Hydrogen Ion Reaction of Native Inidana Fern Soils

Transcription

Hydrogen Ion Reaction of Native Inidana Fern Soils
Butler University Botanical Studies
Volume 2 Butler University Botanical Studies
Article 14
Hydrogen Ion Reaction of Native Inidana Fern
Soils
Joe R. Craw
Butler University
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The Butler University Botanical Studies journal was published by the Botany Department of Butler
University, Indianapolis, Indiana, from 1929 to 1964. The scientific journal featured original papers
primarily on plant ecology, taxonomy, and microbiology.
Recommended Citation
Craw, Joe R. (1931) "Hydrogen Ion Reaction of Native Inidana Fern Soils," Butler University Botanical Studies: Vol. 2 , Article 14.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.butler.edu/botanical/vol2/iss1/14
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HYDROGEN,ION REACTION OF NATIVE
INDIANA FERN SOILS
By
l
JOE
R.
CRAW
A number of studies of soil acidity in relation to plant groups and
plant distribution have been made in recent years, but none of these
have been carried on with the ferns of Indiana soils. The present study
was made in the hope of extending such information to a wider range of
soil conditions.
Trips were made at various times to different sections of the state.
It was the intention to obtain as many species and samples over as wide
and as representative areas of the state as possible. Three samples oi
soils from around the roots of each species of fern were obtained, each
from a different place in the same locality. As a matter of herbarium
record, fronds were pressed and labeled for each county, date, type of
association and soil studied. Each soil sample was placed in a small
paper sack and taken to the laboratory where the Youden hydrogen-ion
concentration apparatus was used in determining the acidity or alkalin­
ity of these soils. The e. m. f. in volts was converted into pH and this
in turn was changed into terms oi active acidity. These results for each
separate soil sample, along with the date, place in county, the type of
association and soil texture of the sample collected, were tabulated on a
three-by-five inch card and filed for reference. Within a week after soils
were collected they were tested. One-fifth vial of soil with three-fifths
vial of water was used in the testing. After each test the electrodes and
vials were thoroughly washed with distilled water. Duplicate tests of
the same sample were not made, since three samples were collected in
the same locality.
OBSERVATIONS
Results obtained are tabulated in Table 1. Average acidity or alka­
linity readings were obtained by converting the pH value of each test
on the soils of each species into active acidity according to Wherry (7)
and then reconverting the arithmetrical average of these figures back
into pH terms. This is necessary as Wherry (7) has indicated, since the
pH numbers are logarithmic values. Some investfgators have made the
mistake of averaging pH numbers directly. This procedure in the case
of Aspidium cristatum, for example, would have resulted in an average
151
I
\
l'"
....
Ol
B. obJiquum..................................... 12C
Camptosorus rhizophyllus .............. 20C
50W
Cystopteris bulbifera....................... 16C
30W
3R
C. fragilis .... _.................................. 73C
30W
9R
?W
5C
?W
A. lrichomanes............................, 6C
Botrychium virginianum................. 92C
A. Rula·muraria ..............................
SOW
A. FiEx·fcmina............................. 73C
7R
A. pinnatifidum................................ 3C
A. plalyneuron..................... """"" 28C
lOW
A. anguslifolium.. "" ...................... 53C
lOW
Adiantum pedatum'. .................... 91C'
30W
Aspidium cristalum........ ................. 24C
-1R
A. Goldianum .. """' .. ,.................. 1-1C
lOW
A. marginale............................... 13C
30W
A. noveboracense............................. 29C
30W
A. spinulosum ............................ 36C
20W
8R
A. Thelypleris............................... 45C
30W
9R
Asplenium acrostichoides ....' ......... 44C
SPECIES
X
x
xx
x
xx
xx
-1.2
xx
x
4.8
x
x.-.;:
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
X
x
x
x
x
x
5.2
xx
x
X
xx
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
xx
X
x
x
XX
xx
7.4
X
X
xx
xx
x
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
X
xx
xx
x
xx
xx
8.2
x
x
xx
x
8.2
X
x
x
x
x
S.O
xx
x
xx
xx
xx
S.2
xx
xx
x
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
Circu mneu lral
x
xx
xx
x
Circum neutral
8.0
x
xx
x):
xx
x
xx
x
x
xx
xx
x
x.-.;:
X
x
X
X
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
X
6.0
X
X
xx
X
xx
xx
xx
xx
X
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
X
X
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
xx
x
xx
Xl).
