CHC UNIT 1914-1929 or 1930-1945: Residential

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CHC UNIT 1914-1929 or 1930-1945: Residential
10 Lessons on Embedding
First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit History in the
Grade 10 CHC Curriculum
Developed by:
Erik Brokelman
Sarah Cormier
Flora Fung
Nancy Hamer Strahl
2014 - 2015
Introduction
We would like to acknowledge that we are on the traditional territory of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First
Nation.
“Over the past three years, relationships with school boards; schools; parents; teachers; and First Nation, Métis
and Inuit communities and organizations have become stronger... Knowledge and awareness of First Nation,
Métis and Inuit histories, cultures and perspectives have increased throughout the provincial education system.”
Ontario Ministry of Education, A Solid Foundation: Second Progress Report on the Implementation of the
Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework, 2013, pp. 6–7.
In support of its focus on student achievement and closing attainment gaps, the Ministry of Education has
identified First Nation, Métis, and Inuit education as a priority in Ontario schools. In response to the need of
fulfilling the mandate of the Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework a team of
Durham District School Board teachers has developed a series of lesson plans to help in the implementation of
this priority. The team of teachers who wrote this document wanted to develop new lesson plans to help students
learn about contemporary and traditional First Nation, Métis, and Inuit cultures, histories, and perspectives in a
way that supports and strengthens the existing curriculum. It is important that educators play an important role in
promoting an inclusive school climate in which all students, including First Nation, Métis, and Inuit students, see
themselves reflected in the curriculum. In addition, all Ontario students will have an opportunity to learn about
and appreciate contemporary and traditional First Nation, Métis, and Inuit cultures, histories and perspectives.
The lessons highlight where there are opportunities for students to explore themes, ideas, and topics related to
Indigenous peoples within the Canadian History since World War I, Grade 10 Academic (CHC2D) and Applied
(CHC2P) courses. This document is an additional resource to help build educator confidence in delivering the
curriculum.
“For Aboriginal students, the inclusion of indigenous perspectives can help to foster engagement in the learning
process through increased relevance to their own experiences and culture, leading to increased self-esteem and
better learning outcomes. For other students, indigenous perspectives extend and enrich the educational
experience, provide intercultural knowledge and experiences and afford opportunities to explore and appreciate
Aboriginal socio-cultural, economic and ecological contributions to Canadian society.”
“Teaching for Ecological Sustainability: Incorporating Indigenous Philosophies and Practices”, What
Works? Research into Practice, Research Monograph #36 (Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat / Ontario
Association of Deans of Education, September 2011), p. 1.
Using this Resource
This resource is divided into ten lessons. Lessons one through five are considered the core lessons while the
remaining five are intended to be used for further exploration, depending on the interest level of students and the
planning constraints of the teacher. These ten lessons were not designed to be the entirety of information
presented regarding First Nation, Métis and Inuit education, but rather as a starting point for teachers to expand
upon. These lessons are intended to be embedded into the grade ten history curriculum and all are classroom
ready with activities, specific learning goals and success criteria. Lesson plans, blackline masters, videos and
reference material are included in order to assist teachers with each lesson.
Each of these lessons has already been successfully taught by the teachers who designed them, but can still be
improved upon. Our hope is that teachers will continue to expand these lesson plans wherever they deem
necessary. This resource has been edited and created in consultation with experts and members of the Indigenous
community.
Curriculum Links
These ten lessons have been written within the framework of the revised Canadian and World Studies
Curriculum, 2013:
Overall
Expectations
B2 – Communities, Conflict and Cooperation: analyse some key interactions within and
between different communities in Canada from 1914 to 1929 and how they affected
Canadian society and politics.
B3 – Identity, Citizenship and Heritage: explain how various individuals, organizations
and specific social changes between 1914 and 1929 contributed to the development of
identity, citizenship and heritage in Canada.
Page 112 The Ontario Curriculum 9 and 10 - Canadian and World Studies Revised 2013
Each of the ten lessons contains rich historical content, cross curricular aspects and links to historical thinking
concepts. Lessons, activities and worksheets have been framed around the Big Six: Historical Thinking Concepts
by Peter Seixas and Tom Morton and are linked to the thinking concepts of historical significance, continuity and
change, cause and consequence, historical perspective and ethical dimensions of history.
Primary source materials include: survivor stories, photographs, paintings and a variety of current videos.
Wherever possible, activities that practice skills for the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test and EQAO Math
Test have been included.
Two Approaches
This resource can be used at the discretion of the teacher. Two possible approaches have been suggested below:
Thematic – Teaching these lessons as a thematic unit could allow richer connections to be made between lessons.
A thematic approach could take a minimum of five lessons, if the teacher only wished to complete the five core
lessons, or could be expanded to include all ten.
Chronological – In the chronological teaching of these ten lessons, teachers can embed the appropriate lessons as
they fit within the historical chronology since 1914. At the top of each lesson plan the specific unit of study has
been included to assist teachers with where to embed these units into current practice.
Core 5 Lessons
#
Lesson Topic
1
Background, Terminology and Local Population
2
Stereotypes vs. Reality (Reclamation)
3
Treaties and Land Claims
4
Residential Schools and Children in Care
5
First Nations, Métis and Inuit in War
Other Lessons
#
Lesson Topic
6
First Nations, Métis and Inuit Post World War II
7
Reconciliation and Reclamation (#2 – part 2)
8
Land Claim Conflicts (#3 – part 2)
9
Urban vs Children in Care (#4 – part 2)
Current Events that impact the First Nations,
10
Métis and Inuit People
Unit
Inquiry and Skill development
1982 – Present
1914-1929/1982 – Present
1914-1929/1982 – Present
1914-1929/1929-1945
Unit
1945 – 1982
1982 – Present
1982 – Present
1982 – Present
1982 – Present
CHC
Lesson:
Unit 1 – Inquiry and Skill Development
Description
1



