Unit 5: The Mole

Transcription

Unit 5: The Mole
Quick Look at 2nd Semester
• Unit 5- Mole Concept
Unit 5 Exam
• Unit 6- Atom
• Unit 7- Periodic Table
Prove it Quiz
Unit 6/7 Exam
• 8- Chemical Reactions
• 9- Stoichiometry
Prove it Quiz
Unit 8/9 Exam
• Unit 10- Nuclear Chemistry Prove It Model/ Take
Home Written Exam
Quick Look at 2nd Semester
3- Prove it Quiz
3- Unit Exam
1- Prove it Model
1- Take Home Written Exam
50 pts each
100 pts each
50 pts each
100 pts
Total of 600 measurement points
Measurements- Prove it Quizzes
-Taken during class time
- Shortest, Easiest, all
questions are off practice
problems.
You have 1 week to
take Quiz 2
-Taken on your time
- Twice as long as Quiz 1
- More difficult, question are off
practice problems mostly.
You have 1 week to
take Quiz 3
-Done on your time
-Parents contacted
-Required study sessions
before and after school.
- Can be projected based.
- “Busy Work”
-List of components that need
complete by a deadline.
Deadline
• If you are absent on the day quiz three is due
you must:
– E-mailed the completed quiz (take picture with
your phone)……or
– Have a parent or friend turn it in….
If you do not contact me, and come in when you
return to turn it in…it will not be excepted (= Zero)!
This is also true for large projects (Mole Day)!
Practice– Bellringer and Closure
• Everyday you are required to write one
complete paragraph (4 sentences) over the
posted prompt.
• For easy grading you will be required to
number your sentences.
• Use your brain….somedays are not a
paragraph, like if I ask you to calculate!
• Please refrain from asking everyday if it is a
paragraph…
Practice– Bellringer and Closure
Picture Examples
4 sentence, but not numbered
Practice– Bellringer and Closure
Picture Examples
3 sentence, that are numbered
Practice– Bellringer and Closure
• Daily Writing will be collected every other
week. These dates will be posted on the
calendar. I will be randomly read your entries
for thoughtfulness and accuracy, but will be
counting and making sure that all entries are
present.
• If your Daily Writing is not turned in on time
you will NOT receive credit. I do not accept
late work in the Practice category.
Quick Look at 2nd Semester
Classroom supplies
Glue Sticks, Expo Markers, and
Kleenex
Unit 5- The Mole
Concept Notes
Unit 5- Alert: You must now bring a
calculator everyday (mine are now
off limits). Go check on out of the
library if you do not have one. When
a calculation are explained you must
work it out on your calculator too!
Conversion Factors
What is on your card?
Key Concept 1: A conversion factor is a
numerical factor used to multiply or divide a
quantity when converting from one system of
units to another.
Dimensional Analysis
• Key Concept 2: Dimensional analysis was
developed to keep track of units in multi-step
conversion problems (also known as factor-label
method).
 Key Concept 3: In the method, conversion
factors are set up in fraction form. The
equalities are then lined up sequentially and
units used on the top and bottom of
neighboring fractions are alternated so that
units cancel.
Dimensional Analysis
• For example, consider the conversion of
inches to centimeters (1.00 in = 2.54 cm).
• This conversion factor could be written many
different ways.
Don’t move until all instructions are explained
1. Brake up into groups based on the same
conversion factors. Go to a lab table.
2. On the lab tables there will be a new conversion
factor and white board.
3. As a group write new conversion factor in as
many different ways as you can think on your
board. (Hint: use your cards to get your brain
going)
What group can get the most?
Write conversion factors as fractions
• Wipe off your boards and head
back to your seat and get out
your periodic table.
Key Concept 4: Hide Conversion Factors
= Sign
The word per
The word for
The word in
How many conversion factors can you find
on the back of your Periodic Table?
Last semester energy conversions
End of Day 1
When is dimensional analysis useful?
A batch of French toast requires 3 eggs to make.
How many eggs are needed to make 8 batches?
The same French toast recipe can feed 4 people per
batch. If you throw a breakfast party for 12 people,
how many batches do you need to make?
When is dimensional analysis useful?
Nonsense words taken from the poem Jabberwocky
by Lewis Carroll
There are 20 tumtum trees in the tulgey wood.
In each tulgey wood is one frumious Bandersnatch.
There are 5 slithy toves in 2 borogoves.
There are 2 mome raths per Jabberwock.
There are 2 Jubjub birds in 200 tumtum trees.
