censuses
17,725
18,885
16,365
8,943
8,487
4,035
6,382
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
1,588
4,076
18,420
24,870
12,213
8,680
46,215
Bushels of Corn
12,659
28,179
177,150
224,008
109,558
94,564
765,280
12,643
10,053
14,255
24,919
21,883
38,287
15,190
Cattle (Non-Dairy)
93
760
811
1,037
1,875
2,586
1,892
7,027
9,240
14,193
22,323
24,081
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
750
5,254
72,911
Wichita
# of Farms
Archer
Population
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
455,441
486,945
451,511
295,252
387,175
527,864
308,946
Land in FarmsImproved Acres
208,561
269,682
242,984
135,993
107,378
98,172
149,682
Acres of Wheat
34,312
32,885
60,302
32,340
38,132
37,138
68,336
Bushels of Wheat
638,097
499,057
835,024
558,099
624,446
575,626
880,011
70,952
124,871
85,576
53,645
29,605
11,207
10,661
Acres of Cotton
1919 Agricultural and 1920 Population Censuses
38,190
66,543
40,381
25,666
14,520
5,042
4,901
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
3,018
4,111
5,457
7,120
5,485
2,925
7,813
Bushels of Corn
71,688
86,173
112,367
163,835
136,224
59,533
173,099
7,714
6,131
12,761
7,837
21,029
40,122
11,828
Cattle
94
490,740
649,997
454,264
384,520
485,923
967
1,542
2,411
2,727
2,705
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
202,593
Baylor
Population
550,085
# of Farms
761
786
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
Archer
Wichita
County
Acres of Wheat
6,757
4,472
2,825
7,519
11,792
16,675
31,999
138,875
109,183
57,645
175,309
268,649
316,457
637,295
Bushels of Wheat
1924 Agricultural Census
139,396
200,740
177,973
110,515
61,052
19,828
32,481
Acres of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Bales of Cotton
41,502
52,695
55,342
42,559
18,978
5,011
12,499
Acres of Corn
1,465
1,585
1,709
4,004
2,915
627
3,131
Bushels of Corn
22,178
36,430
30,123
52,259
40,301
7,585
37,077
11,425
4,533
13,737
15,534
20,880
30,801
8,186
Cattle
95
692
867
1,460
2,380
2,804
2,233
7,418
11,368
16,669
24,233
41,023
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
74,416
Wichita
9,684
1,432
Population
Archer
# of Farms
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
529,851
587,811
524,900
377,137
411,568
504,906
318,682
Acres of Wheat
1,277
812
839
1,382
14,108
11,724
19,018
Bushels of Wheat
7,973
4,907
2,226
7,212
50,776
77,624
121,136
150,196
245,298
200,331
130,247
62,853
19,884
60,953
Acres of Cotton
1929 Agricultural and 1930 Population Censuses
17,983
24,281
26,127
21,093
6,873
2,334
18,595
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
1,329
1,307
2,010
1,323
1,171
834
4,588
Bushels of Corn
15,619
12,508
15,814
13,454
9,731
7,377
82,665
17,595
15,312
11,961
10,365
12,313
35,295
16,822
Cattle
96
362,489
459,905
571,458
524,724
491,762
920
1,268
2,421
2,810
2,112
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
1,173
Baylor
Population
572,867
309,689
# of Farms
744
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
Archer
Wichita
County
Acres of Wheat
12,432
16,690
25,584
11,673
30,691
20,686
36,978
107,057
138,850
256,566
123,115
285,130
164,430
329,960
Bushels of Wheat
1934 Agricultural Census
83,040
164,087
127,087
87,398
39,273
10,246
36,194
Acres of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Bales of Cotton
15,607
22,049
14,004
9,632
3,020
937
7,587
Acres of Corn
1,432
3,013
1,053
2,221
1,754
637
3,806
Bushels of Corn
8,431
12,156
4,970
9,319
7,702
3,070
27,240
24,708
22,147
24,624
20,179
22,169
42,513
25,894
Cattle
97
501
718
980
1,939
2,179
1,871
7,755
10,090
14,905
23,378
44,147
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
73,604
Wichita
7,599
1,329
Population
Archer
# of Farms
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
507,411
700,898
547,936
407,142
401,956
417,574
