Fully Extractive vs. Dilution CEMS

Transcription

Fully Extractive vs. Dilution CEMS
Fully Extractive
Vs.
Dilution Extractive
CEMS
Cemtek Environmental
Emissions Seminar & Training Session
Santa Ana, CA
a technical solution to
meet every need…
CEMTEK Environmental Inc.
g Ave.
3041 S. Orange
Santa Ana, CA 92707
800-400-0200
www.cemteks.com
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Continuous Emission Monitoring
CEMS are required for a variety of
different applications and can be found
att ffacilities
iliti
such
h as:
Turbines-Gas & Oil Fired, Boilers-Gas,
Oil & Coal Fired, IC Engines-Landfill
Gas, Wastewater Treatment-Sewage
Sludge Incinerators & IC Engines,
Refinery, Waste to Energy,
Cogeneration & Process Applications
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
CEMS
&
Process Monitors
Ambient, Dilution,
Ambient
Dilution Full-Extractive Dry,
Dry
Hot-Wet Extractive
Chemiluminescence,, Fluorescence,, NDIR,, GFC,, Zirconia,,
Paramagnetic, Tunable Diode Laser, Heated FID (Flame
Ionization Detection) and FTIR
Low NOx/NO/NO2/NH3/SO2/SO3/CO/CO2/O2/VOCs,
y, Opacity,
p
y, Flow,, Ozone,, Calibrators and PM
Mercury,
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
CEMS TYPES
FULLY EXTRACTIVE (DRY BASIS)
DILUTION EXTRACTIVE (WET BASIS)
OTHERS:
•FULLY EXTRACTIVE (HOT/WET)
•IN-SITU (CROSS STACK or PROBE)
•EX-SITU (CLOSE COUPLED EXTRACTIVE)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
FULLY EXTRACTIVE - Dry Basis

Sample Gas Dried To A Dew-point Of +2°C

Excellent Performance In Low Concentrations

Good Performance In High Concentrations

Requires Preventative Maintenance

MEASUREMENT TYPES: Chemiluminescence,
NDIR, UV Absorption, UV Fluorescence,
Paramagnetic Zirconia
Paramagnetic,
Zirconia, FTIR,
FTIR DOAS,
DOAS IR-GFC

Heated Probe Filter And Heated Sample Line

Moisture Volume Needs to be Determined –
Constant or Measured
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Sample Line
Probe
NOx
Pump
Cooler
Cal
Gas
CO
O2
Inst Air
Inst.
Extractive Flow Schematic
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
SAMPLE
CONDITIONING BAY
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
SAMPLE COOLER
SAMPLE PUMP
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
PERISTALTIC
PUMP
Fully Extractive Heated Probe
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
SYSTEM CONTROL
PANEL
SAMPLE FLOW
CONTROL PANEL
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
SAMPLE PROBE WITH
HEATED FILTER
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
DILUTION EXTRACTIVE - Wet Basis