Background and Historical Overview
Terminology
Local Population
Learning Goals:
Students will:



Learn to explain how various individuals, organizations and specific changes contributed
to the development of identity, citizenship and heritage
Learn to use the proper terminology when referring to First Nations, Métis and Inuit
people
Examine the historical and current population of the local First Nation.
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:


they can identify what traditional territory they live on
they can confidently discuss First Nations, Métis and Inuit issues using the proper
terminology
Historical Learning Skill Focus
 Historical Perspective
 Ethical Dimension
Lesson:
 Video – “8th Fire Wab Kinew 500 years in 2 minutes” on www.youtube.com
 Class brainstorm on “What can you tell us about the 500 year relationship?”
 Lesson on terminology (see glossary), teacher led discussion on definitions
 Give students a copy of the maps and have students discover which First Nation territory
they are located on and what First Nation lives there.
 Have students read information sheet about their local First Nation and its traditional
territory (The Durham Region example is included - Teacher may have to research this,
try local First Nation website)
 Students complete (in partners or individually) worksheet on Local Population
 Consolidation – students should know what traditional territory they are on – exit card
Optional Activities:
 Students can create a poster recognizing what traditional
 Give students map of the region or Southern Ontario and have students identify the First
Nation communities in the area or map comparison between three maps
 Identify three to five First Nation communities closest to you
 Homeland Assignment


Activity/Assignment:
Students complete terminology
worksheet
Numeracy Worksheet on population


Resources/Context:
Computers/projector/internet
Reference the glossary



Students complete worksheet or exit
card on local First Nation and
surrounding Indigenous
communities.
Assessment/Evaluation

Poster – Formative/Feedback
Exit Card – Descriptive feedback

Reflections:

Origins of the Mississauga’s of Scugog
Island First Nation information sheet
Worksheets
Modifications/Accommodations
Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Lesson:
Unit – 1982 to Present
Description
2

