dating guide to historic artifacts

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dating guide to historic artifacts
DATING GUIDE TO HISTORIC ARTIFACTS
Trina C. Maples
This general dating guide is oriented toward historic materials found in the Ohio Valley region. Although far from
complete it is hoped this will be found to be a useful dating tool for mass produced 191h and 201h century artifacts.
The date of temporal applicability is from ca. 1780 to present.
This dating guide was begun in 1986 as a student
project under Mr. Philip J. DiBlasi (Staff Archaeologist,
Archaeological Survey, University of Louisville) to
facilitate the cataloging of the materials recovered from
then on-going field school excavations at Locust Grove
Plantation in Louisville, Kentucky. It began as a two page
sheet of ceramic and glass dates assembled by Phil DiBlasi
and Arny L. Young. As the university became involved
with additional historic sites in the area, I was
subsequently asked to exl'and this list. Although some
minor changes were made through the next several years,
the next major expansion came when I began working on
late 19th and early 20th century sites for the Kentucky
Archaeological Survey. The last major expansion came
about when Cultural Resources Analyst, Inc. (Lexington,
Kentucky) was "fine tuning" their recently installed
computerized cataloging system. Though far from
complete, it is hoped that this compendium will be of
assistance to regional historical archaeologists. The list
covers a wide variety of artifacts besides the original early
ceramic and bottle dates. It is noted that there are still
serious flaws with the bottle glass dates, especially those
manufacturing changes which occurred during the early
20th century. Since a work of this nature is always "in
progress", additional dating information (and related
references) would be greatly appreciated.
Although the author is solely responsible for mistakes, I
would like to thank those many people who through the
years offered suggestions for improvement. I would
especially like to thank Phil DiBlasi for encouraging this
project, Donald B. Ball for opening up his excellent
library, and Maria Brent who pointed me towards most of
my miscellaneous 20th century sources.
GLASS CONTAINER DATES
**Bottles in
Element
BASE
Cup or post bottom mold seam
Machine made bottles:
Individual Suction
with Owens scar (circular, off center mark on heel)
with V -shaped gob-fed scar
Pontil Marks
rough glass or sand adhering to base
smooth, no marks
smooth, with iron or graphite residue
Rounded bottom (can't stand)
3/4 round base
LIP & CLOSURES
Aluminum shell roll-on cap
Arnerseal cap/lug cap
Applied lip-early
Applied lip-late
Bernadin metal cap
General**
Dates
Reference(s)
1870-1910
Adams et al. 1981:294
1940-P
1904-1940
1917-1940
Miller & Sullivan 1984:25
Miller & Sullivan 1984:93
Miller & Sullivan 1984:93
1810-1870
1855-1913
1840-1880
1860-1913
1900-1913
Newman
Newman
Newman
Newman
Newman
1924-?
1906-?
1820-1875
1875-1915
1885-1930
Berge 1980:43
Berge 1980:42
McKearin & Wilson 1978:216
Davis 1949:154-155
Jones & Sullivan 1985:161
Trina C. Maples Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. , 143 Walton Avenue, Lexington, KY 40508
106
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
13(1998):106-116
1970:70-75
1970:70-75
1970:70-75
1970:70-75
1970:70-75
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
Volume 13
1998
LIP & CLOSURES (cont.) .
Clicking dome cap
Cork
Codd stopper
Crown cap (or pry-off)
ABM- automatic bottle machine (seam goes to top)
Glass stopper
Ground rim (plain top showing abrasion)
Hutchison blob lip
Hutchison stopper
Internal threads
Plastic cap-other than bakelite
Putnam lightning stopper
Seams within 1/4 inch of top
Sheared lip (plain, cylindrical top with no built up lip)
Standardized screw threads
Threaded cap-bakelite
Threaded cap-iron/steel
Threaded cap- non-ferrous metal
WHOLE BOTTLES
Automatic bottle machine (ABM)- Owens ring
Dip mold
Hinge-bottom mold (seam lines on base, across bottom & sides)
Individual suction (ABM)
Panel bottle
3-part mold w/dip body (horizontal seam around widest
shoulder diameter & seams up neck just below the lip)
3-part cup or post bottom mold
Tum mold (horizontal marks on body)- mainly wine bottles
Element
COLOR
Amethyst
"Black" or opaque
Brown (dark amber)
Clear
Flint (lead)
Lime glass
Cobalt blue
Lime green (7 Up, etc.)
