Statistics 2016 - European Road Federation

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Statistics 2016 - European Road Federation
Road Statitics
Yearbook 2016
General Data
Road Network
Infrastructure
Financing
Road Maintenance
& Investment
Freight Transport
Passenger
Transport
Safety
Taxation
Environment
Case Studies
European Union Road Federation
Place Stéphanie 6/B
B-1050 Brussels • Belgium
T. +(32) 2 644 58 77
www.erf.be
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Foreword
The ERF is delighted to present you with the new version of the European Road Statistics.
As for many years, this publication provides the road community with essential information on the road
transport sector and remains a reference for all policy makers and major stakeholders.
This year again, we kept the new title ‘Road Statistics Yearbook’ 2016, in line with the most recent
developments regarding the road infrastructure sector.
We wish you a fruitful and pleasant discovery of this new edition.
The ERF team
September 2016
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General Data
Road Network
Infrastructure
Financing
Road Maintenance
& Investment
Freight Transport
Contents
Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................................3
Contents..............................................................................................................................................................................4
Symbols & Abbreviations...................................................................................................................................................8
Notes.................................................................................................................................................................................11
General data
1.1 Percentage of turnover by mode of transport - 2012.................................................................................................12
1.2 Transport growth in EU 28, evolution 1995-2013.......................................................................................................13
1.3 Annual growth rates EU 28.........................................................................................................................................13
1.4 Employment by mode of transport by country - 2012.................................................................................................14
1.5 Employment by mode of transport in EU 28 - 2012....................................................................................................15
Road Network
2.1 Length of total road network by category and country - 2012...................................................................................16
2.2 Length of total road network by country - 2012.........................................................................................................17
2.3 Density of the total road network 2012......................................................................................................................18
2.4 Length of motorway network by country - 2012.........................................................................................................18
2.5 Proportion of motorways compared to the total road network - 2013.......................................................................19
2.6 Density of motorways by country - 2012....................................................................................................................19
2.7 Passenger cars per km of motorway by country - 2013.............................................................................................20
2.8 Transport network comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China - 2012 ..........................................20
2.9 Density of motorways. Comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China - 2012..................................21
2.10 Passenger cars per km of motorway. Comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China - 2012...........21
2.11 Cars per 1000 inhabitants in EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia & China – 2013..............................................................21
Infrastructure Financing
3.1 Toll net revenues in selected countries, 2009-2014...................................................................................................22
3.2 Length and Type of TEN-T Roads in EU-28.................................................................................................................23
3.3 Budget managed by INEA...........................................................................................................................................23
3.4 European Investment Bank Loans for Transport Provided Within the European Union 2006-2015...........................24
3.5 European Investment Bank loans for Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-Ts) - 2015.....................................24
3.6 World Bank Total Transport Lending - 2004-2015......................................................................................................25
3.7 Transport Lending Breakdown by Region - 2015........................................................................................................25
Road Maintenance and Investment
4.1 Gross investment spending in road infrastructure in selected countries, 2009 - 2013 ...........................................26
4.2 Investment in inland transport infrastructure in EU 28, 2013 ...................................................................................27
4.3 Volume of investment in inland transport infrastructure by region, 1995 - 2013 .....................................................27
4.4 Distribution of infrastructure investment between modes in EU 28, 1995-2013 ....................................................28
4.5 Maintenance expenditures in road infrastructure in selected countries, 2009-2013 ..............................................29
4.6 Maintenance expenditures in road infrastructure in selected countries, 2001 - 2013 .............................................30
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Passenger
Transport
Safety
Taxation
Environment
Case Studies
Freight Transport
5.1 Transport of goods, performance by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013...............................................................................31
5.2 Goods transport by mode in EU 28 - 2013..................................................................................................................32
5.3 Inland transport modal split in EU 28, 2000-2013......................................................................................................32
5.4 Inland transport modal split in EU 28 - 2013..............................................................................................................33
5.5 Performance of inland freight transport by mode and country - 2013.......................................................................34
5.6 Performance by mode for inland freight transport in EU 28, 1995-2013...................................................................35
5.7 Total road transport of goods in EU 28 - 2013 ...........................................................................................................36
5.8 Transport of dangerous goods in EU 28 - 2013 ..........................................................................................................37
5.9 Registration of commercial vehicles in EU 28 and selected countries, 2013-2014...................................................39
Passenger Transport
6.1 Transport of passengers by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013.............................................................................................40
6.2 Evolution of passenger transport by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013..............................................................................41
6.3 Passenger transport modal split in EU 28 - 2013.....................................................................................................41
6.4 Modal split of passenger transport on land by country in EU 28 - 2013....................................................................42
6.5 Passenger vehicles in figures by country - 2013........................................................................................................43
6.6 Motorisation...............................................................................................................................................................44
6.7 New passenger car registration per 1000 inhabitants -2014....................................................................................45
6.8 Motorcycle Registrations in EU 28, 2010-2015.........................................................................................................46
6.9 Transport of passengers per mode - Comparison EU 28/World - 2013......................................................................47
6.10 Motorisation. Comparison EU 28/ World - 2013 .....................................................................................................47
6.11 Trends and outlooks in passenger transport demand for the different modes of transport in EU, 1990-2030.......48
Safety
7.1 Road accidents involving personal injury in EU 28, 1990-2013.................................................................................49
7.2 Road accidents involving personal injury per one thousand population in EU 28 - 2013........................................50
7.3 Road fatalities in EU 28, 2002-2014...........................................................................................................................51
7.4 Percentage change in road fatalities between 2002 and 2014.................................................................................52
7.5 Road fatalities country rankings - 2013......................................................................................................................53
7.6 Lives saved per million inhabitants in each EU 28 country in 2013...........................................................................54
7.7 Evolution of road fatalities and injured in EU 28, 2003-2014....................................................................................54
7.8 Road fatalities by mode of transport in EU 28 - 2013..............................................................................................55
7.9 PTWs fatalities in selected EU countries - 2014........................................................................................................57
7.10 Road fatalities by gender in EU member states - 2014............................................................................................57
7.11 Road fatalities by age group in EU-28 and selected countries - 2014.....................................................................58
7.12 Road Fatalities (per 100,000 population) in EU-28 and selected countries - 2014..................................................59
7.13 Speed limits, blood alcohol limits in EU-28..............................................................................................................60
7.14 Fatalities at 30 days by road user type in EU countries..........................................................................................61
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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General Data
Road Network
Infrastructure
Financing
Road Maintenance
& Investment
Freight Transport
Taxation
8.1 Taxes on acquisition of motor vehicles in EU - January 2015....................................................................................63
8.2 Excise duties on fuels in EU 28 at 1-1-2013 and 1-1-2015........................................................................................64
8.3 Net charges per domestic haul by type - 2012 ..........................................................................................................65
8.4 Fiscal income from motor vehicles in EU selected countries.....................................................................................66
8.5 At the pump prices of petroleum in EU 28 - first quarter of 2015..............................................................................67
8.6 Environmental tax revenues in EU 28, 2014 ..............................................................................................................68
8.7 CO2 based motor vehicle taxes in the EU, 2015.........................................................................................................69
Environment
9.1 Comparison between freight and passenger transport CO2 emissions in EU 28, 1995-2013..................................70
9.2 CO2 emissions from road transport in EU and selected countries - 2000-2011 ........................................................70
9.3 CO2 emissions from road passenger transport by mode in EU and selected countries - 1995-2011 .......................71
9.4 CO2 emissions from road freight transport in EU and selected countries - 1995 and 2013......................................71
9.5 Average CO2 emissions per km from new passenger cars in EU 28, 2013-2014.......................................................72
9.6 Evolution of CO2 emissions from new passenger cars .............................................................................................74
9.7 Share of total CO2 emmissions from fossil fuel by sector in EU 28- 2015.................................................................74
9.8 Fuel market share for new car registrations in EU-2014............................................................................................75
9.9 Evolution of CO2 emissions from new passenger cars by fuel type..........................................................................76
9.10 Final energy consumption by sector in EU 28 - 2014.............................................................................................77
9.11 Biodiesel production in EU 28, 2005-2014 ..............................................................................................................78
9.12 Biofuels share in transport consumption in EU 27, 1996-2011................................................................................79
9.13 Percentage of population exposed to road noise in urban areas in selected EU Member States - 2012...............79
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Passenger
Transport
Safety
Taxation
Environment
Case Studies
Case Studies
Risks and countermeasures for road traffic of the ederly in Europe
Infrastructural Interventions.............................................................................................................................................81
Rural and Urban Road Networks......................................................................................................................................82
Traffic control at intersections..........................................................................................................................................86
Lighting.............................................................................................................................................................................88
Route guidance and Signs................................................................................................................................................89
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General Data
Road Network
Infrastructure
Financing
Road Maintenance
& Investment
Freight Transport
Symbols and Abbreviations
EU 28
AT
BE
DE
DK
EL
ES
FI
EU 15 FR
IE
IT
LU
NL
PT
SE
UK
BG
CY
CZ
EE
HR
HU
EU 13 LT
LV
MT
PL
RO
SI
SK
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Austria
Belgium
Germany
Denmark
Greece
Spain
Finland
France
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
The Netherlands
Portugal
Sweden
United Kingdom
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Estonia
Croatia
Hungary
Lithuania
Latvia
Malta
Poland
Romania
Slovenia
Slovakia
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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Passenger
Transport
Safety
Taxation
Environment
Case Studies
Symbols and Abbreviations
EU Candidates
EFTA
Other Countries
EEA
ME
Montenegro
MK
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
TR
Turkey
RS
Republic of Serbia
IS
Iceland
LI
Liechtenstein
NO
Norway
CH
Switzerland
AU
Australia
CA
Canada
CL
Chile
IL
Israel
JP
Japan
KP
Korea
MX
Mexico
NZ
New Zealand
RF
Russian Federation
US
United States
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General Data
Road Network
Infrastructure
Financing
Road Maintenance
& Investment
Freight Transport
Symbols and Abbreviations
Other abbreviations
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ACEA
European Automobile Manufacturers Association
ACEM
European Association of Motorcycle Manufacturers
ASECAP
European Association of tolled motorways, bridges and tunnel
operators
Bn
Billion (thousand million)
CARE
European Road Accident Database
CORDIS
Community Research and Development Information Service
EBB
European Biodiesel Board
EC
European Commission
EEA
European Environment Agency
EIB
European Investment Bank
EU
European Union
EUR
Euro
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
g
Gram
IRTAD
International Road Traffic and Accident Database
ITF
International Transport Forum
n.a.
Not available data
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
pkm
Passenger-kilometre
PTW
Powered Two-Wheelers
TEN-T
Trans- European Transport Network
TEN-T EA
Trans- European Transport Network Executive Agency
tkm
Tonne-kilometre
toe
Tonne of oil equivalent
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Passenger
Transport
Safety
Taxation
Environment
Case Studies
Notes
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General Data
1
1.1 Percentage of turnover by mode of transport, 2012
(total 1,359 billion)
Source: EC
Inland water
transport 0.5%
Sea transport 8.1%
Pipelines 1.0%
Air transport 9.8%
Railways 5.2%
Road passenger
transport* 8.9%
Warehousing and
support activities 35.2%
Road freight
transport 23.0%
Postal and courier
activities 8.2%
* Including all urban and suburban land transport modes (motor bus, tramway, streetcar, trolley bus, underground and elevated railways).
The above figures refer to employment only in those companies whose main activity lies in the mode concerned.
