New Wooden Products and Construction

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New Wooden Products and Construction
Joensuu Forestry Networking Week 2012
Green Growth Based on Forests
– New Wooden Products and Construction
Final Report
Ulla Asikainen & Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen (Editors)
ISBN 978-952-275-030-3 (paperback)
ISBN 978-952-275-031-0 (pdf)
Publisher: North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Sirkkalantie 12 A, FIN-80100 Joensuu
Finland
Joensuu Forestry Networking Week 2012
Green Growth Based on Forests
– New Wooden Products and Construction
Final Report
Ulla Asikainen & Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen (Editors)
Joensuu Forestry Networking Week 2012 was sponsored by:
4
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
FOREWORDS
The networks have proved to be an extremely essential and crucial tool in deepening and
widening knowledge and know-how during one’s career. Joensuu Forestry Networking Week
(JFNW) is a very good example of the forums and events offering an excellent opportunity to
young scientists, professionals and stakeholders from all over Europe to build up new networks
and deepen the existing ones.
The theme of the fourth JFNW, Green Growth Based on Forests –New Wooden Products and
Construction, gathered together young and senior scientists and experts from numerous
countries also outside Europe. This topical seminar supplemented the subjects of the previous
implementations in 2009 (Fighting climate change), 2010 (Forest-water interactions in Europe)
and 2011 (Forests and energy). The topic for the next JFNW will certainly be as interesting and
challenging as the past ones.
The participants studied green economy, new wooden products and construction issues in
a very international atmosphere. The three keynote sessions: drivers for green growth, new
trends of wooden construction and innovative wood-based products, were conducted by
the topline speakers of the topics; promoting interactive dialogue between the participants.
The political framework for the green growth was clearly displayed and emphasis pointed
into the role and importance of new business opportunities in the sector. New pedagogical
methods were utilized in processing participants´ own ideas for innovative products, services
and development and research initiatives. The results were really encouraging: There is great
potential for green growth based on forests; let’s cooperate and network also in the future, the
next implementation of JFNW is already in the process.
Joensuu, 27th September 2012
Ulla Asikainen
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORDS...............................................................................................................................5
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................7
SPEAKER PROFILES.....................................................................................................................9
ABSTRACTS............................................................................................................................... 12
Lucia Ambrušová; Economic Effectivenessof Forestry Services in Timber Harvesting.................13
Silvia Blažková; Consumer Attitudes Towards Wood and Wood Products..................................15
Anna Dupleix; Feasibility of Green Wood Cutting Using Assisted Peeling by Radiant Energy......18
Elias Hurmekoski; Insights to Forest Sector Outlook Approaches: A Discussion Note.................22
Lauri Linkosalmi; Using Databases to Compare Energy And Carbon Balances of Different
Structures..............................................................................................................................25
Alice Ludvig; Structuring Policy Measures in Carbon Efficient Wood Construction......................27
Juhani Marttila; Northwest Russian Consumer Attitudes Towards Finnish Wood Construction..28
Maria Riala and Tuomas Nummelin; Probing Customers’ Minds - Case Housing in Finland.......30
Olli Paajanen; Developing Veneer Drying.................................................................................33
Ali Shalbafan and Johannes Welling; Innovative Lightweight Wood-based Panels Produced in an Integrated Process..........................................................................................................35
Maxim Trishkin; The Driving Forces of Development of Forest Certification in North-Western
Russia....................................................................................................................................36
Saana Tykkä; Socio-Economic Aspects of Climate Change Mitigation Through Multifunctional
Forestry in Scotland................................................................................................................38
Parvathy Venugopal; The Effects of Climate And Decomposer Fungi on Woody Biomass
Degradation And Carbon Storages in Boreal Scots Pine Forests.................................................39
Whitney Winsor; Experienced & Expected Support Needs in Local Sustainable Energy Action
Planning (SEAP); ...................................................................................................................44
WORKSHOP...............................................................................................................................45
Group 1: Green manufacturing: printing. Sustainable growth – feasibility for billion euro
business .................................................................................................................46
Group 2: Improving marketing of value added forest products...............................................48
Group 3: Facilitating sustainable housing–developing expert services for companies (LAMP)...49
Group 4: Formaldehyde Free Resin........................................................................................51
Group 5: Recognizing Methods for Increasing Wood Construction in the EU..........................52
ANNEXES...................................................................................................................................54
6
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
INTRODUCTION
Joensuu Forestry Networking Week (JFNW) 2012 – Green Growth Based on Forests:
New Wooden Products and Construction.
The JFNW 2012 was organized to discuss the actual issues related to green growth based on
forests including new wooden products and wood construction. The event consisted of three
specified keynote sessions including top level speakers from different parts of Europe:
• Drivers for Green Growth
• New Trends of Wooden Construction
• Innovative Wood-based Products
JFNW2012 gathered together the most recent scientific knowledge and business visionaries
to share the information with European young researchers. Europe’s forest sector is playing
an important role in climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration and substitution
of non-renewable energy and materials. Although, the European forest industry at present
displays many characteristics of a green economy – low carbon, resource efficient and socially
inclusive, there are still structural changes needed. The challenge for the European forest
industry is not only on improving existing forest products but also on developing new wooden
based bio-products, such as biodiesel, composites, biopolymers, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics
and wellbeing products as well as finding new energy solutions. The use of wood for woodframed residential and non-residential construction is expected to be a significant challenge,
since wood is a low-energy, renewable construction material throughout its life cycle while
providing long-term carbon sequestration.
Each keynote session dealt the sub-topic both in scientific and applied point of view. In addition
to the seminars, the participants got a touch in the practical examples by visiting several wood
and wood construction showcases during the excursion day. Also, the participants got practical
problems to solve in a professional guidance in the workshop sessions. The goal was to use
versatile pedagogical methods to challenge the young scientists to use their knowledge to
create new innovations.
JFNW 2012 was the fourth JFNW event organized by four institutes that represent and combine
research, university education and European network dimensions and expertise (North
Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Finnish Forest Research Institute, European Forest
Institute, University of Eastern Finland). JFNW concept emphasizes the functioning of forestry
collaboration in Finland and demonstrates Finland’s role as one of Europe’s leaders in forestry
and forest research. JFNW also demonstrates to the participants the successful Finnish way of
integrating and using research findings directly into the forest policy working processes. JFNW
broadens considerably the view on the JFNW topic for Finnish participants and scientists by
bringing together various stakeholder groups and professionals from European countries.
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As Joensuu Forestry Networking Week follows the Summer School concept, the participants
were rewarded by 3 credits (ECTS) if the following requirements were met:
• Preparing and presenting a poster (including pre-event work)
• Writing an abstract for the final report
• Familiarizing themselves with the preliminary reading material
• Actively participating the Keynote Lectures in three sessions
• Participating the Field Trip including bus lectures
• Creating and presenting a research proposal during the workshop sessions.
Location and venue
The venue of the Joensuu Forestry Networking Week 2012, Metla house in Joensuu, is the
first large wooden office building in Finland. It has aroused an unexpected amount of interest
because of its unique architecture and working environment in both, in Finland and abroad. The
Metla House is located at the campus of the University of Eastern Finland. More information:
www.metla.fi
The city of Joensuu is the lively capital of the North Karelia Region in Finland. It is located next
to the Russian border and about 400 km North-East from the capital of the country, Helsinki.
Joensuu is a vital city with a growing and relatively young population. Of the total population
of 73,000 almost 20,000 are pupils and students. Joensuu is also growing area-wise: From
the 1.1.2009 the neighboring municipalities of Eno and Pyhäselkä merged with Joensuu and
increased the population up to 72,000. More information: www.jns.fi
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
8
JFNW participants on the stairs of The Finnish Forest Museum Lusto during the field trip on Wednesday.
SPEAKER PROFILES
(in alphabetical order)
Ulla Asikainen (MSc (Agric.)) is the Director of the Centre of Natural Sciences, North
Karelia University of Applied Sciences.
Dr. Lars Gädda (Dr. (Chem. Eng.)) works at Forest Cluster Ltd. Dr. Gädda has over 29 years
of industrial experience and currently he is working as a Senior Advisor at the Forestcluster
Ltd (Metsäklusteri Oy). The task of the company is to initiate research and innovation
programmes and to channel research funds to selected focus areas. The forest sector’s
strategic centre - led by Forestcluster Ltd - intends to become the strongest innovation
environment of the branch globally. Lars Gädda has a versatile technological background,
including managerial and expert positions in research and strategic planning related to oil
refinery, energy technology (batteries and solar energy) as well as chemical industry. He
has also worked for nine years as the Senior Vice President, R&D, in M-real, one of Europe´s
leading producers of paperboard and paper. Since September 2007 Dr. Gädda has worked
as Research Director at the Forestcluster Ltd. More information: www.forestcluster.fi
Dr. Henrik Heräjärvi (D.Sc. (Agr. & For.)) works as Researcher at the Finnish Forest
Institute (Metla). His expertise include the properties and utilisation of hardwoods in the
wood product industries, engineered wood products, wood material technology and wood
in house construction. More information: www.metla.fi
Dr. Lauri Hetemäki has Ph.D. in Economics (University of Helsinki, Finland) and Master’s
degree in Economics (University of Sussex, England). Actually he works at the European
Forest Institute (EFI) as Head of Programme in managing and coordinating the Foresight
and Information Programme (INFORS). Previously he has worked as senior researcher and
project manager at the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla). His scientific interests
include foresight and long-run outlook studies for the global forest sector, forest bioenergy
and forest economics. More information: www.efi.int
Dr. Kimmo Järvinen, (D.Sc. (Tech.)) works as Managing Director at Finnish Wood
Research Ltd. He has extensive and diverse experience of research and marketing in
the forest cluster and he has served in countries such Japan, the USA and Holland over
his lengthy international career. His most recent position was Director of Research and
Technology at Tamfelt and he has earlier also worked as a sales and marketing executive.
More information: www.forestindustries.fi
Professor Matti Kairi works at the Department of Wood Product Technology, Aalto
University. He has dedicated the major part of his professional life to the interaction of
R&D and business development in the wood products industry concerning KERTO®Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL). After finishing his studies in Wood Technology, Prof.
Matti Kairi started his career at Metsäliitto Group, where he was responsible for the whole
development work on Kerto®, starting from the product idea and proceeding through
various phases until its breakthrough in international markets. He holds nine patents
related to KERTO®. In 2002 Prof. Matti Kairi changed to Helsinki University of Technology,
where he is Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Wood Technology. More information:
http://puu.aalto.fi
9
Heikki Koivurova works at North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Tonal Innovation
Centre (TONIC). TONIC - project is working with Finnish companies and public operators
interested in cooperating in developing the region as a center of excellence for musical
instruments and acoustic based products and services. Covering all aspects required to
develop the skills and resources to design, test, manufacture and market to international
standards of excellence. The project will support the North Karelia region already active in
using natural fiber composite materials together with its musical instrument building and
music know-how. More information: www.tonal.fi
Dr. Jari Miina works as Senior Researcher at Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA).
Metla house in Joensuu is the first large wooden office building in Finland has aroused an
unexpected amount of interest because of its unique architecture and working environment
both, in Finland and abroad. The Metla House is located at the Joensuu University campus.
More information: www.metla.fi
Matti Mikkola works as SVP in StoraEnso Wood Products (Building Solutions). Stora Enso
is the global re-thinker of the paper, biomaterials, wood products and packaging industry.
They always rethink the old and expand to the new to offer to the customers innovative
solutions based on renewable materials. The Group has some 30 000 employees in more
than 35 countries worldwide, and is a publicly traded company listed in Helsinki and
Stockholm. More information: www.storaenso.com
Riitta Myller (M.Soc.Sc.) is a Member of Finnish Parliament and a former Member of
the European Parliament (1995 - 2009). She has specialized in issues such as regional
development, environment, climate and energy. More information: http://riittamyller.fi
Dr. Anders Q. Nyrud works as Research Manager in the Norsk Treteknisk Institutt,
Norway. His professional interests include all subjects of economic relevance to the wood
processing industries; ranging from raw material quality and wood/fiber supply to wood
processing, generation of bio-energy and forest products marketing. His specialities include
Wood Processing Industrie, Forest Products Marketing, Consumer Research, Empirical
Economic Modelling and Project Management. More information: www.treteknisk.no
Antti Otsamo works as Environment Manager at Metsähallitus. Metsähallitus is a state
enterprise that administers more than 12 million hectares of state-owned land and water
areas. Metsähallitus has the challenging responsibility of managing and using these areas
in a way that benefits Finnish society to the greatest extent possible. Metsähallitus provides
natural resources sector services to a diverse customer base, from private individuals to
major companies. Their operations are based on the knowledgeable and co-operative use
of state land and water areas. More information: www.metsa.fi
Dr. Petri Raivo (PhD) works as President of the North Karelia University of Applied sciences
since the beginning of year 2012. His scientific background is in Cultural Geography. More
information: www.pecsrl.org
Jukka Rissanen is CEO of Punkalive Ltd. Punkalive is a Finnish design company formed
in 2009. Within a very short time it has achieved national and international recognition
as the creator of new, natural design language. Punkalive’s all wood furniture, pavilions
and interior elements have awakened the interest of design professionals as well as the
admiration of the general public around the world: at the Milan and Cologne design and
furniture expos, the Shanghai World Fair and the Home and Interior shows in Finland. More
information: http://www.punkalive.fi
10
Ulrike Saal is MSc.in Agriculture and Forestry (MSc. Forest Science and Business,
specialised in Forest Products Marketing, University of Helsinki) and Engineer of Wood
Technology. Her current organization is the University of Hamburg, Department of Wood
Science and Technology, working as a research assistant with Prof. Udo Mantau in Forest
based sector economics. Within the EUwood project (2009–2010) she has focused on other
woody biomass with the special topic of industrial wood residues (sawmill by-products,
other industrial wood residues and black liquor), sources in wood processing, their structure
and availability. Her research objective is the (econometric) modelling of industrial wood
residue volumes. The same topic as well as wood resource monitoring is the objective of
her current research (PhD). The following link leads you to the EUwood reports:
http://ec.europa.eu (Bioenergy).
Jarkko Salovaara works as Development Manager in the Lemminkäinen Ltd.
Lemminkäinen is a Finnish construction company that was established in 1910. The presentday Group operates internationally in all areas of the construction sector. Lemminkäinen
Group’s operations have been organised into four business sectors: building construction,
infrastructure construction, technical building services and international operations.