xx
xx
x
x
7.5
x
xx
7.0
xx
xx
x
6.6
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
6.4
X
X
6.5
xx
xx
xx
X
X
xx
X
X
X
xx
xx
xx
xx
~x
xx
X
XX
6.0
xx
xx
xx
6.0
x
x
x
x
xx
x
xx
xx
5.5
x
x
5.0
x
4.5
x
ACTIVE ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY
NO. OF
Mediacid
Subacid
Minimacid
Minimilk.
100
10
3
3
0
10
30
TESTS 300
(pH) HYDROGEN·ION CONCENTRATION
x
x
xx
x
x
x
x
8.5
30
Subalk.
7.S
6.6
8.2
10
6.0
7.0
2
6Alk.
16Alk.
0
6
• S
1.5
2Alk.
10
0
0
2
5
6
SO
26
90
16
8
160
6
5
4
Avr.
Act. Ac.
6.2
6.7
6.3
7.4
6.0
7.0
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.3
6.2
5.3
5.6
5.0
S.8
6.1
4.8
6.2
6.3
6.4
Avr. pH
TABLE I-SOIL REACTIONS OF PRESENT STUDY AND COMPARISON WITH
RESULTS OF WHERRY AND ROBINOVE AND LA RUE
'-'--­
.....
Ol
w
5C
?W
6C
92C
?W
9R
,oW
.............. _­
sow
x
xx
X
X
xx
x..~
x
X
4.6
x
xx
x
xx
x..-.:
xx
xx
xx
x
xx
xx
x
xx
x
xx
xx
XX
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
xx
x
x.."t
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
x
xx
xx
x
]I:
x
5.2
xx
xx
xx
xx
X
X
4.2
'x
X
4.2
x
4.8
x
x
x
x
xx
x
X
xx
xx
xx
X]l:
xx
xx
6.8
xx
x
X
xx
xx
xx
X
X
X
X
X
X
6.8
xx
x
x
X
x
xx
X
xx
xx
xx
X
xx
x
5.8
x
:xx
x
X
xx
X
xx
xx
xx
x
x
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
x
7.3
x
xx
xx
xx
xx
X
xx
X
xx
X
xx
xx
8.0
x
xx
8.2
xx
xx
xx
x
xx
8.0
X
xx
xx
x
x
xx
xx
x
x..~
xx
x
x
x
X]l:
x
x
xx
x
Minimacid
X
xx
x
xx
xx
7.4
xx
X
xx
xx
Circum neutral
xx
xx
X
x.."t
xx
xx
xx
Circum neutral
X
X
x
xx
X]l:
x
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
x
X
X
X
x
xx
X
xx
XX
X
xx
xx
'Re&ulIS recorded are from Craw (C). Wherry (W) and Robiuove and La Rue (R).
'Nomenclature follows Grayls Mnnual.
16C
30W
3R
C. fragilis ................
73C
30W
Dicksonia punctilobula. ........ _--_._­
3C
30W
Onoclea sensibilis....................
65C
8R
O. Struthiopleris............................. 6C
lR
Ophioglossum vulgatum............
10C
?W
Osmunda cinnamomea................ nC
30W
5R
0 Claytoniana .........................
17C
20W
O. regalis........................................... 33C
30W
6R
Pellrea atropurpurea ................. ...
9C
Phegopteris hexagonoplera ......
82C
30W
Polypodiulll vulgare....................
10C
50W
Polystichium acrostichoides.......... 91C
30W
P. aeros. var. Schweinitzii................ 14C
Pteris aquilina.................................. 30C
30W
3R
Woodsia obtusa................................ 12C
30W
Woodwardia virginica ...................... 6C
Cystopteris bulbifera......