DILUTES SAMPLE WITH CLEAN DRY AIR
MINIMIZES MAINTENANCE
USES HIGHLY SENSITIVE GAS ANALYZERS
LOWER COST SAMPLE LINE – FREEZE
PROTECTED
SIMPLE TO OPERATE
MEASUREMENT TYPES: Chemiluminescence
(NOx), UV Fluorescence (SO2), GFC-IR (CO), NDIR
(CO2 diluent)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Dilution Extractive Flow Schematic
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Blow Back
(purge)
Cal
Gas
Bypass
Air
Dilution
Air
Stack
Vacuum
Pressure Diluted
Comp Sample
O t
Out
DILUTION PROBE SCHEMATIC (Out-Of-Stack)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Side View
Pressure
Comp
Cal Gas
Vacuum
Dilution
Air
Diluted
Sample
Out
DILUTION PROBE ARRANGEMENT (Out-Of-Stack)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Bypass
Air
Top View
Heated
Filter
DILUTION PROBE ARRANGEMENT (Out-Of-Stack)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Heated
Block
Bypass
Air
Blow
Back Air
DILUTION PROBE ARRANGEMENT (Out-Of-Stack)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
DILUTION CONTROL PANEL
GAS
ANALYZERS
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
TRACE GAS
SCRUBBERS
ACCUMULATOR
TANK
HEATLESS AIR
DRYER
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
CEMS SELECTION AND DESIGN
Application Choices – Dilution or Extractive
 Pollutant Concentrations
 Lowest constituent dictates
 May preclude dilution due to analyzer
limitations
 Mass Emissions Requirement
 Dilution is a wet basis measurement
 Requires flow measurement
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
APPLICATION CHOICES
Dilution or Fully Extractive
Advantages
Dilution
Low maintenance
Extractive More reliable
Coal fired
Some oil fired
Fully
Low concentrations
Extractive Gas fired
Some oil fired
Fuel flow meter
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Disadvantages
Low concentrations
(Ratios above 100:1)
Higher maintenance
Lower availability
Continuous Emissions
Monitoring Systems
Engineering
&
Design
Gas Turbines
a technical solution to
meet every need…
CEMTEK Environmental Inc.
g Ave.
3041 S. Orange
Santa Ana, CA 92707
800-400-0200
www.cemteks.com
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Gas Turbine Process Diagram
Turbine Exhaust CEMS
NOX
CO
O2
NH3*
SCR Inlet CEMS
NOX
Raw Material
Dryer THC
Regulatory Compliance CEMS
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Process CEMS
Gas Turbine
Air Quality
y Control Systems
y
Natural Gas Fired Turbine
CO Catalyst
SCR NOX Control
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Conventional CEMS Ammonia Slip
Measurement Techniques
q
Differential NOX/NH3 Converter Method
Turbine Exhaust NOX + Converted NH3
Turbine
T
bi Exhaust
E h
t NOX
On Stack Converter
4 NH3 + 5 O2 = 4 NO + 6 H2O
*High temperature catalyst
NH3 slip (ppm) = NOX (ppm) (total converted) – NOX (ppm) (unconverted)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Conventional CEMS Ammonia Slip
Measurement Techniques
q
Inlet/Outlet Differential NOX Method
T bi Exhaust
Turbine
E h
t NOX
SCR Inlet NOX
NH3 slip = NH3 fed – (NOX in – NOX out)
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Conventional CEMS Ammonia Slip
Measurement Techniques
q
Direct NH3 Measurement Method
T bi Exhaust
Turbine
E h
t NH3
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Continuous Emissions
Monitoring Systems
Engineering
&
Design
Coal Fired Utility Boilers
a technical solution to
meet every need…
CEMTEK Environmental Inc.
g Ave.
3041 S. Orange
Santa Ana, CA 92707
800-400-0200
www.cemteks.com
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Coal Fired Utility Boiler
Process Diagram
NH3 Slip
SCR/SNCR NOX
FGD Inlet SOX
Regulatory Compliance CEMS
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Compliance/Process CEMS
Stack Exhaust CEMS
NOX
SO2
CO
PM
Hg
HCl
Flow
Process CEMS
Coal Fired Utility Boiler
Air Quality Control Systems
SCR/SNCR
NOX Control
Activated Carbon Injection
Mercury Control
Particulate/
Opacity
Control
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
WFGD/DFGD
SOX Control
Coal Fired Boiler FGD Scrubber
General CEMS Design
g
Wet & Dry FGD CEMS Application

CEMS Design Considerations
 Probe
P b Design
D i
and
d Accessories
A
i
 Corrosion resistant materials for probe tube construction to
prevent attack from acid gases (Hastelloy, Inconel, etc.)
 Heated probe tube in wet stack (saturated) conditions to help
prevent corrosion
 Impingement shield on probe inlet to prevent clogging from
p
wet particulate
 Demisters to knock down entrained water in sample prior to
entering dilution orifice
 Probe accessibility for maintenance and service
 Stack clearances for probe installation and removal
 Temperature effects on the density of the flue gas minimized
by the use of a heated orifice
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Coal Fired Boiler FGD Scrubber
General CEMS Design
g
Wet & Dry FGD CEMS Application

CEMS Design Considerations
 Sample
S
l Umbilical
U bili l Design
D i
 Sample line routing and access. Keep in mind access for stack
testers and maintenance personnel.
Test
Port
o t


© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
Heated umbilical for low dilution ratios (higher moisture
concentrations)
Heated umbilical for low CO measurement applications in
conjunction with stainless steel tubing
Coal Fired Boiler FGD Scrubber
General CEMS Design
g
Wet & Dry FGD CEMS Application

CEMS Design Considerations
 Dilution
Dil ti Air
Ai Cleanup
Cl
Design
D i
 Plant air cleanup panel to condition air to instrument grade
may be required
 Redundant dilution air cleanup for added system availability
 CO and trace gas scrubbers for removal of measured gases
© 2009 Cemtek Environmental, Inc.
CO2 Adsorbers &
Trace Gas Scrubbers
CO Scrubbers

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