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1
General Data
1.2 Transport growth in EU 28, evolution 1995-2013
Source: EC
145
140
135
130
1995 = 100
125
120
115
110
105
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
100
Passenger (pkm): passenger cars, powered two-wheelers, buses & coaches, tram & metro, railways, intra-EU air, intra-EU sea
Goods (tkm): road, rail, inland waterways, oil pipelines, intra-EU air, intra-EU sea
GDP (at constant year 2000 prices) - at constant year 2000 prices and exchange rates
1.3 Annual growth rates EU 28 (% change)
Source: EC
1995 - 2013
2012 - 2013
GDP at year 2000 prices and exchange rates
1.6%
0.0%
Passenger transport pkm
1.0%
1.1%
Freight transport tkm
1.1%
-0.0%
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General Data
1
1.4 Employment by mode of transport by country*, 2012 (thousand)
Source: Eurostat, estimates (in italics)
Total
EU 28
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
10,546.6
 211.9
 153.9
 267.4
 150.6
2,012.4
 38.6
 75.9
 162.3
 861.3
1,382.3
 77.3
1,076.0
 17.8
 72.8
 103.3
Road
freight
transport
2,945.7
 62.1
 51.8
 116.4
 34.0
 396.4
 14.4
 18.2
 30.9
 321.2
 351.5
 19.8
 316.2
 2.1
 22.7
 49.0
Road
passenger
transport**
1,988.5
 18.0
 33.6
 38.3
 23.9
 366.1
 5.7
 12.5
 65.0
 179.1
 250.4
 10.5
 169.2
 3.0
 12.4
 15.1
Railways
 577.0 
 1.3
 9.8
 28.6
 6.7
 47.0
 1.7
 3.1
 1.1
 19.6
 171.1
 2.8
 40.1
 0.0
 3.7
 10.8
Pipelines
 28.4
 0.1
 0.5
 1.0
 0.0
 3.3
 0.0
 0.0
 0.2
 1.9
 4.9
 0.4
 2.2
 0.0
 0.2
 0.0
Inland
water
transport
 40.1 
 0.6
 0.9
 0.5
 0.2
 8.3
 0.0
 0.1
 0.0
 0.4
 3.7
 0.2
 2.5
 0.0
 0.1
 0.0
Sea
transport
 164.0
 1.1
 3.4
 0.0
 21.0
 19.1
 0.8
 2.5
 13.0
 6.6
 11.0
 4.1
 26.7
 1.8
 0.7
 1.6
Air
transport
 366.5
 5.2
 2.2
 2.5
 11.0
 62.0
 0.4
 7.9
 3.6
 29.7
 42.3
 3.0
 24.6
 1.1
 1.5
 0.4
Warehousing and
support
activities
Postal and
courier
activities
2,601.9
1,834.3
 90.4
 32.5
 38.9
 28.3
 599.9
 11.8
 15.3
 35.5
 215.0
 262.8
 23.7
 333.4
 8.4
 25.7
 17.9
 32.9
 19.2
 41.3
 25.4
 510.1
 3.6
 16.4
 13.1
 87.7
 284.6
 12.7
 161.2
 1.4
 5.7
 8.6
LU
 23.0
 7.9
 4.6
 0.5
 0.0
 0.2
 0.0
 2.6
 3.7
 3.5
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
 219.5
 65.1
 1.0
 117.0
 58.7
 290.0
 59.8
 105.5
 20.8
 48.0
 1.5
 51.3
 54.7
 138.9
 34.1
 78.1
 5.1
 11.7
 0.0
 30.7
 12.0
 58.2
 3.6
 31.9
 1.3
 0.8
 0.0
 0.1
 0.5
 3.4
 0.1
 6.7
 0.1
 0.9
 0.0
 13.3
 0.5
 0.9
 0.6
 2.3
 0.3
 0.0
 0.5
 13.0
 0.0
 2.4
 0.9
 0.4
 0.2
 1.0
 2.9
 25.3
 6.9
 5.4
 10.6
 3.9
 0.6
 53.7
 2.7
 82.6
 49.0
 128.7
 28.4
 60.4
 8.3
 38.3
 1.0
 77.8
 25.6
 101.5
 15.3
 41.6
 7.6
 9.6
 411.0
 207.8
 729.5
 153.4
 330.6
 44.3
SK
 120.5
 37.6
 18.4
 13.5
 1.0
 0.4
 0.0
 0.4
 33.1
 16.1
FI
SE
UK
 147.2
 271.7
1,214.5
 44.7
 77.5
 253.4
 32.2
 68.5
 250.1
 8.5
 10.3
 47.6
 0.2
 0.0
 0.6
 0.4
 1.5
 1.3
 9.1
 14.3
 9.7
 9.9
 24.9
 74.8
 29.0
 48.7
 334.1
 13.2
 26.1
 242.6
(*) Data refer to transportation and storage activities (including postal and courier services).
(**) Including all urban and suburban land transport modes (motor bus, tramway, streetcar, trolley bus, underground and elevated railways)
The above figures refer to employment only in those companies whose main activity lies in the mode concerned. 14
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1
General Data
1.5 Employment by mode of transport in EU 28, 2012 (%)
Source: Eurostat
Postal and courier
activities 17.4%
Road freight
transport 27.9%
Warehousing and
support activities 24.7%
Road passenger
transport* 18.9%
Air transport 3.5%
Sea transport 1.6%
Inland water
transport 0.4%
Railways 5.5%
Pipelines 0.3%
(*) Including all urban and suburban land transport modes (motor bus, tramway, streetcar, trolley bus, underground and elevated railways)
The above figures refer to employment only in those companies whose main activity lies in the mode concerned.
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Road Network
2
2.1 Length of total road network by category* and country, end of 2012 (km)
Source: EC, IRF
Main or
national roads
Motorways
Secondary or
regional roads
Other roads*
Total
BE
1,763
13,229
1,349
138,869
155,210.0
BG
541
2,975
4,035
12,051
19,602.0
48,715
74,919
130,635.0
CZ
751
6,250
DK
1,195
2,596
DE
12,879
39,604
178,034
EE
124
3,887
12,458
42,299
58,768.0
IE
900
4,513
11,631
78,958
96,002.0
74,109.0
70,318
230,517.0
EL
1,659
9,299
30,864
75,600
117,421.5
ES
14,701
15,110
135,784
501,053
666,648.0
FR
11,465
9,784
377,965
666,343
1,065,557.0
HR
1,254
6,581
9,809
9,046
26,690.0
IT
6,726
19,861
153,588
73,555
253,730.0
CY
257
2,203
2,307
4 998
9,765.0
LV
-
1,669
5,318
61,302
68,289.0
LT
309
6,366
14,567
51,055
72,297.0
LU
152
837
HU
1,515
6,386
MT
-
2 361
2,880.0
1,891
23,341
170,429
201,671.1
2,361.4
NL
2,666
2,525
7,778
125,230
138,199.0
AT
1,719
9,997
23,640
88,759
12,4114.9
238,651
412035.0
PL
1,365
17,817
154,202
PT
2,988
6,505
4 791
RO
550
16,690
35,374
31,639
SI
769
820
5,149
32,247
38,985.0
SK
419
3,546
14,051
36,852
54,868.5
FI
810
12,522
13,565
51,213
78,110.0
SE
2,013
13,507
82,988
117,974
216,482.0
UK
EU28
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14,284.0
84,253.0
3,756
49,038
122,966
245,189
420,948.5
73,245.8
286,477.7
1,546,478.5
2,928,230.9
4,834,433.0
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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2
Main or
national roads
Motorways
Secondary or
regional roads
Other roads*
Road Network
Total
ME
-
-
7,905.0
-
79,05.0
MK
259
911
3,772
9,355
14,297.0
RS
603
4,856
9,863
29,278
44,600.0
TR
2,127
31,375
31,880
320,366
385,748.0
IS
11
4,919
2,950
5,010
12,890.0
NO
392
10,581
44,317
38,970
94,260.0
CH
1,419
390
18,013
51,697
71,519.0
* the definition of road types varies from country to country, the data are therefore not comparable.
«other roads» sometimes includes roads without a hard surface.
BE end of 2009, EL end of 2010 , UK 1st April 2013, IS end of 2011
2.2 Length of total road network by country, 2012 (km)
Source: EC, IRF
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0
*: the definition of road types varies from country to country, the data are therefore not comparable.
«Other roads» sometimes includes roads without a hard surface.
BE end of 2009, EL end of 2010 , UK 1st April 2013, IS end of 2011
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Road Network
2
2.3 Density of the total road network, 2012 (km road/ km² land area)
Source: EC
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0%
* the definition of road types varies from country to country, the data are therefore not comparable.
«Other roads» sometimes includes roads without a hard surface. BE end of 2009 • EL end of 2010 UK 1st April 2013 • IS end of 2011
2.4 Length of motorway network by country, 2012 (km)
Source: Eurostat, EC
16 000
14 000
12 000
10 000
8 000
6 000
4 000
2 000
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
AL
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0
BE end of 2009 • EL end of 2010
UK 1st April 2013 • IS end of 2011
18
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2
Road Network
2.5 Proportion of motorways compared to the total road network, 2012 (%)
Source: EC
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
AL
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0%
«Other roads» sometimes includes roads without a hard surface.
BE end of 2009 • EL end of 2010
UK 1st April 2013 • IS end of 2011
2.6 Density of motorways by country, 2012 (km motorway per km² land area)
Source: Eurostat, EC
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
AL
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0
BE end of 2009 • EL end of 2010
UK 1st April 2013 • IS end of 2011
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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19
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Road Network
2
2.7 Passenger cars per km of motorway by country, 2013
Source: Eurostat, EC, UNECE statistical database
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
AL
ME
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
0
Stock at end of year, except for BE: 1 August (1 July in 2012), CH: 30 September, LI: 1 July.
Taxis are usually included.
2.8 Transport network
Comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China, 2012 (thousand km)
Source: EC, IRF
Road network (paved)
Motorway network
Railway network
EU 28
USA(1)
Japan(2)
China
Russia
5,000
4,258
983
3,610
1,038
73.2
92.0
8.1
96.2
50.9
2,153.0
205.5
20.1
97.6
85.6
(1): Japan: data on the railway network and on the electrified rail lines are of 2010 and referred to Japan Railways only.
(2): Divided highways with 4 or more lanes (rural or urban interstate, freeways, expressways, arterial and collector) with full access control by the authorities.
(3): Japan: national expressways.
(4): Russia: federal roads.
(5): USA: a sum of partly overlapping networks.
20
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2
Road Network
2.9 Density of motorways
Comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China, 2012 (km motorway per km² land area)
0.025
Source: EC,
IRF
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0
EU 28
USA
Japan
China
Russia
China
Russia
Area EU-28: Including French overseas departments.
2.10 Passenger cars per km of motorway
Comparison between EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China, 2013
Source: EC, IRF
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
USA(1)
EU 28
Japan
[1] USA: data are from 2009
2.11 Cars per 1000 inhabitants in EU 28, USA, Japan, Russia and China, 2013
Source: EC, IRF
Motorization
EU 28
USA
Japan
China
Russia
491
739
557
53
273
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3
Infrastructure
Financing
3.1 Toll net revenues in selected countries, 2009-2014 (€ million)
Source: ASECAP
Country
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
DK
448.00
454.00
472.00
492.0
507.0
537
EL
550.00
565.00
530.00
516.0
516.0
469
ES
2,003.93
1,820.56
1,808.7
1,623.8
1565.0
1,608.6
FR
7,300.00
7,775.6
8,442.6
8,450.0
9,170(1)
9,222.4
IE
175.00
184.00
184.00
193.0
200.0
217
IT
4,545.00
4,835.90
4,971.00
4,804.5
4,914.0
5,176.94
NL
26.44
27.21
28.49
26.8
26.5
27.67
AT
1,387.00
1,535.50
1,561.00
1,622.1
1687.0
1826
PT
737.94
725.31
693.43
627.8
812.5
855.37
HU
146.20
145.50
167.90
167.9
189.2
677.6
SI
238.00
290.10
298.34
294.9
305.0
344.16
NO
407.50
457.30
605.70
641.2
614.4
940.63
HR
272.11
267.40
272.34
282.8
296,69(2)
297.05
PL
162.70
189.3
148.25
157.0
179,6(3)
185.86
UK
68.70
70.1
64.40
71.6
77.6
83.3
RS
147.40
137.9
137.90
19.0
138.3
138.44
CZ
221.70
262.8
325.00
346.5
342.2 (4)
316
DE
4,409.00
4,484.00
4,498.00
4,364.0
4,400.0
4,460
RF
-
-
-
-
29.3
75.16
SK
88.48
175.3
199.88
151.3
158.63
(5)
113.7
(1) Provisional figure
(2) Preliminary value for 2013
(3) Toll revenues on motorways A2 and A4
(4) km-based tolling only
(5) Revenue from ETC and the revenue from the vignette on the whole charged network including motorways, expressways and selected 1st class roads
22
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Infrastructure
Financing
3
3.2 Length and Type of TEN-T* Roads in EU 28 (km)
Source: EC
120,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2003
2004
Ordinary Roads
2005
2013
High quality roads
Motorways
2020
Total
* The Guidelines define the TEN-T roads as composed of motorways and high-quality roads – existing, new or to be adapted
3.3 Budget managed by INEA (Total 34.0 bn)
Source: EC
25
€ 22.4
20
15
10
€ 4.7
5
€ 0.3
0
Transport
Energy
Connecting Europe Facility
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 23
Digital
€ 2.9
Transport
€ 3.8
Energy
Horizon 2020
23
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3
Infrastructure
Financing
3.4 European Investment Bank Loans for Transport Provided
Within the European Union, 2006-2015 (€ million)
Source: EIB
Country
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Roads, Motorways
4,384
3,542
4,932
6,030
3716
3,876
2,726
4,728
5,384
2,827
Railways
2,999
3,534
2,495
2,704
4,352
4,624
3,541
3,419
3,875
5,548
Urban Transport
1,294
1,924
1,981
3,399
4,151
4,411
2,655
2,733
2,865
3,371
Air Transport
764
644
2,458
1,740
487
500
261
420
428
18
Maritime Transport
593
454
894
1,821
496
793
863
212
368
586
Intermodal Freight
Terminals and Other
36
29
763
n.a.
