# Unit 5: The Mole

## Transcription

Unit 5: The Mole

Quick Look at 2nd Semester • Unit 5- Mole Concept Unit 5 Exam • Unit 6- Atom • Unit 7- Periodic Table Prove it Quiz Unit 6/7 Exam • 8- Chemical Reactions • 9- Stoichiometry Prove it Quiz Unit 8/9 Exam • Unit 10- Nuclear Chemistry Prove It Model/ Take Home Written Exam Quick Look at 2nd Semester 3- Prove it Quiz 3- Unit Exam 1- Prove it Model 1- Take Home Written Exam 50 pts each 100 pts each 50 pts each 100 pts Total of 600 measurement points Measurements- Prove it Quizzes -Taken during class time - Shortest, Easiest, all questions are off practice problems. You have 1 week to take Quiz 2 -Taken on your time - Twice as long as Quiz 1 - More difficult, question are off practice problems mostly. You have 1 week to take Quiz 3 -Done on your time -Parents contacted -Required study sessions before and after school. - Can be projected based. - “Busy Work” -List of components that need complete by a deadline. Deadline • If you are absent on the day quiz three is due you must: – E-mailed the completed quiz (take picture with your phone)……or – Have a parent or friend turn it in…. If you do not contact me, and come in when you return to turn it in…it will not be excepted (= Zero)! This is also true for large projects (Mole Day)! Practice– Bellringer and Closure • Everyday you are required to write one complete paragraph (4 sentences) over the posted prompt. • For easy grading you will be required to number your sentences. • Use your brain….somedays are not a paragraph, like if I ask you to calculate! • Please refrain from asking everyday if it is a paragraph… Practice– Bellringer and Closure Picture Examples 4 sentence, but not numbered Practice– Bellringer and Closure Picture Examples 3 sentence, that are numbered Practice– Bellringer and Closure • Daily Writing will be collected every other week. These dates will be posted on the calendar. I will be randomly read your entries for thoughtfulness and accuracy, but will be counting and making sure that all entries are present. • If your Daily Writing is not turned in on time you will NOT receive credit. I do not accept late work in the Practice category. Quick Look at 2nd Semester Classroom supplies Glue Sticks, Expo Markers, and Kleenex Unit 5- The Mole Concept Notes Unit 5- Alert: You must now bring a calculator everyday (mine are now off limits). Go check on out of the library if you do not have one. When a calculation are explained you must work it out on your calculator too! Conversion Factors What is on your card? Key Concept 1: A conversion factor is a numerical factor used to multiply or divide a quantity when converting from one system of units to another. Dimensional Analysis • Key Concept 2: Dimensional analysis was developed to keep track of units in multi-step conversion problems (also known as factor-label method). Key Concept 3: In the method, conversion factors are set up in fraction form. The equalities are then lined up sequentially and units used on the top and bottom of neighboring fractions are alternated so that units cancel. Dimensional Analysis • For example, consider the conversion of inches to centimeters (1.00 in = 2.54 cm). • This conversion factor could be written many different ways. Don’t move until all instructions are explained 1. Brake up into groups based on the same conversion factors. Go to a lab table. 2. On the lab tables there will be a new conversion factor and white board. 3. As a group write new conversion factor in as many different ways as you can think on your board. (Hint: use your cards to get your brain going) What group can get the most? Write conversion factors as fractions • Wipe off your boards and head back to your seat and get out your periodic table. Key Concept 4: Hide Conversion Factors = Sign The word per The word for The word in How many conversion factors can you find on the back of your Periodic Table? Last semester energy conversions End of Day 1 When is dimensional analysis useful? A batch of French toast requires 3 eggs to make. How many eggs are needed to make 8 batches? The same French toast recipe can feed 4 people per batch. If you throw a breakfast party for 12 people, how many batches do you need to make? When is dimensional analysis useful? Nonsense words taken from the poem Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll There are 20 tumtum trees in the tulgey wood. In each tulgey wood is one frumious Bandersnatch. There