B.obliquum. - .............................. -.- .. 12C
Campto50rus rhizophylJus..........
20C
A. trichomanes................ ............ ---­
Botrychium virginianum ........... - .. -.
I
3C
!8C
xx
x
X
X
x
xx
x
x
4.3
5.4
7.2
6.7
4.9
6.4
5.6
6.0
8.4
6.3
5.2
5.0
6.2
4.8
7.5
7.3
6.0
6.1
5,3
4,9
7.8
6.6
8.2
6.0
7.0
6.2
6.7
6.3
300
125
lAlk.
125
1.5
4
25
10
25Alk.
5
6.3
100
6
160
49
8
3.5Alk.
l.5AIk.
10
125
6Alk,
2
16Alk.
a
10
6
1.5
5
of pH S.4, when the average really is 4.8 for the twenty-four tests
obtaineci.
Robinove and La Rue (4) did some pH work on ferns in the Douglas
Lake region of Michigan, using the La Motte colorimetric method. A
comparison of this study with that of the writer in so far as the same
species were investigated is given in Table I, where data are presented
in the following order: (C) present results, (W) results obtained by
Wherry and (R) results obtained by Robinove and La Rue.
Eight out of the eleven species studied by Robinove and La Rue
have a broader range than those found by them when a larger number
of tests are made. An example is found in Cystopteris bulbi/era, whose
range reported by Robinove and La Rue is 7.4-8.2 for three tests and
that of the writer was 6.7-9.0 for sixteen tests. Again in Aspidium
cristatum, whose range reported by Robinove and La Rue is 6.06-6.6 for
four tests and the writer found it to be 4.2-7.1 for twenty-four tests. In
this instance the smaller number of tests was, of course, inadequate. In
some speCies, e. g., Botrychium virginianum, ten times as many tests
failed materially to change the range or average.
In some species there is some indication that pH preference is differ­
ent in different localities. In the case of Asplenium Filix-/emin.a in Incii­
ana, the range and average are both more acid. This may be only
apparent as a result of a smaller number of samples from the Michigan
distribution. In the main it does not appear possible to ascribe very
definite average or range of a species on a very small number of tests.
It would appear that many times true acidity is not as important a
limiting factor as some other edaphic factors, such as soil moisture.
As a basis of comparison of a number of species, it is helpful to desig­
nate the frequency of samples falling in each degree of acidity by the
use of different symbols. For convenience the same terms with prac­
tically the same divisions which Wherry (6) used are presented in Table
1. That portion of the pH range in which less than 10 per cent of the
species tested are to be found is designated by a small "x;" the most
frequently observed reaction by a large "X;" and all those in between
by two small "x's." Wherry's work was done by the colorimetric
method. He uses the small "x" to represent those species least seen and
the other two symbols as the writer uses them. The other designation
of degrees of acidity written in the table as "circumneutral," "minim­
acid," etc., were taken from studies by Wherry (6, 7).
In comparing the work of Wherry with that of the writer a very close
154
parallelll
In most
range or
case of /
which tbl
obtusa t
ciency f
ferns ten
those in
"Clos,
ence" (~
preferen~
(
bulbi/cr,
minima
ferns 0
Osmun
which
Aspl
long if)
minima'
bottOImll
in its 5
humus
shacied
Accnr ..
gether,
whcth
humus
Ther!
althou,
soil; n
bulbi/I'
At t)
the pia
had in
,I
bordel"l
enty-four tests
in the Douglas
ric method. A
far as the same
are presented
Its obtained by
Rue.
e and La Rue
larger number
ulbijera, whose
three tests and
in in Aspidium
e is 6.06-6.6 for
y-four tests. In
inadequate. In
as many tests
erence is differ­
-fcmina in Indi­
may be only
In the Michigan
to ascribe very
~Illmber of tests.
as important a
il moisture.
helpful to desig­
acidity by the
rms with prac­
~ented in Table
per cent of the
"x;" the most
ose in between
he colorimetric
least seen and
11er designation
tral," "minim­
ter a very close
parallel is revealed, despite the distance between the two regions studied.