There are 200 mome raths in each borogove.
There are 5 Jubjub birds per slithy tove.
The question is: If there are 5 frumious
Bandersnatches, how many Jabberwocks are there?
When is dimensional analysis useful?
Nonsense words taken from the poem Jabberwocky
by Lewis Carroll
There are 20 tumtum trees (tt) in the tulgey wood (tw).
In each tulgey wood (tw) is one frumious bandersnatch (fb).
There are 5 slithy toves (sf) in 2 borogoves (b).
There are 2 mome raths (mr) per Jabberwock (jw).
There are 2 Jubjub birds (jb) in 200 tumtum trees (tt).
There are 200 mome raths (mr) in each borogove (b).
There are 5 Jubjub birds (jb) per slithy tove (st).
The question is: If you have 5 frumious
bandersnatches, how many jabberwocks are
equivalent?
When is dimensional analysis useful?
You are a veterinarian’s assistant. The doctor asks
you to give Lizzy, a young girl’s dog, 18.5 mg of
Acepromazine before it goes into surgery. However,
the medicine is in liquid form and must be given
intravenously. Reading the bottle you see that
Acepromazine has a density of 10mg/ml. How many
mL of Acepromazine should you give the dog?
Key Concept 5: Solve in your
notebook and show your
work.
Chemistry Conversion Factors
1 cm3= 1 ml
Density: __ g = __ ml
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles
22.4 L of a gas = 1 mole
1 mole = molecular mass of a compound
___ mole of A= ___ moles of B
When is dimensional analysis useful?
In a spacecraft, the carbon dioxide exhaled by
astronauts can be removed by its reaction
with lithium hydroxide, LiOH, according to the
following chemical equation.
CO2(g) + 2LiOH(s)  Li2CO3(s) + H2O(l)
How many moles of lithium hydroxide are
required to react with 20 mol of CO2, the
average amount exhaled by a person each
day?
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis Steps
1. Determine what the question is asking you to solve for.
2. Determine what is given in the problem to be converted.
3. Identify and plug in the appropriate conversion factors as
fractions (units in numerator have to cancel the
units in the denominator).
4. Cancel units
5. Verify your answer. (Units must match units in step 1. If
the answer doesn’t match, repeat 3 and 5).
Dimensional Analysis
Key Concept 6: Dimensional Analysis Steps
1. ? Asking
2. Given
3. Plug in the appropriate conversion factors (units
in numerator have to cancel the units in the
denominator).
4. Cancel
5. Verify your answer
Density Calculations
Key Concept 7: What is the weight of the ethyl alcohol
that exactly fills a 150.0 mL container? The density of
ethyl alcohol is 0.789 g/mL.
Speed Dating- Dimensional Analyses SetUp Practice
• All problems will be done on whiteboards.
– Show correct set-up (follow Key Concept 6)
– Cancel units
– Circle final answer
• Switch partners every problem
• People on the outer circle will write on white
board first, this will also switch every problem.
Common Mistakes and
Misunderstandings.
• You are budgeting for a road trip and want to
determine how much it will cost you in gas.
Common Mistakes and
Misunderstandings.
• You are budgeting for a road trip and want to
determine how much it will cost you in gas.
– There is only one way to solve conversion
problems.
Common Mistakes and
Misunderstandings.
• You are budgeting for a road trip and want to
determine how much it will cost you in gas.
– Students forget about order of operations.
Exist Pass
• Face pass: How do you feel regarding the
correct step of dimensional analysis? Give me
a face and a complete sentence using the
sentence starters on your closure sheet.
End of Day
Title for Table of Contents
The Mole- Part A
Leave three to four page to
finish notes.
Whip Around
• You will have to quickly and verbally share one
thing you learned in class today with a
classmate. Whoever you share your
information with will have to write one of the
things you learned into your Daily Writing
Sheet and sign their name. (You will be
writing what John Doe learned into his Daily
Writing Sheet and signing it.)
End of day
Daily Writing
Determine the following compounds names:
1)BBr3
2) CaSO4
3) C2Br6
4) Cr2 (CO3)3
Self-Motivated Practice
• For the next few months, we will be doing a lot
of math and calculations.
• You will also be provided a lot of practice
problems to help with understanding how to
correctly complete these problems.
Self-Motivated Practice
• Reminder – we are doing calculations,
this means that you will need your
calculator every day, no exceptions.
Self-Motivated Practice
• The correct answer on dimensional analysis problems are
worth very little.
• Therefore you will not get any credit if you do not show your
work (dimensional anaylsis).