are 5 slithy toves in 2 borogoves. There are 2 mome raths per Jabberwock. There are 2 Jubjub birds in 200 tumtum trees. There are 200 mome raths in each borogove. There are 5 Jubjub birds per slithy tove. The question is: If there are 5 frumious Bandersnatches, how many Jabberwocks are there? When is dimensional analysis useful? Nonsense words taken from the poem Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll There are 20 tumtum trees (tt) in the tulgey wood (tw). In each tulgey wood (tw) is one frumious bandersnatch (fb). There are 5 slithy toves (sf) in 2 borogoves (b). There are 2 mome raths (mr) per Jabberwock (jw). There are 2 Jubjub birds (jb) in 200 tumtum trees (tt). There are 200 mome raths (mr) in each borogove (b). There are 5 Jubjub birds (jb) per slithy tove (st). The question is: If you have 5 frumious bandersnatches, how many jabberwocks are equivalent? When is dimensional analysis useful? You are a veterinarian’s assistant. The doctor asks you to give Lizzy, a young girl’s dog, 18.5 mg of Acepromazine before it goes into surgery. However, the medicine is in liquid form and must be given intravenously. Reading the bottle you see that Acepromazine has a density of 10mg/ml. How many mL of Acepromazine should you give the dog? Key Concept 5: Solve in your notebook and show your work. Chemistry Conversion Factors 1 cm3= 1 ml Density: __ g = __ ml 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles 22.4 L of a gas = 1 mole 1 mole = molecular mass of a compound ___ mole of A= ___ moles of B When is dimensional analysis useful? In a spacecraft, the carbon dioxide exhaled by astronauts can be removed by its reaction with lithium hydroxide, LiOH, according to the following chemical equation. CO2(g) + 2LiOH(s) Li2CO3(s) + H2O(l) How many moles of lithium hydroxide are required to react with 20 mol of CO2, the average amount exhaled by a person each day? Dimensional Analysis Dimensional Analysis Steps 1. Determine what the question is asking you to solve for. 2. Determine what is given in the problem to be converted. 3. Identify and plug in the appropriate conversion factors as fractions (units in numerator have to cancel the units in the denominator). 4. Cancel units 5. Verify your answer. (Units must match units in step 1. If the answer doesn’t match, repeat 3 and 5). Dimensional Analysis Key Concept 6: Dimensional Analysis Steps 1. ? Asking 2. Given 3. Plug in the appropriate conversion factors (units in numerator have to cancel the units in the denominator). 4. Cancel 5. Verify your answer Density Calculations Key Concept 7: What is the weight of the ethyl alcohol that exactly fills a 150.0 mL container? The density of ethyl alcohol is 0.789 g/mL. Speed Dating- Dimensional Analyses SetUp Practice • All problems will be done on whiteboards. – Show correct set-up (follow Key Concept 6) – Cancel units – Circle final answer • Switch partners every problem • People on the outer circle will write on white board first, this will also switch every problem. Common Mistakes and Misunderstandings. • You are budgeting for a road trip and want to determine how much it will cost you in gas. Common Mistakes and Misunderstandings. • You are budgeting for a road trip and want to determine how much it will cost you in gas. – There is only one way to solve conversion problems. Common Mistakes and Misunderstandings. • You are budgeting for a road trip and want to determine how much it will cost you in gas. – Students forget about order of operations. Exist Pass • Face pass: How do you feel regarding the correct step of dimensional analysis? Give me a face and a complete sentence using the sentence starters on your closure sheet. End of Day Title for Table of Contents The Mole- Part A Leave three to four page to finish notes. Whip Around • You will have to quickly and verbally share one thing you learned in class today with a classmate. Whoever you share your information with will have to write one of the things you learned into your Daily Writing Sheet and sign their name. (You will be writing what John Doe learned into his Daily Writing Sheet and signing it.) End of day Daily Writing Determine the following compounds names: 1)BBr3 2) CaSO4 3) C2Br6 4) Cr2 (CO3)3 Self-Motivated Practice • For the next few months, we will be doing a lot of math and calculations. • You will also be provided a lot of practice problems to help with understanding how to correctly complete these