Milk glass
Red
Yellow tint
DECORATION
Embossed on glass
Embossed on panels
"Federid Law Prohibits "
"Poison" or skull & cross bones
Enameled label
Etched
de~ign
1930-P
?-1925
1873-1915
1895-P
1903-P
?-1925
1820-1915
1880-1915
1880-1915
1860-1875
1934-P
1882-1915
1880-1913
1810-1840
1919-P
1922-?
1900-P
1900-P
Berge 1980:52
Berge 1980:46
Newman 1970:70-75
Newman 1970:70-75
Miller & Sullivan 1984:85
Jones & Sullivan 1985: 161
Newman 1970:70-75
Newman 1970:70-75
Newman 1970:70-75
McKearin & Wilson 1978:220-221
Meikle 1995:99
Newman 1970:70-75
Newman 1970:780-75
Newman 1970:70-75
Diess 1981:95
Meikle 1995:54
Berge 1980:80
Berge 1980:80
1903-1940
? - 1925
1750-1880
1940-P
ca. 1850-1960
Miller & Sullivan 1984:93
Jones & Sullivan 1985:24-26
Baugher-Perlin 1982:262
Miller & Sullivan 1984:25
Fike 1987:3-5
1821-1870
1870-1910
1870-1927
Baugher-Perlin 1982:263
Adams et. al. 1981 :294
Baugher-Perlin 1982:265
**Bottle color & decoration in general**
Dates
Reference( s)
1880-1914
1815-1885
1860-P
Newman 1970:70-75
Newman 1970:70-75
Fike 1987: 13
1808-1864
1864-P
1890-P
1860-P
1890-P
1840-P
1916-1930
Scoville 1972:21
Scoville 1972:47
Fike 1987: 13
Fike 1987: 13
Fike 1987: 13
Pullin 1986:355
Baugher-Perlin 1982:261
1856-1920
1867-1915
Pullin 1986:355; Fike 1987:5
Newman 1970:70-75
1932-P
Newman 1970:70·75
1870-?
Newman 1970:70-75
Paul & Parmalee 1973:57
Pullin 1986;355
1935-P
1858-P
107
Ohio Valley Histo1·ical Archaeology
Paper label
Volume 13
1850-P
1998
Fike 1987:3-5
**Specialized bottles**
BEER BOTTLES
Embossed
Paper label
1870-1920
1933-P
Baugher-Perlin 1982:271
Baugher-Perlin 1982:271
FRUIT JARS
Colored fruit jars
1820-1940
Ground rim
1820-1915
Groove ring wax sealer
1854- 1920
Ceramic groove ring wax sealer
1811-1845
1910-1940
Lightning-adjustable
1910-P
Lightning-beaded
1877-1930
Lightning-original
Mason beaded neck
1910-P
1858-1915
Mason shoulder seal
1869-1950
Porcelain or milk glass seal with zinc liner/ground rim
1864-?
Rubber ring gasket
1857-?