237,698
Acres of Wheat
5,250
6,920
3,777
11,238
17,495
14,043
27,188
Bushels of Wheat
28,631
31,121
24,324
108,385
108,385
125,507
100,334
58,185
123,801
100,421
67,584
26,885
4,391
19,227
Acres of Cotton
1939 Agricultural and 1940 Population Censuses
11,708
23,426
21,874
15,793
5,104
485
6,260
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
1,010
1,101
794
1,111
1,241
385
2,541
Bushels of Corn
6,556
5,918
6,045
7,663
10,995
4,165
19,030
24,008
29,102
21,733
14,023
18,682
26,906
15,270
Cattle
98
364,119
441,720
544,361
596,091
436,152
725
928
1,763
2,231
1,788
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
1,366
Baylor
Population
581,772
322,249
# of Farms
544
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
Archer
Wichita
County
Acres of Wheat
23,468
30,316
31,276
26,766
43,278
23,806
45,303
313,424
357,158
471,800
437,596
685,511
337,368
661,742
Bushels of Wheat
1944 Agricultural Census
36,832
95,666
97,838
59,150
23,138
3,418
16,368
Acres of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Bales of Cotton
14,531
39,141
42,439
21,261
6,018
528
6,229
Acres of Corn
2,560
2,105
3,390
2,798
2,739
1,522
8,262
Bushels of Corn
29,228
22,063
42,268
36,283
42,715
13,880
130,015
35,505
38,969
35,468
25,489
33,687
43,561
29,931
Cattle (Total)
99
543
642
887
1,535
1,708
1,453
6,875
10,082
13,736
22,147
63,370
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
98,493
Wichita
6,816
1,029
Population
Archer
# of Farms
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
490,528
596,091
535,510
472,720
410,435
705,482
329,461
Acres of Wheat
920,885
501,733
785,340
Bushels of Wheat
77,276
72,365
78,324
691,397
779,801
850,822
70,809 1,135,382
84,884
52,249
75,493
42,484
145,475
172,721
95,818
19,390
1,821
9,944
Acres of Cotton
1949 Agricultural and 1950 Population Censuses
15,836
66,023
98,818
65,063
13,353
744
5,594
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Acres of Corn
895
850
613
389
815
603
1,765
Bushels of Corn
11,840
9,971
8,176
8,094
14,543
10,273
36,559
23,149
20,615
23,594
19,772
30,320
52,969
26,378
Cattle (Non-Dairy)
100
466,633
576,954
526,171
796,037
573,575
598
837
1,330
1,471
1,282
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
298,437
Baylor
Population
629,232
# of Farms (1954)
417
765
Land in FarmsTotal Acres
Archer
Wichita
County
Acres of Wheat
44,263
44,410
44,881
48,950
66,904
29,916
49,354
307,182
411,083
478,109
551,004
938,761
312,134
700,571
Bushels of Wheat
1954 Agricultural Census
40,302
125,273
128,889
69,565
21,601
2,368
6,594
Acres of Cotton
Table 4, continued
Bales of Cotton
5,116
21,383
31,912
20,256
5,640
800
2,284
157
187
231
86
109
42
383
Bushels of Corn
735
845
4,687
410
1,955
965
5,331
27,500
28,682
20,492
20,332
28,674
42,138
24,717
Cattle
(Non-Dairy 1954)
Acres of Corn
101
392
494
663
1,183
1,202
1,011
5,893
7,857
11,174
19,299
101,078
Baylor
Knox
Haskell
Jones
Taylor
621
6,110
123,528
Wichita
# of Farms (1959)
Archer
Population
County
Land in FarmsTotal Acres (1959)
644,093
769,795
512,164
464,444
477,390
619,168
325,785
Acres of Wheat
31,494
42,210
38,589
40,254
69,410
23,710
42,315
Bushels of Wheat
328,232
534,229
555,344
629,871
897,645
316,784
589,016
27,029
97,871
106,233
52,596
16,749
1,981
4,820
Acres of Cotton
1959 Agricultural and 1960 Population Censuses
8,585
47,488
52,929
28,855
6,944
643
2,677
Bales of Cotton
Table 4, continued
97
143
111
60
119
31
242
Bushels of Corn
2,022
2,417
2,406
1,813
2,758
880
7,460
33,844
37,457
22,520
17,824
29,839
41,024
26,859
Cattle
(Non-Dairy 1959)
Acres of Corn
INDEX
This index exclusively references surnames and place names. The names of cities, towns,
communities, and waterways all refer to Texas locations unless indicated otherwise with the state
listed parenthetically.