problems. Self-Motivated Practice • Reminder – we are doing calculations, this means that you will need your calculator every day, no exceptions. Self-Motivated Practice • The correct answer on dimensional analysis problems are worth very little. • Therefore you will not get any credit if you do not show your work (dimensional anaylsis). • Let me repeat this: On a activity or quiz with the correct answer but no work shown will get a score of ZERO. • If you understand the concept and can just plug the number into the calculator and get the answer, you are luckily to be able to visuals the step-up in your head but I can not grade what is in your head. Show and write out the work! Counting Particles MOLE • Key Concept 8: The mole (mol) is an SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance. • Key Concept 9: 1 mole is equal to the number 6.02 1023particles. • Avogadro’s number is another name for the value of one mole, 6.02 x 1023. Counting Particles Key Concept 10: There are three types of representative particle; atom, molecule, and formula units. – The unit atom is used with single element. – The unit molecule is used with covalently bonded element (2 non-metals). – The unit formula units are used with ionicly bonded elements (1 metal and 1 non-metal). Counting Particles • Avogadro's number is named after Amedeo Avogadro who proposed in 1811 that in any given gas, the number of atoms or molecules in a gas was directly proportional to it’s volume independent of a gas properties. • The number was valued at 6.02x1023 in 1926 by Jean Perrin who proposed that the number be proposed after Avogadro for his foundational work. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEl4jeET Vmg Counting Particles • A mole is an enormous quantity, even for extremely small particles. • Avogadro’s number would not be convenient for measuring a quantity of eggs, roses, or paper. • One mole of marshmallows would cover the USA to a depth of 6500 miles. • Computers can count at the rate of over 800 million counts per second. At this rate it would take a computer over 25 million years to count to 6.02 x 1023 • Assuming that each human being has 60 trillion body cells (6.0 x 1013) and the Earth's population is 6 billion (6 x 109), the total number of living human body cells on the Earth at the present time is 3.6 x 1023or a little over half of a mole. Closure- Be The Teacher What three concepts (these could be key ideas, vocabulary, or equations) do you think everyone should have learned. Pass out Practice Problems 5A End of day How many eggs are in a 17 dozen? Show your work and use dimensional analysis. Stamp for correct set-up. Goal: Everyone can set-up and solve simple dimensional analysis problems using 1 mole=6.02e23 Get out your Calculators!!!! • Reminder – we are doing calculations, this means that you will need your calculator every day, no exceptions. Can you use your calculator correctly? Key Concept 11: How many formula units of NaCl (Sodium Chloride) are in 43.4 moles? Can you use your calculator correctly? • Key Concept 12: How many moles of copper are there in 1.54x1023 atoms Cu? Can you use your calculator correctly? • Key Concept 13: How many molecules of sucrose are in 3.5 moles of sucrose? How Big is a Mole Activity • Complete problems 1-5 with your shoulder partner. • These problems can be challenging….but use dimensional analysis when it can be helpful. • You will be using pennies….they are located at station7 (in the front) . • When your done through 5; move your desks back and work individually. • I will be monitoring and helping those that still need help setting up these conversions during independent work. Homework Reminder • Review of the song Mole is a Unit What did you like, dislike, and what did you learn? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvT51M0ek5c • “The Mole- Part A” due today…. • Unit 5 Exam next Friday. Closure- Here’s How • Write a detailed explanation of a procedure— • How do you ”type” in Avogadro's Number into your calculator? End of Day Mole Day Mole Day • Mole Day is an unofficial holiday celebrated among chemists on October 23, between 6:02 AM and 6:02 PM, making the date 6:02 10/23 in the American style of writing dates. • Mole Day originated in an article in The Science Teacher in the early 1980s. FHS Mole Day • Due to time and where we were in the curriculum we could not celebrate Mole Day in October, but now would be a great time. • Mole Day is