Antioxidant, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Composition of

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Antioxidant, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Composition of
Antioxidant, nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of
Garcinia kola and Chrysopyllum albidum from rainforest
ecosystem of Ondo State, Nigeria
Jonathan C. Onyekwelu1, Olufunmilayo Oyewale1, Bernd
Stimm2, Reinhard Mosandl2
1
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University
of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria.
2Institute
of Silviculture, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, HansCarl-von- Carlowitz-Platz 2, D- 85354 Freising, Germany
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Objective
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
Recommendations
Introduction
• Tropical rainforests are the most species rich and diverse terrestrial ecosystems
• They account for only 7% of the earth’s dry surface area but accommodate 70%
of animal and plant species in world ecosystems
•
They contains many edible fruit tree species, which have been supplying fruits for
decades.
Introduction
Fruit
Irvingia gabonensis
(African Bush Mango)
Seed Kernel
Introduction Contd…
Fruit head
Seed
Treculia africana
(African Bread fruit)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit
Seed
Chrysophyllum albidum
(African Star apple)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit
Seed
Garcinia kola
(Bitter kola)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit
Seed
Dacryodes edulis
(African bush butter)
Introduction Contd…
Seed
Fermented Seed kernel
Pentaclethra macrophylla
(African Oil Bean Seed )
Introduction Contd…
Fruit pod
Fermented Seed
Parkia biglobosa
(African locust bean)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit
Ackee meal
Fruit with seed
Blighia sapida (Ackee)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit pod and seed
Leaves and flower
Moringa oleifera
(Tree of life)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit/Seeds
Canarium odontophyllum
(Dabai)
Introduction Contd…
Fruit head
Annona muricata
(Soursop Fruit)
Introduction
These edible forest fruits have immense




social
economic,
nutritional and
cultural importance, especially to rural
dwellers.
They serve as alternative sources of:
 medicine,
 income, and
 food (especially during the “hungry season”,
when farm crops are planted)
 thus they contribute to food security
and livelihood sustainability.
Introduction Contd…
However, the continuous supply of these forest fruits is
threatened by deforestation and other anthropogenic forces.
Introduction Contd…
Other challenges to the continuous supply of these fruits
includes:





threat of extinction of mother trees,
old age of mother trees,
lack of domestication and conservation measures,
lack of appropriate storage and post-harvest technology
lack of preservation methods, etc
Introduction Contd…
Chrysophyllum albidum (Star apple)
and Garcinia kola (bitter kola) are
among the widely consumed forest fruit
species.
 They are widely distributed from west
Africa through central to east Africa
(Keay, 1989).
 They are consumed as food or snack
and thus serve as a delicacy and
alternative source of food
Introduction
The fleshy pulp of C. albidum fruits
contains:
 high amount of ascorbic acid (higher
than those of orange and guava)
 vitamins,
 irons, flavours to diets.
 tannins, flavanoids terpenoids, proteins,
carbohydrates and resins
 The fruit pulp is suitable for jams and
jellies
 Also, oil extracted from the seed is used
for soap making
Introduction Contd…
Garcinia kola seeds are chewed and
used for traditional ceremonies.
 The seeds are also used in folk
medicines and in many herbal
formulations
 The seeds have potential therapeutic
benefits due largely to the activity of
flavonoid and other bioactive
compounds
 G. kola has potential utilization as hop
substitutes in brewing operations
Objective
To investigate the nutritional , antinutritional and antioxidant composition
of G. kola and C. albidum fruits.
Materials and Methods
Fruit Collection
4°30 '
5°00 '
5°30 '
6°00 '
6
N
Akoko North W est
Akoko North East
7°30 '
Akoko So uth W est
Ifedore
7°30 '
Akoko South East
Akure North
Ile O luji/Okeig bo
Ose
Akure Sou th
Ondo State Vegetational Zones.