2
66
28
81
45
60
10,070
10,127
13,523
15,694
13,204
14,270
10,074
11,593
12,965
12,425
Total Transport Sector
3.5 European Investment Bank Loans for Trans-European Transport
Networks (TEN-Ts), 2015 (total € 12,425 million)
Source: EIB
Maritime Transport 5%
Air Transport 0%
Urban Transport 27%
Intermodal Freight Terminals and Other 0%
Roads, Motorways 23%
Railways 45%
24
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3
Infrastructure
Financing
3.6 World Bank Total Transport Lending, 2004-2015 ($ million)
Source: World Bank
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
3.7 Transport Lending Breakdown by Region, 2015 (total $ 5.1 billion)
Source: World Bank
Africa 24%
South Asia 24%
East Asia and
the Pacific 22.0%
Europe & Central Asia 22%
Middle East
& North Africa 1%
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 25
Latin America
and the Caribbean 7%
25
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Road Maintenance
& Investment
4
4.1 Gross investment spending in road infrastructure in selected countries,
2009-2013 (at current prices and exchange rates - million €)
Source: ITF
Country
AT
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
665
390
303
327
363
BE
1,432
N.A.
N.A
N.A
N.A
BG
101
281
344
388
359
HR
909
515
466
479
424
CZ
1,987
1,720
1,293
876
648
DK
714
937
1,052
1,324
N.A
EE
119
137
158
N.A
N.A
FI
922
890
973
1,127
1,115
FR
12,648
11,942
11,876
12,006
12,093
DE
12,620
11,240
11,340
11,530
11,730
GR
1,791
1,394
1,310
1,088
N.A
HU
1,566
840
298
153
401
IE
1,214
1,188
850
776
561
IT
5,641
3,389
4,129
3,107
N.A
LV
95
99
159
148
150
LT
448
422
343
243
253
220
LU
148
183
222
213
MT
35
40
37
38
32
NL
2,363
2,300
2,287
N.A
N.A
2,465
PL
5,340
6,510
8,319
4,382
PT
951
1,511
N.A
274
211
RO
3,105
2,850
3,283
3,092
2,729
SK
662
342
432
311
360
SI
406
221
112
102
104
ES
9,422
7,851
5,966
5,362
4,651
SE
1,574
1,668
1,911
2,213
2,013
UK
6,568
6,478
5,557
5,544
6,166
ME
23
18
15
18
20
MK
43
32
38
N.A
N.A
RS
251
227
339
255
280
TR
2,918
5,419
5,181
4,799
4,880
IS
121
79
39
38
N.A
NO
2,488
2,675
2,812
3,301
N.A
CH
2,997
3,423
3,827
3,880
N.A
Note: the data coverage varies significantly from a country to another, mainly due to the lack of more detailed common definitions and the difficulty for countries to change their data
collection system.
26
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4
Road Maintenance
& Investment
4.2. Investment in inland transport infrastructure in EU 28, 2013
(as a percentage of GDP, at current prices)
Source: ITF at the OECD
2.7
2.3
1.8
1.4
0.9
0.5
UK
TR
CH
SE
ES
SI
SK
RS
RO
PT
PL
NO
NL
ME
MT
LU
LT
LV
IT
IE
IS
HU
EL
DE
FR
FI
MK
EE
DK
CZ
HR
BG
BE
AT
0
4.3 Volume of investment in inland transport infrastructure by region,
1995-2013 (€)
Source: ITF
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
EU
North America
Australasia
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
0
Russia
The drop in North America is due to non existing data for United States after 2004
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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Road Maintenance
& Investment
4
4.4. Distribution of infrastructure investment between modes in EU 28,
1995-2013 (€, current prices, current exchange rates)
Source: ITF
100%
Rail
90%
80%
70%
Road
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1995
1996
IWW
0%
Note: No data for Cyprus
28
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4
Road Maintenance
& Investment
4.5 Maintenance expenditures in road infrastructure in selected countries,
2009-2013 at current prices and exchange rates - million €
Source: ITF
Country
AT
BE
BG
HR
CZ
DK
EE
FI
FR
HU
IE
IT
LV
LT
LU
MT
NL
PL
PT
RO
SK
SI
SE
UK
EU 28
MK
RS
TR
IS
NO
CH
2009
516.21
522.90
69.03
143.87
578.78
866.35
39.00
684.00
2,601.00
454.31
46.00
6,008.00
94.07
124.83
29.62
N.A.
827.00
2,341.02
124.00
N.A.
192.00
151.00
786.79
4,337.19
21,536.95
12.22
258.28
410.52
29.99
1,220.70
1,817.22
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 29
2010
558.80
N.A.
99.70
194.95
670.07
1,057.97
38.00
667.00
2,431.00
328.49
164.00
6,437.00
85.03
160.16
33.78
N.A.
1,209.00
2,636.49
102.00
N.A.
175.00
137.00
874.67
3,919.33
21,979.44
15.62
227.52
360.13
28.90
1,361.39
2001.01
2011
494.30
N.A.
70.56
212.13
569.70
880.87
39.00
658.00
2,746.00
256.42
161.00
6,220.00
89.77
152.92
36.92
N.A.
323.00
2,678.25
N.A.
N.A.
160.00
122.00
856.28
3552.25
20,279.37
14.67
205.36
673.71
28.99
1,615.34
2,237.55
2012
517.00
N.A.
102.77
186.53
N.A.
944.56
N.A.
574.00
2,851.00
295.87
139.00
7,195.00
93.02
122.51
33.70
N.A.
N.A.
427.99
165.00
N.A.
193.00
120.00
959.09
3,591.07
18,511.10
N.A.
207.72
599.52
28.80
1,746.73
2,414.34
2013
559.00
N.A.
95.61
209.01
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
585.00
2,904.00
411.55
129.00
N.A.
99.99
127.43
41.10
N.A.
N.A.
438.12
174.00
N.A.
204.00
123.00
1043.52
3,346.29
10,490.62
N.A.
129.30
630.35
N.A.
1,840.60
N.A.
29
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Road Maintenance
& Investment
4
4.6. Maintenance expenditures in road infrastructure in selected
countries, 2001-2013 (million €)
Source: ITF
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
EU
10,000
5,000
30
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 30
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
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5
Freight Transport
5.1 Transport of goods, performance by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013 (billion tkm)
Source: EC
Road
Rail
Inland
waterways
Pipelines
Sea
Air
Total
1995
1,289
386
122
115
1,146
2
3,060
1996
1,303
392
120
119
1,160
2.1
3,096
1997
1,352
410
128
118
1,193
2.2
3,202
1998
1,414
393
131
125
1,232
2.3
3,297
1999
1,470
384
129
124
1,268
2.3
3,377
2000
1,519
404
134
127
1,314
2.5
3,499
2001
1,556
386
133
133
1,334
2.5
3,544
2002
1,606
384
133
128
1,355
2.4
3,608
2003
1,625
392
124
130
1,378
2.4
3,652
2004
1,742
416
137
132
1,427
2.5
3,856
2005
1,794
414
139
136
1,461
2.6
3,946
2006
1,848
440
138
135
1,505
2.7
4,069
2007
1,914
453
145
127
1,532
2.8
4,175
2008
1,881
443
143
124
1,498
2.7
4,091
2009
1,691
362
120
120
1,336
2.5
3,632
2010
1,756
390
147
121
1,415
3
3,832
2011
1,745
422
142
118
1,417
3,0
3,847
2012
1,693
407
150
115
1,401
3,0
3,769
2013
1,719
407
153
112
1,089
2
3,481
1995 -2013
33.4%
5.3%
25.1%
-2.7%
-5.0%
12.2%
13.8%
2012-2013
1.6%
-0.1%
1.8%
-2.8%
-22.3%
-25.2%
-7.6%
In italics: Estimates
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU-28 transport; provisional estimates
Road: national and international haulage by vehicles registered in the EU 28
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Freight Transport
5
5.2 Goods transport by mode in EU 28, 2013 (% of tkm)
Source: EC
Air 0.1%
Sea 31.3%
Road 49.4%
Pipeline 3.2%
Inland waterway 4.4%
Rail 11.7%
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU 28 transport; provisional estimates, Road: national and international haulage by vehicles registered in the EU 28
5.3 Inland transport modal split in EU 28, 2000-2013 (% of tkm)
Source: EC
Road
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2000-2013
Rail
69.6
70.5
71.4
71.6
71.8
72.3
72.1
72.5
72.6
73.8
72.7
71.9
71.6
71.9
3.3
Inland waterway
18.5
17.5
17.1
17.3
17.2
16.7
17.2
17.2
17.1
15.8
16.2
17.4
17.2
17.0
-8.1
6.1
6.0
5.9
5.4
5.6
5.6
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.2
6.1
5.8
6.3
6.4
4.9
Pipeline
5.8
6.0
5.7
5.7
5.4
5.5
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.2
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.7
-19.0
Road: national and international haulage by vehicles registered in the EU 28
32
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5
Freight Transport
5.4 Inland transport modal split in EU 28, 2013 (% of tkm)
Source: EC
Inland waterways 6.4%
Pipelines 4.7%
Rail 17.0%
Road 71.9%
Road: national and international haulage by vehicles registered in the EU 28
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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Freight Transport
5
5.5 Performance of inland freight transport by mode and country, 2013
(billion tkm)
Source: EC
Road*
EU 28
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
Railways
1719.45
32.8
27.1
54.9
16.1
305.7
6.0
9.2
19.0
192.6
171.5
9.1
127.2
0.6
12.8
26.3
8.6
35.8
0.3
70.2
24.2
247.6
36.6
34.0
15.9
30.1
24.4
33.5
147.2
Inland Waterways **
406.50
7.3
3.2
14.0
2.4
112.6
4.7
0.1
0.2
9.3
32.0
2.1
19.0
19.5
13.3
0.2
9.7
6.1
19.3
50.9
2.3
12.9
3.8
8.5
9.5
21.0
22.4
152.75
10.4
5.4
0.0
60.1
9.2
0.8
0.1
0.0
0.3
1.9
48.6
2.4
0.1
12.2
1.0
0.1
0.2
Pipelines (Oil) ***
111.81
1.7
0.6
1.9
2.7
18.2
0.2
8.7
11.1
1.1
10.0
2.3
0.6
2.7
5.4
8.4
20.1
0.4
0.8
4.9
10.0
(*) National and international haulage by vehicles registered in the reporting country (including cross-trade and cabotage).
Only haulage of heavy goods vehicles (usually > 3.5 tonnes load capacity)
(**) For FI only shipborne transport (i.e. no floating)
(***) Data are not harmonised and therefore not fully comparable; in most countries. only pipelines longer than 40km are included. DE: only crude oil (i.e. no refined petroleum products)
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Freight Transport
5.6 Performance by mode for inland freight transport in EU 28, 1995-2013
(billion tkm)
Source: EC
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
Oil Pipeline
Inland Waterway
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 35
Rail
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
0
Road
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5
5.7 Total road transport of goods in EU 28, 2013
(1,000 tonnes and million tkm)
Source: Eurostat
Thousand tonnes
BE
Million tkm
299,476
31,808
BG
153,077
27,854
CZ
386,243
54,092
DK
178,146
16,184
DE
3,052,628
310,142
EE
27,358
6,310
IE
112,825
9,751
EL
403,327
19,223
ES
1,184,586
195,767
FR
1,918,572
165,225
HR
66,157
9,381
IT
963,056
117,813
CY
14,585
538
LV
62,239
13,670
LT
57,591
28,067
LU
58,723
9,599
HU
193,112
37,517
MT
-
-
NL
610,910
70,897
AT
349,537
24,299
PL
1,300,382
250,931
PT
149,829
34,863
RO
190,938
35,136
SI
74,143
16,273
SK
142,608
31,358
FI
280,131
23,401
SE
381,263
41,964
UK
1,507,266
143,177
TOTAL
14,118,708
1,725,240
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Freight Transport
5.8 Transport of dangerous goods* in EU 28, 2013 (million tkm)
Source: Eurostat
Country
2013
BE
2,124
BG
958
CZ
1,281
DK
760
DE
12,958
EE
163
IE
476
EL
1,169
ES
10,626
FR
8,158
HR
483
IT
8,037
CY
181
LV
213
LT
386
LU
700
HU
997
MT
N.A.