Analyze the stereotypes present in media and in society
(background/history) vs the reality
Learning Goals:
Students will:
 Learn to recognize the false stereotypes present in media and society
 Learn to recognize how First Nation, Métis and Inuit people express their culture in
diverse ways
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:


they can recognize the false stereotypes present in media and society
they can recognize the different ways Indigenous people express their culture
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Change and Continuity
Lesson:
1. Have slide entitled “Which image is that of the true First Nation, Métis and Inuit”
when students enter the classroom
2. Have a discussion as to which image is of the true Indigenous Person or a
Stereotype
3. Teacher should revisit with students the meaning of the word stereotype and
where stereotypes are present in current society
4. Using the PowerPoint discuss with students the history behind the stereotypes of
First Nation, Métis and Inuit people
5. Teachers can have students analyze the “Four Mohawk Kings portrait” on their
own. The teacher should stress that painting is a European viewpoint and not a
true representation
6. Optional: Teacher can have a conversation about “is art a true representation of a
people?”
7. Give Students a copy of the Poem “I am not the Indian you had in Mind”
8. Show video: http://www.nsi-canada.ca/2012/03/im-not-the-indian-you-had-in-mind/
9. As students watch video they can follow along with the poem and highlight or
underline the stereotypes mentioned in the text – teachers discuss the stereotypes
present
10. Teachers should have students consider the following questions:
a) How have perceptions of First Nation, Métis and Inuit people changed through time?
b) What has led to these changes?
11. Show http://www.cbc.ca/news/aboriginal/pharrell-williams-please-think-before-youput-on-a-headdress-1.2667315
12. Explain to students the “I am a Culture, not a Costume” campaign and discuss
student reactions to current stereotypes
http://www.ohio.edu/orgs/stars/Poster_Campaign.html
13. Have students create their own “I am a Culture, not a Costume” poster
Optional Activities:
 Give students a copy of the painting “Four Mohawk Kings” and have them analyze the
painting for stereotypes after discussing the Plains of Abraham painting with students.
http://face2face.si.edu/my_weblog/2009/01/closing-exhibition-four-indian-kings.html
 Have students research the use of stereotypes in sports today. Have students write either
a letter or position piece on their findings. (Teachers can refer to youtube video of Jon
Stewart – be aware of the satire in this video, students may not get the humor)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbYs7QagnDc
Activity/Assignment:

Students create their own
interpretation of “I am a
Culture, not a Costume” poster
Resources/Context:


Assessment/Evaluation

Formative and descriptive
feedback on the poem analysis
and poster
Reflections:
http://mediasmarts.ca/diversitymedia/aboriginal-people/common-portrayalsaboriginal-people
http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/4Chiefs.html
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Unit: 1914-1929/1982 – Present
Lesson:
Description
3


Traditional First Nation treaty making (Wampum) compared to European
influenced acts of law (Indian Act & Williams Treaty)
Impacts of these treaties and acts for First Nation people
Learning Goals:
1) Understand the political rights and changes of policy towards Canada’s First Nation people
2) Understand the impact these changes have had on Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit people.
- Wampum Belts
- Indian Act
- Williams Treaties
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 they can define what a treaty is and that it encompasses the overarching idea of responsibility
 they can comment on the impact that these documents have had on First Nation people
 express authentic perspective of Canada’s First Nation peoples on these documents *
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Historical perspective
Cause and consequence
Lesson:
 Open up a brainstorming session to the class where you develop a list or a mind-map of the type of
people who make up Canada. (Immigrants, First Nation, Métis, and Inuit)
 Express that today you will be exploring the laws and policy associated with Canada’s First Nation, Métis
and Inuit people.
 Express to students that in order to understand these policies and their impact on Canada’s Indigenous
people, we will be exploring 3 core documents that greatly impacted them: Wampum Belts, The Indian
Act and the Williams Treaties.
 Have a brief PowerPoint presentation where students fill in a graphic organizer on the 3 core documents
of the lesson.
 Show the Treaty Map of Ontario.
 Have students brainstorm examples of everyday encounters involving agreements and promises, and give
examples of instances they have been involved in when there was a misunderstanding about what had
been promised.
 In a Think-Pair-Share activity, students generate explanations as to how and why misunderstandings can
arise, and potential consequences. Students apply these ideas to the question of First Nation treaties, and
brainstorm misunderstandings that might have arisen in the signing of treaties, specifically the Williams
Treaties.
 End the lesson with the video: We Are All Treaty People and the exit card regarding social justice.
Optional Activities:
 Viewing and Discussion of the NFB film Trick or Treaty
 Have students generate their own treaties for the classroom regarding rules and routines. At the end of
the year, as a class, assess if these were well respected or if there were anything that was forgotten.
 Have students complete a critical thinking reflection piece where after viewing the Ontario Treaty Map,
alongside the lesson, they comment on the social justice of these documents.