Derive d Savanna
Mangrove/Freshw ater s wamp
Rainfores t
Owo
Ondo East
Ondo W est
Idanre
7°00 '
7°00 '
Odigbo
Okitipupa
Irele
6°30 '
6°30 '
Ilaje
Ese Odo
6
6°00
'
6°006'
4°30 '
5°00 '
70
6
6°00 '
5°30 '
0
70
C. albidum and
G. kola fruits were
collected from
agroforestry farms
in the rainforest
ecosystem of Ondo
State, Nigeria
ecosystem
140 Kilometers
Materials and Methods Contd…
Chemical Analyses
Prior to chemical analyses,
C. albidum fruits were opened, the pulp and seeds
extracted, washed with distilled water and dried.
G. Kola fruit pods were split open and the seed
extracted, washed with distilled water and dried.
1.Proximate chemical composition
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
moisture content,
ash content,
fat,
crude fibre,
carbohydrate,
crude protein
AOAC (2005)
methods.
Materials and Methods Contd…
Chemical Analyses
2.
Anti-nutrients
Compositions :
a. Phytate content: determined following Marfo et al.
(1990) method.
b. Oxalate content: determined by titrating against boric
acid solution according to AOAC (2005) method.
c. Tannin contents: estimated by Vanillin-HCl method of
Price et al. (1978).
d. Saponin content: determined using the method of Birk
et al. (1963) as modified.
e. Phytin phosphorus content: determined using the
method of Wheeler and Ferrel (1971).
Materials and Methods Contd…
Chemical Analyses
3. Antioxidants Composition
a. Total phenolic content: determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay
using gallic acid as standard (Enujiugha. 2010).
b. The total flavonoid content: determined using colorimetric
method (Heimler et al., 2005)
c. Vitamin C content: determined using the titration method of
AOAC (2005).
d. DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl–2 picrylhydrazyl): were measured in
terms of hydrogen donation or radical scavenging activity
using the stable radical DPPH method as modified by
Sanchez-Moreno et al. (1998).
Results: Nutritional Compositions
Table 1: Nutritional composition of the fruit and seed parts of C. albidum and G. kola
Fruit Fruit/seed
C. albidum
spp
part
Ash (%)
Moisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%)
Fibre (%)
CHO (%)
Seed kernel 1.66±0.01a 78.3±0.80a 2.68±0.18a 0.71±0.01a 1.94±0.01a 14.71±0.06a
Fruit Pulp
Seed kernel
G. Kola
Proximate composition
1.53±0.02b 76.03±0.05a 3.45±0.33a 1.65±0.04b 16.58±0.01b 1.1±0.05b
0.33±0.03a 71.99±0.00a 1.74±0.00b 0.95±0.12b 3.22±0.19c 21.79±0.36b
fruit pulp
0.26±0.06a 92.62±1.36c 1.00±0.18a 0.38±0.08a 0.53±0.09a 5.81±1.54a
Fruit pod
0.81±0.00b 87.68±0.19b 1.68±0.03b 0.83±0.03b 2.23±0.08b 7.60±1.02a
Each value is a mean of three replicates ± standard error. Means within the same column
followed by the same letter are not significantly different (p≥0.05)
Results: Anti-Nutritional Compositions
Table 2: Anti-nutritional composition of the fruit and seed parts of C. albidum and G. kola
C. albidum
Anti-nutrients
G. kola
Fruit pulp
Seed kernel
Seed kernel Fruit pulp Fruit pod
Tannin (mg/100g)
0.16
0.59
0.02
0.05
0.04
Saponin (mg/100g)
0.09
0.06
7.31
5.12
9.06
Alkaloid (mg/100g)
0.05
0.11
1.39
1.00
1.50
Phytate (mg/g)
2.75
2.29
2.47
1.64
1.64
Phytin phosphorus (mg/g)
0.64
0.65
0.69
0.46
0.46
Oxalate (mg/g)
0.89
1.01
1.26
0.31
0.18
Results: Antioxidant compositions
Table 3: Antioxidant composition of the fruit and seed parts of C. albidum and G. kola
C. albidum
Antioxidant
Total phenolic
content (mg/g)
Total flavonoid
(mg/g)
Vitamin C
(mg/g)
DPPH (1, 1diphenyl picaryl
hydrazyl) (%)
G. kola
Fruit pulp Seed kernel Fruit skin
Seed kernel
Fruit pulp
Fruit pod
10.7±2.6a 14.2±3.0b
17.1±3.1b
21.08±0.21b 9.94±0.83a
9.22±0.02a
0.60±0.4b
0.60±0.3b
0.30±0.2a
0.79±0.18b
1.15±0.35b
0.37±0.11a
0.50±0.1a 0.70±0.2a
0.80±0.4a
0.69±0.00a
1.25±0.00b
0.69±0.00a
50.4±12.1a 41.2±31.4a 46.6±25.8a