NL
1,342
AT
946
PL
7,024
PT
973
RO
1,704
SI
552
SK
228
FI
1,426
SE
1,064
UK
9,017
EU 28
73,946
NO
1,141
CH
749
*Total of dangerous goods includes: Explosives; Gases - compressed, liquified, dissolved under pressure; Flammable liquids and solids; Substances liable to spontaneous combustion;
Substance emitting flammable gases (with water); Oxidising substances; Organic peroxides; Toxic substances; Substances liable to cause infections; Radioactive material; Corrosives;
Miscellaneous dangerous substances.
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5
5.9 Registration of commercial vehicles in EU 28 and selected countries,
2013-2014
Source: ACEA
Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) Up to 3.5 t
Registrations 2013
AT
Registrations 2014
25,954
Evolution 2013-2014
31,168
20.09%
BE
46,621
53,373
14.48%
DK
19,290
28,498
47.73%
20.70%
FI
8,802
10,624
FR
301,165
370,362
22.98%
DE
171,607
228,323
33.05%
EL
2,877
4,856
68.79%
IE
10,630
16,646
56.59%
IT
80,979
117,709
45.36%
LU
2,668
3,357
25.82%
NL
43,733
51792
18,43%
PT
12,614
26,166
107.44%
ES
69,382
113,863
64.11%
SE
30,294
41,933
38.42%
UK
227,477
321,686
41.41%
BG
2,823
3,972
40.70%
CY
757
1,151
52.05%
CZ
9,441
13,165
39.44%
EE
2,279
2,906
27.51%
HR
N.A.
5,215
N.A.
HU
8,422
15,937
89.23%
LV
1,742
2,539
45.75%
LT
1,372
1,997
45.55%
PL
33,659
45,376
34.81%
RO
6,900
9,903
43.52%
SK
4,226
5,630
33.22%
SI
5,492
6,978
27.06%
1,131,206
1,535,125
35.71%
EU 28 (*)
IC
497
855
72.03%
NO
25,334
29,611
16.88%
24,399
28,822
18.13%
1,181,436
1,594,413
34.96%
CH
EU+EFTA
(*) Data for Malta currently not available.
The data include buses and coaches.
38
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5
Freight Transport
Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicles Over 3.5 t
Registrations 2013
Registrations 2014
Evolution 2013-2014
AT
5,897
7,729
31.07%
BE
6,272
8,943
42.59%
DK
2,957
4,159
40.65%
FI
2,763
3,251
17.66%
FR
35,857
44,680
24.61%
DE
68,976
91,622
32.83%
EL
277
558
101.44%
IE
1,379
2,000
45.03%
IT
10,032
14,640
45.93%
LU
766
1,172
53.00%
NL
9,253
11,031
19.22%
PT
1,610
3,365
109.01%
83.86%
ES
9,850
18,110
SE
3,711
6,586
77.47%
UK
36,760
44,909
22.17%
BG
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
CY
55
26
-52,73%
CZ
6,480
10,115
56,10%
EE
699
892
27,61%
HR
N.A.
1,058
N.A.
HU
3,514
5,306
51.00%
10.63%
LV
1,148
1,270
LT
2,720
2,539
-6.65%
PL
14,744
19,183
30.11%
RO
2,521
5,055
100.52%
SK
2,852
4,093
43.51%
SI
840
1,660
97.62%
231,933
313,952
35.36%
163.89%
EU 28 (*)
IC
72
190
NO
4,750
6,460
36.00%
3,026
239,781
4,796
325,398
58.49%
35.71%
CH
EU+EFTA
(*) Data for Malta currently not available
The data include buses and coaches
Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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Passenger
Transport
6
6.1 Transport of passengers by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013 (billion pkm)
Source: EC
Passenger
Cars
PTW
Bus &
Coach
Rail-way
Tram &
Metro
Air
Sea
Total
1995
3,937
122
500
351
71
346
44
5,371
1996
3,996
123
504
349
72
366
44
5,454
1997
4,090
126
505
351
73
390
44
5,577
1998
4,194
129
513
351
74
409
43
5,712
1999
4,310
132
515
359
75
425
43
5,859
2000
4,358
134
518
371
77
457
42
5,957
2001
4,458
138
520
373
78
453
42
6,061
2002
4,546
138
519
366
79
445
42
6,134
2003
4,590
142
520
362
79
463
41
6,198
2004
4,657
145
516
368
82
493
41
6,301
2005
4,597
148
516
377
82
527
40
6,287
2006
4,641
151
514
390
84
549
40
6,369
2007
4,695
152
527
397
86
572
41
6,470
2008
4,704
154
530
411
89
561
41
6,490
2009
4,779
122
515
405
89
522
40
6,472
2010
4,721
120
510
404
90
524
38
6,407
2011
4,703
125
529
415
93
579
39
6,484
2012
4,613
126
526
418
94
577
38
6,391
2013
4,672
125
526
424
95
583
39
6,465
1995 -2013
18.7%
7.4%
4.8%
21.1%
32.7%
67.4%
-12.1%
19.0%
per year
1.0%
0.4%
0.3%
1.1%
1.6%
2.9%
-0.7%
1.0%
2000-2013
7.3%
16.1%
-4.0%
14.2%
21.7%
26.8%
-6.4%
7.1%
per year
0.5%
1.2%
-0.3%
1.0%
1.5%
1.8%
-0.5%
0.6%
2012-2013
1.3%
-0.5%
0.5%
1.1%
0.8%
1.6%
-7.0%
-1.4%
In italics: Estimates
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU-28 transport; provisional estimates
P2W: Powered two-wheelers
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Transport
56
6.2 Evolution of passenger transport by mode in EU 28, 1995-2013
Source: EC
5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
1,000
500
Passenger Cars
Sea
Air
Bus & Coaches
Tram & Metro
Railway
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
0
P2W
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU 28 transport; provisional estimates
P2W: Powered two-wheelers
6.3 Passenger transport modal split in EU 28, 2013 (pkm in %)
Source: EC
Air 9.0%
Sea 0.6%
Tram & Metro 1.5%
Railway 6.6%
Bus & Coaches 8.1%
P2W 1.9%
Passengers Cars 72.3%
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU 28 transport; provisional estimates
P2W: Powered two-wheelers
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Transport
6
6.4 Modal split of passenger transport on land by country in EU 28, 2013
(billion pkm and pkm in %)
Source: EC
Passenger
cars*
(billion
pkm)
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
EU 28
109.84
51.36
64.65
53.22
899.30
11.24
48.04
95.81
316.53
805.50
26.14
620.36
5.92
11.73
33.32
6.85
51.82
2.29
145.40
74.83
213.10
81.86
80.36
25.16
27.15
65.11
107.60
637.67
4,672.26
Passenger
cars (%)
76.78
79.65
66.34
79.62
84.40
80.56
82.94
80.11
79.56
83.87
84.11
79.68
81.47
78.83
91.37
82.77
65.36
83.02
82.49
74.23
78.43
88.29
76.22
86.22
77.17
84.26
82.37
84.63
81.60
Buses and
coaches*
(billion
pkm)
21.51
10.31
15.72
6.54
60.50
2.41
8.13
21.03
51.83
52.31
3.50
102.55
1.34
2.31
2.84
1.02
17.14
0.46
11.70
9.517
37.8
6.31
12.92
3.32
5.25
7.54
8.66
41.9
526.48
Buses and
coaches
(%)
15.04
16.00
16.13
9.79
5.68
17.30
14.04
17.58
13.03
5.45
11.28
13.17
18.53
15.58
7.81
12.40
21.63
16.98
6.64
9.44
13.91
6.81
12.26
11.38
14.94
9.76
6.63
5.56
9.30
Railways
(billion
pkm)
10.5
1.8
7.5
6.8
89
0.2
1.6
1.1
23.8
87.4
0.9
48.7
0.7
0.3
0.4
7.8
17.7
12.3
16.7
3.6
4.4
0.7
2.5
4.1
11.9
62
424.40
Railways
(%)
7.34
2.79
7.70
10.17
8.35
1.43
2.76
0.92
5.98
9.10
2.90
6.26
4.70
0.82
4.83
9.84
10.04
11.40
6.70
4.10
4.50
2.50
7.00
5.20
8.90
8.00
7.40
Urban rail*
(tram &
metro)
(billion pkm)
1.20
1.01
9.58
0.28
16.70
0.10
0.15
1.66
5.70
15.16
0.53
6.91
0.13
2.51
1.45
4.16
4.10
0.94
7.75
0.27
0.52
2.46
11.94
95.27
Urban rail
(tram &
metro) (%)
0.01
0.02
0.10
0.00
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.01
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.07
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
1.70
TOTAL
(billion
pkm)
143.06
64.49
97.45
66.85
1,065.50
13.96
57.93
119.60
397.87
960.38
31.08
778.54
7.27
14.89
36.47
8.28
79.28
2.76
176.26
100.82
271.70
92.72
105.44
29.19
35.19
77.28
130.63
753.52
1,127.76
*Data are not harmonised and therefore not fully comparable. Many data for 2013 are provisional (in italics).
BE: Passenger cars data include pkm by vehicles registered as light goods vehicles but used as personal cars.
UK: Passenger data refer to Great Britain only; include pkm by vans. - UK: Buses and coaches data: GB data + 1.5 bln pkm throughout to account for Northern Ireland
FR: Urban rail data refer to the Paris Metro and RER (Réseau Express Régional) systems and to metros in other French cities.
PT: Urban rail data refer only to Lisbon and Porto Metro.
* Public Service Obligation (PSO) means a requirement defined or determined by a competent authority in order to ensure public passenger transport services in the general interest
that an operator, if it were considering its own commercial interests, would not assume or would not assume to the same extent or under the same conditions without reward.
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Passenger
Transport
6.5 Passenger vehicles in figures by country, 2013
Source: EC
Stock of registered
passenger cars
(thousand)
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
EU 28
MK
RS
TR
5,504.809
2,910.2
4,729.185
2,278.121
43,851.23
628.5
1,933.129
5,124.208
22,024.538
32,243.826
1,448.299
36,962.934
474.561
634.603
1,808.982
363.247
3,040.732
256.096
7,932.29
4,641.308
19,389.446
4480
4,695.66
1,063.795
1,879.759
3,127.399
4,495.473
30,074.857
24,7997.19
347.00
1,770.00
9,248.00
Stock of registered
PTW
(thousand)
444.736
147.9
977.167
198.076
6,031.16
38.7
36.623
1,568.596
4,998.32
2,894.2832
154.782
8,737.848
39.969
43.588
68.152
25.753
157.178
16.901
1,751.171
776.337
2,316.61
485
101.622
92.986
74.101
554.252
605.59
1,243.745
34,581.15
8.10
59.50
2,722.80
Stock of registered
buses & coaches
(thousand)
16.261
23.3
20.318
13.27
76.794
4.5
8.488
26.783
59.892
95.193
4.789
98.551
3.495
4.989
13.063
1.759
17.569
1.705
9.922
9.579
102.602
14.8
42.836
2.465
8.821
15.536
13.986
111.615
822.88
3.00
9.00
641.00
Estimates in italics: Motorisation: Passenger car stock at end of year n has been divided by the population on 1 January of year n+1.
Stock of registered passenger cars, PTWs and buses and coaches: at end of year, except for BE (1 August).
Stock of registered passenger cars: Taxis are usually included. - Stock of registered buses and coaches: Data include buses, coaches, minibuses and sometimes also trolleybuses.
Stock of registered PTW: National vehicle stock data do not always include all powered two-wheelers and are therefore not fully comparable between countries.
Break in time series due to inclusion of mopeds from 2001 in ES, from 2002 in SI and HR, from 2004 in LV, from 2005 in PL, from 2007 in LT.
Tricycles and quads are sometimes included in the data.
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Passenger
Transport
6
6.6 Motorisation, 2013 (number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants)
Source: EC
Motorisation, 2013 (number of passenger
cars per 1000 inhabitants)
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
EU 28
IS
NO
CH
491
402
450
405
543
478
420
466
474
504
341
608
553
317
615
661
308
602
471
546
504
430
235
516
347
574
466
468
471.25
168
248
121
In italics: Estimates
Motorisation: Passenger car stock at end of year n has been divided by the population on 1 January of year n+1
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Passenger
Transport
6.7 New passenger car registration per 1000 inhabitants, 2014
Source: EC
New passenger car registration
per 1000 inhabitants
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
NL
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
LU
UK
EU28
3
18
34
38
16
21
6
18
27
8
22
10
6
5
23
9
14
4
26
13
19
32
91
39
26
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Transport
6
6.8 Motorcycle Registrations in EU 28, 2010-2015
Source: ACEM
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
AT
21,510
22,750
24,808
25,996
25,155
37,372
BE
24,271
25,047
23,428
20,644
20,681
32,712
BG
N.A.
