DNA to Protein Notes

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DNA to Protein Notes
DNA to Protein Notes
DNA = _______________________________________________________________________
RNA = ________________________________________________________________________
Where does DNA “live”? ______________________________________
Why is DNA so Important?
1. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the __________________________________________________ used
in the development and functioning of all living things and some viruses.
2. DNA is like ________________________, _______________________, or a ________ for making proteins
3.
DNA’s codes are converted/changed into messages (_____________) for______________________ to
read and then make proteins.
4. ______________________________________________________________________________________
What are the parts of DNA?
The “Backbone” Has 2 Parts: D = _______________________________
P = ______________________
The “Rungs” include the nitrogen bases
A = ________________________________
T = ________________________________
C =_________________________________
G =_________________________________
How to remember Nitrogen Bonds:
A bonds with T
Think:
C bonds with G
Think:
Nucleotides are the building blocks:
1 ______________________
1 _____________________
1 __________________________
What are the complementary nitrogen bases in this sequence of DNA?
ATT
CGT
TAT
CGT
CTG
AAA
ACG
Why is mRNA Important?
1. DNA is too big and CAN’T leave the ___________________…it must send _________________________
2. _____________________________ is created by DNA in the nucleus
3. mRNA contains the messages from the DNA and are sent to _________________________________ for
them to read the instructions for making proteins
What are the parts of RNA?
Notice that RNA has ___________ Strand!
RNA is Made of:
1. Ribose (_______________)
2. Phosphate (_________________________)
3. Nitrogen Bases (____, ____, _____, _____)
U stands for _____________________….a different nitrogen base
A bonds with U
NO THYMINE in RNA!!
C bonds with G
How does DNA tell the cell to make a specific kind of protein?
There are 2 major steps in this process
First: ______________________________________
Second: ______________________________________
Transcription : Process in which ____________ is synthesized from the _________________________________.
HINT: Transcription is when mRNA is made from DNA.
* mRNA: (_________________________) holds the ___________________ for making proteins
How does Transcription work?
* QUESTION…have you been to court?
* There is a person typing what is said and is creating a “court transcript”…which is really a code…shortened
version…and later the transcript is translated into all the words that were said for a record.
SHORTENED CODE = mRNA
Lets Practice:
Create a RNA strand using this sequence of DNA?
ATT
CGT
TAT
CGT
CTG
AAA
ACG
Now What?...Translation!
Translation: Process in which mRNA attaches to the ribosome and a protein is ____________________________.
Words to know:
1. Codon: 3 base code in ________ or________
EX: ACG ATA CGG CTT
2. Amino Acid: Compounds joined by ____________________________ to build proteins
There are ___________ different amino acids.
Different combination of amino acids make different kinds of proteins.
3. Ribosome: “_______________” mRNA recipes so it can synthesize/make proteins
4. tRNA: (__________________________) Type of RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosome
5. Anticodon: ________________________________________ that can pair that corresponds with the
codons on the mRNA
Translating mRNA codes into amino acids to create polypeptide chains (______________________________)
#1. AUG
GCA
UCC
UGA
________________________, _________________________, _________________________, _______________
#2. AUG
CCC
GGU
UAG
________________________, _________________________, _________________________, _______________
#3. AUG
AAG
GUG
UGA
________________________, _________________________, _________________________, _______________
What is the amino acid for the following codons?
AAU
GUG
UGG
How can knowing amino acid sequences in organisms help biologists?
We can use the____________________________to see how organisms are ____________________!
Which of the following two organisms are MOST closely related?
Fish Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Arginine, Isoleucine, Glycine, Serine
Lizard Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Glycine, Alanine, Tyrosine
Frog Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Leuicine, Lysine, Lysine
Bird Sequence: Methionine, Isoleucine, Serine, Glycine, Alanine, Valine

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