• Let me repeat this: On a activity or quiz with the correct
answer but no work shown will get a score of ZERO.
• If you understand the concept and can just plug the number
into the calculator and get the answer, you are luckily to be
able to visuals the step-up in your head but I can not grade
what is in your head. Show and write out the work!
Counting Particles
MOLE
• Key Concept 8: The mole (mol) is an SI base
unit used to measure the amount of a
substance.
• Key Concept 9: 1 mole is equal to the number
6.02  1023particles.
• Avogadro’s number is another name for
the value of one mole, 6.02 x 1023.
Counting Particles
Key Concept 10: There are three types of
representative particle; atom, molecule, and
formula units.
– The unit atom is used with single element.
– The unit molecule is used with covalently bonded
element (2 non-metals).
– The unit formula units are used with ionicly
bonded elements (1 metal and 1 non-metal).
Counting Particles
• Avogadro's number is named
after Amedeo Avogadro who
proposed in 1811 that in any
given gas, the number of atoms or
molecules in a gas was directly
proportional to it’s volume
independent of a gas properties.
• The number was valued at
6.02x1023 in 1926 by Jean Perrin
who proposed that the number be
proposed after Avogadro for his
foundational work.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEl4jeET
Vmg
Counting Particles
• A mole is an enormous quantity, even for
extremely small particles.
• Avogadro’s number would not be convenient
for measuring a quantity of eggs, roses, or
paper.
• One mole of marshmallows would cover the
USA to a depth of 6500 miles.
• Computers can count at the rate of over 800
million counts per second. At this rate it
would take a computer over 25 million years
to count to 6.02 x 1023
• Assuming that each human being has 60
trillion body cells (6.0 x 1013) and the Earth's
population is 6 billion (6 x 109), the total
number of living human body cells on the
Earth at the present time is 3.6 x 1023or a little
over half of a mole.
Closure- Be The Teacher
What three concepts (these could
be key ideas, vocabulary, or
equations) do you think everyone
should have learned.
Pass out Practice Problems 5A
End of day
How many eggs are in a 17
dozen? Show your work and use
dimensional analysis.
Stamp for correct set-up.
Goal: Everyone can set-up and
solve simple dimensional
analysis problems using
1 mole=6.02e23
Get out your Calculators!!!!
• Reminder – we are doing calculations,
this means that you will need your
calculator every day, no exceptions.
Can you use your calculator correctly?
Key Concept 11: How many formula units of
NaCl (Sodium Chloride) are in 43.4 moles?
Can you use your calculator correctly?
• Key Concept 12: How many moles of copper
are there in 1.54x1023 atoms Cu?
Can you use your calculator correctly?
• Key Concept 13: How many molecules of
sucrose are in 3.5 moles of sucrose?
How Big is a Mole Activity
• Complete problems 1-5 with your shoulder partner.
• These problems can be challenging….but use
dimensional analysis when it can be helpful.
• You will be using pennies….they are located at
station7 (in the front) .
• When your done through 5; move your desks back
and work individually.
• I will be monitoring and helping those that still need
help setting up these conversions during
independent work.
Homework Reminder
• Review of the song Mole is a Unit
What did you like, dislike, and what
did you learn?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvT51M0ek5c
• “The Mole- Part A” due today….
• Unit 5 Exam next Friday.
Closure- Here’s How
• Write a detailed explanation of a procedure—
• How do you ”type” in Avogadro's Number into
your calculator?
End of Day
Mole Day
Mole Day
• Mole Day is an unofficial holiday
celebrated among chemists on
October 23, between 6:02 AM
and 6:02 PM, making the date
6:02 10/23 in the American style
of writing dates.
• Mole Day originated in an article
in The Science Teacher in the
early 1980s.
FHS Mole Day
• Due to time and where we were in the
curriculum we could not celebrate Mole Day
in October, but now would be a great time.
• Mole Day is also geared as your first extra
credit assignment for this semester.
• You will also have the opportunity to win free
assignment passes, free quiz, and +5 point on
an exam of your choice.
FHS Mole Day
• You will need to complete 2 mole day projects
to earn up to 50 points under Performance.
– 1 will be from the Fun and Silly Category
– 1 will be from the Fun and Educational Category
(Can complete a second for extra credit)
• You must sign up for what projects you will be
completing. Sign up sheet will be posted on
the lab notebook cabinet.
