Wetland reserves: what have we protected since 1990

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Wetland reserves: what have we protected since 1990
Wetland reserves: what have we protected since 1990?
Hugh Robertson et al.
Freshwater Section, Research & Development
Pre-human
Current
Ausseil et al. 2008
What progress in wetland protection has
occurred over the past 20 years?
Change in wetland extent – South Island
Pre-human
Change in extent of palustrine wetlands
Current
Ausseil et al. 2008
What does protected mean?
•
Changes in DOC estate
Legal definitions
–
–
•
Reserves Act
Water Conservation Orders
International conventions
–
–
•
IUCN definition of protected areas
Ramsar Convention definitions – e.g.
maintain ecological character
Comprehensive, representative
and adequate (CAR)
–
•
e.g. Margules & Pressey (2000)
Key threatening process are
managed effectively?
–
Implies catchments also need to be
protected or managed appropriately
c.1990
c.2009
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O Tu Wharekai
(Ashburton Basin)
O Tu Wharekai
(Ashburton Basin)
Current wetlands
c.1990
Ausseil et al. 2008
O Tu Wharekai
(Ashburton Basin)
Wetland protection since 1990 (by wetland type)
c.2009
90000
80000
Current wetland area
1990 DOC area
70000
2009 DOC area
Area (ha)
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
Bog
Fen
Pakihi/Gumland
Swamp
Mire
Wetland protection since 1990 (relative to historical extent)
Marsh
Seepage
Swamp
Inland saline
Other
New Zealand
1600000
Historic wetland area
1400000
North Island
South Island
Current wetland area
1990 DOC area
1200000
2009 DOC area
WONI Provinces
Area (ha)
1000000
800000
WONI Units
600000
400000
Elevation
200000
0
Bog
Fen
Mire
Pakihi/Gumland
Swamp
Marsh
Swamp
Seepage
Inland saline
Wetland typology (e.g. bog, fen, swamp, marsh)
Other
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Bioregionalisations
Wetland protection since 1990 (NI vs. SI)
120000
Current wetland area
100000
1990 DOC Area
2009 DOC Area
Area (ha)
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
Mire
LENZ Level 1
Wetland protection since 1990 (SI x WONI region)
Swamp
Other
Mire
North Island
WONI provinces & units
Swamp
Other
South Island
Wetland protection since 1990 – high country additions
60000
8000
Current wetland area
Current wetland area
1990 DOC Area
7000
1990 DOC Area
50000
2009 DOC Area
2009 DOC Area
6000
40000
Area (ha)
Area (ha)
5000
30000
4000
3000
20000
2000
10000
1000
0
0
Mire
Swamp
Other
Mire
Northern South Island
Swamp
Other
Eastern South Island
Are our wetland
reserves adequate?
Mire
Swamp
Other
W estern South Island
Mire
Swamp
Other
<50m
50-100m
Southern South Island
100-250m
250-500m 500-1000m
>1000m
<50m
50-100m
100-250m
Canterbury
250-500m 500-1000m
>1000m
Waitaki
Have additions improved reserve design?
6000
Need to consider wetland
reserve design
5000
(e.g. % wetland site protected)
1990 DOC Area
2009 DOC Area
No. of sites
4000
3000
Example: Mangarakau wetland
2000
1000
0
0%
1-19%
20-49%
50-79%
80-99%
100%
Proportion of wetland (site) reserved
3
Need to consider other
conservation land (e.g. QEII
covenants)
Is it time to invest in small wetlands?
120000
Current wetland area
100000
1990 DOC area
2009 DOC area
Area (ha)
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
<20 ha
120000
•
Information can be used to explain the
contribution of new reserves to
protecting freshwater biodiversity
•
Context for the Arawai Kakariki
programme and other wetland
conservation projects.
•
Additions have often included underrepresented wetlands
•
Small wetlands – easiest gains?
•
Are additions to the reserve estate in
good condition – do they require
restoration?
•
Ultimately, management of catchment
processes, particularly water quality
and environmental flows for wetlands,
may be more important than the reserve
itself.
Current wetland area
100-499ha
500-1000ha
>1000ha
1990 DOC area
2009 DOC area
80000
Area (ha)
50-99ha
Implications for wetland conservation
And which sites require restoration?
100000
20-49ha
New additions
may require
restoration
60000
40000
20000
0
<20 ha
20-49ha
50-99ha
100-499ha
500-1000ha
>1000ha
Email: [email protected]
www.doc.govt.nz/conservation
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