In most instances the majority of tests fall in the same portion of the
range or in adjacent portions. One noticeable exception exists in the
case of Asplenium platyneul"on, which Wherry records as mediacid and
which the writer found to be minimacid. Wherry also finds Woodsia
obtusa to be more acid than the writer does. There is no striking ten­
dency for one region to be more acid than the other, although more
ferns tend to be more acid in the region studied by Wherry than do
those in Indiana as a whole.
DISCUSSION
"Closely related plants may differ markedly in soil reaction prefer­
ence" (Wherry (5)), or more often they may be very similar in their
preference. As an example of this difference we may take Cystopteris
bulbijera, which was found to be subalkaline, and C. jragilis, which is
minimacid in reaction. On the other hand, one finds more closely related
ferns of similar reaction, such as the species of Aspidium and/or
Osmunda, which are mainly subacid, and the species of Asplenium,
which are minimacid in the majority of cases.
Asplenium angustijolium, A. acrostichoides and A. Filix-jemil1.a be­
long to the same section of the genus and they all respond readily to
minimacid soil and all seem to prefer the same dense wooded creek
bottoms, slopes or ravines. A. Filix-jemina shows the narrowest range
in its selection of location. Often it may be found growing from the
humus remains of a rotton log or decayed brush pile or at the base and
shaded side of a cliff. It thrives best in a moderate amount of shade.
According to Gustafson (2), humus and high acidity usually go to­
gether, and it is next to impossible to determine from field studies
whether the plants grow in certain situations because of the presence of
humus Or of the acidity.
There were no ferns found in habitats that averaged superacid,
although Aspidium spinttlosum was sometimes found in low superacid
soil; nor were any found in soils high as mediakaline except Cystopteris
bulbijera, which bordered on low medialkaline in one sample collected.
At the extremities of acid or alkaline soil range one may notice that
the plants are either few or poorly developed. A good example may be
had in Phegoptcl"is hexagonoptera, because where it was found in soils
bordering on high subacid or minimalkaline the plants were always few
155
and depauperate, but where it was found to grow in minimacid soil the
plants were always very vigorous in appearance. The largest and rank­
est patch of P. hexagonoptera ever noted by the writer was on a rolling
hillside in an oak woods on Fort Harrison Reservation in Marion county.
Asplenium Filix-fcmina and Adiantum pedatum were here and tbere
scattered in the patch. The soil was a well-drained clay loam of minim­
acid reaction.
In this research r1 spidiu11t cristatum, Dicksonia punctilobula and
IVoodwardia virginica were mediacid. The first and last are primarily
bog ferns, while Dicksonia is more of an upland species in Indiana. Tbe
last two may have a broader range but the small number of samples
collected did not reveal it. The last grows in abundance in the tamarack
bogs of the northern part of the state. Aspidium cristalum was found
as far south as Monroe county in a sphagnum bog about eleven miles
southeast of Bloomington.
A number of species of Aspidium are subacid. These include A.
sp'inulosum, A. marginate, A. noveboracen.sc and A. Thctyptcris, along
with Ophioglossu:m vulgatum, Osmunda cinnamomca, O. regatis, Poly­
podium vulKare, Pteris aquilina, 0110clea scnsibilis and Polyslichum
acrosticltoides. All of these were found to grow moderately well in
mediacid and minimacid as well as in the subacid soils. Fuller (1)
records Aspidium spinulosu11l as a mediacid plant. The plant was found
to grow in soil that reacted from low minimacid to low superacid but
the average was subacid. Aspidium T helypteris shows a very broad
tolerance. That is to be expected, since it may be found everywhere in
wet meadows with peaty or muck soils, in bogs, in limestone basins or
in sphagnum pools.
The species of Osmunda are different in habitat, yet the soil reaction
is similar. Osnnwda cinnamomea and O. regalis are mainly of northern
swamps or bogs, yet a few plants of the latter were found in an un­
drained ctlt-over woods as far south as Pike and Jennings counties and
are to be found on the moister portions of sandstone cliffs stich as those
occurring along White river in Martin county. Both of the above ferns
have a range from neutral to mediacid. O. Claytoniana is more or less
limited in its habitat, being found in subacid soils but more often in
mediacid soils. Very few fruiting plants were found. Polypodium vul­
gare is also limited to rocky cliffs. Pteris aquitina is classed with Poly­
podium vulgare, few being found in sandy soils, but some were growing
more rank with greater moisture.