Students make their own wampum belt on graph paper or on a computer that commemorates an
event/story.
Activity/Assignment:
Resources/Context:




Graphic organizer
Think-Pair-Share
Exit card
Optional Activities









Map of Ontario’s Treaties (Large & small scale)
PowerPoint presentation
PDF copies of both treaties.
Graphic organizer for note
PowerPoint presentation
Computer/Internet/projector/speakers
Two Row Wampum Image
Graph paper
See Appendix A for context
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
Assessment/Evaluation



Classroom Treaty Building
Exit card : Social justice question
Optional Activities
Reflections:
CHC UNIT 1914-1929 or 1930-1945: Residential Schools
Lesson: Description


4
Students will learn about the origins, history, and end of Canada’s Residential Schools
Students will try to empathize with the victims of the Residential School system
Curriculum Learning Goals:
Students will:

(D3.2) describe some significant developments and/or issues that affected First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit people in Canada during this period (e.g., the continuing existence of residential schools)
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 They can describe the origins, history, and end of Canada’s Residential School system.
 They can explain the human toll/consequences the Residential School system had on First Nation,
Métis and Inuit victims
 They can discuss the ongoing consequences the Residential School system has on First Nation,
Métis and Inuit communities
Historical Learning Skill Focus

Historical Significance: Students will explore the significant moments in the creation, operation,
and closing of Residential Schools
 Ethical Dimensions: Students will explore the impact of Residential Schools on First Nation, Métis
and Inuit peoples
Lesson:






Prompt student to share/discuss anything they know about Residential Schools. Video: “Did you
Know” or “Residential School Images.” Post video discussion (depends on student engagement)
PPT Lesson / Note on residential schools optional if time permits – could give PPT notes as a handout
Residential School Survivor Stories – Students read 1-2 each. Share with class if time permits
Assignment: Bio Poem based on existing knowledge/PPT/and survivor stories
Prime Ministers apology video + 8th Fire: It’s Time (start from approx 30 min mark-approx 38 minute)
www.cbc.ca/8thfire
Apology Questions / Discussion – Is the Prime Minister’s apology worth anything?
Optional Activities
1. Who Wants to be a Millionaire quiz (ppt)
2. Project of Heart www.projectofheart.ca
Activity/Assignment:



Video/PPT/Discussion
Bio-Poem + Questions/Discussion
Assessment/Evaluation
Bio-Poem could be assessed as
formative/summative Communication
assignment
Reflections:
Resources:



Computer/Projector for PPT
Handouts
Modifications/Accommodations
Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Lesson:
Unit – 1914-1929 and 1929-1945
Description
5