A
Abbott, J. M. 19
Abilene 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 18, 19, 20,
22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 37, 45,
47, 48
Adams, A. L. 69
Albany 11
Amarillo 24, 61
Anson 2, 4, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 28,
29, 31, 37, 45
Arapahoe County (Colorado) 48
Archer County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26,
28, 29, 29n, 30n, 31, 37, 45
Armstrong, William 46
Arnolds, M. L. 11
Avis, J. D. 26
B
Baggett, George 47, 67
Baggett, Silas 7
Baker, W. A. 25
Baldwin, E. M. 52, 67
Baldwin, J. L. 47
Ballinger 52, 67
Barton, Clara 10
Baylor County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11,
12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 27,
28, 28n, 29, 30, 31, 31n, 33, 34,
37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 67
Beardsley, J. D. 48
Beaumont 24
Bell County 48
Belton 48
Bierce, Mrs. William 51, 61, 69
Bolander, J. F. 11
Bomar, David T. 19 (see also D. T.
Bomar)
Bomar, D. T. 49, 57n (see also David
T. Bomar)
Bomar, Edmond P. 49, 57n
Bomarton 2, 4, 18, 19, 20, 24, 45
Brazelton, William B. 57
Brazos River 4, 17, 18, 46, 47
Brewington, Charles 57
Brigaman, Terry Joe 69
Brown, Lucy G. 49
Buffalo Gap 8
Buntin, Tom 7
Burns, C. S. 48
Butterworth, William 50, 59
C
California Creek 8, 46
Carlisle, J. C. 48
Carlisle, J. M. 48
Carothers, Alice 49
Carothers, S. E. 49
Chancellor, J. H. 50, 59, 63
Chicago (Illinois) 48
Clack, John B. 7
Clay County 18
Clifton, Catherine E. 68
Clifton, Mart 68
Cogdell, Carl 59
Cogdell, D. C. 50, 59, 63
Cogdell, Earl 50, 59
Colorado 11, 52, 67
Colthrop, Ham 8
Cook, G. W. 47
Coryell County 48
Cottle County 47
Courtney, George 61 (see also
George E. Courtney)
Courtney, George E. 50, 59 (see also
George Courtney)
Courtney, Louthene 60
Cox, Buford 54, 67, 70
Cox, G. 54
Crawford, J. M. 54
Crouch, G. R. 49
Culpepper, A. C. 71
Culpepper, A. W. 71
Culpepper, Annette D. 71
Culpepper, J. R. 71
Culpepper, R. 71
Cureton, William E. 7
Curtis, Mrs. M. A. 54, 67
D
Dallas 19, 52, 53, 57n, 63, 65, 66,
67
Dallas County 50, 59, 63
Darnell, R. H. 52, 63
Davis, Irene 68
Davis, J. M. 68
103
Denver (Colorado) 8, 19
Dickens County 47
Dodge, Grenville M. 1, 10, 11, 17,
18, 19
Donnigan, Bill 31
Double Mountain Fork 46, 47
Draper, W. F. 47
Drew, A. D. 54
Duke, J. C. 50, 59, 63
Dulaney, C. A. 51
Duncan, W. A. 52, 63, 70
Dundee 4, 18, 24, 30
Dunagin, J. M. 61
Durrett, Ryus 46
Dwyer, Will 48
E
Earnest, W. A. 63 (see also William
A. Earnest)
Earnest, William A. 48, 49, 57n,
59
Elkins, Clyde F. 65
Elkins, Eula H. 65
Estes, John 10
Eussaga 18
F
Falls County 48
Fields, J. U. 51
Flowers, W. A. 48
Fort Phantom Hill 7
Fort Worth 7, 8, 10, 19, 22, 24, 49,
57n, 61
Fouts, Ed. F. 54, 65, 66, 67
Francis, C. M. 52, 63, 70
G
Gainesville 49, 57n
Gatesville 48
Gilbert, Mabel 7
Gholson, John B. 7
Gilliam, C. C. 70
Gilliam, M. H. 70
Gilstrap, J. A. 52, 63
Glisson, A. A. 25
Goff, John 46
Goodwin, W. W. 53
Goree, R. D. 17 (see also Robert D.