Screw cap w/out gasket
1890-1920
Shields, floating ribbons, stars and scrolls
1930-1940
Valve mark (non-symmetric indented groove on base)
INKWELLS
1858-1920
Conical
1820-1885
Umbrella
MILK BOTTLES
1880-1935
Circular base, tall
1936-1940
Circular base, squat
1901-1960
Disc cap
1940-1965
Square base, squat
SODA BOTTLES - usually light green or aqua
1915-P
Amount of contents
1912-1986
Crown cap-composition liner
1892-1965
Crown cap-cork liner
1892-P
Crown cap-liner absent
1955-P
Crown cap-plastic liner
Embossed statements found on blob & early crown soda bottles
THISBOTTLEISNEVERSOLD
THIS BOTTLE IS LOANED, BUT NEVER SOLD, RETURN IT
THIS BOTTLE NOT TO BE SOLD
THIS BOTTLE REGISTERED AND NEVER SOLD
LOANED-NEVERSOLD
1905-1920
THIS BOTTLE NEVER SOLD OR ABANDONED
1935-P
Enameled label
1916-1957
Hobbleskirt Coca-Cola bottle
1948-P
Non-returnable bottles
1920-1940
Proprietary (decoratively embossed)
Owens 1997:138
Newman 1970:70-75
Toulouse 1969:414
Toulouse 1969:415
Toulouse 1969:411
Toulouse 1969:411
Toulouse 1969:405
Toulouse 1969:19
Toulouse 1969:106-107
Toulouse 1969:499
Toulouse 1969:429
Toulouse 1969:399
Toulouse 1969:392
Baugher-Perlin 1982:266
Baugher-Perlin 1982:272
Baugher-Perlin 1982:272
Baugher-Perlin 1982:275
Baugher-Perlin 1982:275
Jones & Sullivan 1985: 161
Baugher-Perlin 1982:275
Paul & Parmalee 1973:25
IMACS 1990:472
IMACS 1990:472
IMACS 1990:472
IMACS 1990:472
Paul & Parmalee 1973 :25
Paul & Parmalee 1973 :28
Johnson 1973 :37-37, 56
Pittman 1983
Paul & Parmalee 1973:21, 25
**Miscellaneous glass artifacts**
Crimping machine for pie crust edge
(i e., oil lamp chimneys)
Depression Glass
Electrical insulators w/intemal threads
Pumiturc knobs (US &fass press patent)
108
1877-P
1925-1940
1865-P
1825-P
Pullin 1986:356
Florence 1995
Pittman 1983
Pullin 1986;355
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
Machine made light bulbs
Multiple mold for tumblers
Lacy pattern
Press Mold
Volume 13
**Miscellaneous glass artifacts (cont.)**
1917-P
1912-P
1825-1915
1825-P
1998
Pullin 1986:357
Pullin 1986:357
Husfloen 1992:9-28
Husfloen 1992
CERAMIC TYPES AND DATES
BLACK BASALT
CREAMWARE:
Annular banded, swirl, mocha
Undecorated
IRONSTONE:
Plain-classic (thick bodied)
Plain-thinner, lighter body
Spatter/sponge
Stamped/cut sponge
1768-1820
Prisant 1977:136
Godden 1965 :xix
1780-1815
1762-1820
South 1977:212
South 1977:212
1840-1885
1880-P
1850-1865
1845-1870
1880-1900
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:122
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:124
Greaser & Greaser 1973 : 101-110
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:161162
Majewski & O 'Brien 1987
1776-P
Prisant 1977: 137
1790-1830
1795-1830
1780-1830
1780-1830
1795-1830
1800-1830
1795-1830
1780-1830
Smith 1983:171
Smith 1983:171
South 1977:212
Smith 1983 : 171
Smith 1983: 171
Lofstrom 1982
Smith 1983 :171
South 1977:212
1800-1830
1880-?
1880-?
18551800-1835
?-1880
1760-1860
1915-P
1750-1870
South 1977:212
Majewski & O'Brien 1987: 128
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:128
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:153
Noel Hume 1970:262
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:128
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:142
Scoville 1972:338
Ketchum 1983 :151
Tealeaf luster motif
JASPERWARE: (blue, green, lilac, yellow, gray, black &
chocolate brown with white bas-relief)
PEARLWARE:
Annular banded of swirl
Annular mocha
Edge decorated
Handpainted (blue floral)
Handpainted (polychrome)
Luster
Transfer printed
Undecorated
PORCELAIN:
Canton (relatively thick porcelain w/blue Chinese motif)
Decal
Decal & painted
Gilt
Handpainted: monochrome
Over glaze decoration (handpainted & decal, some w/gilt)
Transfer print
PYRO-CERAMIC (Corelle):
REDWARE:
SEMI-PORCELAIN:
Decal
Gilt
Plain
STONEWARE:
Albany slip (black or dark brown)
Albany & Bristol slip (on same vessel)
Alkaline glaze
Bristol slip (white or off-white)
Brush decorated (usually cobalt)
1901-1950
1800-1940
1880-P
Adams 1980:357
Majewski & O'Brien 1987:153
Worthy 1982:337
1830-1925
1890-1925
1820-1925
1880-1925
1850-1880
Impre~~ed
1830-1890
Incim:id
1830-1845
Raycraft & Raycraft
Raycraft & Raycraft
Ketchum 1991:9
Raycraft & Raycraft
Ketchum 1991 :6
Ketchum 1991 :4
Raycraft & Raycraft
1990: 10
1990:5
1990:6
1990:7
109
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
STONEWARE (cont.)