150
,
.;
I·
II
I"
I
:(
l.
1
The la
first six 0
narrow r
Gotdian
hexagott
manes,
itzii, We!
Asplcn;u
Aspid'
yet it w~
county i
a very I:>!
Botr}'
soils, wb
stichun
choides.
richer
The Bo
scatter
Aspl
Shoals.
T,.icJlO
platyn.c
also at
Onl?
abund
specim
three "
bad b
Jation
C)'S
imaeiil
from 51
Fro
soil i~
exam
groUt'
lhe ed
at the
" in minimacid soil the
The largest and rank­
writer wa.s on a rolling
tion in Marion county.
;. were here and there
d clay loam of minim­
onia punctilobula and
and last are primarily
species in Indiana. The
"II number of samples
dance in the tamarack
cristatum was found
g about eleven miles
id. These include A.
A. Thelypteris, along
mea,
regalis, Poly­
!hilis and Polystichum
w moderately well in
cid soils. Fu \ler (1)
• The plant was found
to low superacid but
shows a very broad
founel everywhere in
in limestone basins or
n.
t, yet the soil reaction
re mainly of northern
were found in an un­
Jennings counties and
ne cliffs such as those
oth of the above ferns
mziana is more or Jess
ils but more often in
nd. Polyp odium vul­
is classed with Poly­
ut some were growing
,
,,I
.l
The largest number of species fall in the minimacid group, with the
first six of the following having a broad range and the others having a
narrow range: Adiantum pedatum, Asplenium platyneuron, Aspidium
Goldianum, Botrychium virginianum, Cystopteris fragilis, Phegopteris
hexagonopteris, Asplenium acrostichoides, A. angustifolium, A. Tricho­
1rtaneS, Botryc1dum obliquum, Polystichum acrostichoides vaL Schwein­
itzii, Woodsia obtusa, Camptosorus rhizophyUus, Osmunda Claytoniana,
Asplenium Ruta-muraria and PelhEa atropurpurea.
Aspidium Goldianum is usually fOlmd in deep ravines or damp gorges,
yet it was found in an upland deep-shaded beech-maple woods of Wayne
county in greater numbers than in any other place in the state. It shows
a very broad soil reaction range.
Botrychium obliquum is limited to a subacid or to high minimacid
soils, while B. virginianum has a very broad range. So it is with Poly­
stichum acrostichoides var. ScJrweinitzii and the species P. acrosti­
choides. The first of the last two is low minimacid and seems to require
richer soil and a more favorable location than does P. acrostichoides.
The Botrychium species are the unexpected ferns: never in patches but
scattered where one least expects them.
Asplenium pinnatifidum is a species of neutral soil fern found at
Shoals, Indiana, at Pinnacle Rock with Polypodium vulgare, Asplenium
Trichomanes, W oodsi,a obtusa, Dicksonia punctilobula and Asplenium
platyneuron. Polypodium polypodioides and Cheilanthes tomentosa are
also at Shoals, but no testing has been done with them.
Onoclea Struthiopteris is minimalkaline in its soil reaction. It is not
abundant in Indiana. Three of the samples tested were collected from
specimens growing out of cultivation near Rome City and the other
three were in a garden near Springport. The original plants of the latter
had been brought from Michigan in 1927. There was a very close corre­
lation between the two.
Cystopteris bulbifera and Pellrea atropurpurea both range from min­
imacid through minimalkaline, with the majority of samples collected
from subalkaline soils.
From the above one sees that for the majority of Indiana ferns acid
soil is required. This is not tme with other groups of plants. For
example, Turner (4) says that more plants grow in nearly neutral
ground. He also says, as has been noted, that plants growing in soil at
the edge of the soil reaction range are smaller than those growing in soil
at the average of the soil reaction range for that particular species. He
107
has done some pH work on the Compositre and his resulLs show that
one-fifth of the species observed tend to require acidity in their soil
reaction, slightly more than one-fifth are widely tolerant of both acid
and alkaline soil reaction, and the other three-fifths observed tend to
require alkalinity in their soil reaction. Indiana ferns show just the
opposite.
