annex 2

Comments

Transcription

annex 2
Mean no. WFT predated + SE
20
*
18
Leaf
16
Opening bud
14
12
New flow er
10
8
6
4
Older flow er + pollen
*
*
Older flow er + pollen +
Ephestia eggs
2
0
WFT adults
WFT larvae
Fig. 12 Mean WFT adults and second instar larvae predated by O. laevigatus adults
over 24 hours on ‘Swingtime’ leaf, opening bud, new flower, older flower with pollen
available and older flower with pollen and Ephestia eggs. * Significantly more WFT
adults predated on leaves than on opening buds or flowers, and on older flower with
pollen than on older flower with pollen + Ephestia eggs. Significantly more WFT
larvae predated on older flower with pollen than on new flower or on older flower
with pollen + Ephestia eggs. (P<0.05).
Mean no. WFT predated + SE
20
*
18
Leaf
16
Opening bud
14
12
New flow er
10
8
Older flow er + pollen
6
4
*
Older flow er + pollen +
Ephestia eggs
2
0
WFT adults
WFT larvae
Fig. 13 Mean WFT adults and second instar larvae predated by O. laevigatus third
instar nymphs over 24 hours on ‘Swingtime’ leaf, opening bud, new flower, older
flower with pollen available and older flower with pollen and Ephestia eggs.
* Significantly more WFT adults and larvae predated on older flower with pollen than
on older flower with pollen + Ephestia eggs (P<0.05).
Mean no. WFT predated + SE
20
18
16
14
12
Leaf
10
Opening bud
8
New flow er
6
*
4
2
0
WFT adults
WFT larvae
Mean no. O. laevigatus adults
per box + SE
Fig. 14 Mean WFT adults and second instar larvae predated by C. carnea second
instar larvae over 24 hours on ‘Swingtime’ leaf, opening bud and new flower.
* significantly more WFT adults predated on leaves than on opening buds or new
flowers (P<0.05).
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
High WFT
Low WFT
Low WFT +
Ephestia eggs
3
6
9
13
16
20
23
27
Days
Fig. 15 Mean numbers of O. laevigatus adults per box in laboratory bioassay when
offered high or low WFT densities or low WFT plus Ephestia eggs as food. Over the
4-wk period, significantly more predators per box with low WFT + Ephestia eggs
than with low or high WFT alone (P<0.05).
Mean no. O. laevigatus adults
per box + SE
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
High WFT
Low WFT
Low WFT +
Ephestia eggs
3
6
9
13
16
20
23
27
Days
Fig. 16 Mean numbers of O. laevigatus nymphs per box in laboratory bioassay when
offered high or low WFT densities or low WFT plus Ephestia eggs as food. Over the
4-wk period, significantly more predators per box with low WFT + Ephestia eggs
than with low or high WFT alone (P<0.05).
Table 2. Numbers of WFT pupae and second-instar larvae (L2s) predated by single
female S. miles and G. aculeifer on compost or capillary matting over 24 hrs.
Predatory mite
Substrate
Mean no. WFT pupae
predated  S.E.
Mean no. WFT L2s
predated  S.E.
S. miles
Compost
1.5  0.7
1.7  0.3
Capillary matting
0.9  0.6
-
Compost
0.7  0.5
1.3  0.3
Capillary matting
1.3  0.6
-
G. aculeifer
Table 3. Mean numbers of S. miles, G. aculeifer and WFT adults and second instar
larvae (L2s) five weeks after predator release. (Log-transformed means given in
brackets below back-transformed means).
Predatory mite
Mean no. predatory
mites
(log-transformed
S.E.D. = 0.19)
Mean no. WFT
adults
(log-transformed
S.E.D. = 0.10)
Mean no. WFT
larvae
(log-transformed
S.E.D. = 0.21)
Untreated control
0
745.6
(2.87)
272.7
(2.44)
S. miles
257.5
(2.41)
307.0 *
(2.49)
32.7 *
(1.53)
G. aculeifer
246.4
(2.39)
250.6 *
(2.40)
48.3 *
(1.69)
* Significantly different from the control, P<0.05.
Mean no. WFT/plant + SE
140
***
120
100
Sw ingtime a
80
Sw ingtime b
***
60
40
***
Charm
***
20
0
1
7
14
21
28
35
Days after WFT release
Mean no. WFT/plant + SE
Fig. 17 Experiment 1. Mean number of WFT adults per plant on ‘Swingtime’ and
‘Charm’ during the 5-week period following WFT release. Swingtime a = plants at
opening bud stage when experiment set up. Swingtime b = plants at same stage as
‘Charm’ (bud initiation) when experiment set up. *** P<0.001.
120
***
100
***
80
60
40
Sw ingtime b
***
***
***
Sw ingtime a
Charm
***
20
0
1
7
14
21
28
33
Days after WFT release
Fig. 18 Experiment 2 (EBF and antifeedant added). Mean number of WFT adults
per plant on ‘Swingtime’ and ‘Charm’ during the 5-week period following WFT
release. Swingtime a and b as in Fig. 17. *** P<0.001.
Mean no. WFT/plant + SE
120
100
80
Sw ingtime a
60
Sw ingtime b
40
Charm
***
***
20
0
1
7
14
21
28
35
Days after WFT release
Fig. 19 Experiment 3 (EBF, antifeedant and O. laevigatus added). Mean number
of WFT adults per plant on ‘Swingtime’ and ‘Charm’ during the 5-week period
following WFT release. Swingtime a and b as in Fig. 17. *** P<0.001.

Similar documents