Gain knowledge on the contributions that First Nations, Métis and
Inuit people made in World War I and/or World War II
Learning Goals:
Students will:
 Learn to understand the role First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people played in World War
I and/or World War II
 Understand the contributions of a First Nations, Métis and Inuit individual to our
history.
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 they can explain the role First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people played in World War I
and/or World War II
 they can explain the contributions of a First Nations, Métis and Inuit individual to our
history.
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Historical Perspective
Lesson:
 Ask students what defines a Hero?
 Show Video – “Heroes” by Wab Kinew https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ul4KmHlzMc
 Either have students write down all the First Nation, Métis and Inuit heroes mentioned
in this video or complete the attached worksheet
 Discuss the heroes and the message of the video
 Discuss points from the powerpoint on the First Nations and the World Wars
 Show Heritage Minute video about Tommy Prince
https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/tommy-prince
 Distribute readings about Tommy Prince George and Frances Pegahmagabow
 Review what mind maps are
 Have students begin to add information to their mind maps
 Question for Discussion
a) How were the experiences of Tommy and Francis in war different from soldiers who
were not Indigenous?
b) Why can Tommy and Frances be considered Forgotten Heroes
 Have students research one individual from the video and write a bio-poem about them
Optional Activities:
 Students can use the computer to research information about Tommy Prince and Francis
Pegahmagabow. Students can create five interview questions they would ask Tommy and
Frances if could interview them
 Have students write a lobby letter asking for more government benefits for First Nation,
Métis and Inuit Soldiers - http://www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/war-
conflict/veterans/continuing-the-fight-canadas-veterans/status-indians-compensated-forbenefits-denied.html






Have students research Métis and Inuit soldiers who fought in either WWI or WWII
Have students research one of the individuals mentioned in video and create a tribute to
them
Teachers can also show clips from the NFB Video entitled “Forgotten Warriors”
Have students research an First Nation, Métis and Inuit Veteran and create a tribute to
them http://www.vcn.bc.ca/~jeffrey1/tribute.htm
Activity/Assignment:
Students complete research on two
First Nation soldiers and
demonstrate their knowledge
through a mind map
Assessment/Evaluation
Summative Assignment
Reflections:

Resources/Context:
Computers
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Lesson:
Unit: 1945 - 1982
Description

6
Analyze the changes to First Nation, Métis and Inuit governmental
policy after World War II
Learning Goals:
Students will:
 understand the rights and changes in government policies towards Canada’s
First Nation, Métis and Inuit people.
 understand the impact these changes have had on Canada’s First Nation,
Inuit and Métis people.
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 they can understand the changes in government policy towards Canada’s
First Nation, Métis and Inuit
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Cause and Consequence
Lesson:
 Review with students the policies regarding Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit
people (Indian Act) from Lesson 3
 Have students read handout about Bill C-31 individually, then in groups have students
brainstorm on ways policies have changed in Bill C-31
 Students complete the graphic organizer on the Consequences of Bill C-31
 Have each partnered group give their three consequences and keep a list on the board
 Through discussion, create a class list of three consequences of Bill C-31
 Show Slideshow on High Arctic Relocation
 Give students a copy of a news article from The Star
http://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2009/11/29/
inuit_were_moved_2000_km_in_cold_war_manoeuvring.html
 Have students write a response to the newspaper or write an exit card response on
the whether the changes in government policy after WWII were effective in healing
the relationship between Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit and the Canadian
Government?
Optional Activities:
 Have students design their own tribute to the Inuit who relocated in the 1950’s
 Have students debate over the true reasons for the High Arctic Relocation
Activity/Assignment:

Exit Card
Resources/Context:

Computers
Assessment/Evaluation


Formative
Descriptive Feedback
Reflections:
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Lesson:
7
Unit
1982 – Present
Description
Land & Claim conflicts
* The term First Nation is used in place of reserve (see terminology lesson #1)
Understand and compare land claims and current situations on First Nations land
- Mississaugas of Scugog First Nation vs. Attawapiskat First Nation
- Oka vs Ipperwash
-The Creation of Nunavut (Land claims – modern day treaties)
Learning Goals:
Students will:
 Learn to
o Not generalize First Nation conditions in Canada
o Break stereotypes of people living on a First Nation by understanding why there are so
many struggles.
o Develop effective solutions to struggles on a First Nation.
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 they can
o Explain why there are issues on a First Nation in Canada.
o Explain effective solutions to help heal and move away from troubles/stereotypes.
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Continuity and Change
Historical significance
Ethical dimension
Lesson:







