fluid nitrogen/sulfur formulations to mitigate sulfur deficiencies and

Transcription

fluid nitrogen/sulfur formulations to mitigate sulfur deficiencies and
FLUID NITROGEN/SULFUR FORMULATIONS TO
MITIGATE SULFUR DEFICIENCIES AND MAXIMIZE
COTTON YIELDS IN THE UPPER SOUTHEAST COASTAL
PLAIN
William “Hunter” Frame
Field Crops Agronomist/ Assistant Professor
Virginia Tech
Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Suffolk, VA
Febraury 21, 2017
2017 Fluid Fertilizer Forum
Scottsdale, AZ
JUSTIFICATION
• Sulfur is an essential plant nutrient, though required in
smaller quantities than N, P and K.
• Used to create proteins which regulated photosynthesis
and N metabolism.
• Sulfur is mobile in soil systems and is taken up by plants
as sulfate, SO42-, thus making it prone to leaching like
nitrate (NO3-).
• Sulfur in immobile in plants, therefore remobilization of S
will not occur and deficiencies will be observed in the
upper portion of the canopy
• The Clean Air Act has resulted in cleaner air with lower S
deposition and more common S deficiencies occurring
in cotton
WET SULFATE DEPOSITION
OBJECTIVES
• Evaluate granular and fluid N sources with varying S
application rates on in-season NDVI measurements,
petiole and leaf S status during the first week of bloom,
and lint yield of cotton in the upper southeast coastal
plain.
• Determine the effect of high N:S ratios in side-dress fluid
N sources at varying N application rates on NDVI,
petiole and leaf N:S ratios, and lint yield in the upper
southeast coastal plain.
• Three locations during 2016
• Randomized complete block design with
17 treatments and 4 replications
• Compared granular and fluid side-dress
sources
• Urea + ammonium sulfate (AMS)
• UAN32 + ammonium thiosulfate (12-0-026S)
•
•
•
24-0-0-3S
24-0-0-6S
24-0-0-9S
• NDVI measured from a week after fertilizer
application for five weeks (data not
shown)
• Petiole and leaf tissue samples were
collected from each plot during the first
week of bloom
• Yield was measured from the center two
rows of the four row plot
• PROC GLIMMIX was used for ANOVA with
an alpha = 0.05.
• Treatment design was
•
•
2 S Sources x 4 S rates
4 Fluid Formulations x 3 N rates
MATERIALS AND
METHODS
NITROGEN AND SULFUR
TREATMENTS
Trt
N-S Formulations
Total N
Side-dress N
Sulfur
Total N:S
Fluid Fertilizer
N:S
------------- lbs acre-1 ------------No Applied N or S
Control
2ǂ
Urea
100
80
0
100:0
3ǂ
Urea + AMS†
100
80
10
10:1
4ǂ
Urea + AMS
100
80
20
5:1
5ǂ
Urea + AMS
100
80
30
3:1
6
32-0-0
60
40
0
60:0
32:0
7ǂ
32-0-0
100
80
0
100:0
32:0
8
32-0-0
140
120
0
140:0
32:0
9
24-0-0-3S
60
40
5
12:1
8:1
10ǂ
24-0-0-3S
100
80
10
10:1
8:1
11
24-0-0-3S
140
120
15
9.33:1
8:1
12
24-0-0-6S
60
40
10
6:1
4:1
13ǂ
24-0-0-6S
100
80
20
5:1
4:1
14
24-0-0-6S
140
120
30
4.67:1
4:1
15
24-0-0-9S
60
40
15
4:1
2.66:1
16ǂ
24-0-0-9S
100
80
30
3:1
2.66:1
17
24-0-0-9S
140
120
45
3.11:1
2.66:1
†AMS = granular ammonium sulfate (21-0-0-24S)
ǂ Treatments to be compared to evaluate sulfur application rates and granular vs fluid N-S sources.
1
PLANTING AND TREATMENT
APPLICATION DATES
Location
Planting Date Side-dress N/S Application Date
Suffolk, VA
Southampton, VA (SHC)
4/26/2016
5/10/2016
6/27/2016
7/5/2016
Lewiston, NC (LEW)
5/19/2016
7/7/2016
PRE-PLANT SOIL AMMONIUM
AND NITRATE-N
Sampling Depth
in.
TAREC
NH4+-N
NO3--N
Southampton
NH4+-N NO3--N
Lewiston
NH4+-N NO3--N
ppm
0-6
2.03
2.55
1.15
1.81
0.79
1.26
6-12
1.85
0.99
0.96
1.59
0.83
1.13
12-24
2.11
1.14
1.08
1.16
0.60
1.93
24-36
2.65
2.25
5.31
1.08
1.37
2.21
Total
8.63
6.93
8.50
5.63
3.59
6.52