The type of ecological investigation here portrayed finds immediate
application in the field of fern culture. With the knowledge of native
soil types, with special reference to acidity, and of the vegetation types
with which the various species are most frequently associated, greater
assurance of success can be had in the cultivation of many highly desir­
able native species of ferns.
A list
lected al
Specimel
versity
AdiantUI
Vig
Rall1
Put
Pas
Aspidiul
Wel,
SUMMARY
1. The hydrogen-ion concentrations of the habitat of thirty-four
species of Indiana ferns are presented.
2. At least two-thirds of Indiana ferns can tolerate a wide range of
soil reactions.
3. The majority of Indiana ferns grow in acid soils.
4. Cystoptcris bulbifera. and C. fragilis are closely related species,
yet they differ markedly in the soil reactions of their habitats.
5. No ferns were found to have an average of superacid or medialka­
line soil reaction.
6. Fern plants growing in soils at the extremities of acid or alkaline
soil range are few and dwarfed.
7. Most of the data here presented for Indiana agree with the results
of Wherry, and Robinove and La Rue, whose work was done in the
East and Michigan, respectively.
saml
J1spidi1J
Del
J1spidi•.
:\101
Aspidi
Je~1
Pad
J1spid'
El
dolj
Aspidi~
we
Aspi o.
K
Sli
Aspic
The author wishes to recognize Dr. R. C. Friesner, of Butler Uni­
versity, for helpful interest and criticism and the use of laboratory
apparatus; Charles Deam, State Research Forester, for citing places
rich in fern life; and Dr. Stanley A. Cain, who suggested this problem
and under whose direction this investigation was carried out.
HI
HiS
5
shoW that
LOCALITIES
in their soil
f both acid
A list of the species and the various counties in which tbey were col­
lected are given below as a contribution to Indiana biological survey.
Specimens used in this work have been deposited in the Butler Uni­
versity herbarium.
'Ved tend to
ow just the
immediate
~e of native
tation types
ted, greater
ighly desir­
Adiantum pedalum-Soil samples were taken from: Montgomery, Pike,
thirty-four
'ide range of
{
,"
ted species,
ts.
r medialka­
or alkaline
the results
done in the
Butler Uni­
laboratory
~ting places
~bis problem
Vigo, Whitley, Steuben, Boone, Bartholomew, Martin, Delaware,
Randolph, Lawrence, Marion, Washington, Henry, Jefferson, Wells,
Putnam, Wayne, Ripley, Floyd, Monroe, Brown, Clay, Owen,
Posey, Sullivan, Grant, Morgan, Parke and Lagrange.
Aspidium cristatum-Soil samples were taken from: Whitley, Howard,
Wells, AlJen, St. Joseph, Dekalb and Grant. Specimens without soil
samples were also taken from Monroe.
Aspidium. Goldianum-Soil samples were taken from: Brown, Parke,
Delaware and Wayne.
Aspidium marginale-Soil samples were taken from: Martin, Brown,
Morgan and Parke.
Aspidium noveboracense-Soil samples were taken from: St. Joseph,
Jennings, Morgan, Bartholomew, Brown, Steuben, Elkhart, Wayne,
Parke and Lagrange.
Aspidium spimJ.losum~Soil samples were taken from: Allen, Whitley,
Elkhart, Parke, Delaware, Grant, Steuben, Marion, Wayne, Ran­
dolph, St. Joseph and Dekalb.
Aspidium spinulosum intermedium-Specimens without soil samples
were collected in Howard.
Aspidium Tr-elypteris-Soil samples were taken from: Montgomery,
Kosciusko, Noble, Howard, Parke, Dekalb, Whitley, Marion,
Steuben, Brown, Allen, Fulton, Wells and Elkhart.