Refresh students on the relevant terminology and the meaning behind treaties. Have a recall
question period of past treaties and land claim policies. (Wampum, the Indian Act and
Treaties from Lesson 3).
Discuss the impact of treaties today and how they are represented in a First Nation.
Reference the map of First Nations in Ontario.
Brainstorm together: What comes to mind when you think of the word reserve?
Ask students if they have ever visited a First Nation? Ask what it was like.
Using a PowerPoint presentation, show students pictures of various First Nation disputes in
Canada’s history. (Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation, Attawapiskat First Nation, The
Oka Crisis, Ipperwash). Review context appendices prior to lesson in order to bring forth
points regarding disputes when looking at the images.
The PowerPoint concludes with the more recent land claim of Nunavut. Apart from defining
what a land claim, this new modern approach to treaties will shed some light on the
developing topic of First Nation, Métis and Inuit self-government in Canada.
Have students read a news article on Attawapiskat First Nation and discuss in breakaway
groups why this is happening? (Alternatively: show OVERT video on Mississaugas First
Nation in Oshawa sending aid up to Attawapiskat First Nation. Hold an oral discussion
afterwards in which students. Highlight some of the problems occurring today on poverty
stricken First Nations in Canada.

Hold a round table discussion where students discuss solutions for poverty and frustrations on
many First Nations in Canada today.
Optional Activities:
 Discussion of The Powley Story and recognition of distinct Métis culture and land rights
 Screening and Discussion of Third World Canada
 Screening of 8th Fire: Whose land is it anyway? – Hold a discussion afterwards addressing the
very title of the documentary.
 Have a discussion and examine the article “A Second Look at those Attawapiskat Numbers”
http://www.oktlaw.com/blog/taking-a-second-look-at-those-attawapiskat-numbers/
Activity/Assignment:

Students have a roundtable/circle
discussion where they discuss the
problems and solutions to
poverty/reservation struggles
Resources/Context:





Assessment/Evaluation


Commentary sheet assessing
students’ critical thinking and
participation during round table
discussion.
Reflections:

Computer/projector/speakers
Appendix B
First Nations of Ontario Reserve Map
Graphic Organizer on Roundtable discussion
re: solutions
News article on Attawapiskat First Nation
Modifications/Accommodations
Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
Work with a partner
CHC
Lesson:
8
1945-1982 or 1982-Present UNIT: Children in Care and the 60s Scoop
Description



Students will learn about the origins, history, and consequences of the 1960s scoop
Students will try to empathize with the victims of the 1960s scoop
Students will analyze the current First Nation, Métis and Inuit Children in Care
situations
Curriculum Learning Goals:
Students will:
 (D3.2) describe some significant developments and/or issues that affected First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit people in Canada during this period
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 They can describe the origins, history, and current events of the 60s scoop
 They can explain the human toll/consequences the 60s scoop
 They can discuss the ongoing events and consequences of the First Nations, Métis and Inuit Children in
Care situation
Historical Learning Skill Focus


Historical Significance: Students will explore the significant moments in the creation, operation,
and consequences of the 60s scoop
Ethical Dimensions: Students will explore the impact of the 60s scoop and Children in Care
current events
Lesson:
 Prompt student to share/discuss anything they know about CAS/Child Welfare/Provincial or Federal
Programs that are designed to protect/help children – United Nations Charter On The Rights Of The
Child -- **This could be a sensitive issue for some**
 VIDEO -- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lCktsccpeY –
“I am a witness – A short Film” **Video is geared more to an academic audience**
 PPT Lesson / Note on 60s scoop and Children in Care
 Reading: Stacking the odds against First Nations families
 OSSLT Styled questions on reading
Optional Activity
1. Numeracy activity worksheet
Activity/Assignment:
Resources:
 Video/PPT/Discussion
 Computer/Projector for PPT
 Reading + Questions/Discussion
 Handouts
Assessment/Evaluation

Reading/Questions could be assessed as
formative/summative Communication/
Thinking assignment
Reflections:
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
CHC
Lesson:
9
Unit 1982 – Present
Description

