Nucleus - biol11lsc

Transcription

Nucleus - biol11lsc
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Ribosome
Vacuole
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough)
Golgi Apparatus
Centrioles
Plasma (Cell) Membrane
Cell Wall
Flagellum
Lysosome
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Semi-permeable barrier composed of phospholipids around the cytoplasm. Only allows certain materials to pass in or out of the cell.
An organelle composed of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. It translates Messenger RNA (mRNA) into a polypeptide chain (e.g., a
protein). It can be thought of as a factory that builds a protein from a set of genetic instructions. They can float freely in the cytoplasm (the
internal fluid of the cell) or bind to the endoplasmic reticulum, or to the nuclear envelope.
Organelles found in eukaryotes consisting of a double membrane surrounding a matrix, with the inner membrane folded into finger-like
projections called cristae. The cristae are the site of energy production for the cell, because of this that this organelle is often called the
powerhouse of the cell. The are found in large numbers in cells with high energy needs. They are self replicating and contain DNA by which
they control synthesis of their own proteins.
An organelle comprised of intracellular membrane compartments that deliver substances released by the endopasmic reticulum to specific
places in a cell. It is involved in modify and package secreted and integral membrane proteins. It is named after Camillo Golgi, an Italian
neurologist.
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome studded
(rough ER) and ribosome free (smooth ER) regions. The ER modifies proteins (i.e. glycosylation), makes macromolecules, and transfers
substances throughout the cell. Endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm", and reticulum means "little net".
The organelle that carries out photosynthesis and starch grain formation. A chlorophyll-containing organelle in plants that is the site of
photosynthesis. Stacks of thylakloids form grana (look like stacks of coins) and the surrounding liquid is called stroma.
A short cylindrical organelle, found in pairs arranged at right angles to each other at the centre of a microtubule organizing centre (MTOC)
or centrosome, found in eukaryotes (except in higher plants). They are similar in structure to cilia and flagella and organises the bundle of
microtubules and other proteins forming the core of each cilium or flagellum. It also organizes formation of a spindle during mitosis or
meiosis.
A rigid boundary consisting of peptidoglycans in prokaryotic cells and cellulose in plant cells.
A membrane- enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
A large, fluid-filled compartment in the cytoplasm of a plant cell or a smaller vesicle (a compartment that can involve cellular secretion,
storage or nutrient uptake) in the cytoplasm of any eukaryotic cell.
The membrane bound organelle that controlls the functions of all other organelles in the cell. It also contains the DNA of the cell inside the
nucleus organized into groups in the chromatin of the cell. The nucleolus inside it and is responsible for the production of ribosomes that
help in the protein synthesis of the cell as they attach to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Flagella are composed of a protein called flagellin. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the
entire surface. in eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same
basic structure as cilia but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers

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