N.A.
127
173
N.A.
N.A.
CY
3,060
2,527
2,074
1,675
N.A.
N.A.
CZ
5,418
6,056
6,974
N.A.
12,441
14,583
DE
122,382
126,991
127,497
129,605
141,623
176,711
DK
3,258
2,032
1,984
1,870
1,936
8,998
EE
244
299
364
409
449
1,143
EL
59,638
44,785
31,805
28,522
30,951
30,772
ES
134,297
119,423
97,931
92,678
111,460
138,590
FI
6,054
5,692
4,986
3,943
3,467
8,930
227,817
FR
198,086
185,122
169,644
147,915
153,324
HR
2,851
2,726
2,397
2,046
N.A.
N.A.
HU
2,453
2,091
1,957
1,778
N.A.
1,812
IE
1,042
831
663
441
360
1,232
IT
306,303
254,895
206,291
153,941
156,431
190,405
LT
229
280
224
241
294
1,014
LU
1,255
1,306
1,201
1,566
1,734
2,704
1,555
LV
278
472
494
477
589
MT
568
746
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1,014
NL
12,843
11,662
10,617
9,570
10,673
73,982
PL
8,718
8,957
7,758
7,394
9,848
48,932
PT
18,896
18,937
17,136
14,510
15,335
19,118
RO
440
469
555
521
N.A.
1,281
9,185
SE
9,024
8,223
7,605
7,800
8,378
SK
2,324
1,960
1,920
2,840
N.A.
N.A.
SI
2,658
2,139
2,042
2,380
1,707
4,090
UK
81,060
79,144
80,029
80,951
91,492
109,542
EU 28
1,029,160
935,562
832,511
739,886
798,328
1,151,657
CH
32,526
37,491
38,964
37,897
39,847
N.A.
NO
3,639
3,730
3,950
3,979
4,128
N.A.
Data of 2015 available till November
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Transport
6
6.9 Transport of passengers per mode: Comparison EU 28/World, 2013
Source: EC, International Transport Forum
Passenger transport 2013
(billion pkm)
EU 28
USA
Japan
China
4,672.3
5,935.6
n.a.
Bus + trolley-bus + coach
526.5
517.7
Railway
424.2
39.9
Tram + metro
95.4
Waterborne
Air (domestic/intra EU-28)
Passenger car
Russia
1,125.1
n.a.
75.7
n.a.
130.6
404
1,055.0
138.5
23.0
n.a.
n.a.
50.9
39.0
0.6
3.1
6.8
0.6
582.5
949.0
78.0
565.7
225.2
In italics: Estimates
6.10 Motorisation: Comparison EU 28/ World, 2013
(passenger cars/ 1000 inhabitants)
Source: EC
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
EU 28
USA(1)
Japan
China
Russia
(1) USA: data from 2012
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Passenger
Transport
6
6.11 Trends and outlooks in passenger transport demand for the different
modes of transport in EU 25, 1990-2030 (Gpkm)
Source: EEA
Gpkm
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1990
1995
2000
2005
Public Road Transport
Aviation
48
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 48
2010
2015
2020
Private C ars and Motorcycles
2025
2030
Rail
Inland Navigation
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7
Safety
7.1 Road accidents involving personal injury in EU 28, 1990-2013 (thousand)
Source: CARE, United Nations, National Statistics
1990
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
EU 28
ME
MK
IS
NO
CH
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
62.45
50.74
49.07
49.31
42.12
42.05
37.50
35.63
6.48
7.43
6.89
8.22
6.61
6.64
6.72
6.85
21.91
28.75
25.45
25.24
19.68
20.49
20.50
20.34
9.16
8.37
7.35
5.41
3.50
3.53
3.12
2.98
389.35 388.00 382.95 336.62 288.30 306.27 299.64 291.10
2.10
1.64
1.50
2.34
1.35
1.49
1.38
1.38
6.07
8.12
7.75
6.53
5.78
5.23
5.61
5.86
19.61
22.80
23.00
16.91
15.03
13.72
12.23
12.07
101.51
83.59 101.73
91.19
85.50
83.03
83.12
89.51
162.57 132.95 121.22
84.53
67.29
65.02
60.44
56.81
14.47
12.67
14.43
15.68
13.27
13.23
11.77
11.22
161.78 182.76 256.55 240.01 211.40 205.64 186.73 181.22
3.17
3.05
2.41
1.38
1.20
1.06
0.92
0.77
4.33
4.06
4.48
9.31
3.19
3.39
3.36
3.48
5.14
4.14
5.81
6.77
3.53
3.27
3.39
3.41
1.22
1.15
0.90
0.78
0.79
0.96
1.02
0.94
27.80
19.82
17.49
20.78
16.31
15.83
15.17
15.69
0.24
0.97
1.25
0.85
0.58
0.35
0.36
0.31
44.89
42.64
42.27
27.01
12.46
10.78
4.97
9.52
46.34
38.96
42.13
40.90
35.35
35.13
40.83
38.50
50.53
56.90
57.33
48.10
38.83
40.07
37.05
35.84
45.11
48.34
44.46
37.07
35.43
32.54
29.87
30.33
9.71
9.12
7.89
19.82
26.00
26.65
26.93
24.82
5.18
6.57
8.95
10.51
7.66
7.13
6.86
6.55
8.24
8.71
7.88
7.90
8.12
5.38
5.37
4.72
10.18
7.81
6.63
7.02
6.07
6.41
5.73
5.33
16.98
15.63
15.77
18.09
16.50
16.12
16.46
14.94
265.60 237.34 242.12 203.71 160.08 157.14 151.34 144.48
1,502.08 1,433.02 1,505.65 1,341.98 1,130.36 1,128.50 1,078.37 1,054.74
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
1.42
1.35
5.26
2.30
2.44
1.67
2.82
4.22
4.46
4.11
4.23
0.56
1.06
0.98
0.67
0.88
0.85
0.74
0.81
8.80
8.63
8.44
8.08
6.43
6.08
6.15
5.24
23.83
23.03
23.74
21.71
19.61
18.99
18.15
17.47
Evolution Evolution Evolution
2000201120122013 (%) 2012 (%) 2013 (%)
-27.38
-0.39
-20.06
-59.37
-23.98
-8.11
-24.31
-47.52
-12.00
-53.13
-22.19
-29.36
-67.90
-22.16
-41.14
5.56
-10.30
-74.94
-77.47
-8.60
-37.47
-31.77
214.70
-26.72
-40.02
-19.58
-5.25
-40.33
-29.95
-42.41
153.29
-17.35
-37.91
-26.41
-10.82
1.16
0.10
-11.38
-2.16
-6.87
7.27
-10.83
0.11
-7.05
-11.00
-9.20
-13.14
-0.83
3.86
5.93
-4.13
2.01
-53.92
16.23
-7.54
-8.22
1.05
-3.77
-0.15
-10.66
2.12
-3.69
-4.44
-4.93
-7.90
-12.60
1.20
-4.40
-4.98
2.11
0.10
-4.45
-2.85
-0.07
4.55
-1.30
7.70
-6.00
-4.64
-2.94
-15.78
3.90
0.77
-6.87
3.41
-11.55
91.74
-5.70
-3.24
1.58
-7.80
-4.44
-11.94
-6.83
-9.21
-4.53
-2.19
-35.01
2.9
9.5
-14.80
-3.7
Notes: the definition of an accident involving personal injury differs from country to country.
ME: Data used from 2010 and onwards • Source: European Commission statistic report on transportation
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7
Safety
7.2 Road accidents involving personal injury per one thousand population
in EU 28, 2013
Source: EC
5.00
4.50
4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
UK
EU-28
FI
SE
SI
SK
PT
RO
AT
PL
NL
HU
MT
LT
LU
LV
IT
CY
HR
ES
FR
IE
EL
EE
DE
CZ
DK
BE
BG
0.00
The definition of an accident involving personal injury differs from country to country.
The number of inhabitants used in this table is the sum of the population at 1 January 2012 and at 1 January 2013 divided by two.
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7
Safety
7.3 Road fatalities* in EU 28, 2005-2014
Source: CARE
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Evolution
2013-2014
(%)
Evolution
2005-2014
(%)
BE
1,089.00
812.00
858.00
767.00
723.00
727.00
0.55
-33.24
BG
957.00
776.00
657.00
602.00
601.00
660.00
9.82
-31.03
CZ
1,286.00
802.00
772.00
742.00
655.00
686.00
4.73
-46.66
DK
331.00
255.00
220.00
167.00
191.00
182.00
-4.71
-45.02
DE
5,361.00
3,648.00
4,009.00
3,600.00
3,339.00
3,377.00
1.14
-37.01
EE
170.00
78.00
101.00
87.00
81.00
78.00
-3.70
-54.12
IE
400.00
212.00
186.00
162.00
190.00
193.00
1.58
-51.75
EL
1,658.00
1,258.00
1,141.00
1,027.00
874.00
793.00
-9.27
-52.17
ES
4,442.00
2,479.00
2,060.00
1,903.00
1,680.00
1,688.00
0.48
-62.00
-36.37
FR
5,318.00
3992.00
3,963.00
3,653.00
3,268.00
3,384.00
3.55
HR
597.00
426.00
418.00
390.00
368.00
306.00
-16.85
-48.74
IT
5,818.00
4,090.00
3,860.00
3,653.00
3,385.00
3,381.00
-0.12
-41.89
CY
102.00
60.00
71.00
51.00
44.00
45.00
2.27
-55.88
LV
442.00
218.00
179.00
177.00
179.00
212.00
18.44
-52.04
LT
773.00
300.00
296.00
302.00
256.00
267.00
4.30
-65.46
LU
47.00
32.00
33.00
34.00
45.00
35.00
-22.22
-25.53
HU
1,278.00
740.00
638.00
606.00
591.00
626.00
5.92
-51.02
MT
17.00
15.00
21.00
11.00
18.00
10.00
-44.44
-41.18
NL
750.00
537.00
546.00
562.00
476.00
477.00
0.21
-36.40
AT
768.00
552.00
523.00
531.00
455.00
430.00
-5.49
-44.01
PL
5,444.00
3,908.00
4,189.00
3,571.00
3,357.00
3,202.00
-4.62
-41.18
PT
1,247.00
937.00
891.00
718.00
637.00
638.00
0.16
-48.84
RO
2,629.00
2,377.00
2,018.00
2,042.00
1,861.00
1,818.00
-2.31
-30.85
SI
258.00
138.00
141.00
130.00
125.00
108.00
-13.60
-58.14
SK
560.00
371.00
324.00
296.00
251.00
259.00
3.19
-53.75
FI
379.00
272.00
292.00
255.00
258.00
229.00
-11.24
-39.58
SE
440.00
266.00
319.00
285.00
260.00
270.00
3.85
-38.64
UK
3,336.00
1,905.00
1,960.00
1,802.00
1,770.00
1,854.00
4.75
-44.42
EU 28
45,943.00
31,456.00
30,686.00
28,126.00
25,935.00
25,900.00
-0.15
-43.63
* Persons killed are all persons deceased within 30 days of the accident. Corrective factors have been applied to the figures which did not follow this definition.
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7
7.4 Percentage change in road fatalities between 2002 and 2014 (%)
Source: CARE
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
52
Stat-ERF-2016.indd 52
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
HR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK
EU-28
-100
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7
Safety
7.5 Road fatalities country rankings, 2013
Source: EC
Road fatalities
per million inhabitants
Road fatalities
per 10 billion pkm
Road fatalities
per million passenger cars
SE
27
SE
24
SE
58
UK
28
UK
28
UK
59
NL
28
NL
33
NL
60
DK
34
DK
36
MT
71
ES
36
DE
37
ES
76
IE
41
IE
40
DE
77
83
DE
41
FI
40
FI
MT
43
FR
41
DK
85
SK
46
SI
50
IT
91
FI
47
ES
53
CY
93
CY
51
IT
55
AT
99
FR
51
EU 28
56
IE
99
EU 28
51
AT
61
FR
102
AT
54
LU
66
EU 28
105
IT
56
BE
66
SI
117
HU
60
EE
72
LU
125
132
SI
61
CY
74
EE
PT
61
LT
77
BE
132
EE
61
PT
78
SK
136
139
CZ
62
MT
79
CZ
BE
65
EL
91
PT
142
EL
80
SK
92
LT
144
BG
83
CZ
101
EL
170
LU
83
HU
114
PL
176
HR
86
BG
117
HU
196
LT
87
HR
141
BG
210
PL
88
LV
153
HR
254
LV
89
PL
158
LV
286
RO
93
RO
232
RO
405
Fatalities: all fatalities on the road: car drivers and passengers, bus and coach occupants, powered two-wheelers’ riders and passengers, cyclists, pedestrians, commercial vehicle
drivers, etc. indicated in table 2.7.1 for 2013.
pkm: indicator of traffic volume (in the absence of consistent vehicle-kilometre data); passenger-kilometres of cars indicated in table 2.3.4 for 2013 plus (mostly estimated)
passenger-kilometres of motorised two-wheelers.