FHS Mole Day
• Fun and Silly (Pick 1)
– Mole costume party (dress up like a mole or mole
inspired tee shirt)
– Sew-a-Mole
– Make a Mole-Day Drawing
– Make a Mole-yattas-- filled with tootsie "moles"
– Make Mole Day treats: Moleasses cookies,
Avogadro Dip, Taco-mole sauce, ect.
Fun and Silly: Mole costume party
• Dress up like a mole or make a mole
inspired tee shirt.
• To get credit you must wear your costume
the day of our party (all day).
Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole
The sewing patter for
your moles is on Mrs.
Askew’s Website.
Examples: Napolean Dynamole (Napolean Dynamite)
Holy Moly (priest, nun, rabbi, ...)
Moledemort (Voldemort)
Moledonna (Madonna)
The Little Mermole (The Little Mermaid)
Bernie Mole and Mole Trump
Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole
Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole
Fun and Silly: Sew a Mole
• More ideas--- just google “chemistry stuffed
mole”
• If you wanted to work as a small group, I really
want a …….
Fun and Silly: Mole Day Drawing
• Drawing must be in color.
• Could use other art techniques, such as clay or
paint.
Fun and Silly: Mole-yattas
• You could fill it with tootsie "moles"
• We will bust it open on the day of the party
Fun and Silly: Make a Mole
Day Treat
Fun and Silly: Make a Mole
Day Treat
Anything with caramel…
or should I say cara“ mole”
Anything in a bowl…
oh should I say “mole”
Fun and Silly: Make a Mole
Day Treat
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lemonade aka Lemolade
Cola aka Mola
Molasses Cookies or anything else with Molasses
Mole Sauce This is a traditional Mexican sauce pronounced mol-lay.
Guacamole plus it's made with avocado (Avogadro)!
Anything with Avocado (play on Avogadro)
A Jello Mold aka Jello Mole
Mulberry Pie or Mulberry Muffins aka Molberry
Granola aka Granmola
Fun and Silly: Make a Mole
Day Treat
• Your required to use an index card or make a
sign that has the name of your treat.
Please- Nothing with
nuts, due to allergies!
Fun and Educational
Fun and Educational (Pick 1 or 2)
• Design a poster on dimensional analysis and mole
conversions. (posted in display case).
• Make a chemistry mole-bile to hang from the ceiling.
• Create a Mole Day Songs (prerecorded or live).
• Make a Mole-vie
• Make a display of various substances that each contain one
mole (such as a container with one mole of table salt)
• Write a Mole Day poem, story, or Create a Mole Day comic
book.
• Create a Mole Day board game: Mole-opoly, a Chemistry Land
(Candy Land), etc.
Educational
It must be educational to those that listen, look,
or play with your project.
Rule of thumb---use more facts--- aka do some
research, besides 6.02 x 10e23
Mole Day Party
• Activities
– How many moles of NaCl and Sugar?
• Prize: Free Practice Assignment Pass
– Vote on best Fun and Silly Project
• Prize: Free Quiz (can make any quiz grade an 8)
– Vote on best Fun and Educational Project
• Prize: Free Quiz (can make any quiz grade an 8)
– Pin the Nose on the Mole
• Prize: +5 points on Exam
Mole Day Party
• Think about it tonight… sign up Thursday.
• This is an out of class assignment, there will
be no class time.
• This is an Individual assignment
• Mole Day party will be on that will be two
days before Unit 5 Exam.
Bell Ringer Song
• Review of the song Molar Eclipses of the Heart
What did you like, dislike, and what did you
learn?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIkC7SRq
XP0
The Mass of a Mole
1.
2.
3.
4.
Think-Pair (desk partners)-Share (verbally)
What does 1 Eagle of skittles and 1 Eagle of
sprees have in common?
What is different about an Eagle of skittle
and sprees?
What does 1 mole of copper and 1 mole of
carbon have in common?
What is different about 1 mole of copper
and 1 mole of carbon?
•The Mass of a Mole
• 1 mol of copper and 1 mol of carbon have
different masses because they have
different numbers of protons, neutrons, &
electrons.
•The Mass of a Mole
• Key Concept 14: A mole always contains the
same number of particles; however, moles of
different substances have different masses.
Table of content
“The Mole- Part B”
Closure
• Exit Pass- How is a mole of copper and zinc
the same and different?
Mole Day
• You must complete
– 1 fun and silly (25pts under practice)
– 1 fun and educational (25pts under performance/measurement)
• Research and list the used websites
• Example : The information for this poster was found
at: www.moleandmrsaskewarecool.com and my class notes.
– More information under chemistry assignments on
Mrs. Askew’s Website.