Lemminkäinen’s main markets are in the Baltic Rim region. More information:
www.lemminkainen.com
Jyrki Uimonen works as Production Manager at Metsä Wood Ltd. Metsä Wood is a
leading provider of timber products to a range of customers from industrial buildings and
the vehicle transportation industry to private homes. Metsä Wood products are based on
high-quality and ecological Nordic wood, supplied by the forest owners of the Metsaliitto
Co-operative. Metsä Wood is part of the MetsäGroup, which employs about 13,000 people
and is owned by some 125,000 Finnish forest owners. More information:
www.acdm.co.uk and www.finnforest.co.uk
Martti Venäläinen (D.Sc. (For.)) works as Researcher and Customer Manager at the
Finnish Forest Institute (Metla) in Punkaharju. His expertise includes testing of breeding
material, genetic variation in wood quality characteristics and decay resistance of timber.
More information: www.metla.fi
Professor Erkki Verkasalo works at the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla).
His expertise include: wood science and technology, wood products materials and
measurements, value chains of wood products and forest energy, wood and timber
properties and quality, potentials and uses of wood raw materials, timber measurement
and grading, support to development work of wood using industries (esp. small and
medium scale sector), utilisation of pine and birch in wood product industries, and wood
raw materials from peatland forests and thinnings. More information: www.metla.fi
Pekka Ylä-Anttila (Lic. (Econ.)) is currently the Managing Director of the Research
Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA). He is Finnish economist and a factor in economic
life. His education is Licenciate in Economics. More information: www.etla.fi
11
ABSTRACTS
All the JFNW participants were invited to present their research in a poster session held on
Monday 21st of May. The posters were prepared before the networking week and exhibited in
the lobby of the conference venue during the event. Each poster was also presented for other
participants during the poster session chaired by Dr. Lauri Korhonen from the University of
Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences. After the presentations, the participants and the
members of organizing committee had a chance to have a look for the posters and vote for the
best work. The best posters (by Ali Shalbafan, University of Hamburg, and Lauri Linkosalmi,
Aalto University) were rewarded. The abstracts of all the posters are published in the next
couple of pages.
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Participants of the JFNW familiarizing themselves with the poster presentations.
12
Economic Effectiveness of Forestry Services in
Timber Harvesting
Lucia Ambrušová
Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Economics and Forestry
Management. Slovakia / Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metla.
Introduction
Today the vast majority of harvesting operations is made by forestry contractors. Forest owners
found that contracting timber harvesting and transportation is more profitable than owning
the machines and hiring operators. Forest operations in Europe are carried out by micro-, small
and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which are firms with up to ten workers or, respectively,
25-250 workers according to EU Recommendation (2003). They often act as service providers
only and do not own land or wood-processing capacities. In addition to timber harvesting,
they typically offer services such as silviculture, forest improvement, biomass harvesting, road
transportation and ancillary forestry-related services (Bouriaud et al., 2011).
In Slovakia, establishment of SMEs providing forestry services was initiated by several facts.
The reprivatisation process and the restoration of forest land to original owners as well as the
subsequent development of the private ownership brought problems for forest owners to carry
out a complex of forestry activities on their own, as they did not possess even basic equipment.
Moreover, they started to deal with the economic effectiveness of these operations.
At present, the majority of harvesting operations and timber transport in Slovakia is realised by
contractors, however forest owners retain control over the timber sales and timber handling.
The proportion of work carried out by forestry contractors is increasing. According to the official
data of the Ministry of Agriculture of SR, in 2010, the share of the works on contract ranged
from 72% in timber transport to 95% in felling and skidding. In comparison with the year 2000,
the volume of outsourced work is more than double.
Future research goals
Problem of forestry services provision is important also in terms of economic effectiveness. The
research aims to analyse economic effectiveness of forestry services in timber harvesting and
to identify key factors, which determine the relevance of the existence of the forestry services
market in the sphere of timber harvesting.
Sub-objectives are as follows:
• to analyse development and current state of harvesting operations carried by forestry
contractors in state and non-state forest sector in Slovakia,
• to identify factors influencing decision making about forestry services,
• to analyse costs of timber harvesting operations and wood revenue (data obtained from a
sample of forest enterprises),
• to identify particularities of the market with forestry services and define economic
assumption of the existence of this market.
13
Materials and methods
Constrains influencing forestry services provision will be identified on the basis of standardised
interviews with representatives of state and private forest enterprises.
The following constrains will be investigated:
• Legal constrains. According to Paluš et al. (2011), the most important legal restrictions
result from two legal regulations: Act No. 326/2005 on Forests, Act No. 543/2002 on
Nature and Landscape Protection.
• Social requirements on provided services (e.g. customer`s requirements on qualified and
skilled staff).
• Environmental requirements on provided services (e.g. requirements on environmentally
friendly technologies and procedures).
• Forestry services provision requires also transaction costs to be considered (costs of:
finding and willing buyer or seller, negotiation agreement, monitoring compliance,
resolving disputes over non-compliance, adopting to unexpected changes in conditions).
Cost-Benefit Analysis and its main indicators such as Net present value, Internal rate of return,
Payback period and Profitability index shall be used for the analysis of economic effectiveness of
forestry services. As the inputs for CBA will be chosen costs of timber harvesting operations and
wood revenues. The data will be collected from a representative sample of forestry enterprises
operating in Slovakia during the period 2000-2011 (sample of enterprises in relation to the form
of ownership and size of enterprise).
According to the results of the research, basic economic assumption of the existence of the
forestry services market in Slovakia will be defined. Subsequent conclusion for the forest sector
in Slovakia will be drawn.
The paper was written relating to PhD thesis proposal. The topic of the thesis follows up on
ongoing scientific project Centre of Excellence “Adaptive forest ecosystem”, Activity 4.1 Market
with forestry services.
References
Bouriaud, L. et al. 2011. Policy and market-related factors for innovation in forest operation enterprises.
In: Weiss, G. et al. (eds.). Innovation in forestry: Theoretical and value chain relationship. CAB
International 2011. 331pp. ISBN 987-1-84593-689-1
Paluš, H. et al. 2011. Trh s lesníckymi službami. [Forestry services market]. Technical University in
Zvolen, 45 pp. ISBN 9780-80-228-2334-0. [In Slovak].
Sarvašová, Z., Svitok, R. 2006. Business sphere in Slovakian forestry. In: Jodlowski, K., Kocel, J. (eds.).
Private forestry contractors in Central and Eastern European countries. Forest research Institute,
Warsaw, p. 87-96. ISBN 83-87647-55-1
Správa o lesnom hospodárstve v SR za rok 2010. [Report on the status of forestry in the Slovak Republic
of 2010]. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava, 84 pp. [in Slovak]. Available
at: http://www.mpsr.sk/sk/index.php?navID=123&id=5250
14
Consumer Attitudes Towards Wood And Wood
Products
Silvia Blažková
Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry. Slovakia / Finnish Forest Research Institute,
Metla.
Introduction
The aim of the topic is to identify critical factors that affect the consumption of wood and wood
products and verify their relevance for different groups of products according to their use.
According to the main aim of the topic it is possible to identify the following objectives:
• to specify the current state and possibilities of applying wood and wood products to the
market with the aim of identification of main categories of wood products,
• to define the specific properties for every category of wood products,
• to identify the categories of non – price factors and price factors that affect consumer
decisions for every category of wood products,
• to realize the questioning to a selected sample of respondents with two standardized
questionnaires,
• to analyze the obtained qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaire surveys
selected by statistical methods,
• to identify the most decisive factors that are influencing the consumer decisions making
process and to define the consumption of wood and wood products,
• to outline the strategy for promoting the use of wood as a raw material in order to
increase the proportion the use of raw wood as a renewable source.
Material and methods
Processing procedure of dissertation builds on its main aim and the individual objectives. The
research can be divided into two parts.
The first part of the research whose results are presented in Chapter Partial results deals with the
detection of preferences for end users of wood products according to the different possibilities
of its use. Consumer preferences for selected properties of wood products compared with
alternative material are to be examined to:
• the selected area connected with interior use of wood: windows, doors, floors, tiles and
furniture (living with wood),
• wood as a construction material (building with wood),
• paper and cardboard as a packaging material,
• wood use for energy.
15
The definition of the relevant properties for each part of final use of wood was made by available
scientific, technical and other literature sources. This report was prepared by the desk research
method. The specific features included:
• physical: fire-resistance, heating power of wood, thermal insulation properties, sound
insulation properties, light weight material,
• hygienic: health and safety of wood,
• utility: wood creates a pleasant atmosphere and feelings of comfort, easy recovery of
material, versatility of material, easy storage and material handling, faster and easier
installation of individual components of the material,
• aesthetic: naturalness and uniqueness of wood as a material, plasticity of the material,
• ecological: eco-friendliness of wood, reusability of wood, the possibility to use material
several times without reparation, production of greenhouse gases by using of material,
• environmental: environmental suitability of the material, environmental impact of the
material,
• qualitative properties: resistance to pets, the ability to maintain the shape of material,
weather resistance,
• mechanical: durability, strength, easy workability and plasticity of the material.
To obtain information on research in the first part of the thesis we have chosen the method
of questioning by a structured questionnaire. Demographic data represented quantitative and
qualitative data; product specifications were defined and evaluated in a qualitative form. The
aim of this research was to obtain information on perception of specific properties of wood
products compared to substitutes.
The second part of the research includes research to determine the factors that will be divided
into categories of price and non-price factors. Definition of the factors is based on the theory of
consumer and consumer behaviour. The price will be categorized as price factors; the category
of non-price factors will be included in the selected categories of factors:
• cultural,
• social,
• personal,
• psychological factors.
This approach will identify the critical factors that affect the consumption of wood and wood
products and verify their relevance to individual product groups according to their use. These
assumptions will be incorporated into the questionnaire.
16
Partial results
According to the one of partial objectives was carried out research on consumer preferences
for the categories of wood products. The categories of wood products were divides into four
groups of wood products:
• living with wood,
• building with wood,
• paper and packaging products,
• wood for energy.
• The most preferred properties of wood products with comparison to the other alternative
materials are:
• eco-friendliness of wood,
• environmental suitability of the material,
• renewability and naturalness of wood,
• wood creates a pleasant atmosphere and feelings of comfort,
• naturalness and uniqueness of wood as a material,
• safety of wood as a material,
• aesthetic properties,
• health and safety of wood,
• reusability of wood,
• good availability,
• heating power of wood.
Conclusions
Wood is perceived positively because of features such as comfort, aesthetics and environmental
friendliness, which are called soft factors. On the other side negative perception of wood
is recorded in the group of properties like fire-resistance, durability and stability. Slovak
consumers highly value environmental, ecological and aesthetic properties of wood. The
negative perception of consumers is recorded in a group of mechanical and physical qualities
of wood.
The identification of preferred properties of wood products could help by promotion of the
sale of wood products and their application to the market, because research identifies specific
preferred competitive properties compared to the wood substitutes.
The identifications of critical factors that affect the consumption of wood and wood products
could help to increase the competitiveness of the timber industry market against the producers
of competing products.
17
Feasibility of Green Wood Cutting Using Assisted
Peeling by Radiant Energy
Anna Dupleix
Aalto University, Finland / Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France
FeasibilityofGreenWoodCuttingusingassistedPeelingbyRadiantEnergy
AnnaDupleix
Introduction
AaltoUniversity,Finland/ArtsetMétiersParisTech,France
INTRODUCTION
Peeling is a high value-added process in the first stage processing of wood. It consists in
manufacturing veneers from a starting bolt. Veneers are mainly used in the production of wood
Peelingpanels
is a high
valueͲadded
process
in the first Veneer
stage processing
of wood. It
consists
manufacturing
in the
plywood and
LVL (Laminated
Lumber) industries.
The
peelinginprocess
veneersfromastartingbolt.Veneersaremainlyusedintheproductionofwoodpanelsintheplywoodand
consists in transforming a bolt into veneers using a rotary peeling action performed with a
LVL(LaminatedVeneerLumber)industries.Thepeelingprocessconsistsintransformingaboltintoveneers
peeling lathe (Fig.1a). The knife and pressure bar are driven towards the rotating bolt according
usingarotarypeelingactionperformedwithapeelinglathe(Fig.1a).Theknifeandpressurebararedriven
to the decreasing diameter of the bolt while peeling so that the knife is kept in tangential
contact with the bolt (Fig.1b). Peeling speed in the industry ranges from 1 to 10 m/s.
towardstherotatingboltaccordingtothedecreasingdiameteroftheboltwhilepeelingsothattheknifeis
keptintangentialcontactwiththebolt(Fig.1b).Peelingspeedintheindustryrangesfrom1to10m/s.
Z
v
Figure1.Principleofarotarypeelingmachine(a)crossͲsectionview(b)perspectiveview
Figure 1. Principle of a rotary peeling machine (a) cross-section view (b) perspective view.
Whyheatingwoodpriortopeeling?
Why idea
heating
peeling?
The general
behindwood
heatingprior
woodto
prior
to peeling is to increase wood's deformability in order to
upgrade both quality and yield of veneers. Heating wood prior to peeling relies on a rule of thumb that
The general idea behind heating wood prior to peeling is to increase wood’s deformability in
greenwoodsoftenswhenheated:suchasbutteratroomtemperatureiseasiertocutthancoldbutter,so
order to upgrade both quality and yield of veneers. Heating wood prior to peeling relies on a
it is to
peel bolt which has been heated. Improving wood's deformability have three main sought
rule of thumb that green wood softens when heated: such as butter at room temperature is
consequences:toreducetherisksoflathecheckingoccurringonveneersidesduringthecuttingstageͲand
easier to cut than cold butter, so it is to peel bolt which has been heated. Improving wood’s
hence to ameliorate veneer surface quality, to lower cutting forces by weakening the required pressure
deformability have three main sought consequences: to reduce the risks of lathe checking
applied
by the cutting
knife
on during
the bolt
hence
to-cut
consumption,
fluidise resin
occurring
on veneer
sides
theͲ and
cutting
stage
anddown
hencepower
to ameliorate
veneerto
surface
pocketsandtosoftenknotsandligninwhichbecomelessabrasivethanundercrystallineformͲandhence
quality, to lower cutting forces by weakening the required pressure applied by the cutting knife
todiminishwearoncuttingtools.
on the bolt - and hence to cut down power consumption, to fluidise resin pockets and to soften
knots and lignin which become less abrasive than under crystalline form - and hence to diminish
Disadvantagesofsoakingmethod
wear on cutting tools.