54.59±5.05c
26.28±20.5a 41.84±24.5b
Each value is a mean of three replicates ± standard error. Means within the same row followed
by the same letter are not significantly different (p≥0.05)
Discussion
 The fast deterioration rate of C. albidum fruit pulp could be due to its
high moisture content, which encourages microbial growth and enzymatic
reaction
 While C. albidum fruit pulp is a better source of protein, fibre and fat,
the seed kernel is a better source of ash and carbohydrate.
 The low fat contents of C. albidum and G. kola indicates that they can
be used as part of weight reducing diet.
 Dietary fibre is important for reducing cholesterol levels in the body to
minimize risks of cardiovascular diseases caused by high plasma
cholesterol. Thus C. albidum fruit pulp and G. kola seed kernel are
important in this regard.
Discussion contd…
 The presence of toxic substances otherwise known as anti-nutritional factors
is one of the major drawbacks limiting the direct use of some fruits.
 The composition of these anti-nutrients such phytate, tannin, saponin,
alkaloid and flavonoid in C. albidum and G. kola seed kernel and fruit pulp
are low.
 It has been established that only high content of these anti-nutrients prevent
the absorption of minerals like, iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium and
amino acid, which are essential for metabolism of the body
 High content of anti-nutrients would also affect homeostasis of zinc and
iron, inhibit enzymatic digestion of proteins by forming complexes with
large quantities of protein and would therefore be toxic to the body
Discussion contd…
 Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.
Oxidation of other molecules can produce free radicals.
 Free radicals are unstable molecules that essentially feed on other
healthy molecules in order to survive
 Free radicals can spread and could lead to stroke, heart attack, arthritis,
vision problems, Parkinson's disease, cancer, etc.
 Antioxidants are essential for human health. Dietary antioxidants play
important role in controlling oxidative stress
 Thus, supplementing natural antioxidants with a balanced diet
containing enough antioxidants could be most effective in protecting
against various oxidative stressors
Discussion contd…
 The antioxidant contents of the edible portions of C. albidum (fruit pulp)
and G. kola (seed kernel) fruits are high.
 The inedible parts of the fruits with high phenolic content (e.g. C.
albidum seed kernel and fruits skin) could be used as source phenols.
 DPPH values show that antioxidant activity in all parts of the fruits of
both species is high (except G.kola fruit pulp). Thus, the DPPH content
can be extracted and used as food supplement.
 The high composition of antioxidants in G. kola seed kernel and C.
albidum fruit pulp suggests that they can be good sources of natural
antioxidant, thus they can be used as supplement in food manufacturing
Conclusions
• C. albidum and G. kola fruit contain essential
nutrients and anti-oxidants necessary for good
functioning of human body
• Their anti-nutritional compositions are not high,
thus the consumption of the fruits is not
detrimental to human health
Recommendations
• The consumption of these G. kola and C. albidum
as well as other forest fruits species should be
promoted
• Measure to regenerate the species should be put in
place to ensure increased productivity and
sustainability of the products.
• Efforts should be made towards their domestication
Acknowledgement
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH). Bonn,
Germany
Acknowledgement
Thanks for your
attention
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www.futa.edu.ng
www.futa-forestry.org

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