Molded body
Salt glaze
Slip cup decorated
Stenciled
WHITEWARE:
Annular banded, swirl, mocha
Decal
Edge decorated
Flow blue
Gilt
Handpainted (blue floral)
Handpainted (polychrome)
Sponge decorated (spatterware)
Stamped
Transfer print
Blue
Colors
Multicolor
Undecorated
YELLOW ARE:
Annular banded, mocha
Rockingham
Undecorated
ENGLISH TRADE MARKS:
Diamond shaped registration mark
"England" added to mark
"Ltd." as part of mark
"Made in.... " as part of mark
Mark with Royal Arms symbol
"Royal" as part of mark
"Trade Mark" as part of mark
Volume 13
1998
1850-1925
1800-1925
1830-1880
1870-1925
Raycraft & Raycraft 1990: 9
Raycraft & Raycraft 1990:5
Raycraft & Raycraft 1990:7
Raycraft & Raycraft 1990:7
1830-1870
1901-1950
1830-1860
1840-1865
1855-1940
1830-1870
1830-1870
1830-1870
1850-1870
Smith 1983:171
Adams 1980:357
Price 1979:31
Price 1979:31
Majewski & O ' Brien 1987:153
Price 1979:31
Price 1979:31
Smith 1983: 171
Price 1979:31
1820-1860
1828-1860
1840-1860
1820-1890
Majewski & O'Brien
Majewski & O'Brien
Majewski & O'Brien
Majewski & O'Brien
Smith 1983:119
1830-1930
1840-1900
1830-1930
Ketchum 1971:11 & 12
Barret 1964
Ketchum 1971:11, 12
1843-P
1891-P
1880-P
ca. 1900
ca. 1800
1850-P
1875-P
Godden 1964:12
Godden 1964: 11
Godden 1964: 11
Godden 1964: 11
Godden 1964: 11
Godden 1964: 11
Godden 1964:11
1930-1950
1907-1935
Lusbomb 1992:3-4
Fink & Ditzler 1993:63
1726-1865
Faulkner 1984:150
1837-1865
1800-1865
1750-1865
1800-1865
1871-1940
1780-1900
1895-1940
1840-P
South 1964:115, 124
Faulkner 1984:143
South 1964:115, 121
Olsen 1963:551 & 552
South 1964:115 & 121
Meikle 199:10-29
Fink & Ditzler 1993 :23
Fink & Ditzler 1993 :56
Luscomb 1992:80
1851- 1900
Luscomb 1992: 170-171
1987:142
1987:142
1987:142
1987:119;
NON-MILITARY BUTTONS
ALUMINUM:
BAKELITE:
BONE:
Disc w/one central hole
Domed w/engraved design, brass eye set into brass
plug (cuff links)
Domed w/one large center hole
5 holes w/in depressed center
4 holes, domed back
CELLULOID:
CUT STEEL:
FRESHWATER "PEARL" SHELL
GLASS:
HA.RD RllBBll'.R:
Black, gray, red, or tan (plain or decorated crown)
•patent by Goodyear 1851
110
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
HORN:
Horn-tip w/vertical hole or shank
IRON:
Domed 3 piece w/cloth covering
4 hole, 3 piece, front depressed, crimped over thin back
disk, center of wood or fiber
JET (or black glass):
LUCITE:
PLASTIC (modern):
PORCELAIN:
Calico- transfer print w/geometric or flower design
Painted
Plain
YELLOW METAL: (brass, copper, bronze, or combination)
Brass (squirrels, eagles, deer, baskets, flowers, anchors,
game animals, & hunters)
Cast curved disk & shank ( 1 piece)
Disk w/restrike anvil seam, soldered eye
Disk w/soldered eye
Makers mark
Metal Picture (identifiable myths, fables, nursery rhymes,
operas, etc.)