Inhabitants: the average population at 1 January 2012 and 1 January 2013. Passenger cars: the average stock of vehicles indicated in table 2.6.2 for 2012 and 2013. Road Statistics Yearbook 2016
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Safety
7.6 Lives saved per million inhabitants in EU 28, 2014 (compared to 2001)
Source: CARE
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
LV
LT
PT
ES
EL
FR
EE
BE
SI
LU
IT
SK
CZ
IE
AT
HU
HR
PL
CY
DK
BG
DE
SE
FI
NL
UK
RO
MT
0
7.7 Evolution of road fatalities and injured in EU 28, 2003-2014
Source: CARE
2,000,000
55,000
1,950,000
50,000
1,900,000
45,000
1,700,000
40,000
1,650,000
1,600,000
35,000
1,550,000
1,500,000
Fatalities
Injuries
1,850,000
30,000
1,450,000
25,000
54
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2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
1,400,000
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7
Safety
7.8 Road fatalities by mode of transport in EU 28, 2014
Source: CARE
7.8.1 Total
Bus or Coach 1.00%
Pedestrian 22.00%
Moped 3.00%
Car & Taxi 45.00%
Cyclist 8.00%
Agricultural Tractor 1.00%
Powered two-wheeler 15.00%
Lorry <3.5 tonnes 3.00%
Lorry >3.5 tonnes 2.00%
7.8.2 Inside Urban Area
Heavy Goods Vehicle 0.90%
Moped 4.34%
Bus or Coach 0.47%
Pedestrian 39.87%
Car & Taxi 25.67%
Lorry <3.5 tonnes 0.73%
Powered two-wheeler 15.78%
Cyclist 11.67%
Agricultural Tractor 0.57%
(1) Urban Area: Area inside urban area boundary signs (except UK and IE). Includes dual carriageways and national roads. Can include motorways (except DK, DK, EL, IT).
Opinion of the police (DK, SE)
(2) Outside Urban Area: Area outside urban area boundary signs. Opinion of the police (DK, SE). Includes motorways
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7
7.8.3 Outside Urban Area
Moped 1.97%
Heavy Goods Vehicle 3.94%
Pedestrian 11.25%
Cyclist 5.42%
Bus & Coach 0.74%
Agricultural Tractor 0.64%
Powered two-wheeler 14.01%
Car & Taxi 58.86%
Lorry <3.5 tonnes 3.17%
(1) Urban Area: Area inside urban area boundary signs (except UK and IE). Includes dual carriageways and national roads. Can include motorways (except DK, DK, EL, IT).
Opinion of the police (DK, SE)
(2) Outside Urban Area: Area outside urban area boundary signs. Opinion of the police (DK, SE). Includes motorways
56
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Safety
7.9 PTWs fatalities in selected EU countries, 2014 (%)
Source: CARE
40
Moped %
Motorcycle %
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
UK
FI
*SE
SI
SK
PT
RO
AT
PL
NL
HU
MT
LV
LU
IT
CY
HR
ES
FR
IE
EL
EE
DE
CZ
DK
BE
BG
0
*NL,SE: 2009 figures, No data for LT
7.10 Road fatalities by gender in EU Member States, 2014 (%)
Source: CARE
90
% Male
80
% Female
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
UK
FI
SE
SI
SK
PT
RO
PL
AT
NL
MT
LU
HU
LT
LV
CY
IT
HR
ES
FR
EL
IE
EE
DE
CZ
DK
BG
BE
0
BG,EE: 2009 figures
MT,SK,SE; 2010 figures
DK,DE,IE,EL,ES,FR,IT,AT,PL,PT,SI,UK; 2012 figures
BE-2011
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7
Safety
7.11 Road fatalities by age group in EU 28 and selected countries, 2014 (%)
Source: IRTAD, CARE, OECD
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0-14
Australia
15-17
EU-28
18-24
Israel
25-64
Japan
>64
USA
Data and figures, EU: 2014, Australia: 2014, Israel: 2014, USA:2013, Japan:2013 figures
7.12 Road fatalities (per 100,000 population) in EU 28 and selected countries, 2014
Source: IRTAD
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Australia*
Canada*
EU 28
Israel
Japan**
Korea
New
Zealand
USA
* Figures & Data, USA: 2013, Australia: 2014, Canada:2012, Israel:2014, Japan:2013, Korea: 2013, New Zealand:2013
58
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Safety
7.13 Speed limits and blood alcohol limits in EU 28 and selected countries
Source: National sources, ITF
Speed limit, cars (in general), km/h:
Built-up areas
Outside built-up areas
Motorways
Blood alcohol limit, grams of
alcohol in 1 litre of blood
BE
30-50
90-120
120
0.5
BG
50
90
130
0.5
CZ
50
90
130
0.0
DK
50
80
110-130
0.5
DE
30-50
100
(130)
0.5
EE
50
90-110
110
0.0
IE
50
80-100
120
0.8
EL
50
90-110
130
0.5
ES
50
90-100
120
0.5
FR
50
80-110
110-130
0.5
HR
50
90-110
130
0.5
IT
50
90-110
130
0.5
CY
50
80
100
0.5
LV
50
90
110
0.5
LT
50
70-90
110-130
0.4
LU
50
90
130
0.5
HU
50
90-110
130
0.0
MT
50
60-80
-
0.8
NL
30-50-70
80-100
100-120
0.5
AT
50
100
130
0.5
PL
50-60
90-110
130
0.2
PT
50
90-100
120
0.5
RO
50
90-100
130
0.0
SI
30-50
90-100
130
0.5
SK
50
90
130
0.0
FI
40-50
80-100
100-120
0.5
SE
30-50
70-90
100-120
0.2
UK
32-48
96-112
112
0.8
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Safety
Speed limit, cars (in general), km/h:
MK
Blood alcohol limit, grams of
alcohol in 1 litre of blood
Built-up areas
Outside built-up areas
Motorways
60
80-100
120
0.5
TR
50
90
130
0.5
IS
30-50
80-90
-
0.5
NO
30-50-70
80
90-100
0.2
CH
30-50
80
120
0.5
UK, IE, CY and MT drive on the left hand side of the road, the other Member States drive on the right hand side (Sweden since 3 September 1967). Signs in UK are in miles per hour. The higher figure shown in the «outside built-up areas» column generally refers to the speed limit on dual carriageways that are not motorways.
Speed limits:
DE: Motorways: No general speed limit, recommended speed limit is 130 km/h (more than half the network has a speed limit of 120 km/h or less). FR: Dual carriageways 110 km/h. If the road is wet : motorways 110 km/h, dual carriageways 90 km/h, other roads outside built-up areas 80 km/h.
IT: 150 km/h on certain 2x3 lane motorways if the operator so requests.
FI: in winter 100 km/h on motorways, 80 km/h on other roads.
PL: Built-up areas: 50 km/h from 05h00 to 23h00, 60 km/h from 23h00 to 05h00.
Blood alcohol limits:
In many countries, special (more restrictive) rules apply to novice (i.e. new, unexperienced) and professional drivers.
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Safety
7.14 Fatalities at 30 days by road user type in EU countries
Source: CARE
7.14.1 Total
Unknow 0.10%
Pedestrian 21.86%
Driver 60.74%
Passenger 17.30%
7.14.2 Urban
Unknow 0.08%
Pedestrian 39.41%
Driver 49.85%
Passenger 10.73%
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Safety
7.14.3 Motorway
Unknow 0.16%
Pedestrian 11.11%
Driver 59.00%
Passenger 29.89%
7.14.4 Rural
Pedestrian 11.13%
Unknow 0.12%
Passenger 20.20%
Driver 68.67%
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Taxation
8.1 Taxes on acquisition of motor vehicles in EU, January 2015
Source: ACEA
VAT
Registration Tax
AT
20%
Based on fuel consumption. Maximum 16% + bonus/malus
BE
21%
Based on cc+ age - CO2 emissions (Wallonia) CO2 + Eurostandards + fuel + age (Flanders)
BG
20%
None
CY
15%
Based on cc + CO2
CZ
20%
None
DE
19%
None
DK
25%
105% up to DKK 79.000 - 180% on the remainder
EE
20%
None
ES
18%
Based on CO2 emissions. From 4.75% (121-159g/km) to 14.75% (200g/km or more)
FI
23%
Based on price + CO2 emissions. - Tax 5 % Max 50%
FR
19.60%
Based on CO2 emissions. - From 200 euros (141 to 145 g/km) to 3,600 euros (above 250g/km)
EL
23%
Based on cc+ emissions. - 5% - 50% , Luxury tax upto 40%
HU
27%
Based on cc+ exhaust emissions
IE
21%
Based on CO2 emissions. 14% to 36%
IT
21%
Based on kilowatt/weight/seats
LI
21%
LTL 50
LU
15%
None
LV
22%
Based on CO2 emissions.
MT
18%
Based on price, CO2 emissions, vehicle length
NL
19%
Based on price + CO2 emissions
PL
23%
Based on cc. 3.1% - 18.6 %
PT
23%
Based on cc + CO2 emissions
RO
24%
Based on cc + emissions + CO2
SE
25%
None
SI
20%
Based on price+ CO2 emissions - 1% - 13%
SK
20%
None
UK
20%
None
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Taxation
8
8.2 Excise duties on fuels in EU 28 at 1.1.2013 and 1.1.2015 (€/1000 litres)
Source: ACEA
1 January 2013
1 January 2015
% change 2013-2015
Unleaded
Petrol
Diesel
Unleaded
Petrol
Diesel
Unleaded
Petrol
Diesel
AT
515
425
515
425
0.0%
0.0%
BE
628
443
615
443
-2.1%
0.0%
DE
423
393
670
486
58.4%
23.7%
25.1%
DK
456
331
608
414
33.3%
EL
416
383
416
383
0.0%
0.0%
ES
607
428
425
331
-30.0%
-22.7%
FI
670
330
681
506
1.6%
53.3%
FR
454
349
624
468
37.4%
34.1%
479
374
IE
728
617
587
479
-19.4%
-22.4%
IT
434
330
728
617
67.7%
87.0%
LU
434
330
465
338
7.1%
2.4%
NL
759
478
759
478
0.0%
0.0%
PT
586
369
617
402
5.3%
8.9%
-1.1%
HR
SE
656
609
646
602
-1.5%
UK
674
674
674
674
0.0%
0.0%
BG
363
330
363
330
0.0%
0.0%
CY
479
450
479
450
0.0%
0.0%
-6.8%
CZ
501
427
469
398
-6.4%
EE
650
393
423
393
-34.9%
0.0%
HU
587
470
397
384
-32.4%
-18.3%
LT
465
338
434
330
-6.7%
-2.4%
LV
411
333
411
333
0.0%
0.0%
MT
509
422
519
422
2.0%
0.0%
PL
395
399
349
345
-11.6%
-13.5%
RO
383
352
461
430
20.4%
22.2%
SI
549
442
596
495
8.6%
12.0%
SK
551
386
551
386
0.0%
0.0%
EU-28 average
529
416
554
449
4.7%
7.9%
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Taxation
8.3 Net charges per domestic haul by type, 2012 (EUR/litre)
Source: OECD
Vehicle Taxes
(EUR/domestic haul)
Fuel Taxes
(EUR/domestic haul)
BE
3.1
55.2
BG
5
40.96
56.32
CZ
7.3
DK
3.4
56.32
DE
3.4
60.16
ES
49.2
IE
17.5
64
EL
4.8
52.48
ES
3.3
42.24
FR
3.4
55.04
3
56.32
LV
2
42.24
LT
2.8
38.4
LU
2.6
38.4
HU
3.1
49.2
NL
4.2
55.04
AT
6.4
51.2
PL
2.7
49.2
PT
3.4
47.36
RO
4.4
39.68
HR
IT
CY
MT
48.64
SL
46.08
SK
9
47.36
FI
4.5
60.16
SE
4
65.28
UK
8.3
92.16
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Taxation
8
8.4 Fiscal income from motor vehicles in EU selected countries*
(€ billion)
Source: ACEA
AT
BE
DK
€ bn
€ bn
DKK
bn
DE
ES
FI
FR
EL
IE
IT
€ bn
€ bn
€ bn
€ bn
€ bn
€ bn
€ bn
NL
PT
SE
UK
€ bn
€ bn
SEK
bn
£bn
2013
2013
2014
2012
2011
2012
2012
2013
2013
2013
2014
2013
2013
2014
VAT on
vehicles,
servicing/
repair parts,
tyres
2.68
6.06
n.a.