End of Day (Two day lesson)
Table of content
“The Mole- Part C”
Monday
Mole Day
• You must complete
– 1 fun and silly (25pts under practice)
– 1 fun and educational (25pts under performance/measurement)
• Research and list the used websites
• Example : The information for this poster was found
at: www.moleandmrsaskewarecool.com and my class notes.
– More information under chemistry assignments on
Mrs. Askew’s Website.
•Chemical Formulas and the Mole
• Chemical formulas indicate the numbers and types of
atoms contained in one unit of the compound.
• One dozen molecules of CCl2F2 contains 12 C atoms,
2(12) Cl atoms, and 2(12) F atoms.
• Similarly, one mole of CCl2F2 contains one mole of C
atoms, two moles of Cl atoms, and two moles of F atoms.
•The Mass of a Mole
• Key Concept 15 - Molecular Mass:
(atomic mass, formula mass) of a molecule
is its average mass as calculated by
adding together the atomic weights of the
atoms in the formula.
•MM= Molecular Mass
• MM QT
•Q= quantity
•T= Total
•The Mass of a Mole
• Key Concept 16 - Molar mass is the mass
in grams of one mole of any pure
substance.
• Key Concept 17 - The molar mass of any
element is numerically equivalent to its
molecular mass.
• Key Concept 18- Molecular Mass units is
atomic mass units (amu) and Molar mass
units are grams per mole (--- g/ 1 mol).
•CONVERSION FACTOR
ALERT
Calculating
Molecular Mass/Molar Mass
– Carbon
– (NH4)2CO3
•The Mass of a Mole
• Key Concept 19: Calculate the molecular
mass and mole mass for:
– Fluorine
– Mg(OH)2
Back to Mole Part C
• On the whiteboards calculate the molecular
mass using the MMQT method for the
following substances:
• Table 1 & 4- Iron and Calcium Chloride
• Table 2 & 5- Aluminum and Magnesium
Sulfate
• Table 3 & 6 – Zinc and Water
• Table 7- Sodium Chloride and Copper
Analysis & Interpretation Questions
• 1)
• 2)
• 3) a. CO2
b.
c.
• 4) a. Find the mass of 3 moles of CO2
b.
c.
Closure
• Exit Pass: Answer the content objective driving
question.
End of day
Goal for Today
- Practice calculating molar and molecular
mass.
- Use molar mass as a conversion factor in a
conversion problem.
- Finish “The Mole- Part C”
- MOLE DAY TOMORROW!
- Practice Problems B (Homework)
Practice Make Perfect
Calculate the molar mass of Ca(OH)2
What is “Ti” atomic mass?
What is the molecular mass of CH3CH2OH
(Ethanol)?
Analysis & Interpretation Questions
• 1)
• 2)
• 3) a. CO2
b.
c.
• 4) a. Find the mass of 3 moles of CO2
b.
c.
Applying New Knowledge
• 5)
• 6)
Closure
• Exit ticket: What is the difference between
molecular mass and molar mass?
End of day
•Converting using Moles
• Conversion factors so far introduced……
•Converting using Moles
• Key Concept 20: How many grams of zinc are
there in 1.5 moles of Zn?
•Converting using Moles
• Key Concept 21: Gold (Au) is one of a group
of metals called coinage metals (copper, silver,
and gold). How many atoms of gold are in a
U.S. Eagle, a gold bullion coin with a mass of
31.1g Au?
•Converting using Moles
• Key Concept 22:The characteristic odor of
garlic is due to allyl sulfate [(C3H5)2S]. What is
the mass of 2.50 mol of (C3H5)2S ?
•Converting using Moles
• Key Concept 23: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is
used in refining petroleum and manufacturing
rubber and lubricants. A sample of aluminum
chloride has a mass of 35.6g. How many
formula units are present?
Rotation Station Activity
• You will need
• Blank piece of paper
• Calculator
• Periodic Tables
• If you get done earlier work on the common
mistake handout.
Board Meeting
•
•
•
•
Lab Table 1 and 5- Problem 1
Lab Table 2 and 6- Problem 2
Lab Table 3 and 7- Problem 3
Lab Table 4- Problem 4
Board 1: Black- Write out the students work
Red- Misconceptions, missing units, what steps
in factor labeling do they need to study and
practice.
Board 2: Solve the Problem Correctly
Closure- Exit Pass
Answer the following questions
1. Do you feel like your ready for the exam?
2. Have you complete practice problems A and
B?
End of Unit 5

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