RESULTS
GRANULAR N/S FORMULATIONS
VERSUS
FLUID N/S FORMULATIONS
PETIOLE S CONCENTRATION
AND FERTILIZER SOURCE
1800
1600
Urea + AMS
UAN32 + ATS
A
Petiole Sulfur (ppm)
1400
A
B
1200
1000
B
800
600
400
200
0
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
PETIOLE SULFUR DURING
1ST WEEK OF BLOOM
2000
1800
Petiole Sulfur (ppm)
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
Suffolk, VA
Southampton, VA
Lewiston, NC
600
400
200
0
0
10
20
30
-1
Sulfur Application Rate (lb. S ac )
PETIOLE SULFUR AND
LEAF SULFUR COTENT
0.8
Suffolk
SHC
Lew
0.7
Lint Yield = 0.32 + 3.4e-4*SRate - 1.14e-7*(Srate)
R2 = 0.42
2
Leaf S (%)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Petiole Sulfur (ppm)
1400
1600
1800
FERTILIZER SOURCE AND PETIOLE
NITRATE-N AT 100 LB N ACRE-1
14000
Urea + AMS
UAN32 + ATS
A
Petiole Nitrate-N(ppm)
12000
A
10000
8000
6000
B
A
4000
B
B
2000
0
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
PETIOLE NITRATE-N AND
SULFUR RATE DURING THE 1ST
WEEK OF BLOOM
12000
0 lb S acre-1
10 lb S acre-1
20 lb S acre-1
30 lb S acre-1
Petiole Nitrate-N(ppm)
10000
A
8000
AB
6000
B
B
4000
2000
0
Suffolk
SHC
Lew
LINT YIELD AND N/S SOURCE
SUFFOLK, VA
1400
1200
L in t Y ie ld (lb . a c -1 )
1000
Urea + AMS
UAN32 + ATS
800
600
Urea + AMS
2
Lint Yield = 1208 + 5.66*SRate - 0.11*(Srate)
2
R = 0.99
400
UAN32 + ATS
Lint Yield = 1115 + 14*SRate - 0.39*(Srate)
2
R = 0.99
200
0
0
10
20
30
-1
Sulfur application rate (lb. S ac )
2
LINT YIELD AND N/S SOURCE
Southampton, VA
Lewiston, NC
1400
1400
Urea + AMS
UAN32 + ATS
1200
1200
1000
1000
L in t Y ie ld (lb . a c -1 )
L in t Y ie ld ( lb. a c -1 )
Urea + AMS
UAN32 + ATS
800
600
800
600
400
400
200
200
0
0
0
10
20
Sulfur Application Rate (lb. S ac-1)
30
0
10
20
30
-1
Sulfur Application Rate (lb. S ac )
RESULTS
FLUID N/S FORMULATIONS AND
VARYING NITROGEN RATES
PETIOLE NITRATE-N AND
NITROGEN RATE
18000
A
16000
60 lb. N ac-1
100 lb. N ac-1
140 lb. N ac-1
Petiole Nitrate-N(ppm)
14000
B
12000
A
10000
B
8000
C
6000
C
A
B
4000
C
2000
0
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
PETIOLE SULFUR FOR FLUID
N/S FORMULATIONS
2000
A
32-0-0
24-0-0-3S
24-0-0-6S
24-0-0-9S
A
1750
A
A
Petiole Sulfur (ppm)
1500
AB
1250
BC
1000
A
A
750
C
B
B
C
500
250
0
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
FLUID N/S FORMULATIONS
AND LINT YIELD
1400
32-0-0
24-0-0-3S
24-0-0-6S
24-0-0-9S
1400
-1
60 lb. N ac
100 lb. N ac-1
140 lb. N ac-1
A A
1200
A A
1200
A
B
1000
L in t Y ie ld ( lb . a c - 1 )
L in t Y ie ld (lb . a c - 1 )
1000
800
A
600
A
B
800
600
400
400
200
200
0
0
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
B
Suffolk
SHC
LEW
WEATHER DATA FOR LOCATION
TAREC
SHC
2750
8
90
7
80
6
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
70
5
60
4
50
3
40
2
30
1
20
0
500
250
0
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
D a ily P re c ip ita tio n ( in .)
2250
T e m p e r a tu r e ( o F )
G r o w in g D e g r e e D a y s ( D D 6 0 )
2500
100
Max. Daily Temperatures
Min. Daily Temperatures
Daily Precipitation (Season Total = 26.6 in.)
Growing Degree Days (DD60) (Season Total = 2,444 DD60)
WEATHER DATA FOR LOCATION
TAREC
Lewiston
110
8
2500
7
90
6
80
2000
1500
1000
o
T em perature ( F )
G row ing D egree D ays (D D 60)
100
70
5
60
4
50
3
40
30
500
2
20
1
10
0
0
May
0
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
D aily P recipitation (inches)
3000
Max. Daily Temperature
Min. Daily Temperature
Daily Precipitation (Season Total = 32.2 inches)
Cumulative DD60 (Season Total = 2,453 DD60)

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