PEGASAS Project 4: General Aviation Weather Technology in the

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PEGASAS Project 4: General Aviation Weather Technology in the
PEGASAS Project 4:
General Aviation Weather
Technology in the Cockpit
(WTIC) Phase II Coordination
Barrett S Caldwell, PhD, Project Lead
Purdue University
PEGASAS WTIC Structure, Phase I (2014)
Partnership to Enhance General Aviation Safety,
Accessibility, and Sustainability http://www.pegasas.aero
• Team 4A – Quantify Causality
– Expand accident/incident causal research
• Team 4B – Inadvertent Flight from Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)
– Address unexpected transitions from VFR to IMC
• Team 4C – GA Weather Alerting
– Assess feasibility and benefits of agile, low latency cockpit
weather alerts
• Team 4D – GA MET Information Optimization
– Evaluate utility of selected MET products to support pilot
decision making
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Phase I  II - New Emphases for 2015
• Phase I and Comment Matrix Revelations
– GAP RESOLUTION!
• GAP: Identifiable “delta” between desired and
actual that our activities are intended to resolve
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–
–
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How was this GAP identified / Why is this a GAP?
What is causing this GAP?
What are you doing to resolve (“close”) this GAP?
How / when are you going to “close” this GAP?
• Recognition of FAA WTIC Use of Project 4 Results
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Out the Window vs On the Screen
Credit: Shawn Pruchnicki, Team 4A
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Out the Window vs On the Screen
Credit: Shawn Pruchnicki, Team 4A
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Identified Gaps for Phase II Work
Affecting Pilot SA and Thought  Decision  Plan  Action Links
• Knowledge Gaps
– Acquisition through Skill / Training
• Skill Gaps
– Application of Knowledge through Training and experience
• Ability Gaps
– Natural or acquired ability to perform Skills
• Training Gaps
– structured activities to inform, instill, and enhance KSA
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Identified Gaps for Phase II Work
Affecting Pilot SA and Thought  Decision  Plan  Action Links
• Assessment Gaps
– Formal evaluations to determine current capabilities in KSA areas
• Technology Gaps
– Available software or hardware tools to support actual flight or
training activities, including pilot KSA
• Information Presentation Gaps
– Capability of available software or hardware tools to provide
information suitable to enhance or expand pilot KSA during flight
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Training Scenarios for Cockpit Weather
Technologies
1.
Decision Making (VFR cross-country – experienced pilot)
2.
Convective weather avoidance (IFR cross-country)
3.
Using weather sources not intended for aviation (VFR local –
student pilot)
4.
Risk taking (VFR cross-country – inexperienced pilot)
5.
Wind Conditions (VFR cross-country – pilot recently transitioned to
new aircraft)
6.
Icing Conditions (IFR cross-country – unplanned flight into icing
conditions)
7.
Turbulence Encounter (VFR cross-country – clear air turbulence
8.
Distraction using WX system (VFR local flight)
Lesson 2: Convective Weather Avoidance
Relying solely on cockpit weather technologies to avoid areas
of convective weather or extreme precipitation.
Synopsis:
•
Pilot departs on an IFR cross country flight with thunderstorms along the route.
•
The pilot sees a gap in the weather using cockpit weather, and requests a heading.
ATC advises that the requested heading does not appear to avoid the weather.
Finally the pilot’s radar image updates and he no longer sees the gap that was
present 7 minutes ago.
•
The aircraft still encounters severe turbulence and heavy precipitation.
Lessons:
•
Cockpit based weather is different than on-board weather radar. The time between
updates can create a misleading picture of the weather situation.
•
ATC can be helpful in weather avoidance. Pilots with cockpit weather should avoid
any areas with thunderstorms they cannot visually avoid.
Lesson 2: Convective Weather Avoidance
KBIV 121755Z AUTO 3306G14KT 2SM +TSRA
OVC025CB 11/07 A2989
KMKG 121754Z 32010KT 10SM FEW026 SCT055
BKN080 11/02 A2898
Muskegon
County Airport
South Bend International
Airport
KSBN 121753Z 25015G22KT 10SM SCT075
OVC085 17/01 A2983
Summer 2015 Research Integration at WJHTC
• Participation by Purdue, TAMU, WMU Team Members
• Technology “Shakedowns”; two weeks of data collection
– Volunteer GA pilot participants
– Tests of education and training modules; vibrating alerts; alerting
modes
– Realistic scenarios (real events): AK (Juneau-Skagway); NM (Santa
Fe-Albuquerque)
• Data analysis still underway: initial indicators…
– Possible age and experience effects
– Technology familiarity vs. integration in pilot tasks and decisions
– Feasibility of vibrating bands in cockpit?
Summer 2015 Research Integration at WJHTC
Developing a Controllable Latency
Training Device / Demo
• Looping “NEXRAD” with 5-20 minute delays in display
• No commercially available ATD displays realistic weather
information delays
• WMU initial prototype development
• PU replication / enhancement
• Experimenter / Instructor controllable delays
– Out the window is “current”
– Radar display has latency
• Feasible for under $5000 with multiple scenarios
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Developing a Controllable Latency
Training Device / Demo
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Developing a Controllable Latency
Training Device / Demo
Prepar3D images at 11500ft. The WX
image is delayed and shows no cloud
cover. The out-the-window shows two
distinct layers of clouds.
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Additional Developments and Opportunities
• Data collection and collaboration with Frasca International
– Additional partnering with industry: DeLorme, Foreflight,
Lockheed Martin, etc.
• Training scenarios for broader dissemination
• Possible 2016 efforts
– Workshops and engagement (Sun N Fun, AirVenture)
– Additional GAP resolution based on results and review
– Implementation of additional scenarios in latency training
• Your input here?
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Conclusion
• Phase II activity focusing on resolving multiple Gap areas
• Sentinel scenario issues, new training device capabilities
• Research at FAA (WJHTC), partnering with Frasca and
others
• Looking towards additional Gap resolution in 2016
Any Questions?
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