Priortopeeling,boltsaretraditionallyheatedbyimmersioninhotwater(soaking).Howeverthismethod
presentsmanydisadvantagesamongstwhicharethedurationoftreatment(12to72hours),poorenergy
efficiency, huge building requirements, the washing out of phenolic extractives inducing water pollution
and affecting wood’s natural durability and cohesion (risks of cracks at bolt ends). These problems have
highlighted the need for research work to find alternative solutions to heating greenͲwood that are
applicablewithinthepeelingprocess(Fig.2)
18
Whyheatingwoodpriortopeeling?
The general idea behind heating wood prior to peeling is to increase wood's deformability in order to
upgrade both quality and yield of veneers. Heating wood prior to peeling relies on a rule of thumb that
greenwoodsoftenswhenheated:suchasbutteratroomtemperatureiseasiertocutthancoldbutter,so
it is to peel bolt which has been heated. Improving wood's deformability have three main sought
consequences:toreducetherisksoflathecheckingoccurringonveneersidesduringthecuttingstageͲand
hence to ameliorate veneer surface quality, to lower cutting forces by weakening the required pressure
applied by the cutting knife on the bolt Ͳ and hence to cut down power consumption, to fluidise resin
Disadvantages
of soaking method
pocketsandtosoftenknotsandligninwhichbecomelessabrasivethanundercrystallineformͲandhence
todiminishwearoncuttingtools.
Prior to peeling, bolts are traditionally heated by immersion in hot water (soaking). However
Disadvantagesofsoakingmethod
this
method presents many disadvantages amongst which are the duration of treatment (12
toPriortopeeling,boltsaretraditionallyheatedbyimmersioninhotwater(soaking).Howeverthismethod
72 hours), poor energy efficiency, huge building requirements, the washing out of phenolic
presentsmanydisadvantagesamongstwhicharethedurationoftreatment(12to72hours),poorenergy
extractives
inducing water pollution and affecting wood’s natural durability and cohesion (risks
efficiency,
requirements,
washing
out ofthe
phenolic
extractives
of cracks athuge
bolt building
ends). These
problemsthe
have
highlighted
need for
researchinducing
work towater
find pollution
and
affecting
wood’s
natural
durability
and
cohesion
(risks
of
cracks
at
bolt
ends).
These
problems
have
alternative solutions to heating green-wood that are applicable within the peeling process
highlighted the need for research work to find alternative solutions to heating greenͲwood that are
(Fig.2)
applicablewithinthepeelingprocess(Fig.2)
Figure 2. Advantages (in white) and disadvantages (in grey) of soaking wood.
Materials and methods
Principles of IR heating
This situation calls for the development of alternative heating solutions. Previous research
investigating electric ohmic and microwave heating methods have demonstrated that the
“softening’’ effect of heating does not depend on the duration of heating, but only on the wood
temperature attained - literally, to soften wood does not necessitate ‘’cooking’’ it for a long
time as used to be thought. A promising solution would be to locally heat the rotating bolt on
its surface located ahead of the knife to a depth equal to the thickness of the veneer produced.
An IR heating system (Fig.3) may be the most suitable technology in terms of heating rates and
potential for ease of installation on the peeling lathe.
Figure 3. On-line IR surface heating principle.
19
Studying IR heating of green wood step by step
In order to answer the technical feasibility of green wood cutting using assisted peeling by IR
heating, the questions that arise are defined below:
1. What are the target temperatures of the bolt surface portion to be peeled which are
required for an efficient peeling process?
2. Which is the role played by wood parameters in IR heating kinetics including moisture
content, density, species, heartwood/sapwood, earlywood/latewood, longitudinal/
transversal direction?
3. Which IR radiation parameters influence wood heating (wavelength, power density)?
4. What are the characteristics of an IR heating system to reach the target temperatures
mentioned above and to optimise the peeling process?
5. Is the IR heating prior to peeling economically feasible at industrial scale?
The research plan followed to tackle these issues is summarised by the following Work
Breakdown Structure (Fig.4).
Figure4.WorkBreakdownStructure.
Figure 4. Work Breakdown Structure.
RESULTS
Experiments concern the influence of onͲline temperatures on the required cutting efforts and the
obtained veneer surface quality (peeling unit) as well as on the thermal and optical characterisations of
green wood (thermal unit). This last results would be used to feed the numerical model of IR heating of
greenwoodwhilepeeling.Theequationsusedinthemodelsimulateheattransferinagreenwoodcylinder
rotatingwithadecreasingradius,usingradiantenergyappliedtothesurface.Theseequationsaresolved
20
using
Comsol Multiphysics®, a Partial Differential Equations solver based on the Finite Element Method,
and the overall procedure is implemented under MatLab®. The simulation results brings answer to the
ability of IR heating to raise the temperature of the surface of a rotating bolt to enable the heat to
penetratethewoodtoasufficientdepthforpeeling–butwithoutoverheatingleadingtodeteriorationof
Results
Experiments concern the influence of on-line temperatures on the required cutting efforts
and the obtained veneer surface quality (peeling unit) as well as on the thermal and optical
characterisations of green wood (thermal unit). This last results would be used to feed the
numerical model of IR heating of green wood while peeling. The equations used in the model
simulate heat transfer in a green wood cylinder rotating with a decreasing radius, using radiant
energy applied to the surface. These equations are solved using Comsol Multiphysics®, a Partial
Differential Equations solver based on the Finite Element Method, and the overall procedure is
implemented under MatLab®. The simulation results brings answer to the ability of IR heating
to raise the temperature of the surface of a rotating bolt to enable the heat to penetrate the
wood to a sufficient depth for peeling – but without overheating leading to deterioration of the
bolt surface – and given the short period of time allowed by the high peeling rates demanded.
Conclusions
These results bring a better understanding of the behaviour of green wood under IR heating
and contribute, on a wider scale to understanding the combined effects of moisture and IR
radiation on green wood. In particular, the investigation of the thermal properties of wood at
green state fill in the lack of values available in the literature for thermal conductivity λ, heat
capacity Cp and thermal diffusivity κ at moisture content above the fiber saturation point. And
the optical properties measured in the range of IR wavelengths bring new knowledge in terms
of emissivity, transmittivity, and absorptivity of green wood.
Figure 5. Results from modelling.
21
Insights to Forest Sector Outlook Approaches: A Discussion Note
Elias Hurmekoski
University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences. Finland.
Introduction
Futures studies may perhaps be better categorized into arts or crafts as opposed to deductive
sciences (Glenn & Gordon 2009). Its purpose is to offer tools to expand mental horizons and
help organizations and individuals deal with change (Bell 2003). There always remains room for
discussion, as the results of an outlook exercise are rarely unambiguous.
The deficiencies of extrapolative approaches have been increasingly acknowledged. At the
same time, foresight exercises are more important than ever, as major structural changes in
the forest sector can be expected.
This short discussion note does not have a hypothesis to defend. Instead, it raises questions
based on futures studies literature, and attempts to provoke discussion around alternate
approaches to forest sector foresight.
Material and methods
The mainstream of the current outlook methodology adopted by the forest sector can be found
from FAO’s traditional outlook publications, the latest one being the second European forest
sector outlook study, EFSOS II (FAO 2011) that owes its methodological basis, namely the EFIGTM model (Kallio et al. 2004), to Samuelson (1952), Kallio et al. (1987), and Buongiorno et al.
(2003).
Results
It is commonly accepted that complex social systems, such as the economy, cannot be predicted
with certainty, irrespective of the methods used (e.g. Bell 2003, Blass 2003, Glenn & Gordon
2009, Makridakis & Taleb 2009, Orrel & Macsharry 2009). The latest recession provides an
excellent example: although the financial crisis began already in December 2007, the majority
of economists were unable to predict its severity and consequences even in the first half of 2008
(Makridakis & Taleb 2009).
Decision making based on uncertain prospects leaves the assessment of the correctness of
decisions wanting, and moreover, the illusion of control arising from the belief in accurate
forecasting may have severe negative consequences in the form of, e.g., misjudged investment
decisions (Makridakis et al. 2009). While in certain contexts trend estimations are by no means
obsolete, continuing the past into the future offers relatively little interest when structural
breaks can be expected, as they hardly produce policy-relevant information.
22
The FAO outlook studies share a common vision that the best possible approach would be
to use a mixed methodology composed of scenario analysis and a forest-sector-specific twostage model (GTM and its derivatives) based on classical economic theory. Ideally, the EFSOS
II methodology framework is able to produce a closed balance between supply and demand,
and impacts on forest resources and competitiveness by combining specific models. Yet the
most valid conclusions from the scenario and GTM framework tend to be, whether a continent
is likely to become or remain a net exporter of goods, although since Zhu et al. (1998), outlooks
have attempted to go beyond such simple questions as ‘how much wood will be needed in the
future’, to cover questions such as ‘how forest policies and institutions should be shaped in the
future’.
The key variable in the GTM framework is the growth of income. Yet per capita consumption
of wood is likely to increase due to climate change abatement measures irrespective of GDP
development, i.e., even if the economy would stagnate, there are considerable opportunities for
the wood product industry to enhance its market position on the expense of rival construction
materials (Hetemäki et al. 2011).
Although the increment in the per capita wood consumption would have to be very significant in
order for it to have an effect on the climate, markets, or forestry (Eriksson et al. 2012), the rising
interest in wooden construction has already resulted in an upgrade of wooden construction
technologies, suggesting rather bright prospects for the wood products industry, as it is now
more competitive against other construction practices.
Conclusions
Schulmeyer’s (2006) conclusion that the EFSOS methodology framework would be practicable
to the next such projections as well, based on the notion that the previous projections fitted
quite well the actual development, only highlights the need to address the dangers of fading to
the illusion of control.
Then what kinds of approach are there, if traditional standpoints alone are hereby deemed
insufficient? Destatte (2010) argues that foresight equals the endeavor for sustainable
development, but the same sustainability argument can be made of nearly every branch of
science and technology. Furthermore, the methods used in futures studies are borrowed from
other disciplines (Bell 2003). It could therefore be reasonable to combine elements of foresight,
analytic decision making, strategic planning, and sustainability criteria frameworks, instead
of relying on extrapolative non policy relevant forecast methods. From this perspective, the
foresight framework would also be related to the risk seeking (or aversion) behavior of decision
makers in that the outcomes of decisions are never quite certain, and least so regarding longterm strategies.
In conclusion, instead of attempting to make valid projections, it could be beneficial for the
policy-relevance of outlook exercises to admit that foresight is merely a tool for structured,
strategic thinking. The foresight methodology framework for the forest sector should be
rethought accordingly.
23
References
Bell, W., 2003. Foundations of futures studies: History, purposes, and knowledge, Transaction Pub.
Blass, E., 2003. Researching the future: method or madness? Futures 35, 1041-1054.
Buongiorno, J., Zhu, S., Zhang, D., Turner, J., Tomberlin, D., 2003. The global forest products model:
structure, estimation, and applications, Academic Press, California.
Destatte, P., 2010. Foresight: A major tool in tackling sustainable development. Technological
Forecasting and Social Change 77, 1575-1587.
Eriksson, L.O., Gustavsson, L., Hänninen, R., Kallio, M., Lyhykäinen, H., Pingoud, K., Pohjola, J., Sathre,
R., Solberg, B., Svanaes, J., Valsta, L., 2012. Climate change mitigation through increased wood use
in the European construction sector: towards an integrated modelling framework. European Journal
of Forest Research 131, 131-144.
FAO, 2011. The European forest sector outlook study II 2010-2030, UNECE/FAO.
Glenn, J.C. & Gordon, T.J., 2009. Futures research methodology: version 3.0, American Council for the
United Nations University, the Millennium Project, CD-r.
Hetemäki, L., Niinistö, S., Seppälä, R., Uusivuori, J., 2011. Murroksen jälkeen – metsien käytön
tulevaisuus Suomessa. Metsäkustannus, Hämeenlinna.
Kallio, A.M.I., Moiseyev, A., Solberg, B., 2004. The global forest sector model EFI-GTM – the model
structure. European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland.
Kallio, M., Dykstra, D.P., Binkley, C.S., 1987. The global forest sector: an analytical perspective. John
Wiley & Sons.
Makridakis, S. & Taleb, N., 2009. Living in a world of low levels of predictability. International Journal of
Forecasting 25, 840-844.
Makridakis, S., Hogarth, R.M., Gaba, A., 2009. Forecasting and uncertainty in the economic and
business world. International Journal of Forecasting 25, 794-812.
Orrell, D. & McSharry, P., 2009. System economics: Overcoming the pitfalls of forecasting models via a
multidisciplinary approach. International Journal of Forecasting 25, 734-743.
Samuelson, P.A., 1952. Spatial price equilibrium and linear programming. Am. Econ. Rev. 42, 283-303.
Schulmeyer, F., 2006. European Forest Sector Outlook Study: trends 2000-2005 compared to the
EFSOS scenarios, UNECE/FAO.
Zhu, S., Buongiorno, J., Tomberlin, D., 1998. Global forest products consumption, production, trade and
prices: global forest products model projections to 2010. FAO.
24
Using
Databases to Compare Energy And Carbon
Usingdatabasestocompareenergyandcarbonbalancesofdifferentstructures
Balances of Different Structures
LauriLinkosalmi
AaltoUniversity
Lauri Linkosalmi
DepartmentofForestProductsTechnology
Aalto University, Department of Forest Products Technology. Finland.
Introduction
Introduction
Need
for buildings and buildings materials environmental performances studies are real,
Needforbuildingsandbuildingsmaterialsenvironmentalperformancesstudiesarereal,toolsforthiskind
tools
for
this kind of assessment is not easily to available. Different life cycle inventory (LCI)
ofassessmentisnoteasilytoavailable.Differentlifecycleinventory(LCI)databasesshowhighdifferences
databases show high differences between datasets of building materials. This is a problem,
betweendatasetsofbuildingmaterials.Thisisaproblem,whenisneededtocomparedifferentbuildings
when is needed to compare different buildings materials environmental performance. Also
materialsenvironmentalperformance.Alsobackgroundanddocumentationofdatabasesarenotoften
background
and documentation of databases are not often clearly states, which complicate
evaluation
of assessment.
clearlystates,whichcomplicateevaluationofassessment.
