Attributed Sampling


Attributed Sampling
Small Arms Ammunition
Field Tracing 2
AT09 Slide 1
Types of Sampling
 Attributed sampling:
• The person recording the ammunition does so while
the ‘user’ of the ammunition is present. The
recording party knows that the ammunition in
question ‘belongs’ to a particular person or group.
 Unattributed sampling:
• The person recording the ammunition does so
without complete knowledge of who the ‘user’ is,
and does not know to whom the ammunition
AT09 Slide 2
Attributed Sampling
 Records will ideally be labelled according to
the ‘unit of analysis’
 The unit may be related to:
• Individuals
• Groups of people
• Locations
AT09 Slide 3
Attributed Sampling
 Examples of acquiring user-attributed data:
• Record ammunition details as users unload
• Record details at handover during disarmament
• Record ammunition stored in a central storage
• Record details from scene of crime/accident
AT09 Slide 4
Unattributed Sampling
 Used ammunition recovered from a scene but
it is unclear who fired the ammunition and
 Ammunition from a disarmament programme
but it is unclear where the ammunition came
 Ammunition found in an abandoned cache
 Records compiled from photographs or
physical samples collected by a third party
AT09 Slide 5
Unattributed Sampling
AT09 Slide 6
Prior Safety and Security
AT09 Slide 7
Assessing the Security Situation in
the Sampling Location
 Restrict tracing activities to normal activities
 Do not visit a location unless:
• Have a detailed knowledge of the security situation
• They can partner with an individual or group that
AT09 Slide 8
Locating the Appropriate
Research Partner
 Local (preferably same
 Known and respected by the community
 Fully briefed on research activities and ‘on
side’to offer:
AT09 Slide 9
The Role of National and
Sub-National Authorities
A practitioner’s failure to declare the nature
of the research in advance and obtain official
approval for it could result in his/her arrest or
AT09 Slide 10
Notifying Appropriate
Authorities in Advance
Identify the relevant authorities
Draft a statement: nature of work and reasons
Visit relevant authorities
Obtain a formal letter of accreditation from
those authorities
AT09 Slide 11
Operational Safety and Security
AT09 Slide 12
Respecting Interviewee/
Ammunition User Concerns
 Practitioners should be prepared to:
• Abandon an interview if necessary
• ‘Return’ data to interviewee and promise not to use
• Indicate in advance to the interviewee that either of
these things are acceptable to the interviewer
AT09 Slide 13
Reassuring Interviewees/
Ammunition Users
 Honesty is the best policy
 Explain the project in sensitive way
 Reassure ammunition users and interviewees
AT09 Slide 14
Maintaining a Discrete Presence
 Inform everyone who is likely to observe
activities occurring
 Conduct activities away from casual observers
 Avoid roads/routes where unconnected people
are likely to pass by
AT09 Slide 15
Weapons and Ammunition
Safety in Groups
 Choose a location that encourages order
 Encourage people to remain still and quiet
 Try to dissuade people from passing weapons
around among themselves
 Dissuade people from inappropriately handling
or pointing weapons
 Leave if these conditions cannot be controlled
AT09 Slide 16
Weapons and Ammunition
Safety in Storage Facilities
 Avoid sampling in the following circumstances:
• Any item of explosive light weapons ammunition,
unless permitted to do so by a qualified ATO.
• Depot physical appearance suggests poor
• If ammunition shows signs of corrosion or damage
• Items are piled together, rather than orderly stored
• If small calibre cartridge-based ammunition is
stored alongside larger calibre explosive
AT09 Slide 17
AT09 Slide 18

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