Goree)
Goree, Robert D. 10 (see also R. D.
Goree)
Goree 2, 4, 11, 18, 19, 20, 24, 26,
29, 31, 45
Gould, Jay 10
Grayson County 48
Gregory, B. M. 53
Griffith, Ernest 31, 54, 67
Grindstaff, I. H. 51
Grissom, Hardy 51
Guadalupe County 8
Guinn, M. H. 53
Gulf of Mexico 8
Gulick, W. M. 8
H
Hale Center 52, 67
Harrell, Willis 69
Harrison, E. B. 52, 53, 54, 63, 64,
65, 70
Harrison, L. 54
Harrison, W. B. 52, 53, 54
Harriss, Baylis E. 51, 61, 69
Harriss, R. M. 51, 61, 69
Harriss, Raymond F. 51, 61, 69
Harriss, Richard T. 51, 61, 69
Harriss, W. L. 51, 61, 69
Harvey, William 47
Haskell 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 11, 18, 19,
20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 36, 37,
43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52,
53, 54, 55n, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60,
61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69,
70
Haskell County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12, 17, 19, 20, 22, 24, 28,
29, 30, 31, 36, 37, 42, 43, 44, 45,
46, 47, 48, 48n, 49, 50, 51, 52,
55n, 56, 57, 59, 61, 61n, 64, 66,
67, 70
Hastings, Frank 6, 24, 26, 28
Hawley 24
Hawley, Edward 19
Hays, J. S. 69
Healey, M. L. 48
Herren, R. W. 65, 70
Hill, Daisy 69
Hill, Edward W. 69
Hill County 48
Hockersmith, H. D. 18
Holliday 4, 11, 18, 24, 26, 45
Holmes, James W. 7
Hooper, G. B. 48
Hubbard City 48
Hudson, M. S. 52, 67
Hughes, Ed S. 19
Hughes, William E. 48
Hunt, Courtney 53
Huskey, S. A. 61
Hutton, W. W. 7
I
Ikard, E. F. 7
Ikard, Will 7
Iowa Park 26
Irby, Joe 57
Irby, Robert F. 51, 61, 69
J
Jeter, R. T. 69
Jeter, W. J. 53
Johnson, Charles L. 57
Johnson, Elmer 4, 5
Johnson, J. G. 7
Johnson, Mode 7
Johnson, W. E. 53
Jones, J. L. 47, 49, 67
Jones, John Grant 17
Jones, Morgan 1, 2, 10, 11, 17, 18,
19, 24, 26, 48, 61
Jones County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 28, 30,
31, 37, 45, 47, 52, 57, 61, 63, 70
M
Mabelle 4, 20
Mankins 4, 11, 20, 45
Mart 48
Matthews, J. A. 46 (see also John
A. Matthews)
Matthews, John A. 8 (see also J. A.
Matthews)
Maxwell, R. W. 51, 61
McClain, J. R. 7
McConnell, H. G. 22
McDaniel, W. T. 49, 50, 57, 58, 59
McGregor, Charley 52, 55n, 63
McLennan, R. E. 53
McLennan County 48, 57
Meade, G. P. 17
Merkel 18
Mills, C. C. 7
Montgomery, R. C. 49
Morgan, W. T. 53
Motz, Charlie, Jr. 67 (see also
Charles Motz Jr.)
Motz, Charles, Jr. 54 (see also
Charlie Motz Jr.)