Materialandmethods
Material and methods
Inthisstudywerecomparedthreedifferentpassivestructures,lightweighttimberstructure,massivewood
In structureandprecastconcretestructure.EveryboxbuildingshavethesameinteriorfloorͲarea(A=10,143
this study were compared three different passive structures, light weight timber structure,
massive
wood structure and precast concrete 2structure. Every box
buildings have the same
2
m2)andsameUͲvalues(wallandfloor=0,1W/m
K,roof=0,09W/m
K)ofallexteriorstructure,but
interior
floor-area (A=10,143 m2) and same U-values
(wall and floor
= 0,1 W/m2K, roof = 0,09
differentwallͲ,bottomͲandroof–specifications(Figure1).ThelightweighttimberboxframeconsistsofIͲ
W/m2K)
of all exterior structure, but different wall-, bottom- and roof –specifications (Figure
1).joistandlaminatedveneerlumber(LVL)withinsulation.Themassivetimberboxconsistsofaninterior
The light weight timber box frame consists of I-joist and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
with
insulation. The massive timber box consists of an interior massive timber layer out of
massivetimberlayeroutofcrosslaminatedtimberͲlogs(CLTͲlogs)andadditional,nonͲloadbearing
cross laminated timber -logs (CLT-logs) and additional, non-load bearing exterior frame
exteriorframeandinsulation.Bothboxesarebuiltinrealityandareusedforongoing,buildingphysical
and
insulation. Both boxes are built in reality and are used for ongoing, building physical
measurements.Alsointhisstudythethirdboxiscomposedofprecastconcretepanelstructurewith
measurements.
Also in this study the third box is composed of precast concrete panel structure
with
additional insulation. The precast concrete box was not built actually, but designed with
additionalinsulation.Theprecastconcreteboxwasnotbuiltactually,butdesignedwiththesame
the
same
functional property as other two wooden boxes for the environmental assessment.
functionalpropertyasothertwowoodenboxesfortheenvironmentalassessment.
Figure1.
Detailsectionsofboxbuildings.
Figure
1. Detail sections of box buildings.
Inthisstudyprimaryenergyconsumptionandgreenhousegasemissions(GHG)werestudiedduring
productionprocessofbuildingmaterials.Incaseofprimaryenergyconsumptionwasstudiedenergy
consumptionfromnonͲrenewableandrenewablesources.Carbonfootprintwasstudiesasgreenhousegas
emissionsandcarbonstoragefromwoodbasedmaterials.UseddatabasesforthestudywereEcoinvent,
25
In this study primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were studied
during production process of building materials. In case of primary energy consumption was
studied energy consumption from non-renewable and renewable sources. Carbon footprint
was studies as greenhouse gas emissions and carbon storage from wood based materials.
Used databases for the study were Ecoinvent, GaBi (Ökobau), KBOB, IBO and Synergy
datasets. In every case were selected from database suitable material or building component
for the assessment. Focus of assessment was cradle to gate phase, other life cycle phases were
GaBi(Ökobaau),KBOB,IB
BOandSyne
ergydatasetss.Ineverycaaseweresele
ectedfromddatabasesuittable
outlined.
materialorbuildingcom
mponentfortheassessm
ment.Focuso
ofassessmen
ntwascradleetogatepha
ase,other
haseswereo
outlined.
lifecycleph
Results
Results
Results show big differences between box buildings energy and greenhouse gas balances using
different
databases
(Figure
2). Primary
energy ingsenergy
consumption
results show
same kind
of trenddifferent
wbigdiffere
encesbetwee
enboxbuild
andgreenho
ousegasbala
ancesusingd
Resultsshow
indatabases(
all databases.
The massive
woodyconsumpti
structure ionresultssh
shows the howsameki
highest value
in renewable
energyses.The
Figure2).Pr
rimaryenerg
ndoftrendi
inalldataba
consumption
and
the
precast
concrete
structure
shows
the
highest
value
in
non-renewable
massivewo
oodstructureeshowstheh
highestvalueeinrenewab
bleenergyco
onsumption andthepreccast
energy consumption. In case of greenhouse gas emissions, there are large differences
concretestrructureshow
wsthehighestvalueinnoonͲrenewableenergyconsumption. Incaseofgrreenhouse
between
databases. Massive
wood structure shows the highest value in GaBi (Ökobau) and
gasemissio
ns,thereare
elargediffer
rencesbetwe
eendatabase
es.Massivew
IBO databases, the precast concrete
structure shows
the highest
valuewoodstructu
in Synergy,ureshowsth
KBOB, andhehighest
valueinGaB
uein
Bi(Ökobau)
andIBOdata
abases,thep
precastconc
cretestructu
reshowsthe
ehighestval
Ecoinvent databases.
Synergy,KB
BOB,andEco
oinventdatab
bases.
Figure2.Grreenhousegaasemissionssandenergy consumptio
onofboxbuildings,cradl etogatephase.
Figure 2. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption of box buildings, cradle to gate
phase.
Conclusionss
The conten
nts of five open
o
tool orr databases, GaBi (Ökob
bau), Ecoinvent, Synergyy, IBO and KBOB, weree
comparedttoobservem
mutualdifferrencesbehinndthem.To establishfairenvironmeentalassessm
mentsystem
m
Conclusions
forconstrucction,therelevantdefiniitionshould begivenforreachparam
meter.Compaaringofdata
abasesisnott
The contents of five open tool or databases, GaBi (Ökobau), Ecoinvent, Synergy, IBO and KBOB,
fruitful in aall matters, because
b
there is always natural variation, accorrding differeences in country specificc
were compared to observe mutual differences behind them. To establish fair environmental
data (energgy
mix),for
diffconstruction,
and diffe
erent
acy in
erent allocation
methodds,
and differentt
assessment
system
the relevant
definition
shouldaccura
be given
fordata
eachcollection
parameter.
systems bo
oundaries
at all.
er it
is imp
ort tobecause
clariffy difference
es between
a reasonss
Howev
databases
Comparing
of databases
is not
fruitful
in all
matters,
there is always
natural
variation,and
behindthem
m.
according
differences
in country specific data (energy mix), different allocation methods, and
different
accuracy
in
data
collection and different systems boundaries at all. However it is
import to clarify differences between databases and reasons behind them.
26
Structuring Policy Measures in Carbon Efficient
Wood Construction
Alice Ludvig
Postdoctoral Researcher, EFICEEC, University of Natural Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. Lithuania.
The aim of this research is the development of a methodological structure for capturing the
ongoing political activities in the newly emerging field of carbon efficient wood construction.
Put in a nutshell the research question is “what are the political delimits of the territory in carbon
efficient wood construction?” This is interesting because the field is obviously very new and
there are very active players and lobbyists present such as architects, engineers, GHG experts
and wood industries. In hitherto policy arenas, like the ones concerned with forest certification,
the number of interest groups and institutional actors was comparatively small. I am planning a
document analysis in combination with in-depth expert interviews. Up to now I have collected
the presently relevant measures and standards. In the next step I will trace back their origins
and the institutions they stem from.
Altogether, my research shall contribute
empirically to hitherto studies of sustainability
in the field of wooden construction. It is
theoretically informed by theories of steering
and actor-centred policy analysis. In practical
terms its output shall be a research paper ready
for discussion and publication within a time
frame until the end of 2012.
Figure 1. Picture from the poster
presentation.
27
Northwest Russian Consumer Attitudes Towards
Finnish Wood Construction
Juhani Marttila
Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metla, Joensuu. Finland.
Introduction
Russia has promoted intensively the use of renewing materials and wood construction.
Detached house construction is endorsed by the federation level construction program.
Extensive site development projects basing on wood construction have been established in
Russia. Rising income level increases the number customer groups and customization needs.
Thus, investigation of consumer attitudes offers proactive possibilities for recognition of new
customer groups.
Kymleno Housing Exhibition has been a pilot construction project in Russia. The aim of the
project was to introduce a Finnish-type wood construction area in Russia. The exhibition area
is located in Koltushi village, 25 east of Saint Petersburg. Totally 36 apartments in were built in
detached houses, terraced houses and semi-detached houses. Several element systems were
used.
Material and methods
The housing exhibition provided a good possibility to collect information about Russian
consumer attitudes towards Finnish wooden construction. Totally 133 visitors were interviewed
during Kymleno exhibition 15th September – 9th November 2008. Respondents fulfilled forms
by theirselves. Forms were collected in several houses in exhibition area.
Questions were related to following topics:
• adequacy of different materials in construction
• selection criteria of cladding and finishings
• image of Finnish construction companies and Finnish wood products in construction
• paired comparison of Russian and Finnish detached houses in various price groups
• main selection criteria of house.
Age group, sex, current type of living, occupational group and housing goals were used as
grouping variables. Major part of the answers were measured as five-level Likert scale (1 –
strongly disagree, 5 – strongly agree). Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis
of variance and χ² test were used in estimating the differences between groups. Borda Count
method was used when order of preferences of house selection criteria were measured.
28
Results
Almost all of the respondents lived in Saint Petersburg or Leningrad Oblast. Wood was felt as a
very suitable material for construction (grade 4.6). Appearance, easiness of maintenance, price,
and easiness of installation and use were viewed as the most important aspects in choosing of
claddings and finishing materials.
Finnish products got good evaluations related to quality (4.6) and easiness of maintenance
(4.4). Finnish enterprises were viewed as reliable (4.5).
Respondents also give better evaluations for the appearance of Finnish house in cheap and
moderate price class. In high price class opinions were shared between Finnish and Russian
house.
Price, floor design, environs and distance from a large city were the most important house
selection criteria among respondents. Also appearance, durability and energy consumption
have some importance.
Discussion
Research demonstrates that many of the current Finnish house models are appreciated in
Northwest Russia. Wood is seen as a suitable material for construction and the Finnish products
have good imago in quality issues.
However, consumer segments in Russia vary significantly and Finnish products have the best
competitiveness in product classes with high and moderate price level. Price competitiveness
and delivery capacity are the main challenges for the Finnish wood housing industry. This
requires new Finnish-Russian supply chains.
Figure 1. Price is by far the most important selection criteria in housing among Russian
consumers.
29
Probing Customers’ Minds – Case Housing in
Finland
Maria Riala and Tuomas Nummelin
Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metla , Tikkurila. Finland.
Housing is an interesting and complex area of consumer research. In Finland, most of the
previous studies have focused on the living environment, and thus we wanted to shift the
focus to apartments. Knowing what people look for in apartments and why those aspects
matter to them might offer pathways to promoting timber construction, and thus lead to more
environmentally sustainable housing stock.
The study is based on the means-end chain theory of consumer research. We wanted to develop
a new, easier method of exploring complex issues from a consumer perspective. We also aimed
to create a method of data collection, which would be more fun and more stimulating for the
respondents than the traditional structured surveys.
The applications of means-end chain theory have generally been in consumer products, e.g.
exploring cross-cultural differences in relation to particular products, but it has also been
applied to housing issues. The main observed difficulty with studies based on means-ends chain
theory is directing consumers to discuss their preferences in a clear, linear manner. Preferences
about products are not always that obvious, and it is even more difficult to connect product
preferences to underlying consequences or values.
When we started developing the new tool, we wanted to create a less structured and more easy
to use tool to model complex issues in a visual manner. The model settled on utilizes the concept
of a mind map. The attempt was to find a balance between avoiding excessive structuring to
guide the respondent, and reducing the need for interpretations by the researchers. Some
interpretations might still be necessary if for example the respondents had used slightly
different expressions for the same thing. It was also important for us to allow free associations
by the respondents. One aim was to generate results that could be analysed with quantitative
tools.
In order to create some structure for the mind map tool, and to give the respondents a starting
point we decided to give each respondent a few variables at the start. This would help getting
them in the right frame of mind. All starting ‘maps’ included an apartment, and between four
and ten other variables. These were drawn randomly with an equal probability of being selected
from a list of 34 variables, which were mainly derived from previous housing research in Finland.
We hoped that this would enable comparisons with results of previous studies.
The respondents were then asked to think about what they find important when looking for an
apartment. They could remove the default variables, add new ones, connect variables to each
other, and determine whether they were attributes, consequences or values. The completed
maps were collected online, and we also collected background data from the respondents.
30
The data was collected with the online tool during late summer 2011. We got a total of 53
responses, out of which 27 were valid. A valid response was one where the respondents had
added variables or links between variables. The results consisted of 111 different variables, when
spelling mistakes were corrected. This includes the original 34. The number of new variables can
be considered quite good. Details of the respondents’ background can be found in figure 1. As it
shows, the respondents tended to be women, under 35 and with higher education.
respondents’ background can be found in figure 1. As it shows, the respondents tended to be women,
under35andwithhighereducation.
Respondents
0
10
20
30
Percentages
40
50
60
70
80
Female
Male
Under25
25Ͳ34
35Ͳ44
45Ͳ54
Over55
Agemissing
Comprehensiveschool
Vocationalcollegeorhighschool
Bachelor'sdegree
Master'sdegree
LicentiateorPhD
Livesalone
Liveswithpartner
Liveswithpartnerandchildren
Liveswithchildren
Otherlivingsituation
Figure 1. Background details of the respondents.
Figure1Backgrounddetailsoftherespondents
Figure2showsanexampleofamindmap.Itshowshowdifferentvariablesareconnectedwitheachother.
Inthismap,thevariablewiththegreatestnumberoflinks(i.e.largestdegreecount)islocation,whichis
Figure 2 shows an example of a mind map. It shows how different variables are connected
connectedtosevenothervariables,whichindicatesitskeyroleinthechoiceofanapartment.Overall,this
withmapisagoodexampleofhowcomplextheissueofhousingisfromaconsumerperspective.Notallofthe
each other. In this map, the variable with the greatest number of links (i.e. largest degree
count)
is location, which is connected to seven other variables, which indicates its key role in
responsescontainedquitethislevelofcomplexity,whichcouldbeduetovariousreasonse.g.lackoftime
ortheirnarrowperspectiveonapartments.
the choice
of an apartment. Overall, this map is a good example of how complex the issue of
housing is from a consumer perspective. Not all of the responses contained quite this level of
complexity, which could be due to various reasons e.g. lack of time or their narrow perspective
on apartments.
Figure 2. An example of a mind map, respondent female, 26, Master’s degree, lives alone.
Figure2Aneexampleofam
mindmap,resp
pondentfemalee,26,Master’ssdegree,lives alone.Red=atttribute,green=
=consequence,,
Red=attribute,
green=consequence,
blue=value.
blue=value.