26.32
3.60
1.46
13.31
0.16
0.48
14.25
1.42
1.50
21.000 12.500
Fuels &
Lubricants
5.34
7.53
16.97 39.30 17.87
4.26
35.89
3.77
3.04
37.46
7.63
2.30
47.50 26.70
Sales &
registration
taxes
0.52
0.41
13.80
0.31
0.93
2.04
0.05
0.58
1.37
1.50
0.54
Annual
ownership
taxes
2.10
1.51
9.87
8.99
2.89
0.87
1.05
1.30
1.16
5.93
3.55
0.52
0.01
0.06
3.79
0.60
Driving license
fees
0.01
Insurance
taxes
0.32
Tolls
1.69
0.93
1.76
0.31
0.34
0.37
4.47
11.06
4.50
n.a.
0.903
Other taxes
0.31
0.76
TOTAL
12.96
17.21
EURO bn
13.00
17.21
2.800
1.75
1.500
0.54
Customs duties
12.300 5.880
0.03
1.01
0.39
42.77
79.96
24.35
5.70
80.00
24.40
1.66
0.06
7.86
69.47
5.34
7.90
69.47
5.34
5.25
2.55
0.14
4.200
5.25
70.51
17.86
5.04
89.300 46.580
5.30
70.51
17.90
5.00
9.6
1.500
64.8
Total = EUR 396 bn
* No data are available for other EU Member States.
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Taxation
8.5 At the pump prices of petroleum in EU 28, first quarter of 2015*
All taxes included (€ /litre)
Source: DG ENER, Member States, * Average of the First 4 Months of 2015
8.5.1 At the pump prices of automotive diesel in EU 28, 2015
All taxes included (€ /litre)
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
UK
FI
SE
SL
SK
PT
RO
AT
PL
NL
HU
MT
LT
LU
LV
IT
CY
CR
ES
FR
IE
EL
ES
DE
CZ
DK
BE
BG
0.0
DE ((including former GDR from 1991)
8.5.2 At the pump prices of premium unleaded gasoline 95 in EU 28, 2015
(€ /litre), Prices of premium unleaded gasoline 95 RON
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
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UK
FI
SE
SI
SK
PT
RO
PL
AT
NL
HU
MT
LU
LT
LV
CY
IT
HR
ES
FR
EL
IE
EE
DE
CZ
DK
BE
BG
0.0
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8
8.6.1 Environmental tax revenues by % GDP in EU 28, 2014
Source: OECD
BE
2.05
LT
1.70
BG
2.73
LU
1.99
CZ
2.12
HU
2.6
DK
4.08
MT
2.89
DE
2.00
NL
3.36
EE
2.67
AT
2.43
2.51
IE
2.43
PL
EL
3.68
PT
2.25
ES
1.85
RO
2.42
FR
2.05
SI
3.89
HR
3.86
SK
1.79
IT
3.6
FI
2.88
CY
3.08
SE
2.21
LV
2.67
UK
2.48
8.6.2 Evolution of environmental tax revenues by % of GDP in EU”
Source: OECD
3.0
2.5
2.51
2.43
2.36
2.29
2.36
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2.37
2.40
2.44
2.45
2.46
2012
2013
2014
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
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2011
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8
Taxation
8.7 CO2 based motor vehicle taxes in the EU, 2015
Source: EUROSTAT
Country
CO2 based motor vehicle taxes in the EU in 2015
Austria
Fuel consumption tax (CO2) levied on the first registration of the car.
Belgium
CO2-based registration tax (Wallonia). Registration tax based on CO2 emissions, Euro standards, fuel
consumption and age (Flanders). CO2-based company car tax.
Cyprus
Registration tax and annual circulation tax based on CO2 emission.
Germany
CO2-based annual circulation tax.
Denmark
Annual circulation tax based on fuel consumption.
Registration tax (based on price) linked to fuel consumption.
Spain
CO2-based registration tax.
Finland
Registration tax and annual circulation tax based on CO2 emission.
France
Registration tax, annual circulation tax and company car tax based on CO2 emissions.
Greece
CO2-based annual circulation tax.
Croatia
Registration tax based on price, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption.
Ireland
Registration tax and annual circulation tax based on CO2 emissions.
Luxembourg
CO2-based annual circulation tax.
Latvia
CO2-based registration tax.
Malta
Netherlands
Portugal
Registration tax based on price, CO2 emissions and vehicle length.
Annual circulation tax based on CO2 emissions and age.
CO2-based registration tax
Registration tax based on cubic capacity and CO2 emissions.
Annual circulation tax based on cubic capacity, CO2 emissions and age.
Romania
Registration tax based on CO2 emissions, cubic capacity, exhaust emissions and age.
Sweden
Annual circulation tax based on CO2 emissions and exhaust emissions.
Slovenia
CO2-based registration tax.
United Kingdom
Annual circulation tax and company car tax based on CO2 emissions.
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9
Environment
9.1 Comparison between freight and passenger transport evolution
and CO2 emissions, 1995-2013
Source: EC
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
00
CO2 emissions* from transport in EU-28 (million tonnes)
Freight Transport in EU-28 (billion tkm)
Passenger Transport in EU 28 (billion pkm)
9.2 CO2 emissions from road transport in EU 27 and selected countries*,
2000-2011 (g/tonne-km) and (g/passenger-km)
Source: EEA
130
CO2 emissions (g/tonne-km)
CO2 emissions (g/passenger-km)
120
110
100
90
80
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
70
* EU 27 plus Norway, Switzerland and Turkey
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9
Environment
9.3 CO2 emissions from road passenger transport by mode in EU
and selected countries*, 1995 and 2011 (g/pkm)
Source: EEA
250
200
150
100
50
0
2011
1995
Two-wheelers
Passenger Cars
Buses & Coaches
Vans
* EU 27 plus Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.
9.4 CO2 emissions from road freight transport in EU and selecte countries*,
1995 and 2011 (g/tkm)
Source: EEA
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1995
Light Duty Vehicles
2011
Heavy Duty Vehicles
* EU 27 plus Norway, Switzerland and Turkey
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Environment
9
9.5 Average C02 emissions per km from new passenger cars EU 28,
2013-2014 (g/km)
Source: EEA
9.5.1 Average CO2 emissions in EU 28 Member States, 2013-2014 (g per km)
2013
2014
Evolution
2013-2014
-2%
AT
131.6
128.5
BE
124
121.3
-2%
BG
141.7
135.9
-4%
HR
127.1
115.8
-9%
CY
139.2
129.8
-7%
CZ
139.2
129.8
-7%
DK
112.7
110.2
-2%
EE
147
140.9
-4%
-3%
FI
131.8
127.4
FR
117.4
114.2
-3%
DE
136.1
132.5
-3%
EL
111.9
108.2
-3%
HU
134.4
133
-1%
IE
120.7
117.1
-3%
IT
121.1
118.1
-2%
LV
147.1
140.4
-5%
LT
139.8
135.8
-3%
LU
133.4
129.9
-3%
MT
118.7
115.3
-3%
NL
109.1
107.3
-2%
PL
138.1
132.9
-4%
PT
112.2
108.8
-3%
RO
132.1
128.2
-3%
SK
135.1
131.7
-3%
SI
125.6
121.3
-3%
ES
122.4
118.6
-3%
SE
133.2
131
-2%
UK
128.3
124.6
-3%
EU 28
3,611
3,488.5
-3%
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Environment
9.5.2 Evolution in CO2 emissions 2013-2014 (%)
Source: Eurostat
0.0%
-1.0%
-2.0%
-3.0%
-4.0%
-5.0%
-6.0%
-7.0 %
-8.0%
-9.0%
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EU 28
SE
UK
SI
ES
SK
PT
RO
PL
NL
MT
LT
LU
IT
LV
IE
EL
HU
DE
FI
FR
EE
CZ
DK
CY
HR
BG
AT
BE
-10.0
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9
Environment
9.6 Evolution of CO2 emissions from new passenger cars (gCO2/km)
Source: EEA
180
150
120
90
Average CO2 emissions
2015 target
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2011
2012
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
60
2020 target
9.7 Share of total CO2 emissions from fossil fuel by sector in EU 28, 2015
(bn tonnes CO2)
Source: JRC - EDGAR
Other buildings**** 5.71%
Main Activity
Power Generation* 37.14%
Residential Sector 11.43%
Other Transport*** 1.14%
Autoproducers/
other energy industry 5.71%
Road Transport 22.86%
Manufacturing industry** 11.43%
* Includes main activity heat production
** Includes emissions from non-energy and feedstock uses of fuels
***Includes international marine and aviation bunkers
**** Service sector; includes agriculture and forestry
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Environment
9.8 Fuel market share for new car registrations in EU 28, 2014
Source: ACEA
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Rep.
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Diesel
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70%
Petrol
80%
90%
100%
Alternative Fuels
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9
Environment
9.9 Evolution of CO2 emissions from new passenger cars by fuel type (gCO2/km)
Source: EEA
250
gCO2/km
200
150
130 gCO2/km - 2015 Target
100
95 gCO2/km- 2023 Target
50
Petrol
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Diesel
2020
2018
2016
2014
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
0
Alternative Fuel Vehicles
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9
Environment
9.10 Final energy consumption by sector in EU 28, 2014 (% of TOE)
Source: Eurostat
Industry
Transport
Households
Agriculture
Services
Fisheries
& Other
BE
34%
29%
22%
2%
13%
0%
BG
29%
34%
24%
2%
10%
0%
CZ
33%
27%
25%
3%
12%
1%
DK
16%
37%
29%
5%
14%
0%
DE
29%
30%
25%
0%
16%
0%
EE
20%
28%
32%
5%
16%
0%
IE
21%
42%
24%
2%
11%
0%
EL
20%
42%
24%
2%
11%
2%
ES
25%
40%
19%
3%
11%
1%
FR
20%
35%
26%
3%
15%
1%
HR
18%
32%
35%
3%
11%
0%
IT
23%
35%
26%
2%
13%
0%
CY
14%
52%
18%
2%
12%
1%
LV
20%
28%
32%
4%
16%
0%
LT
20%
36%
29%
2%
12%
0%
LU
15%
62%
12%
1%
10%
0%
HU
27%
24%
30%
4%
15%
0%
MT
9%
54%
13%
1%
23%
0%
NL
30%
30%
19%
7%
13%
0%
AT
34%
33%
21%
2%
11%
0%
PL
24%
27%
31%
6%
13%
0%
PT
28%
41%
16%
2%
12%
0%
RO
30%
25%
34%
2%
8%
1%
SI
27%
40%
23%
2%
9%
0%
SK
44%
22%
19%
1%
13%
0%
FI
44%
20%
21%
3%
12%
1%
SE
36%
27%
21%
1%
14%
0%
UK
20%
39%
27%
1%
12%
1%
EU-28
26%
33%
25%
2%
13%
0%
TR
29%
25%
20%
5%
11%
11%
NO
29%
26%
19%
2%
12%
12%
ME
17%
27%
36%
1%
9%
9%
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Environment
9.11 Biodiesel production in EU 28, 2005-2014 (1000 tonnes)
Source: EBB
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
BE
1
435
472
376
565
2014
741
BG
-
30
26
8
13
378
CZ
133
181
154
117
210
502
DK
71
246
225
235
334
250
DE
1,669
2,861
2,800
2,223
2,516
4,655
EE
7
3
0
0
0
35
IE
-
28*
26*
27*
24*
74*
EL
3
33
78
219
220
702
ES
73
325
604
400
618
4,194
2,445
FR
492
1,910
1,559
1,964
1,885
HR
-
-
-
11
33
55
IT
396
706
479
349
387
1837
CY
1
6
6
6
1
20
LV
5
43
56
81
61
156
147
LT
7
85
79
107
118
LU
-
0
0
0
0
20
HU
-
149
150
150
150
158
MT
2
0
0
1
1
5
NL
-
368
370
1,102*
1,248*
2,505
AT
85
289
226
114
239
495
PL
100
370
363
602
648
1,269
PT
1
289
287
176
314
590
RO
-
70
101
100
137
407
SI
8
22
0
1
2
108
SK
78
88
103
110
105
158
FI
-
288
225*
251*
320*
400*
SE
1
246
225
235
334
282
UK
51
145
218
197
277
505
Total
3,183
8,723
8,083
7,398
8,590
21,500
* IE, FI, NL: Data include hydro-diesel production
* 2010 Biodiesel production of SE is included in the 246.000 tonnes indicated for DK
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9
Environment
9.12 Biofuels share in transport consumption in EU 27, 1996-2011 (%)
Source : Eurostat
5,00
4,50
4,00
3,50
3,00
2,50
2,00
1,50
1,00
0,50
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
0
9.13 Percentage of population exposed to road noise in urban areas in
selected EU Member States, 2012
Source : EEA
AT
BE
BG
DK
ES
FI
FR
DE
IC
IE
LT
LU
MT
NL
NO
PL
RO
� 55-59 dB
SP
� 60-64 dB
� 65-69 dB
SE
� 70-74 dB
CH
� >75 dB
UK
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
France only reported agglomerations from 100000 to 250000 inhabitants in 2012.