The renewal and rejuvenating of First Nation, Métis and Inuit culture and
identity in Canada
Learning Goals:
Students will:
Learn to:
- Explore and analyse government apologies for past wrongs towards First Nation, Métis and Inuit
people in Canada
- Understand movements by First Nation, Métis and Inuit communities to reclaim their identity e.g.
Idle No More
 Renewal, rejuvenation
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 they can identify acts of reconciliation and rejuvenation done and currently ongoing within
Canada.
Historical Learning Skill Focus
Change and Continuity
Historical perspective
Lesson:
 Open up a brainstorming session regarding past wrongs done onto First Nation, Métis and
Inuit people in Canada. (Review lessons on Treaties and Residential school). This can be
completed on the dry erase or chalk board as a class.
 Hook: Just get over it video. Gather student interest into how there still is frustration for past
wrongs.
 Assign reconciliation act activity where students will develop their own act of reconciliation for
Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit people.
 Students will present these to the class. This can be done over the course of a period and/or
may be assigned for homework to be due the next day.
 You will conclude this lesson by showing students that the government has attempted to
make amends for past wrongs, as well as First Nation, Métis and Inuit across Canada are
reviving their culture with movements:
a. Stephen Harper’s 2008 Apology for the Residential School System
b. Idle No More Movement on rejuvenation of First Nation, Métis and Inuit Culture
c. Remind class of the creation of Nunavut and how this symbolises the early stages of
First Nation, Métis and Inuit self-government in Canada.
 Exit ticket – What does reconciliation mean? How will you ensure we never repeat past
wrongs to Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit people?
Optional Activities:
 Invite a band representative to the school where students display their ideas of reconciliation.
 Have class initiate a social justice campaign in the school to promote awareness of unjust
acts done unto Canada’s First Nation, Métis and Inuit people in the past.
 Invite an elder into your class and have them share some traditional teachings with the class.
This will illustrate that First Nation, Métis and Inuit culture is still very much alive and
flourishing in Canada.
 Have students write an academic essay that answers the following question: Have we done
enough?
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Host a school wide event on local First Nation customs and practices (Think Indigenous or an
Indigenous exhibition)
Activity/Assignment:
Resources/Context:
Reconciliation Activity
 Chart paper
Exit ticket – What does reconciliation
 Graphic organizers and assignments
mean? How will you ensure we never
 Markers
repeat past wrongs to Canada’s First
 Screen
Nation, Métis and Inuit people?
 Exit ticket
 Computers/projector
 Idle no more video:
 Poster paper
Assessment/Evaluation
Modifications/Accommodations
Rubric, marking scheme for
Reconciliation Act:
 Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.
Reflections:
CHC
Lesson:
10
1982-Present UNIT: Current Events
Description

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Students will analyze current event news articles
Students will apply historical thinking concepts to their news articles
Students will connect current events with what they’ve learned throughout the unit
Curriculum Learning Goals:
Students will:
 (D3.2) describe some significant developments and/or issues that affected First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit people in Canada during this period
Success Criteria
Students will know they are successful when:
 They can analyze and discuss a current news article that relates to First Nation, Métis, and Inuit issues
 They can make connections between current and past events in First Nation, Métis, and Inuit history
Historical Learning Skill Focus
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Historical Significance: Students will explore the impact of significant moments in FNMI on
current events
Historical Perspective: Students will analyze and discuss how their knowledge of past events
affects the way they look at current events
Continuity and Change: Students will make connections and note differences between current
and past events in FNMI history
Lesson:
 Place 8 current event articles around the classroom (stations)
 Hand out and explain the Current Events worksheet
 Have students read and analyze 4 articles and complete the Current Events worksheet
 If time permits, have students discuss/present their findings on the articles
 If time permits, have students verbally compare and contrast their articles discuss the continuity and
change of current and past events
Activity/Assignment:
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Current Events Article Stations Activity
Current Events worksheet / discussion
Resources:
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Assessment/Evaluation

Current Events Worksheet could be
assessed as formative/summative
Knowledge/Understanding or Application
Reflections:
Classroom Setup
Handouts
Modifications/Accommodations

Students who need extra help may go to the
Academic Resource Room.

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