Munday 2, 4, 11, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24,
25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 42,
45, 49, 57n, 64
N
K
Kaufman, W. E. 19
Kansas 8, 17
Keeler, D. B. 22, 25
Kell, Frank 17
Kemp, Joseph A. 17
Kennedy, Mary Kate 52, 53, 54
Kennett (Missouri) 71
Klose, Jerry Don 69
Knapp, Seaman Asahel 2
Knox County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 28, 30,
31, 35, 37, 41, 42, 45
Knox Prairie 8
L
Labririe, John 47
Lake Diversion 30
Lake Kemp 30
Lewellen, J. C. 51, 69
Linville, F. A. 69, 70
Linville, Nora 70
Little Wichita River 24
Long, C. D. 57
Lubbock 1, 2, 65
Lytle Creek 8
104
New York (New York) 19, 24, 51,
61, 69
Nolan County 52, 63, 70
Noodle Creek 29
O
Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) 26, 51,
61, 69
Orr, J. T. 52, 67
P
Paint Creek 46
Palo Pinto County 7
Parks, A. 11
Persons, D. H. 53, 65
Phillips, John W. 17
Pitts, W. W. 52, 67
Prideaux, R. O. 7
Pryor, A. J. 48
Pryor, W. W. 57
R
Red River 4
Reynolds, George T. 8, 46
Rheinland 18
Rice Springs 46, 47
Roberts, Creed 7
Roberts, Emett 7
Roberts, John 7
Robertson, R. V. 51
Robertson County 69
Rock Island County (Illinois) 11,
50, 59
Rogers, J. H. 48
Rosebud 48
Round Timbers community 7
S
St. Louis (Missouri) 8, 10
Sagerton 64, 69
Salt Fork 47
Sanders, Fred 20, 67 (see also Fred
T. Sanders, F. T. Sanders)
Sanders, Fred T. 28, 31, 49, 50, 52,
59, 60 (see also Fred Sanders, F.
T. Sanders)
Sanders, F. T. 48, 49, 50, 54, 55n,
57n, 59, 64 (see also Fred
Sanders, Fred T. Sanders)
Sanders, Roy 54 (see also Roy A.
Sanders)
Sanders, Roy A. 54 (see also Roy
Sanders)
Scales, G. T. 61
Searcy, I. G. 46
Seymour 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31,
33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 47, 48,
57, 57n, 67, 71
Shackelford County 46
Shelley, C. W. 64
Shelley, Lola Bell 64
Sherman 57n
Sherrill, H. L. 48
Sherrill, R. E. 28, 31, 62
Simmons, J. F. 69
Simpson, John 7
Smith, L. M. 47
Smith, N. C. 47, 49, 67
Smithville 59, 63
Somerville, W. F. 17
Sonnamaker, Virgil 2
Sparks, B. E. 19
Spurlock, M. F. 63, 65
Stamford 2, 4, 6, 10, 18, 19, 20,
20n, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29,
30, 31, 37, 45, 48, 71
Standifer, Elbridge 47
Standifer, W. R. 8, 47
Stevens, J. W. 7
Stith, Eula T. 51
Stith, Will 31, 61
Stokes, Lynn 52, 67
Swenson, Swante M. 10
Swenson, W. G. 19
T
Taylor County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 19, 20, 28, 28n, 29, 30,
31, 43, 45, 46, 51, 54, 61
Taylor 48
Temple 48
Thistle 47
Throckmorton County 17, 48n
Trumbull, Frank 19
Tucker, A. J. 7
Tucker, Thomas F. 8, 46
V
Vontress 60
Vose, Alden H. 51, 61, 69
H. D. Wade, Homer D. Wade)
Wade, Homer D. 22, 26, 28 (see also
H. D. Wade, Homer Wade)
Waggoner, Daniel 7
Waggoner, Tom 7
Wair, A. H. 53, 64, 66
Walker, G. L. 69
Waller, C. C. 48
Walters, H. 19
Watson, L. B. 52, 53, 64
Weatherford 8
Weinert, F. C. 19
Weinert 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 28, 31, 45,
60, 61, 64, 69
Wells, W. F. 69
Whatley, Emmett M. 51
Whitewright 48
Whittemore, M. W. 48
Wichita County 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 25, 26, 28, 29,
31, 37, 42, 43, 46
Wichita Falls 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 17,
18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29,
37, 45, 57n, 61
Wichita River 4, 8, 17
Wichita Valley 17
Wilfong, R. D. 46
Williams, M. L. 52, 63, 70
Williamson, George 31
Williamson County 48
Willow Springs 8
Wills Point 52, 67
Woods, Dr. 62
Wooten, W. E. 54, 67
Wright, T. H. 49, 50, 51, 55n, 64
Y
W
Yoakum, Benjamin F. 19, 25
Waco 26, 48
Wade, H. D. 25 (see also Homer
Wade, Homer D. Wade)
Wade, Homer 24, 25, 26 (see also
105
Z
Zahn, Paul 51

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