Theaggregaateresultscaanbeseenin
nfigure3.Thhisisanexam
mpleofoneofthesimpleestanalyses,,whichcan
beperformedonthistyypeofdata.H
However,itddoesnotgive
everydetailedinformatiiononthere
esults.
Otheranalyyticaltools,w
whichcanbe
eused,includdeclusteringgofvariabless,ofresponddents,andesstimating
31
The aggregate results can be seen in figure 3. This is an example of one of the simplest analyses,
which can be performed on this type of data. However, it does not give very detailed information
on the results. Other analytical tools, which can be used, include clustering of variables, of
respondents, and estimating the importance of variables.
The results are still tentative, but they indicate that Finnish consumers value a comfortable
home in a good location, with a functional layout. These results are similar to those in earlier
studies on housing. Findings that are somewhat more surprising were the importance placed
on yards, nature and environmental friendliness. In future research it would be interesting to
see if these important to some particular groups of people.
The mind map method received a lot of positive feedback, and many respondents found the tool
helpful. We have now worked on the usability of the tool and plan to use it in new applications
and with new groups of respondents.
Figure 3. Aggregate net of all
variables and links between them.
The size of a node describes the
frequency of its appearance and
the width of the link the frequency
of its appearance.
32
Developing Veneer Drying
Olli Paajanen
Aalto University, Aalto Doctoral Programme in Chemical Technology (Wood Product
Technology). Finland.
Plywood is an important product for the Finnish forest industry. Most of the production is
exported and used in applications where high quality and product performance are essential.
Because of this, there is constant and pressing need to improve the properties of the product and
the efficiency of the manufacturing process. Plywood is manufactured by gluing thin sheets of
veneer together, forming a panel - plywood is a composite product. The plywood manufacturing
process consists of several sub-processes. First the logs are harvested and transported to the
factory storage area. Then the long logs are cut into smaller sections, which called bolts. They
are also debarked. The bolts are immersed in hot water before the peeling process. This process
is called conditioning, and it takes e.g. 12-48 hrs. Conditioning is needed to prepare and soften
the wood before the peeling process. In the peeling process the bolt is placed in a lathe and
rotated with high speed. A blade cuts the wood into a continuous mat, which is only e.g. 0.83.2 mm thick. This process is very rapid, a speed of 300 m/min can be achieved in a modern
peeling line. However, in the process cracks are formed on the underside of the veneer, as the
cylinder shaped wood structure is forced into uniform mat shape. The cracks have an impact on
the properties of plywood, especially strength. After peeling the mat is cut into square sheets
and dried. Before drying, the initial moisture content of a veneer sheet is rather high, over 100
% with some wood species. The target moisture content is below 6 %, mainly because of the
hot pressing process, where high MC causes steam pressure build-up inside the board, which
in turn may break the board. Yet, too low moisture content, or overdrying, causes other quality
problems, brittleness, surface hardeness and surface inactivation. Veneer drying is a challenging
process. It has big major impact on veneer quality, and also costs and emission, as it consumes
most of the energy used in the production of plywood. After drying the veneers are sorted. The
plywood is formed when veneer sheets are glued together in a hot press.
The presented poster discusses veneer dryer development. Current veneer drying technology
is based on convection (heating by hot air). It is an effective drying method, but it could be
improved both from quality and energy efficiency perspective. Various alternative technologies
have been suggested and researched, but not implemented in industry.
Figure 1. More efficient
drying reduces both
costs and emissions.
33
A new a new type of contact drying technology has been developed and patented at Aalto
University. It aims to avoid the problems associated with previous contact dryers. The new
drying technology is based on contact drying technology, but it has several new features. The
hot plate is in direct contact with the top side of the veneer – the press ensures good contact.
The evaporated water condensates below the veneer in the cooling section. The use of vacuum
reduces the boiling point of water, which means that lower temperatures can be used compared
to traditional convective drying (200 °C typical). Because of these features, the system can
operate more efficiently [1]. The new device produces veneer that is very smooth and flat, and
the veneer properties are good l[2]. However, earlier attempts to introduce contact drying
technologies in industrial scale have failed because of problem e.g. in maintenance and the
complexity of the systems. The new system promises improvements in this area. Still, more
research is needed to better understand the properties of veneer and their impact on the drying
process.
References
[1] Holmberg H, Lahti P, Paajanen O, Ahtila P. An experimental study on drying times in a contact
drying of veneer. Kudra Tadeusz (editor): In proceedings of 8th World Congress of Chemical
Engineering, held on August 23-27, 2009, Montreal, Canada.
[2] Lahti P., Paajanen O., Holmberg H., & Kairi M., (2010) Introducing a new method of veneer drying.
Proceedings of the 11th International IUFRO Wood drying conference. Skellefteå, Sweden. January
18-22, 2010
34
Innovative Lightweight Wood-based Panels
Produced in An Integrated Process
Ali Shalbafan, Johannes Welling
University of Hamburg, Department of Wood Science, Mechanical Wood Technology Institute.
Germany.
Background
Lightweight panels have been considered by furniture manufacturers because of its low density,
resource efficiency and strength to weight ratio. Lightweight sandwich panels can compete
with conventional wood based panels while saving 50 percent of the weight. There are two
conventional ways for producing foam core sandwich panels: either assembly by gluing together
of prefabricated layers or injection of liquid foam to form the core between the prefabricated
facings. The lack of simultaneous production of all layers together at one time is obvious in
these methods. Recent technological development presented by Hamburg University (Luedtke
et al. 2008) leads to an innovative one-step process which simplifies the multi-stage process for
production of foam core panels. This integrated process has been derived from a conventional
production line of particleboard.
The three layered mat is formed by using resinated wood particles for the facings and
expandable polystyrene (EPS) for the core layer. The mat is then hot pressed in a one-step
process comprising of three consecutive stages. During the first stage, the mat is hot pressed
with a specific pressure of 3 N/mm2 to form the face layers. The second stage starts with
the opening of the press to the final panel thickness (19 mm) when the temperature of core
materials has reached the level needed for expansion. In the third stage, the stabilization of the
panel is achieved by the internal cooling of the press plates.
Our published and unpublished results show that the lightweight foam core particleboards can
in the future increasingly be used to replace conventional wood-based particleboards in the
furniture industry. With a proper design, structural constructions made of lightweight panels
can result in weight reductions of up to 50 % compared to conventional particleboards, while
still maintaining comparable strengths. Further developments in materials design processes
will lead to even lighter components with strength and stiffness properties that can be optimally
adapted to suit the requirements.
35
The Driving Forces of Development of Forest
Certification in North-Western Russia
Maxim Trishkin
University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences. Finland.
Russia has the largest forest resources in the
world. Forests in Russia cover a total area of
over 800 million hectares. It corresponds to
approximately 50% of land area. Russian’s forest
and forest industry sector have received national
and international attention over the last decades.
Russia plays an important role in the international
forestry sector as the largest exporter of industrial
round wood, second of sawn timber, fifth of
plywood, eighth in pulp.
Illegal logging is considered as one of the main
challenges. According to official governmental
statistics the illegal wood removals are estimated
as 15-25 million m3 annually, when nongovernmental organizations (NGO) estimate as
40-50 million m3. The difference in the estimates of
the uncertainty associated with the legal status of
“illegal logging” as well as the lack of an effective
system to control the forest management
practices in most parts of the country. Therefore
increased attention has to be dedicated to the
implication of sustainable forest management
(SFM) for Russian forest industry companies by a
credible and independent tool.
Figure 1 & 2. Profile of respondents.
There are two major international certification schemes applicable to Russia which provide
a credible guarantee that the product comes from a well-managed forests: Programme for
the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). As
of December 2011, 28 million ha of forest had been certified by FSC scheme, with 171 CoC
certificates holders.
This study explores the driving forces influencing on development of forest certification among
forest industry companies in North-Western Russia. The interviews were carried out in form of
structured questionnaire from September to December 2011, with 35 forest industry companies
operating in North-Western Russia that supply primary and value-added wood products, where
40% represented non-certified companies and 60% had a valid certificate. The interviewed
companies represented 70% of market share in terms of wood consumption in North-Western
part of Russia. This region includes Karelia, Komi, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Leningrad, Novgorod,
Murmansk, Pskov and Kaliningrad. It plays a key role in Russian forest industry sector and has
been well-developed in comparison with the rest of Russia. The forest resources of N-W Russia
are supplied not only to domestic, but also to export markets, mainly in form of round wood.
36
It was found that interviewed forest industry companies have in their wood procurement
area other regions apart North-Western Russia, e.g. Tver and Kirovsk region. The number of
employees was used as an indicator to estimate the size of the company. Thus, five groups were
apparent: very small companies (0-99), small (100-199), medium (200-499), large (500-999) and
very large-sized companies with over 1000 employees. Most of certified companies represent
medium- (n=6), large- (n=6) and very large-sized companies (n=5), when most of non-certified
companies represent very small companies (n=10). It should be noted that most of non-certified
companies (n=12) represented primary product group, when certified companies mainly
representing value-added product (n=18). It was indicated that among certified companies the
industrial end users is the dominated customer type (n=19) while for non-certified companies
the intermediate users is considered as main customer type (n=12). More than half of both
certified and non-certified companies export their wood products to the countries of European
Union, particularly to Finland, Estonia and Germany.
Thus, development of certification in individual companies was initiated by general market
demand; however representatives of certified companies also emphasized the importance
of internal corporate policy. Both groups of respondents identified market demand as a main
driving force influencing on development of forest certification. Insuring the legality of wood
origin, company’s image and competitiveness of wood products were recognized as the most
important benefits associated with forest certification. Absence of mandatory requirements
from authorities and customers appeared to be the largest obstacle among both groups of
respondents, in addition to that the representative of non-certified companies pointed out
economic inaccessibility and low level of preparedness of management as of high importance,
which is mainly associated with absence of quality management system. The results of the
study indicated a general positive attitude; however it was noticed that respondents have
gaps in understanding the principles and limited awareness with regards to forest certification,
especially among non-certified forest industry companies.
The study suggested the need for further research with regards to forest certification in
Russia to increase the awareness of the stakeholders involved into certification process and to
develop a coherent conceptual framework for multi-purpose analysis. The topic may receive
more attention as forest certification could become a part of compulsory procedure due to
enforcement of EU Regulation and as prerequisite for placing wood products on international
market for Russian export-oriented forest industry companies.
Figure 3. The driving
forces influencing
on development of
forest certification
among forest industry
companies in NorthWestern Russia.
37
Socio-Economic Aspects of Climate Change
Mitigation Through Multifunctional Forestry in
Scotland
Saana Tykkä
University of Aberdeen/James Hutton Institute. Scotland.
Introduction
Since the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, climate change has become increasingly important policy
issue. Also, forestry and forest management measures have played an increasing role in
addressing climate change since the Conference of Parties to Kyoto Protocol included them
as eligible policy measures in 2001. However, the extent to which forest practices can enhance
mitigation is mediated by externalities, uncertainties, policy and governance models, and
values and attitudes of different stakeholders.
Because of the wide range of benefits it delivers to different stakeholders, multifunctional
forestry could be more popular in enhancing climate change mitigation measures than forest
management practices with a focus on carbon and/or timber production purely.
Content of the PhD
This PhD aims to seek ways to integrate the ecological, as well as, social and economic
components of sustainability by focusing on public perceptions concerning climate change
mitigation through forestry projects in Scotland. The second part of the PhD has its goal in
researching on the economics of carbon sequestration forestry activities under several policy
scenarios across different locations in Scotland. The PhD work will commence in October 2012.
38
Figure 1. Suggested coupled human-environment systems framework for integrated climate
change research by the Scottish Main Research Providers (Scottish Government).
The Effects of Climate And Decomposer Fungi
on Woody Biomass Degradation And Carbon
Storages in Boreal Scots Pine Forests
Parvathy Venugopal
University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences. Finland.
Introduction
Background Boreal ecosystems, in particular the natural old forests, contain a major fraction of
global terrestrial carbon (Bradshaw et al. 2009); especially in the dead woody biomass (Siitonen
2001), owing to slow fungal decomposition rates. Recent studies have came up with the
conclusion that the carbon stock is continuously accumulated in boreal forest with increasing
structural heterogeneity as the forests grow older due to increase in dead wood biomass stock
(Luyssaert et al. 2008). Thus boreal organic decomposition has the latent to produce feedbacks
between climate and the global carbon cycle.
As the boreal forest holds around 1/3rd of the global vegetation and soil carbon, it will have a
significant impact on the global climate through its effect on radiation balance, decomposition
and the carbon cycle. The previous studies point out that if the global warming exceeds even
by just 1.5 - 2.5oC, it could have serious implications on vegetation changes in the boreal
forest functioning because of its sensitivity to temperature (Olsson 2009). However, not much
systematic studies have been done to assess the impact of the current environmental changes
on the carbon accumulation in boreal forests. There is also a need to detect the principal
ecological mechanisms related to these phenomena (Bradshaw et al. 2009), as they are crucial
to understand the role that boreal forest may have in the mitigation and adaptation to climate
change.
The boreal decomposer fungi species and communities are the major factors affecting the
biomass and carbon storages in these ecosystems. The amount of dead woody biomass is
mainly determined by the decomposer fungi activities (Boddy 2001). As a result, any changes
in the decomposer fungal assemblages will indirectly affect the boreal forest functioning. Fungi
are known to be sensitive to environmental changes such as climate change which influence
the assemblages (including structure) and activities of the boreal wood decomposers. Although
fungi are known to be sensitive to climatic conditions such as temperature and humidity
(Kellomäki et al. 2008), its impact on fungal assemblages and decomposition activities are
quite unclear. In addition to this, habitat changes and forest management are also found to
affect the species richness of the fungal decomposer communities (Lonsdale et al. 2008) that
may in turn affect influence decomposition. Additionally, climate affects the tree growth and
wood properties thereby resulting in indirect substrate quality modification of the fungal
decomposers (Edman et al. 2006). Thus the direct and indirect effects of the predicted climate
change (4°C – 5°C increase in boreal temperature) have the potential to mediate boreal carbon
cycling through its effect on decomposer community and other ecosystem feedbacks, although
this phenomenon is still unclear (Ruckstuhl et al. 2008).