also geared as your first extra credit assignment for this semester. • You will also have the opportunity to win free assignment passes, free quiz, and +5 point on an exam of your choice. FHS Mole Day • You will need to complete 2 mole day projects to earn up to 50 points under Performance. – 1 will be from the Fun and Silly Category – 1 will be from the Fun and Educational Category (Can complete a second for extra credit) • You must sign up for what projects you will be completing. Sign up sheet will be posted on the lab notebook cabinet. FHS Mole Day • Fun and Silly (Pick 1) – Mole costume party (dress up like a mole or mole inspired tee shirt) – Sew-a-Mole – Make a Mole-Day Drawing – Make a Mole-yattas-- filled with tootsie "moles" – Make Mole Day treats: Moleasses cookies, Avogadro Dip, Taco-mole sauce, ect. Fun and Silly: Mole costume party • Dress up like a mole or make a mole inspired tee shirt. • To get credit you must wear your costume the day of our party (all day). Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole The sewing patter for your moles is on Mrs. Askew’s Website. Examples: Napolean Dynamole (Napolean Dynamite) Holy Moly (priest, nun, rabbi, ...) Moledemort (Voldemort) Moledonna (Madonna) The Little Mermole (The Little Mermaid) Bernie Mole and Mole Trump Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole • More ideas--- just google “chemistry stuffed mole” • If you wanted to work as a small group, I really want a ……. Fun and Silly: Mole Day Drawing • Drawing must be in color. • Could use other art techniques, such as clay or paint. Fun and Silly: Mole-yattas • You could fill it with tootsie "moles" • We will bust it open on the day of the party Fun and Silly: Make a Mole Day Treat Fun and Silly: Make a Mole Day Treat Anything with caramel… or should I say cara“ mole” Anything in a bowl… oh should I say “mole” Fun and Silly: Make a Mole Day Treat • • • • • • • • • Lemonade aka Lemolade Cola aka Mola Molasses Cookies or anything else with Molasses Mole Sauce This is a traditional Mexican sauce pronounced mol-lay. Guacamole plus it's made with avocado (Avogadro)! Anything with Avocado (play on Avogadro) A Jello Mold aka Jello Mole Mulberry Pie or Mulberry Muffins aka Molberry Granola aka Granmola Fun and Silly: Make a Mole Day Treat • Your required to use an index card or make a sign that has the name of your treat. Please- Nothing with nuts, due to allergies! Fun and Educational Fun and Educational (Pick 1 or 2) • Design a poster on dimensional analysis and mole conversions. (posted in display case). • Make a chemistry mole-bile to hang from the ceiling. • Create a Mole Day Songs (prerecorded or live). • Make a Mole-vie • Make a display of various substances that each contain one mole (such as a container with one mole of table salt) • Write a Mole Day poem, story, or Create a Mole Day comic book. • Create a Mole Day board game: Mole-opoly, a Chemistry Land (Candy Land), etc. Educational It must be educational to those that listen, look, or play with your project. Rule of thumb---use more facts--- aka do some research, besides 6.02 x 10e23 Mole Day Party • Activities – How many moles of NaCl and Sugar? • Prize: Free Practice Assignment Pass – Vote on best Fun and Silly Project • Prize: Free Quiz (can make any quiz grade an 8) – Vote on best Fun and Educational Project • Prize: Free Quiz (can make any quiz grade an 8) – Pin the Nose on the Mole • Prize: +5 points on Exam Mole Day Party • Think about it tonight… sign up Thursday. • This is an out of class assignment, there will be no class time. • This is an Individual assignment • Mole Day party will be on that will be two days before Unit 5 Exam. Bell Ringer Song • Review of the song Molar Eclipses of the Heart What did you like, dislike, and what did you learn? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIkC7SRq XP0 The Mass of a Mole 1. 2. 3. 