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, Hunhary, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia: Data not provided
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Case Studies
10
Risks and countermeasures for road traffic of the ederly in Europe
The aging of the population coincides with an increase in older road users since far more elderly will
actively participate in traffic. As a result, the road safety situation of the elderly will also change since
the normal ageing process makes people more prone to experience functional declines that can
make driving a car more difficult.
Fragility, illnesses and functional limitations, urban roads, walking and medication appear to be the
key risk factors of elderly road users. Comprehensive and proactive strategies as well as interventions
in the area of infrastructure are required to address these risk factors and meet the safety and mobility
needs of elderly road users in the (near) future.
Source: ElderSafe report - European Commission
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10
Case Studies
Infrastructural Interventions
Challenge
Proposal
Effectiveness
Merging into traffic is more demanding
for elderly than for young drivers, and
older drivers require approximately
twice the time to process the vehicles
at merging roadway conditions.
Longer Acceleration and
decelaration lanes
on motorways
Driver support systems and extended
acceleration lanes have positive
effects for older drivers.
The relationship between speed and
safety is influenced by factors such as
the type of road, driver age and vehicle
safety devices.
Lower design speeds on interurban
connecting roads and motorways
in areas where there is a high
concentration of senior drivers,
it is desirable to use the lower end of
the speed range in a particular
roadway class.
In curves, reduced design speeds lead
to fewer accidents and also reduce the
accident severity. It is a fundamental
aspect of highway design and is linked
to concepts such as the
minimum sight distance, the horizontal
curve design criteria and so on.
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Case Studies
Rural and Urban Road Networks
Challenge
Proposal
Effectiveness
The condition of the road surface was
considered to be a primary contributing
factor while important pedestrian and
cyclists’ routes should receive priority
maintenance.
Well maintained road infrastructure
in urban areas:
The design and maintenance of road
infrastructure should be conducted
holistically to serve a variety of
different means of transport
and road users.
Well maintained roadway markings
(e.g., painted edge-lines, lane control
marking) can enhance safety by
providing visual cues to drivers to
help them to stay in their lane and to
identify which lane they need to use.
Moreover, anti-skid surfaces reduce
slipping dramatically.
An angle less than 90 degrees
significantly reduces visibility at the
intersections, especially for older
drivers with reduced head
and neck mobility.
Right - angled junctions
in rural areas:
For older road users, the optimal
angle is one of more
than 75 degrees
At improved non-skewed intersections
older driver errors are significantly
reduced compared to unimproved
intersections.
A restricted sight distance or stopping
sight distance has more adverse
consequences for older adult drivers
than for younger drivers, as they
demand larger perception/reaction
times than younger road users.
Unobstructed view on intersections in
urban and rural areas: need to design
based on longer sight distances at
intersections to accommodate older
drivers by providing them more time
to select a safe gap in which to turn
across, enter or cross traffic.
-
Self-explainig
and forgiving rural roads
Forgiving and self-explaining roads are
rather complementary concepts; selfexplaining roads seek to prevent driving
errors, while forgiving roads minimize
their consequences. Self-explaining
and forgiving roads have a positive
effect on accident rates and accident
probability, and this can be achieved
by applying a series of measures to
treat road user errors and convert
infrastructure to a more self-explaining
and forgiving environment.
-
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Case Studies
Challenge
Proposal
Effectiveness
-
Better vibility of road markings
in rural areas:
Providing older drivers with better
visual cues to recognize roadway
elements.
Making older drivers more
aware of roadway elements (e.g.,
pavement edges, intersections, and
horizontal curves) through the use of
enhanced pavement markings and
delineation should
improve overall safety.
Roundabouts :
Roundabouts have been shown to
reduce the number of vehicle-vehicle
collisions; particularly rear-end, rightangle and left-turn crashes.
Proper road markings significantly
affect older drivers’ ability to negotiate
roundabouts. Moreover, special
attention should be given to speed
limits in roundabouts; senior drivers
are more comfortable to make the
right driving decisions at lower speed
roundabouts.
Physical separation between
pedestrian and traffic lanes
in rural areas.
Barriers and fences designed for
pedestrian flow channelization in
order to safely cross have been found
to reduce mid-road crossings and
substantially decrease collision rates
for pedestrians
of all ages.
Decreasing the crossing distance by the
contruction of a pedestrian island or
sidewalk extension in urban areas.
There is a positive effect of median
islands on older pedestrian safety
and cyclists. A report of OECD (2001)
emphasizes the need to produce
pedestrian routes of the minimum
possible length in order to assist
elderly pedestrians.
Reducing the speed of
other traffic or excluding
motor vehicles entirely from areas
with many pedestrians.
Speed reductions provide elderly
pedestrians the necessary time to
complete the perceptual information
processing and response tasks
demanded by an often complex traffic
environment.
Older drivers find it difficult to
negotiate roundabouts, especially
those with multiple lanes due to
the lack of relevant information and
unfamiliarity of the design rules.
-
-
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Case Studies
10
Challenge
Drivers of all ages feel more comfortable when knowing in which
way stopped cyclists are positioned
at an intersection.
Obstacles (e.g. bollards, kerbs, bicycle
track narrowing etc.) are critical for
the safety of older drivers. Although no
causal relationships have been established, research provides evidence
that the low conspicuity of obstacles
may significantly affect single-bicycle
crashes.
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Proposal
Effectiveness
Wider sidewalks in urban areas
Wider sidewalks in urban areas
significantly reduce pedestrian-vehicle
conflicts, but also accidents.
Installation of lighting at pedestrian
crossings in urban and rural areas
There is increase in pedestrians’
observational behaviour, improvements
in motorists’ yielding behaviour and
positive safety benefits for motorists
and pedestrians of all ages.
More and wider bicycle
tracks in urban areas
Using more and wider bicycle tracks in
urban roads will decrease accident risk,
increase mobility and will provide a
feeling of security when travelling in
public traffic areas. Extending the cycle
path network can have a safety benefit
but only if this does not increase
conflicts and crashes at entry and exit
points and at intersections.
Safe stopping locations where the
older cyclists have a good view of the
intersection in urban and rural areas
Advanced Stop Lines have led to a
35% reduction in accidents involving
bicyclists during left-turn manoeuvres.
Separate phasing for cyclists may also
lead to a reduction
in crashes involving vehicles turning
across their line of movement.
Improving the conspicuousness
of obstacles for older cyclists
in urban areas
Visibility can be enhanced by placing
red-white bollards, painting the kerbs
white, by enhancing clearness of the
road’s shoulder or by applying high
contrast road markings on the side
of the cycle path/road. The presence
of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike
routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and
off-road bike paths) was associated
with the lowest risk.
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10
Challenge
Many pedestrian and cyclist crashes
in rural areas occur at, or close to bus,
or tram stops. In these areas, there is
a significantly high level of interactions between the different modes of
transport.
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Case Studies
Proposal
Effectiveness
Facilities at public transport
stops and transit vehicles
Road markings, the painted edge of
a tram reserve with raised pavement
markers, rumble strips on the approach
to the tram stop as well as narrow
carriageways can increase driver
awareness of potential conflicts and
reduces vehicle speeds.
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Case Studies
10
Traffic control at intersections
Challenge
Proposal
Effectiveness
Merging into traffic is more demanding
for elderly than for young drivers, and
older drivers require approximately
twice the time to process the vehicles
at merging roadway conditions.
Use of protected-only operations
at signalized intersections
in urban areas:
• Provide as many protected left-turn
opportunities as possible
• Lengthen the protected
left-turn signal
• Lengthen the left-turn lanes so that
turning traffic does not block
through traffic
Improved intersections without left-turn
movements significantly improve older
drivers’ safety. A far more interesting
result was that the FHWA guidelines
for intersection design had similar
effects on younger drivers . Left-turn
signal control decreases the number of
injury and severe injury crashes by 37%
and 59% and has positive effects on
left-turn crashes and no effect on rearend crashes for all road users.
Optimize green-times in signalized
intersections in urban areas
Many studies have evaluated the
effect of different upgrades to traffic
signals on accidents involving older
road users and provided evidence for
a 10% reduction in crashes after the
optimization of traffic signals.
For older road users, better
signalization times are said
to increase conspicuity at intersections.
Placing traffic lights at intersection and
Most accidents involving vehicles or
at more crossing locations in
Powered Two Wheelers and/or pedesurban areas:
trians in urban roads occur at junctions
Signal–controlled pedestrian crossings
and are a direct outcome of limited,
can improve safety especially on higher
false or non-existent traffic control.
speed roads or with high traffic levels.
The installation of traffic signals at
an intersection may lead to a decrease
in pedestrian crashes of up to 70%.
Puffin crossings in Scotland were
found to be advantageous for older
pedestrians leading to reduced conflicts
between pedestrians and vehicles
during the flashing amber period. For
older pedestrians, these crossings also
lead to a clear understanding of priority
reduced stress and confusion at the
pedestrian crossing location.
In general, the calculation of
the minimum required time for
pedestrians to cross an approach of
an intersection is done based on an
average pedestrian speed of 1.2 m/
sec. This time window is too short for
most elderly pedestrians and should
be revised to address the safety issues
of those who walk slower due to age
related deficits or other impairments.
The posting signs, that
explained the meaning of the different
crossing signals, at crossing facilities
lead to lower crash rates with respect
to elderly pedestrians.
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Adjusting the traffic signals to allow
for the slower walking speed of elderly
pedestrians in urban areas:
Longer and less confusing walk and
clearance phases are required for
older pedestrians.
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10
The relationship between speed
and safety is influenced by factors
such as the type of road, driver age
and vehicle safety devices
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Lower design speeds on interurban
connecting roads and motorways
in areas where there is a high concentration of senior drivers, it is desirable
to use the lower end of the speed
range in a particular roadway class
Case Studies
In curves, reduced design speeds lead
to fewer accidents and also reduce the
accident severity. It is a fundamental
aspect of highway design and is
linked to concepts such as the
minimum sight distance, the horizontal
curve design criteria and so on.
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Case Studies
10
Lighting
Challenge
Proposal
In general, drivers encounter difficulties in night-time guidance, particularly
during periods of rain and fog, because
Better road lighting in rural
the roadway delineation system does
and urban areas:
not function so well during adverse
Lighting provides a particular benefit to
weather circumstances. The most
older drivers due to deteriorated visual
acuity, which comes with age.
affected group of road users may be
older drivers who need the improved
visibility of roadway delineation
features
Adequate lighting is required for older
drivers in order to react in time to
unexpected situations, changes in lane
configuration and lane width.
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Fixed lighting at interchanges
of motorways
at exits and entries
Effectiveness
Driver support systems and extended
acceleration lanes have positive
effects for older drivers.
-
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10
Case Studies
Route guidance and Signs
Challenge
Proposal
Effectiveness
In urban road networks the complexity
and inhomogeneity of traffic flows are
significant.
Use of advanced warning signs in
urban and rural areas:
Timely and accurate traffic or safety
information provided to road users.
Advanced warning signs can help
reduce confusion and perception/
reaction time at existing or potentially
hazardous conditions.
Older drivers accept a critical gap
that is approximately 1s longer
than younger drivers
Place traffic signs more upstream to
give the driver more time to plan
in urban and rural areas
-
Drivers require a minimum amount of
luminance contrast for
both conspicuity and legibility. Older
drivers take more time to scan
and process a sign compared to a
typical driver.
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Sign luminance significantly reduces
the time to acquire information, while
increasing the sign size also reduces
Better conspicuity and luminance of
traffic signs and markings:
the information acquisition time. Larger
Installation of conspicuous ‘give
and brighter signs are more efficient in
way to pedestrian’ signals, reflective transferring their message to the driver
by reducing information acquisition
pavement markings to stimulate drivers
to look for vulnerable road users
time, or alternatively, by increasing the
transfer accuracy, and, thus are likely
to improve roadway safety.
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