39
Overall thus, three factors seem to be overwhelmingly important in woody biomass
decomposition-climate, wood properties and the diversity of decomposer communities. This
study will focus on these factors and their interactions. The main objective of this particular study
is to develop accurate scientific evidence regarding how the current and future environmental
changes can influence the carbon accumulation in boreal forests through its effect on woody
biomass decomposition as the information is crucial to understand the role that forests may
have in the mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the coming decades.
Major research questions
• What are the consequences of climate and wood quality on fungal decomposition of
coarse woody debris in boreal forests?
• Will the competitive and mutualistic interactions between the fungal species change with
climate and wood quality and their consequences on decomposition process?
• What are the Functional differences of the effect of environment and wood quality
changes on fungal decomposer communities consisting of higher number of species and
those with depauperate fungi?
Materials and methods
Collection and preparation of wood samples
The decomposition study will be carried out on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), one of the
most commonly occurring pine species in Europe, covering more than 20 million ha (Moya and
Tomazello, 2008). The wooden discs of freshly felled trees obtained from two different kinds
of forests, old growth national forests (Kelo trees; Large Pinus trees which have been standing
dead for several centuries after undergoing slow natural death and characterized by slow
decay rate due to slow tree growth (narrow annual rings & dense wood), high resin content
and its drying due to fire scaring, and high heartwood: sapwood ratio (Niemelä et al. 2002)) and
managed forests plantations will be used for the experiment (60-80 years old).
Wooden discs of 10cm height are extracted from the stump of freshly harvested trees at 5±5cm
height from ground level. All discs were stored in a cool room (-200C) until they are ready to be
processed. Test blocks, from both sapwood and heartwood area are extracted from each disc
and are allowed to dry slowly at room temperature and 70% relative humidity until the moisture
content drops down to 15%. The samples will be weighed to note the initial dry weight. The
test blocks were then soaked in reverse osmosis water for five minutes and autoclaved for 15
minutes at 1210C for sterilizing the samples.
Fungal species and microcosm inoculation
40
The wood decaying saprotrophic polypores specific to Scots pine, belonging to decay class I or II
(see Edman et al. 2006): Fomes pinicola, Dichomitus squalens, Antrodia xantha, Gloeophyllum
protractum and Antrodia albobrunnea are chosen for the study. Five fungal strains for each
fungus, chosen based on their geographical origin (different localities, atleast 5 kms removed),
will be used as replicates. The microcosm establishment will be done by collecting fungal fruiting
bodies from the field and culturing using MEA (malt-5%, agar-2%) extract (with and without
antibodies) under aseptic conditions in the laboratory in petri dishes (220 mm in diameter and
20mm in depth) to establish fungal pure cultures as base collection.
DNA extraction and sequencing
The DNA extractions and PCR tests for the identity confirmation of the pure fungal strains will
be carried out using Macherey Nagel-NucleoSpin Tissue kit followed by gene sequencing. For
the PCR, a combination of ITS1 and ITS4 primers will be used which will cover both the ITS1 and
ITS2 regions of fungal DNA for accurate sequencing.
Wood inoculation and environment
A test block will be inoculated in each petri-dish, pre-inoculated (8 days old) with fungal strains.
The inoculated test blocks and control (no fungal inoculation) samples will be then transferred
to climate-controlled chambers (stabilized specific temperature and relative humidity). Specific
temperature and humidity conditions (Low temperature & Low humidity; Low temperature
& High humidity; High temperature & Low humidity; High temperature & High humidity)
simulating future climate change predictions (based on past 30 years Finnish climate data,
Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2009) will be used as climate variables. After the stipulated
decay period, the test block will be taken out and cleaned, weighed and dry conditioned until a
moisture content of 15% was reached.
Mass loss determination
The mass loss of the wood samples exposed to fungal attacks was calculated with respect to
their initial dry weight, conditioned to 15% MC, with an accuracy of 0.0001 g.
X-ray microdensitometry and wood density calculation
Micro-density X-ray measurements (X-ray densitometry) of the decayed test blocks will be
carried out using CERD software and WindendroTM System (Mothe et al.1998). The gray
values, denoting the density values, will be captured and noted on digital radiographs along
their length (usually from pith to bark), and converted to density traces. The densitometry
profiles of the wood samples will be formulated based on Walker and Dood´s method (Walker
& Dobb, 1988) of determination of the mean wood density and the intra-ring wood density
variation. Two complete microdensity profiles will be obtained for each test block: one for the
control sample and one for the sample exposed to the fungi for comparison.
A density-decrease profile calculated by subtracting the profile of the decayed sample from the
profile of the control sample will be drafted. These profiles will then be used to compare mass loss
with density-decrease and to study the kinetics of the fungal attack and its localization within
the wood samples. The density profiles and mass loss of the test blocks exposed to different
fungal cultures and climatic conditions were compared to determine the fungal decomposition
rates under different climate change variables and under different substrate quality.
41
Expected results and significance
The expected results would have serious implications on the three following fields:
Climate change adaptation and mitigation
The patterns and mechanisms of carbon dynamics in ecosystems are crucial to understand
how changing climate will influence ecosystem and species, and how different mitigation and
adaptation actions affect the climate. The role that dead woody biomass on global climate is
poorly understood. In particular, the relationships that occur between biodiversity, dead woody
biomass and carbon and nutrient dynamics are almost completely unexplored. The current
project will provide new information in this area.
Conservation biology and reserve design
Loss of biodiversity remains a major trend despite recent efforts to halt the decline.
Establishment of reserves is one of the most effective ways to save species from extinction.
However, the exact qualitative and habitat requirements of the rare and threatened species are
still quite poorly understood to design the most effective reserve networks. The current project
will provide new information on the importance that external effects (change in tree growth
due to climate change) and species interactions may have on species occurrence patterns.
These are relevant information to design temporally functional reserve networks.
Restoration of Habitats
Whenever ecosystems have lost their characteristic over large areas, habitat and ecosystem
restoration is seen as the main method to facilitate survival of species. Decomposers are
important elements in restoring ecosystems, but detailed information regarding the specific
habitat types which will be most effective to re‐introduce these species are not well-known
(For example, the decomposer fungi which require dead wood). The quality of the wood may
be equally important factor to determine the success of any species. The current project will
provide important information for restoration policies that are widely planned all over the
Europe currently.
42
Reference
Boddy, L. 2001. Fungal community ecology and wood decomposition processes in angiosperms from
standing tree to complete decay of coarse woody debris. Ecological Bulletins 49: 43-56.
Bradshaw, C. J. A., et al. 2009. Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity. Trends in
Ecology & Evolution 24: 541‐548.
Edman, M., et al. 2006. Effects of enhanced tree growth rate on the decay capacities of three
saprotrophic wood fungi. Forest ecology and management 232: 12-18.
Kellomäki, S., et al. 2008. Sensitivity of managed boreal forests in Finland to climate change, with
implications for adaptive management. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 363: 2341–2351.
Lonsdale, D., et al. 2008. Wood decaying fungi in the forest: conservation needs and management
options. European journal of Forest Research 127: 1612-4669.
Luyssaert, S., et al. 2008. Old growth forests as gloal carbon sinks. Nature 455: 213-215.
Mothe F, Duchanois G, Zannier B, Leban JM (1998) Microdensitometric analysis of wood samples: data
computation method used at INRA-ERQB (CERD programme). Ann Sci For. 55(3):301–313.
Moya, Roger & Tomazello Filho, Mario. 2009. Wood density variation and tree ring demarcation in
Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry. Cerne 15(1): 92-100
Niemelä,T., et al. 2002. The Kelo tree, a vanishing substrate of specified wood-inhabiting fungi. Polish
Botanical Journal 47: 91‐101.
Olsson, Roger. 2009. Boreal Forest and Climate change. Air pollution and climate series 23:1-32.
Ruckstuhl, K. E., et al. 2008. Introduction-The boreal forest and global change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.
363: 2243-2247
Siitonen, J. 2001. Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: Fennoscandian
boreal forests as an example. Ecological bulletins 49: 11-41.
Walker, N. K. & Dobb, R. S. 1988.Calculation of wood density variation from X-ray densitometer data.
Wood Fiber and Science 20:35-43.
43
Experienced & Expected Support Needs in Local
Sustainable Energy Action Planning (SEAP)
Whitney Winsor
North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Centre for Natural Resources (Finland) / Nipissing
University, North Bay, ON. Canada.
Introduction
The Covenant of Mayors is the mainstream European movement involving local and regional
authorities who are voluntarily committed to reducing the CO2 emissions below the EU 2020
objectives. Implementation of a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) is a way of reaching
these targets. The objective of this study was to investigate the current support needs and
identify support gaps during each phase of SEAP processes. An EU targeting online survey
was carried out to investigate the specific supporting measures that are in need throughout
local authorities in different phases of SEAP processes. The survey was submitted to the local
authorities currently involved in SEAP processes and 57 replies were received from 17 different
countries.
Results and Suggestions
Supporting services that are in the most need are related
to organizational/financial planning and implementation
activities. There are also significant support needs during the
establishment of baseline emission inventories and action
plan monitoring. Four suggestions have been drawn up:
1. Guidance for stakeholder analyses.
2. Dissemination of tools and methods for baseline
emission inventories.
3. Dissemination of available financing models.
4. Guidelines and tools for monitoring and creating
development cycles.
Figure 1. SEAP Phases of
Survey Respondents
SEAP Adoption Issues
There are ca. 3000 Covenant of Mayors signatories and ca. 750 completed SEAPs. However,
there are significant geographical gaps in SEAP adoption, including much of the northern
periphery and other rural regions.
44
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
WORKSHOP
The objective of the JFNW workshop was to jointly develop new research ideas, projects,
or products and services to support the Green Growth based on Forests. The results of joint
development were compiled to a short research proposal and presented in the morning session
on Friday 25th of May.
Proposal structure included:
Theme description: Description of the theme and the perspective to the theme, which the
proposal represents. The proposal should have been aligning with the main theme of JFNW
“Green Growth Based on Forests: New Wooden Products and Construction”.
Type of activity: Naming, what kind of activity the proposal represents. The proposed activity
could have been for instance a new project, research setting or product /service development.
Title: Providing a clear and self-explanatory title for the activity proposed.
Research or development questions: Providing a maximum of three research or development
questions related to the idea.
Materials and methods: What kind of materials and methods are applicable for the proposed
activity?
Implementation and expected result: Suggesting how the proposal should be implemented.
Elaborating also the final outcome of implementation. What is the added-value of the activity?
Who will benefit from the activity?
The maximum length of the proposal shouldn’t have exceeded 2 pages (template). The best
proposal (Group 5) was rewarded with 6000 euros to be used for future refining of the proposal.
Reward was donated by North Karelia Centre of Expertise.
Expert panel members:
Aki Gröhn Jouni Luoma
Pekka Jeskanen
Timo Pakarinen
Heli Peltola
Erkki Verkasalo
Lauri Hetemäki North Karelia Centre of Expertise
Joensuu Regional Development Company, Josek Ltd.
Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation
North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences
Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA)
European Forest Institute (EFI)
45
Group 1:
Tuomas Nummelin, Olli Paajanen, Maxim Trishkin, Saana Tykkä
Green manufacturing: printing. Sustainable
growth – feasibility for billion euro business
Theme description: Green manufacturing: printing (print-on-demand Wood Plastic Composite
(WPC)) using as a case study the automobile industry
Research /development aim: In 10 years span to develop a growing and billion-dollar business.
In addition, to change from mass production to sustainable and environmentally friendly mass
customisation.
Research question(s) /hypothesis:
• Would it be a new product, a business model, a process, or an organisational model?
• Is 3D (customised) printing cheaper than traditional manufacturing?
• W
hat about the technology? We know that natural fibres as well as bio-based
nanomaterials are extremely strong. 3D-printing exists and it possible to print composite
materials. Fiber composites are used in demanding applications, e.g. in aerospace
industry. But can these technologies be combined and made to work in practice?
• E
nvironmental impact? WPCs can be regarded as relatively environment-friendly
materials. WPC is a durable material, it endures weather variations, its colour does not
fade, and decaying organisms do not cause damage to it. WPCs can be recycled as raw
material or energy, or easily disposed of with household wasteDo we have knowledge?
• Do we have the resources?
• I s there demand and who are the customers? (in 20 years market could be Europe, India,
or Africa.)
Short description of the proposal (including type of activities, material and methods):
WP1 Technical feasibility:
• Literature review and expert interviews
• Estimation of the costs
• Market study
• Technical feasibility
• Printing
• WPC
• Environmental impact
WP2 Business models:
• Identifying stakeholders, investors, partners and suppliers
• Develop suitable business models
46
WP3 Pilot markets:
• Developing the factory and prototype
• Market launch
Time scale of actions (implementation): In total 1o years (please refer to presentation for further
information).
Expected research outcome /practical output: Expected result is to have a 3D-printing WPC
factory that can efficiently print complex and customised products made from high-quality
WPC with a short delivery time to the clients.
Budget and possible funding sources: Estimated budget: total 200 million (10 years, including
research, prototyping and pilot factory).
Technical feasibility (not incl. machinery): 250-500.000 euro; Business models: 600 000 euro;
Pilot markets (including manufacturing chains and production distribution and marketing
costs): 120 million euro.
Possible funders: EU, Finnish government, German government, industrial partners, car
manufacturers, METLA, Aalto-University, Itä-Suomen yliopisto, University of Aberdeen, North
Karelian University, UPM, etc.
Network /possible project partners (stakeholders) /Which organization would be the best to host
this project: EU, Finnish government, German government, industrial partners, wood suppliers,
compound suppliers, car manufacturers, METLA, Aalto-University, Itä-Suomen yliopisto,
University of Aberdeen, North Karelian University, UPM, etc.
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
JFNW participants discussing about the research proposals during the workshop session.
47
Group 2
Elias Hurmekoski, Hiroki Ito, Parvathy Venugopal
Improving marketing of value added forest
products
Background : Although there are a vast amount of value-added product innovations in the forest
sector, the opportunities in the product marketing haven’t been fully realized. Along with the
changing trends in consumer demands, upheaval in media and generation gap, there is a need
for new marketing strategies.
Aim & Scope: The aim is to discover means to promote the export of value added products. The
results of the study will be applied to the Finnish forest sector.
Research questions:
• Are the current marketing strategies in the Finnish forestry sector as efficient as could be?
• Are there more efficient means available?
Methods: We are going to apply structured analogy, i.e. to compare,
• Different sectors of economic activity and,
• Different countries
to the current Finnish marketing practices. More specifically, literature review and Delphi
method will be applied.