Asplenium acrostichoides-Soil samples were taken from: Marion, Mor­
gan, Brown, Wayne, Clay, Martin, Bartholomew, Steuben, Floyd,
Sullivan, Henry, Randolph, Boone, Delaware and Parke.
Asplenium angusti/olium--Soil samples were taken from: Sullivan,
Boone, Martin, Jefferson, Vigo, Pike, Randolph, Henry, Brown,
Floyd, Parke, Monroe, Morgan, Montgomery, Owen, Delaware,
Marion and Wayne.
Asplenium Filix-jemina-Soil samples were taken from: Lagrange,
Martin, Delaware, Parke, Morgan, Brown, Henry, Randolph,
Boone. Jennings, Marion, Wayne, Pike, Vigo, Clay, Putnam, Sulli­
159
van, Allen, Martin, Whitley, St. Joseph, Bartholomew, Steuben and
Elkhart.
Asplenium pinnat';,fidu111~Specimens without soil samples were Laken
in Martin.
Asplenium platyncuron-Soil samples were taken from: Martin, Law­
rence, Posey, Washington, Orange, Vigo, Parke, Morgan and Brown.
Asplenium Ruta-111.uraria.-Soil samples were taken from Jefferson.
Asplenium Ttichomanes-Soil samples were taken from Martin. Speci­
mens were collected in Parke.
Botrychium virginianum-Soil samples were taken from: Delaware,
Brown, Bartholomew, Martin, Jennings, Scott, Henry, Boone, Vigo,
Wayne, (ass, Steub~n, Montgomery, Washington, Monroe, Marion,
Jefferson, Pike, Knox, Putnam. Sullivan, Owen, Lagrange, Whitley,
Grant, Parke, Randolph and Morgan.
Botrychium obliquum-Soil samples were taken from: Wayne, Marion
and Elkhart.
Botrychium obliquum disectum-Specimens without soil samples were
taken from Wayne.
Camptosol'US rhizoph:vllus-Soil samples were taken from: Martin,
Brown, Jefferson, Parke, Floyd, Wayne and Owen.
Cheilanthes tomentosa-Specimens without soil samples were taken
from Martin.
Cystopteris bulbijera-Soil samples were taken from: Wayne, Parke,
Owen and Jefferson. Specimens without soil samples were taken
from Lawrence.
Cystopteris j-ragiz.is-Soil samples were taken from: Sullivan, Vigo,
Wayne, Monroe, Brown, Delaware, Marion, Pike, ~cott, Henry,
Montgomery, Parke, Floyd, St. Joseph, Grant, Hendricks, Clay,
Knox, Boone, Wayne, Morgan and Elkhart.
Dicksonia punctilobula-Soil samples were taken from Parke. Speci­
mens without soil samples were taken from Martin.
Onoclca scnsibilis-Soil samples were taken from: Hendricks, Henry,
Knox, Marion, Brown, Noble, Morgan, Parke, Delaware. St. Joseph,
Vigo, Pike, Wayne, Jennings, Ripley, Kosciusko, Whitley, Hamilton,
Steuben. Elkhart, Crawford, Dekalb. Fulton and Allen.
Onoclea Sttuthiopteris-Soil samples were taken from Noble. Other
specimens and soil samples were taken from a garden in Henry near
Springport.
Ophioglossum vulgatu111.-Soil samples were taken from: Marion and
Morgan.
160
Osmund,
Gra
Spe
Osmum
ben,
Osmund
Jose'
anL
PCll(£a~
Phegop
Vola
nal
PikE
son
Polypo,
Brl
,
PolYpfJ
~
Polys! •
I
II
,
l
l
fro
NI,
Jefl
m
Ostmmda cirmamontea-Soil samples were taken from: St. Joseph,
"I samples were taken
from: Martin, Law­
Morgan and Brown.
'm from Jefferson.
i from YIartin. Sped1
ken from: Delaware,
• Henry, Boone, Vigo,
ton, Monroe, Marion,
, Lagrange, Whitley,
I
Irom: Wayne, Marion
j
out soil samples were
l
Martin,
wen.
samples were taken
l
I
from: Wayne, Parke,
iJ samples were taken
Cram: Sullivan, Vigo,
• Pike, ~cott, Henry,
nt, Hendricks, Clay,
n from Parke. Speci­
artin.