4. Think-Pair (desk partners)-Share (verbally) What does 1 Eagle of skittles and 1 Eagle of sprees have in common? What is different about an Eagle of skittle and sprees? What does 1 mole of copper and 1 mole of carbon have in common? What is different about 1 mole of copper and 1 mole of carbon? •The Mass of a Mole • 1 mol of copper and 1 mol of carbon have different masses because they have different numbers of protons, neutrons, & electrons. •The Mass of a Mole • Key Concept 14: A mole always contains the same number of particles; however, moles of different substances have different masses. Table of content “The Mole- Part B” Closure • Exit Pass- How is a mole of copper and zinc the same and different? Mole Day • You must complete – 1 fun and silly (25pts under practice) – 1 fun and educational (25pts under performance/measurement) • Research and list the used websites • Example : The information for this poster was found at: www.moleandmrsaskewarecool.com and my class notes. – More information under chemistry assignments on Mrs. Askew’s Website. End of Day (Two day lesson) Table of content “The Mole- Part C” Monday Mole Day • You must complete – 1 fun and silly (25pts under practice) – 1 fun and educational (25pts under performance/measurement) • Research and list the used websites • Example : The information for this poster was found at: www.moleandmrsaskewarecool.com and my class notes. – More information under chemistry assignments on Mrs. Askew’s Website. •Chemical Formulas and the Mole • Chemical formulas indicate the numbers and types of atoms contained in one unit of the compound. • One dozen molecules of CCl2F2 contains 12 C atoms, 2(12) Cl atoms, and 2(12) F atoms. • Similarly, one mole of CCl2F2 contains one mole of C atoms, two moles of Cl atoms, and two moles of F atoms. •The Mass of a Mole • Key Concept 15 - Molecular Mass: (atomic mass, formula mass) of a molecule is its average mass as calculated by adding together the atomic weights of the atoms in the formula. •MM= Molecular Mass • MM QT •Q= quantity •T= Total •The Mass of a Mole • Key Concept 16 - Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance. • Key Concept 17 - The molar mass of any element is numerically equivalent to its molecular mass. • Key Concept 18- Molecular Mass units is atomic mass units (amu) and Molar mass units are grams per mole (--- g/ 1 mol). •CONVERSION FACTOR ALERT Calculating Molecular Mass/Molar Mass – Carbon – (NH4)2CO3 •The Mass of a Mole • Key Concept 19: Calculate the molecular mass and mole mass for: – Fluorine – Mg(OH)2 Back to Mole Part C • On the whiteboards calculate the molecular mass using the MMQT method for the following substances: • Table 1 & 4- Iron and Calcium Chloride • Table 2 & 5- Aluminum and Magnesium Sulfate • Table 3 & 6 – Zinc and Water • Table 7- Sodium Chloride and Copper Analysis & Interpretation Questions • 1) • 2) • 3) a. CO2 b. c. • 4) a. Find the mass of 3 moles of CO2 b. c. Closure • Exit Pass: Answer the content objective driving question. End of day Goal for Today - Practice calculating molar and molecular mass. - Use molar mass as a conversion factor in a conversion problem. - Finish “The Mole- Part C” - MOLE DAY TOMORROW! - Practice Problems B (Homework) Practice Make Perfect Calculate the molar mass of Ca(OH)2 What is “Ti” atomic mass? What is the molecular mass of CH3CH2OH (Ethanol)? Analysis & Interpretation Questions • 1) • 2) • 3) a. CO2 b. c. • 4) a. Find the mass of 3 moles of CO2 b. c. Applying New Knowledge • 5) • 6) Closure • Exit ticket: What is the difference between molecular mass and molar mass? End of day •Converting using Moles • Conversion factors so far introduced…… •Converting using Moles • Key Concept 20: How many grams of zinc are there in 1.5 moles of Zn? •Converting using Moles • Key Concept 21: Gold (Au) is one of a group of metals called coinage metals (copper, silver, and gold). How many atoms of gold are in a U.S. Eagle, a gold bullion coin with a mass of 31.1g Au? •Converting using Moles • Key Concept 22:The characteristic odor of garlic is due to allyl sulfate [(C3H5)2S]. What is the mass of 2.50 mol of (C3H5)2S ? •Converting using Moles • Key Concept 23: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is used in refining petroleum and manufacturing rubber and lubricants. A sample of aluminum chloride has a mass of 35.6g. How many formula units are present? Rotation Station Activity • You will need • Blank piece of paper • Calculator • Periodic Tables • If you get done earlier work on the common mistake handout. Board Meeting • • • • Lab Table 1 and 5- Problem 1 Lab Table 2 and 6- Problem 2 Lab Table 3 and 7- Problem 3 Lab Table 4- Problem 4 Board 1: Black- Write out the students work Red- Misconceptions, missing units, what steps in factor labeling do they need to study and practice. Board 2: Solve the Problem Correctly Closure- Exit Pass Answer the following questions 1. Do you feel like your ready for the exam? 2. Have you complete practice problems A and B? End of Unit 5