Expected outcomes:
1. Clarify the current Finnish forest sector marketing situation
2. Suggest more efficient and effective marketing tools for the Finnish forest sector
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Group 3
Pradipta Halder, Lauri Linkosalmi, Alice Ludvig, Maria Riala
Facilitating sustainable housing – developing
expert services for companies (LAMP)
Theme description: At the moment, the construction market in Europe is quite stagnant, and
this is the case also for wooden construction. There are some signs of market recovery but
they are only slight. Development of sustainable housing might be one way to overcome this
difficult market situation.
Sustainable housing is a multifaceted issue. It includes the ecological, the economic and the
social aspects. In this project, the focus will be on how social aspects interact with the other
aspects. Social sustainability has tended to have a smaller role, and it is difficult to quantify.
This is evidenced for example by green building certificates such as LEED and BREEAM, where
social sustainability is only visible in the aspect of well-being.
The focus of the project will be on multistorey houses and larger residential areas.
Research /development aim: The general aim of this project is to develop expert services,
which will contribute to creation of better living conditions. The expert services will benefit the
companies by providing relevant synthesis information about social sustainability demands,
preferences, and future trends.
Research question(s) /hypothesis:
• Current situation to measure sustainability in construction.
How are the social aspects of sustainability taken into account?
• What are social aspects of sustainability? Trends? Demand? Preferences?
• How can companies respond to the social aspects of sustainability? Providing expert services .
Short description of the proposal (including type of activities, material and methods):
• The first part of the project will comprise a literature review, which will chart how
current situation, e.g. green building certificates, take into account the social aspects
of sustainability. If the literature review shows large gaps in knowledge of requirements
of social sustainability, the information will be supplemented with data collection, for
example by using focus groups or participant observation.
• The next stage of development of expert services will be interviewing construction
companies and housing providers about their knowledge requirements. This will give us
information on the most pertinent information gaps.
• The last stage is the development of efficient expert service to provide information
about social aspects of sustainability to construction sector companies. This will give
them information, which will help them develop more profitable, and more sustainable,
business opportunities.
49
Time scale of actions (implementation): The estimated timescale of the project is two years,
starting in 2013.
Expected research outcome /practical output: The project is expected to improve market
information on sustainable housing, to develop new business models for companies, and
to improve networking among researchers and developers. The project should also create a
stronger sense of community for consumers and improve the flow of information between
different actors.
Budget and possible funding sources: The proposed budget is 600,000 €. In searching for funding,
we will also look at organisations, which support small and medium sized companies (SMEs), as
they might fund a project with company involvement.
Network /possible project partners (stakeholders) /Which organization would be the best to host this
project: The project will be realised on the European level. The partner organisations will probably
be from Austria (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences), Germany (University of
Freiburg), Spain (The Forest Sciences Center of Catalonia), and Russia. The partners could also
include woodworking and construction sector SMEs and building certification organisation.
The final partners will be defined later.
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Group 4 (left) and group 5 putting ideas together for the research proposals.
50
Group 4
Ali Shalbafan, Stuart Thompson
Formaldehyde Free Resin
Theme Description: The acceptable levels of formaldehyde emission from wood panels
have been continuously reduced over the last decades. The driving forces have been the
increased public awareness and consumer demand for non-hazardous products as well as the
corresponding governmental regulations. The recent reclassification of formaldehyde by the
international Agency for Research on Cancer as,”carcinogenic to humans”, has triggered further
concern and reaction by workers and consumer associations,”green organisations, regulatory
authorities and the industry itself. New studies on formaldehyde health effects were initiated
since 2005 in both USA and Europe and corresponding regulatory decisions on reclassification
have been postponed until the results are available.
Research/development Aim: To research alternative methods of reducing formaldehyde
emissions, with the aim of identifying those which are the most efficient and effective.
Research question(s) /hypothesis:
• To find out that what is the best option.
• Doing the experimental tests to guarantee the best option
• Reduce the negative influence of the implemented measures
Short description of the proposal (including type of activities, materials and methods): It is
foreseen that various methods will be tested and analysed, such as: hot stacking, increasing
the storage time after production, formaldehyde-free filler, PF glue, reduce recycled material,
slower production speed, increased press temperature, decreased mat moisture, slower drying,
MUF resin, UF-MDI Hybrid (CL), formaldehyde catchers, decreased molecular ratios.
Time scale of actions: 2013-2016
Expected research outcome/practical output: To identify the most effective and efficient methods
of reducing formaldehyde emissions.
Budget and possible funding sources:
• 6000 €
• North Karelia Centre of Expertise
Network/possible project partners (stakeholders) / Which organisation would be the best to host
this project: Furniture Producers, Panel Producers, Resin Producers etc.
51
Group 5
Lucia Ambrušová, Silvia Blažková, Juhani Marttila and Whitney Winsor
Recognizing Methods for Increasing Wood
Construction in the EU
Theme description: Many countries in Europe, encouraged by EU policies, have set targets to
reduce CO2 emissions and use of non-renewable natural resources. In many cases this has led
to an increased use of wood as an alternative to conventional construction materials such as
concrete or steel. There is also a need for new markets in wood construction industry.
The popularity of wood construction varies a lot between EU countries and is dependent of the
psychological, cultural, social and productional aspects. Especially the attitudes of architects,
developers and construction firms play an important role. For example, in Slovakia the
proportion of wood construction is only 2% (Tlačová správa… 2010).
However, the timber frame share in residential construction has increased dramatically during a
couple of years in several countries. For example, in Germany timber frame share in residential
construction increased dramatically between 2000 and 2002. In Sweden, the multi-storey
housing sector has also had a rapid growth (Jonsson 2009). Thus, fast growth is possible but it is
crucial to recognise the reasons which affect on it.
Research/development aim: The aim of the study is to identify the successful paths in increasing
wood construction in the countries of high share of wood construction and to indentify the
obstacles in countries with the least amount of wood construction.
Following target areas will be investigated:
• Scotland (low forest cover, high wood construction)
• Slovakia (moderate forest cover, low wood construction)
• Sweden and Finland (high forest cover, high wood construction)
The general focus will be in single-family houses and rowhouses. Multi-storey houses are
delimited from the study because they have become general only in some countries as Sweden
and the markets are not so potential in new areas yet.
Research question(s) /hypothesis: The most important research questions are following:
• W
hat are the key factors which have led to success and have increased in wood
construction during 1990’s and 2000’s in the countries with high wood construction (in
Finland, Sweden and Scotland)?
• W
hat are the obstacles for wood construction? Regulations, cultural issues and
economical issues will be studied.
Short description of the proposal (including type of activities, material and methods): The
methods of the study include investigating and analyzing the national wood construction
development programs and their main outcomes. Cultural issues for and against wood
52
construction in Finland, Sweden, Scotland, and Slovakia will be also studied. Literature review
of regulations and attitudes will be executed.
There will be organized a questionnaire and interviews which are directed to architects,
developers, and construction companies.
Time scale of actions (implementation): The duration of the project is 2 years:
• Literature review (5 months)
• Expert surveys & interviews (6 months)
• Analyzing & synthesizing (5 months)
• Demonstration project development plan (8 months).
Expected research outcome /practical output: The result is to identify barriers and form basis
for creating national strategies for supporting wood construction in Slovakia. The results can
be utilized in the other EU countries with a low share of wood construction. Arguments for
marketing wood construction will be also recognized.
As a concrete output, planning of the demonstrational wood construction project in Slovakia
will be executed in cooperation with woodworking industry and construction company. The
results of the research project will be used in the planning of the construction project.
Budget and possible funding sources: 6,000 euros will be used for the application of the project
and composing the project group. The total budget of the project is 500,000 euros. Possible
funding sources are following:
• Seventh Framework Programme (EU)
• Tekes (Finland)
• Other national financiers
Network /possible project partners (stakeholders) /Which organization would be the best to
host this project?: The network consist of the following partners:
• Faculty of Wood Science and Technology at Technical University in Zvolen (Slovakia)
• Slovak Association of Wood Processors (Slovakia)
• Forest Products Research Institute (Scotland)
• Department of Forestry and Wood Technology at Linnæus University (Sweden)
• Metla (Finland)
• Local construction companies.
References
Jonsson, R. 2009. Prospect for timber frame in multi-storey house building in England, France,
Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden. Växjö University. 30 p.
Tlačová správa Zväzu spracovateľov dreva Slovenskej republiky. 2010. http://www.drevari.sk/
clanky3160-tlacova-sprava-zvazu-spracovatelov-dreva-slovenskej-republiky
53
ANNEXES
Joensuu Forestry Networking Week 2012:
Green Growth Based on Forests – New Wooden
Products and Construction
Programme Sunday 20 May
Arrival to Joensuu
Monday 21 May
Metla house (room “Käpy”), Yliopistokatu 6, Joensuu
8:30 – Registration and poster mounting
9:15 – 9:30 Opening
Petri Raivo, President, North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
9:30 – 10:30 Politics to promote green growth
Riitta Myller, Member of Finnish Parliament, Former MEP
10:30 – 11:00 Coffee break
11:00 – 13:15 Keynote session 1: “Drivers for Green Growth”
Chair: Lauri Hetemäki, Head of Programme, Foresight and Information
Unit, European Forest Institute (EFI)
11:10 – 11:55 Long-term trends for the global forest sector
Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing Director, the Research Institute of the
Finnish Economy (ETLA)
11:55 – 12:40 Real potential for changes in growth and use of EU forests
Ulrike Saal, Researcher, University of Hamburg (Germany)
12:40 – 13:00 Discussion
13:00 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 – 16:30 Poster presentations
Chair: Lauri Korhonen, University of Eastern Finland
Max. 5 min presentations (2–3 slides), poster walk with coffee served,
best posters to be rewarded (voting).
19:00
Official welcome dinner
The Regional Council of North Karelia,P ielisjoki castle, Siltakatu 2,
Joensuu. Host: Pekka Huovinen, Manager (Public Relations), The Regional
Council of North Karelia.
54
Tuesday 22 May
9:00 – 12:30 Keynote session 2: “New Trends in Wooden Construction”
Chair: Henrik Heräjärvi, Senior Researcher, Finnish Forest Research
Institute (METLA)
9:10 – 10:15 Selling wood products to green market
Anders Q. Nyrud, Research Manager, Norsk Treteknisk Institutt
(Norway)
10:15 – 10:40 Coffee break
10:40 – 11:05 Critical changes in the forest product markets
Matti Mikkola, SVP, Building Solutions, StoraEnso Wood Products
11:05– 11:30 Experiences in wood construction – learnt lessons for the future
Jarkko Salovaara, Development Manager, Lemminkäinen Ltd. 11:30 – 12:30 Interactive Panel Discussion
Anders Q. Nyrud, Matti Mikkola, Jarkko Salovaara, Ulrike Saal
12:30 – 13:30 Lunch
13:30 – 17:30 Workshop: “Creating a Research and Development Proposal on New Wooden Products and Construction – part 1”
UEF School of Forest Sciences (Room “Bor 101”), Yliopistokatu 7, Joensuu.
Facilitators: Heikki Immonen, Ilari Havukainen, North Karelia University
of Applied Sciences.
Experts present: Ulrike Saal, Anders Nyrud
Tutors: Henrik Heräjärvi, Markus Lier, Tarmo Räty (Metla); Jarmo Renvall,
Lasse Okkonen, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen (NKUAS)
Free evening
Sauna at Metla house, Yliopistokatu 6, Joensuu. (Marcus Lier, Henrik
Heräjärvi)
Wednesday 23 May
Field trip in Southern Savo /Punkaharju region. Host: Janne Häyrynen, North Karelia
University of Applied Sciences
8:00
Departure from Joensuu at the main market square (Siltakatu)
Bus lectures (Professor Erkki Verkasalo, professor Matti Kairi)
ca. 9 – 9:30 Coffee break at Puhos Larix forest
10:30 – 12:00 Laminated veneer lumber factory of Finnforest
Production Manager Jyrki Uimonen
12:15 – 13:00 Punkalive showroom at Lusto (added value with design)
CEO Jukka Rissanen, Product Manager Elisa Mäkelä
13:00 – 14:30 Lunch at Lusto 14:30 – 16:00 The Finnish Forest Museum Lusto (guided tour)
16:00 – 17:30 METLA experimental forest
Customer Manager Martti Venäläinen
55
17:30 – 21:00 Boat trip with a dinner (M/S Velmeri)
Host: Mayor Sami Sulkko, Municipality of Punkaharju
Back to Joensuu ca. 23:00
Thursday 24 May
9:00 – 12:30 Keynote session 3: “Innovative Wood-based Products”
Chair: Kimmo Järvinen, Managing Director, Finnish Wood Research Ltd.
9:10 – 9:50 Big picture & future prospects
(bio products, wood chemical components)
Lars Gädda, Senior Advisor, Forest Cluster 9:50 – 10:30 Future prospects of wood industry
Kimmo Järvinen, Managing Director, Finnish Wood Research Ltd.
10:30 – 11:00 Coffee break
11:00 – 12:30 Case examples
Wood composite structures in musical instruments, Heikki Koivurova,
TONIC (Tonal Innovation Centre)
Green business and ecosystem services in Metsähallitus, Antti Otsamo,
Environment Manager, Metsähallitus
Wooden office building METLA House, Jari Miina, Senior Researcher,
Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) 12:30 – 13:30 Lunch
13:30 – 17:00 Workshop: “Creating a Research and Development Proposal on New Wooden Products and Construction – part 2”
UEF School of Forest Sciences (Room “Bor 101”), Yliopistokatu 7, Joensuu.
Facilitators: Heikki Immonen, Ilari Havukainen, North Karelia University
of Applied Sciences
Experts present: Heli Peltola (UEF), tbc.
Tutors: Henrik Heräjärvi, Markus Lier, Tarmo Räty (Metla); Jarmo Renvall,
Lasse Okkonen, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen (NKUAS)
19:00
Party at Sirkkala
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
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An exhibition related to the JFNW topic ”New Wooden Products and Construction” was presented
during the farewell party on Thursday evening at the NKUAS Sirkkala campus.
Friday 25 May
9:00 – 10:30 Workshop output presentations
Chair: Jarmo Renvall, North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Short research plan presentations (5 min) for a panel of experts  Max. 4
slides, “selling” the proposals to professionals.
Members of the expert panel:
Aki Gröhn, North Karelia Centre of Expertise
Jouni Luoma, Joensuu Regional Development Company, Josek Ltd.