Stamped brass w/4 holes in depressed center
Studs-disk on either side of post
VEGETABLE IVORY: (made from Corozo nut; cut
geometric design, drilled hole in shank
WHITE METAL:
Cast w/mold seam & plug, soldered iron eye
Cast 1 piece w/4 holes
Volume 13
1998
1870-1890
Brown n.d.: 86-87
1837-1865
South 1964:115 & 122
1800-1865
1861-1900
1935-P
1940-P
South 1964:115, 121
Fink & Ditzler 1993:34
Fink & Ditzler 1993 :64
Meikle 1995:82-95
1840-1860
1900-1920
1840-1920
Luscomb 1992: 31
Luscomb 1992:156-158
Luscomb 1992:156-158
1820-1870
1700-1765
1812-1820
1785-1800
1800-P
Fink & Ditzler 1993:23
Olsen 1963:552
Olsen 1963:552
Olsen 1963:552
Orser 1981:83
1880-1900
1837-1865
1890-1920
Fink & Ditzler 1993:29
South 1964:115, 124
Luscomb 1992:191
1855-1940
Fink & Ditzler 1993:57
1760-1790
1800-1860
Olsen 1963:552
Olsen 1963:552
1910-?
Meikle 1995:64
1850-1900
1850-1900
1800-1900
1850-1900
1800-1900
1790-1875
1800-1900
Lenick 1970:170-177
Lenick 1970:176-177
Lenick 1970:175
Lenick 1970:175
Lenick 1970:175
Lenick 1970:175
Lenick 1970:175
1840-1900
1840-1900
1840-1900
1780-1830
1840-1900
1800-1840
Lenick 1970:178
Lenick 1970: 177-178
Lenick 1970:176
Lenick 1970:177
Lenick 1970:177-178
Lenick 1970:176
1818-1928
Baumann 1991:25-27
PIPES
BAKELITE
BOWL MOLDED WITH LONG STEM:
Commemorative - historic event
barrel bowl
base of bowl narrows at base w/spur
Incised bowl
Makers mark stamped in indelible ink
Number on stem
Oak leaves on side of bowl
Place of manufacture/full name of manufacturer
STUB STEM:
Glazed buff or brick colored
Gray clay w/molded ribs
Molded clay (brown; kaolin; red)
Narrow base w/spur, vertical geometric design
Red clay w/molded ribs
White bowl w/cross hatching, narrow base w/spur
MARBLES
EARTHENWARE (American) - common clay
111
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
Volume 13
1998
MARBLES (Cont.)
GLASS
1846-1930
1902-P
1780-1915
Baumann 1991:47-49
Gartley & Carskadden 1987:124
Baumann 1991:13-18
1840-1914
1840-1914
Gartley & Carskadden 1987:118
Gartley & Carskadden 1987:118
1780-1850
1850-1910
Gartley & Carskadden 1987: 116
Gartley & Carskadden 1987: 117
1850-1910
Gartley & Carskadden 1987: 117
1780-1850
Gartley & Carskadden 1987: 116
1890-1910
Gartley & Carskadden 1987:117
1929-1914
Baumann 1991 :29-30;
Gartley & Carskadden 1990:55-69
1869-1925
1907-?
Coleman et al. 1968:110
Coleman et al. 1968:173
1860-1917
1840-1917
1851-P
Coleman et al. 1968:74-78
Coleman et al. 1968:118-119
Coleman et al. 1968:421
1856-ca. 1870
1822-P
1857-P
1880-P
1963-P
Secretary of War 1856
NRA 1989:38
Ball 1997a:l21
Ball 1997b:l32
Ball 1997b: 133
handwroughl
1492-1850
Nelson 1968
machine cm
1790-1880
Smith 1975:5-7
Hand made (German) - pontil marks on opposite ends
Machine made (American)
LIMESTONE (German)
PORCELAIN or CHINAS (German)
Glazed; hand-painted
Unglazed; hand-painted
Common designs:
- bull's eye
- checkered pattern
- daisy wheel
- leaves
- red flowers and berries
- single set of parallel lines around circumference
w/daisy wheel, flowers, or spirals on each
hemisphere or plain hemisphere
REFINED EARTHENWARE (German)
Agate - white & brown banded
Jaspers - banded shades of light and dark clay
Lined crockery - white or gray w/fine swirling veins of
blue, gray or green
Mottled agate - white w/rounded inclusions of brown
or blue clay
Pipe clay - chalky white texture w/painted parallel
line of various colors encircling circumference
STONEWARE (German & American)
mottled blue or brown glaze
DOLLS
Celluloid
Composition (glue or wood pulp mixture)
Porcelain
Bisque (unglazed, often handpainted)
China (clear glaze, sometimes painted or tinted)
Rubber (hard & soft)
ARMS & MUNITIONS
Minie ball
Percussion cap
Rimfire cartridge
Shotgun shell-paper
Shotgun shell-plastic
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Nails:
112
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
Nails (cont.)
