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PowerPoint Sunusu
MICROBIOLOGY
ORAL MICROBIOLOGY
AYDIN ÇÖL
Directions
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2. Write name and date on top
3. Write only the answers of the questions on the right
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5 min
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Introduction to oral microbiology
The oral cavity is the most complex and the most
accessible microbial ecosystem of the human
body.
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The teeth,
gingivae (gums),
tongue,
throat and
buccal mucosa (cheeks)
all provide different surfaces for microbial
colonization.
The constant production of saliva and intermittent provision of sugars and
amino acids from ingested food provides nutrients for microbial growth.
The human oral cavity is home to about 700 identified species of bacteria.
This number will probably turn out to be closer to 1000 in the future, when
all taxa and phyla have been recorded.
It is also home to at least 30 species of fungi (mainly of the genus Candida),
several species of protozoa (which graze on the bacteria for food), and
various intracellular viruses.
Generalizing, in a single subject it is usual to find between 20 – 50 species
of bacteria at healthy oral sites.
At diseased sites there is a tendency for higher numbers of different
species to be present, perhaps 200 or more.
The organisms present in the oral cavity are a mixture of commensals
and pathogens.
A commensal microorganism is defined as one that lives on or within
a host but does not cause any apparent disease.
Many of the cultivated bacteria present in the mouth probably
contribute to oral diseases to a greater or lesser extent, because these
diseases are almost always associated with polymicrobial infections
There are very few organisms in the oral cavity and nasopharynx that
can be considered overt pathogens.
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Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus),
Streptococcus pneumoniae(Pneumococcus),
Neisseria meningitidis(Meningococccus) and
Haemophilus influenzae
all reside within the nasopharynx and have the potential to cause lifethreatening diseases.
Etiology of the major bacterial diseases
in the oral cavity
Mutans streptococci and
other acidogenic bacteria
fermentable carbohydrate
CARIES
organic acids
dissolution of tooth structure
(enamel, cementum, dentin)
GINGIVITIS
Reversed by plaque removal
accumulation of dental plaque
gingival inflammation
exacerbated by systemic factors
e.g. pregnancy , puberty
PERIODONTITIS
Colonization of subgingival regions
by specific groups of organisms
expression of virulence factors
e.g. proteases, leukotoxin
Destructive immune responses
Loss of periodontal tissue including
gingiva, periodontal ligament
and alveolar bone
Important oral diseases, their manifestations and
the major microorganisms involved.
Disease
Caries
Description
Decay (loss) of tooth
enamel (dental caries) or
dentin (dentinal caries), or
root dentin (root aries)
Microorganisms implicated
Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Actinomyces (root caries)
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Gingivitis
Description
Redness and swelling
(inflammation) of the
gingival tissues (gums)
Microorganisms implicated
Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Prevotella
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Pulpitis
Description
Infection of the pulp, inflammation
around the apex of the root, leading
to abscess formation (periapical
granuloma)
Microorganisms implicated
Fusobacterium, Dialister,
Peptostreptococcus,
Porphyromonas
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Periodontitis
Description
Inflammation and either rapid (aggressive,
either generalized or localized) or slower
(chronic) destruction of the tissues supporting the
tooth
Microorganisms implicated
Aggregatibacter (localized), Porphyromonas,
Treponema, Tannerella, Fusobacterium,
Prevotella
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Implantitis
Description
Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas,
Porphyromonas, Prevotella
Microorganisms implicated
Infection and destruction of tissues surrounding a
dental titanium implant
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Halitosis
Description
Oral malodor
Microorganisms implicated
Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella,
Treponema, Eubacterium
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Pharyngitis
Description
Redness and
inflammation of the
pharynx
Microorganisms implicated
Group A Streptococcus, Neisseria,
Haemophilus, Coxsackie A virus
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Tonsillitis
Description
Infection and inflammation
of the tonsils
Microorganisms implicated
Group A Streptococcus, Haemophilus
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Leukoplakia
Description
White patches on the
buccal mucosal epithelium
or tongue
Microorganisms implicated
Candida, human papilloma virus (HPV)
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Stomatitis
Description
Reddening and inflammation
of the oral mucosa
Microorganisms implicated
Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, other
Candida species
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Actinomycosis
Description
Hard swelling (cyst) within the gums
Microorganisms implicated
Actinomyces israelii
Important oral diseases, continued
Disease
Cold sores
Description
Surface (superficial) red,
dry lesions close to the
lips
Microorganisms implicated
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
QUESTIONS?
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