Pekka Jeskanen, Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and
Innovation
Timo PakarineN, North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
Heli Peltola, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), School of Forest
Sciences
Lauri Hetemäki, European Forest Institute (EFI)
Erkki Verkasalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA)
10:30 – 10:50 Closing session
Diplomas, Ulla Asikainen, Director of the Centre for Natural Resources,
NKUAS
10:50 – 11:30 Farewell lunch
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
The best research proposal created during the workshop sessions were awarded with 6 000 euros
on Friday morning session. From the left of the picture, the chair of the expert panel, Mr. Aki Gröhn
from North Karelia Centre of Expertise, and the rewarded participants Whitney Winsor, Silvia
Blažková, Lucia Ambrušová and Juhani Marttila.
57
List of participants (with e-mail address)
Participants
Lucia Ambrušová
Silvia Blažková
Noèmie Grenon Campbell
Anna Dupleix
Pradipta Halder
Tuija Heikkinen
Elias Hurmekoski
Balogun Ibraheem
Hiroki Ito
Charline K. Kamburona-Ngavetene
Robby Kasubika
Mika Kemppainen
Lauri Linkosalmi
Eugene Lopatin
Alice Ludvig
Juhani Marttila
Monga Mzuku
Tuomas Nummelin
Olli Paajanen
Maria Riala
René Robichaud
Johanna Routa
Ali Shalbafan
Stuart Thompson
Mèlissa Tremblay
Maxim Trishkin
Saana Tykkä
Parvathy Venugopal
Whitney Winsor
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[email protected]
[email protected]
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saana.t[email protected]
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[email protected]
Speakers and Chairs (in order of appearance)
Ulla Asikainen
Petri Raivo
Riitta Myller
Lauri Hetemäki
Pekka Ylä-Anttila
Ulrike Saal
Lauri Korhonen
Pekka Huovinen
Henrik Heräjärvi
Anders Q. Nyrud
Matti Mikkola
Jarkko Salovaara
Heikki Immonen
Ilari Havukainen
Janne Häyrynen
Erkki Verkasalo
Matti Kairi
Jyrki Uimonen
Jukka Rissanen
Martti Venäläinen
Sami Sulkko
Kimmo Järvinen
Lars Gädda
Heikki Koivurova
Antti Otsamo
Jari Miina
Jarmo Renvall
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
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[email protected]
[email protected]
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[email protected]
Expert Panel
Aki Gröhn
Jouni Luoma
Pekka Jeskanen
Timo Pakarinen
Heli Peltola
Erkki Verkasalo
Lauri Hetemäki
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
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Organizers
Ulla Asikainen
Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Jarmo Renvall
Lasse Okkonen
Timo Pakarinen
Janne Häyrynen
Ilari Havukainen
Heikki Immonen
Anna-Maija Kontturi
Jari Parviainen
Henrik Heräjärvi
Markus Lier
Tarmo Räty
Risto Päivinen
Lauri Hetemäki
Ulla Vänttinen
Maria Jalavisto
Timo Tokola
Heli Peltola
Lauri Korhonen
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[email protected]
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©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
The registration desk in front of the conference room Käpy in the Metla house.
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Policies to Promote Green Growth
Riitta Myller
Presentation on Monday, 21st of May, Joensuu.
`
IPPC: in order to tackle climate change
`
Ń Reduce CO2 emissions 25-40 %
Ń Maintain earth temperature increase under 2
degrees
Ń Long term goals -80 %
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`
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Smart growth
Ń Education
Ń Research and innovations
Ń Gigital society
Economically, socially and environmentally
sustainable society
Resource efficiency
Sustainable ways for production and
consumption
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20-30 % reduction of CO2 –emissions
20 % energy from renewables
20 % increase in energy efficiency
10 % of all traffic power by bio-fuels
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Focus on researh and innovation
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Innovations – refocusing R&D and innovation policy
on major challenges our society like climate change,
energy and resource efficiency
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EU’s 2020-strategy and it’s climate goals
Multi-annual financial framework (20142020) of the EU
Ń European Regional Development Fund, European
Social Fund and Cohesion Fund
Ń Horizon 2020 strategy to boost EU’s
competitiveness
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More and better jobs by green technology,
energy efficiency and renewable energies
Smart transport and energy infrastructure
61
`
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CO2 targets
Decereasing dependancy of imported energy
(53,9 % at the time)
Scientific studies of European Renewable
Energy Council have proven that 100 % of
renewable is feasible target in 2050
Decreasing use of nuclear power
Ń Unstaible
Ń Problem to relocate nuclear waste
Ń Large goverment subsidies
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Large goverment subsidities needed (EU Funds)
Reduce goverment subsidies from fossil fuels
and steer them more toward rebewables
Phasing out environmentally harmful subsdities
External cost to environment should be included
in energy price
CO2-emissions should be taxed more powerfully
The European Emission Traiding Scheme should
be made more powerful and transparent
In the long run, cost of doing nothing will be
much greater than investments today
If renewables would recieve same financial aid
as fossil fuels, they would be cheaper
Funds could be raised from environmental
taxes, finanancial transaction taxes and
special bonds for green projects
Green policies should be seen as support for
growth, not the opposite
We have the ways to achieve our common goals
but it’s a matter of politics to use them
Bolder invesments to green technology could be
the starting point for new economic growth
In 2011 70 % of new electricity capacity in EU was
from renewable sources
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In order to phase out nuclear energy by 2030
at the latest and to reach the objective of
providing 100 % renewable energy by 2050,
the final energy demand should be reduced
by at least 40 % by 2050 compared to todays
demand.
A binding energy effiency target of 20 %
reduction by 2020 must be introduced.
Green and renewable energy technologies
are amongst most dynamic manufacturing
sectors in Europe
In 2010 industry provided over 500 000 jobs
According to European Commision green
energy sector could create 2.8 million new
jobs if 2020 renewables targets are met
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Long-term Trends for the Global Forest Sector
Pekka Ylä-Anttila
Presentation on Monday, 21st of May, Joensuu.
This talk
•
Shifts in global economy – from “North and West” to “East and
South”
•
China-led industrial growth - Consequences
–
–
•
New global division of labor
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–
•
From first unbundling to ICT-driven second unbundling – from trade in goods to
trade in tasks
Services – the next global growth driver?
Is the global forest sector following the trend?
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–
•
Manufacturing relative prices down
Raw material prices on move too – upwards!
Growth slowing down
Major shifts in geography
Conclusions
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
2
Shifts in Global Economy - from “North and West” to
“East and South”
Manufacturing is growing in Asia – Closing the
circle …
Shares of countries and regions in world GDP *
Shares in global manufacturing, by region 1750–2100, %
70
1980
BKT-osuudet, %
1990
2000
2010
East Asia
60
35
IMF, ETLA
30
50
25
40
20
30
15
20
10
North America
10
5
.. ..
0
Asia
China
* Purchasing power parity
India
Middle
East
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
Africa
Latin
America
US
EU27
Euro area
0
1750
Europe
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2100
IEast = China, Japan, India
North America = US, Canada
Europe = Germany, UK, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland
Source: Rouvinen, Vartia & Ylä-Anttila 2007, (Bairoch 1982, ETLA)
63
Consequences
Chinese-led decline in global manufacturing
prices (-40 % !) - Relative prices of
But it is not only low-cost
manufacturing…
China has also ambitious
plans to become a
knowledge-based economy
manufactured goods (1980=100)
* MUV (manufacturing unit value) relative to the weighted GDP deflator of high income
exporters (1980 = 100)
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
Source: World Bank
First university degrees in natural sciences and
engineering, selected countries: 1998–2006
8
Doctoral degrees in natural sciences and
engineering, selected countries: 1993–2007
China’s AAGR=
19%
(US=2%, DE=0%,
UK=4%)
NOTE: Natural sciences include physical,
biological, earth, atmospheric, ocean,
agricultural, and
computer sciences and mathematics.
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
Source:INSTITUTE
NSF, S&E
Indicators
2010
THE RESEARCH
OF THE
FINNISH ECONOMY
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
Source:INSTITUTE
NSF, S&E
Indicators
2010
THE RESEARCH
OF THE
FINNISH ECONOMY
China and other emerging
economies growing fast
Raw material prices – long waves
Moving to China&India -driven growth in world economy
500
1901-1911
1930-1951
400
=> Global manufacturing
prices declining
…and raw material & energy
prices increasing
1997-
300
200
100
0
1900
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
1962-1977
Metal price cycles
Grilli & Yang –index, 2000 = 100
11
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
Raw material prices – post
war long waves
Nominal and Real Oil Prices
Real_muv
Nominal
2011 price, USCPI
140
BP, IEA, ETLA,
120
Wealth-driven stage of
development in advanced economies
OECD area -driven
growth of
world economy
Automobiles
Tourism
Fridge
Television
PCs
Cell phones
Replacing:
TV
Fridge
automobiles
China and Indiadriven
Growth of global
economy
100
80
60
40
Reconstruction
20
II maailmansota
64
1945
1970
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
2000
0
1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
New Global Division of Labor - Second Unbundling
2nd Unbundling
2nd Unbundling
• 1st Unbundling – industrial revolution Æ
production and consumption geographically
unbundled
• 2nd Unbundling under way – stages of
production or value chains unbundled
• Communications
costs have dropped
• Real-time
communications
• Multinationals as
major actors to
diffuse know-how
internationally
– R&D, design, planning, prototyping,
manufacturing, marketing, maintenance…
– => Specialization in the global economy not by
industries, but more and more by activities or
tasks
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
RESULTS
DRIVERS
16
• ‘Coordination glue’ that
kept job tasks in close
proximity began to loosen.
• Competition has moved
from industry level to the
level of tasks.
• From trade of goods to
trade in tasks.
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
Value chain – smiling to whom?
Global supply chains operate at ever-finer
resolutions in terms of where & when
individual tasks are carried out
Added value
Branding
R&D&I
From the 1st to the 2nd unbundling
Services,
maintenance
High-cost
Marketing
countries
Design
(Richard Baldwin, 2006)
Prototyping, pilot
production
From trading goods to trading tasks
Ramp-up production
(Grossman & Rossi-Hansberg, 2008)
Sales
Distribution
Low-cost
countries
Mass production
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
Pre-production
Production
Post-production
Intangible
Tangible
Intangible
Sources of Growth in Developed and
Developing countries 1980-2009, %
Services – the next global
growth driver?
2,5
2,0
Services are growing fast,
not only in developed
countries
1,5
Services
Industry
1,0
0,5
0,0
Developed
Developing
Source: Ghani, Grover, and Kharas: Can services be the next growth escalator?, VOX 2011
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
20
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
21
65
Is the Global Forest Sector Following the Trend?
Is forest industry different from
other industry sectors?
2nd Unbundling: What Does This
Imply for the Forest Sector?
• Yes and no
• Is forest industry different from other industry
sectors?
– Paper making (production) value chain can not be split
(unbundled) as easily as, e.g, in electronics
• What could the tasks and services be that are
unbundeled, and how are they unbundeled in
different regions?
• But… services, like R&D, software, it, management, finance,
maintenance, etc. can be
• Paper firms may also bundle new services to their existing
products, while unbundling others
– Woodworking industry, value chain, e.g., more
similar to that of electronics or engineering
• In any case, major global relocation of forest-based
industries under way – from ‘North and West’ to
‘East and South’, like in other industries
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
23
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
24
World Production of Paper and
Paperboard, Annual growth %
Paper making: global
growth slowing down, major
shifts in geography
15
10
5
0
1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
-5
-10
-15
-20
Sources: FAO, ETLA
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
25
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
26
Shares of World Paper and
Paperboard Production, by
countries %
Share of World Production of Paper
and Paperboard 1961-2010
Share of World Production, %
45,0
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
15,0
0
10,0
40,0
35,0
30,0
25,0
0
61
85
00
1961
1985
20,0
2010
10
5,0
BRA+CHI+IND
FIN+SWE+CAN+USA
0,0
US
Data source: FAO
China
Japan
Germany
Canada
Finland
Sweden
(BRA = Brazil; CHI = China; IND = India; FIN = Finland; SWE =
Sweden; CAN = Canada; USA = United States of America)
Sources: FAO; ETLA
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
27
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
28
Share of World Production of
Pulpwood 1961-2010
Similar patterns in pulp
wood and sawn wood
production
Share of Word Production, %
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
61
85
BRA+CHI+IND
00
10
FIN+SWE+CAN+USA
Data source: FAO
66
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
29
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
30
Share of World Production of
Sawnwood 1961-2010
Share of World Production, %
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
Traditionally strong forest
industry countries are
loosing ground also in
absolute terms
50
0
61
85
00
FIN+SWE+CAN+USA
10
BRA+CHI+IND
Data source: FAO
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
31
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
32
The Decline in Developed Countries
Production is also Absolute
Total Paper & Paperboard and Sawnwood production in
Finland, Sweden, Canada and USA, 1961-2010
million tons or cubic metres
180
160
Paper and Paperboard
Sawnwood
180
160
140
140
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
61
85
00
10
Data source: FAO
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
33
Conclusions
Concluding remarks I
•
•
Concluding remarks II
•
Major shift from ”north and west to east and south” in global
economy – especially in manufacturing, but increasingly in
services too
– Major drivers: higher income levels, increasing raw material and
energy prices
– => Towards greener growth
Structural change in forest prodcuts production
•
– From traditional forest industry countries to emerging economies
ICT revolution not yet over – on the contrary…
– ICT has only started to change the services sector
– Consumption of electronic media growing fast
– Chinese and South American forest industry companies are becoming more
dominant global players (increasing their share of turnover and production)
•
Overall, services and intangibles are growing in importance
in all industries
Is this an indication of the 2nd unbundling in the global forest
industry sector?
– No definite conclusions on this
– Lack of statistics – or good case studies – on the importance and development
of services (tasks) in forest industry (cf. electronics or engineering industries )
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
34
ELINKEINOELÄMÄN TUTKIMUSLAITOS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE FINNISH ECONOMY
35
67
©PKAMK, Helena Puhakka-Tarvainen
Stora Enso Building and Living
- Rethink Construction
Matti Mikkola
Presentation on Tuesday, 22nd of May, Joensuu.
68
69
70
71
72
North Karelia University of Applied Sciences
ISBN 978-952-275-030-3 (paperback)
ISBN 978-952-275-031-0 (pdf)

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