1: Hendricks, Henry,
Delaware, S1. Joseph,
"'I, Whitley, Hamilton,
nd Allen.
from :\ohle. Other
garden in Henry near
11
from:
Marion and
(
,
Grant, Fulton, Howard, Whitley, Dekalb, Allen, Cass and Lagrange,
Specimens without soil oamples were collected from Monroe.
Osmu,nda Claytoniana-Soil samples were taken from: Morgan, Steu­
ben, Brown and Parke.
Osmunda 1"egalis-Soil samples were taken from: Grant, Whitley, St.
Joseph, Jennings, Steuben, Kosciusko, Pike, Allen, Fulton and How­
ard. Specimens without soil samples were collected from Monroe,
Pellcea atropurpurea-Soil samples were taken from Jefferson.
Phegopteris hexago1toptera-Soil 'samples were taken from: Owen,
Wayne, Delaware, Boone, Brown, Morgan, Whitley, Sullivan, Put­
nam, Scott, Ripley, Steuben, Gihson, Clay, Knox, Bartholomew,
Pike, Monroe, Lawrence, Martin, Parke, Randolph, Henry, Jeffer­
son, Marion, Jennings, Floyd and Crawford.
Polypodium vulgare-Soil samples were taken from: Martin, Parke and
Brown.
Polypodium polypodioides-Specimens without soil samples were taken
from Martin.
Polystichiu'm acrostichoides-Soil samples were taken from: Parke,
Morgan, Posey, Lawrence, Brown, Washington, Randolph, Monroe,
Jefferson, Marion, Scott, Jennings, Ripley, Montgomery, Bartholo­
mew, Boone, Lagrange, Vigo, Knox, Hendricks, ~1artin, St. Joseph,
Elkhart, Clay, Owen, Wayne, Putnam, Sullivan and Steuben.
PolysticJmm acrostichoides Sdr.weinitzii~Soil sa mples were taken from:
Morgan, Floyd, Brown, Lawrence and Parke.
Pteris aquilina-Soil samples were taken from: Fulton, Brown, La­
grange, Marshall, Morgan, Dekalb, Cass, Steuben, Knox and S1.
Joseph. Specimens without soil samples were also taken from
Martin,
Woodsia obtusa-Soil samples were taken from: Morgan, Martin and
Lawrence.
Woodwa/'dia virginica-Soil samples were taken from: Noble and
Kosciusko,
I,
f
I
161
Natu~
struetiv
vegeta
the loe
tramps
as well
J
LITERATURE CITED
I. FULLER, G. D.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Plants of acid soil. Bot. Gaz. 71: 244-245. 1921.
GUSTAFSON, F. Plant distribution as affected by hydrogen-ion concentration
of the soil. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters Proe. 6: 237-245. 1926.
ROBINOVE, J. J., and CARL D. LA RUE. The hydrogen-ion concentration of habi­
tat of the bryophytes and pteridophytes of Douglas Lake region. Mich. Acad.
Sci. Arts and Letters Proc. 9: 273-287. 1928.
TuRNER, A. J. Relation of the distribulion of certaiD Composita: to the hydro­
gen-ion' concentration of the soil. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 55: 199-213. 1928.
WHERRY, E. T. Soil acidity-Its nature, measurement and relation to plant dis­
tribution. Ann. Report Smithsonian lnst. 247-268. 1920.
- - Divergent soil reaction preference of related plants. Ecology 8: 197·206.
1927.
- - A new method of stating hydrogen-ion concentration. Bull. Wagner Free
Tnst. of Sci. 2: 59-65. 1927.
sYmpa~
His co
.l
I
I
I
\
,~
ologic:al
the tee
The eh
suggesti
to read
appred
of the
Seve!
accura
tails fo
Data "
range~
able
dens (l,
lion t·
spell 0
A nl
recent
writin~
no knO
lSn(PSO
f..
162
1
191...,
"1'FlORslii
Ne
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Unl

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