wire
Safety glass
Vinyl flooring
Volume 13
1998
1880-P
1891-P
1959-P
Nelson 1968
Lorrain 1968:44
Meikle 1995:187
Battery-carbon cell
1835-
Battery-carbon electrode
1880-
Battery-wet element
1890-
Insulator-bakelite
Insulator-ceramic
Insulator-glass
Insulator-hard rubber
Wire- vinyl covered
1909-?
1892-?
1844-?
1867-?
1950-P
New International Encyclopedia
1917:231
New International Encyclopedia
1917:231
New International Encyclopedia
1917:231
Meikle 1995:33
Berge 1980:156
Berge 1980: 154
Berge 1980:155
Meikle 1995:187
1967-P
1892-P
1874-P
Busch 1981:102
Lifshey 1973:156-157
Turner 1969:5-6
1959-P
1935-1955
1935-P
1965-1985
1953-P
1983-P
1935-1960
1955-1975
1965-P
Busch 1981:100
Busch 1981:101
Busch 1981: 100
Adams et. al. 1981:365;
Busch 1981:101
Busch 1981:101; Pittman 1983
Can Mfg. Institute 1990
Bush 1981:100-101
Bush 1981:101
Bush 1981:101
1898-P
1839-1904
1895-P
1839-1885
1847-1885
1904-P
1900-P
1847-P
18601916-P
1925-P
Pittman 1983
Busch 1981:96; Rock 1984:101
Rock 1984:101
Busch 1981:96
Busch 1981:96
Busch 1981:103; Rock 1984:101
Berge 1980:80
Rock 1984:101
Lifshey 1973:151-153
Berge 1985 :265
Lifshey 1973 : 156
1907-P
1371-1')58
1958-P
1851-P
1951-P
Meikle 1995:33
Meikle 199.5:11-29
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS
TIN CANS, PANS and MISCELLANEOUS ARTIFACTS
METAL:
Aerosol can
Aluminum cookware
Barbed wire
Canned beverages:
aluminum
cone top beer can
flat top beer can
ring-pull tab
soft drinks
stay-tab
steel
steel & aluminum
tin free steel
Canned food:
crimped top tin can
hole-in-cap tin can
key-wind can opening
lap seams
laps seams-flanged
sanitary double seam can
screw cap
stamped can ends (i.e. canned milk)
Enameled iron
Stainless steel
Stainless steel cookware
SYNTHETIC:
Bitkelite plastic (black & brown)
C~lluloid plastic (While. pink & tunoisesllell)
Disposable ball-point pen
Hitrd rubber (buttons, combs, etc.)
Plastic-melamine (Melmac)
Pittman 1983
Pittman 1983
Meikle 1995:187
113
Ohio Valley Historical Archaeology
SYNTHETIC (cont.)
Plastic medicine bottles
Plastic milk bottles
Pyralin plastic (toothbrushes, combs, etc.)
Styrofoam cups
REFERENCES
Adams, William H. (editor)
1980 Waverly Plantation: Ethnoarchaeology ofa
Tenant Farming Community. Resource Analysts,
Inc., Bloomington, Indiana.
Adams, William H., Steven D . Smith, David F. Barton,
Timothy B. Riordan, and Steven Poyser
1981 Bay Springs Mill: Historical Archaeology of a
Rural Mississippi Cotton Milling Community.
Resource Analysts, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana.
Ball, Donald B.
1997a An Introduction to Metallic Cartridge Case
Terminology, Identification, and Headstamps. Ohio
Valley Historical Archaeology 12: 112-129
l 997b Types, Headstamps, and Chronology of
Winchester Shotgun Shells 1877-1973. Ohio Valley
Historical Archaeology 12: 130-140
Barret, Richard Carter
1964 How to Jdentijj; Bennington Pottery. The
Stephen Greene Press, Battleboro, Vermont.
Baugher-Perlin, Sherene
1982 Analyzing Glass Bottles for Chronology,
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Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process
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