a guide to lesser known tropical timber species

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a guide to lesser known tropical timber species
GLOBAL
FOREST
&TRADE
NETWORK
A GUIDE TO LESSER KNOWN TROPICAL TIMBER SPECIES
JULY 2013
1
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WWF/GFTN GUIDE TO LESSER KNOWN TROPICAL TIMBER SPECIES
BACKGROUND:
BACKGROUND:
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DISCLAIMER:
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USING THE GUIDE
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REFERENCES...
R:$!"#$6#[email protected]$83+4)$,6$1*%66,/,#@$%6$8#&/$,*#*:?$S#3#$'+4$1%.$6#%31"$/+3$
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ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
WINDOW
FRAMES
ENGINEERING & DECKING
CONSTRUCTION
GFTN CONTACT INFORMATION...
WINDOW
FRAMES
VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
DECKING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
AFRICAN CANARIUM (Canarium schweinfurthii)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
!",6$84,@#$0%[email protected]#&#*+)#@$5'$/+32#3$ZZFb\[email protected],.%-+3;$`%2#6$S+3.#?$>)#1,%*$-"%.B6$8+#6$-+$-"#$ZZFb\F!U$1+**#%84#6$0"+$64))+3-#@$-",6$84,@#;$,.$)%3-,14*%3$<*/3#@[email protected],84#C;$
<*#A%[email protected]%$k%2+3%;$\,A6$N3#4B,.B;$S42%$K"%.;$K%3#.$7+;$7%3,%$W#*EG%32#.$G%33#3%;$=%4*$W%.1#;$>#5%6-,%.$>1"3%@#3;$U+35#3-$>+..#;$W%.,#*$<3%.1,5,%$%[email protected]$746-%)"%$>#,@4?
ZZFb\F!U$0+4*@$*,B#$-+$-"%.B$!"#[email protected]()*+3#3?1+2$/+3$)3+&,@,.8$241"$+/$-"#$-#1".,1%*$,./+32%-,+.$+.$-"#$6)#1,#6$,@#.-,/,#@$,.$-"#$84,@#$%[email protected]$-"#$,2%8#6$+/$-"#$-,25#3$6)#1,#6^$%[email protected]$-"#$2%.'$
1+2)%.,#6$%[email protected]$+38%.,C%-,+.6$-"%-$3#6)[email protected]#@$-+$3#H4#6-6$/+3$,./+32%-,+.;$,.$)%3-,14*%3$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1'$%[email protected]$!=<W<?
3
POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES
1 OF 3
G*,1B$+.$%.'$%*-#3.%-,&#$6)#1,#6$/+3$2+3#[email protected]#-%,*6?$G*,1B$+.$#[email protected]$46#6$-+$&,#0$%*-#3.%-,&#$6)#1,#6$5'$#[email protected]$46#?
USING THIS SPECIES...
OTHER NAMES
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
OTHER NAMES
AFRICAN MAHOGANY
(Khaya ivorensis)
ACAJOU BASSAM, ACAJOU
BLANC, DEKE, ACAJOU
AFRICAN CANARIUM (Canarium schweinfurthii)
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
AFRICAN ELEMI, MUPAFU
CARAPA, CRAB WOOD
JACAREÚBA, GUANANDI, LANDIM, OLANDIM,
LANDI, OCURE
AFRICAN WALNUT
CONGOWOOD, TIGERWOOD
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
CARAPA, CRAB WOOD
JACAREÚBA, GUANANDI, LANDIM, OLANDIM,
LANDI, OCURE
AFRORMOSIA
AFRICAN TEAK
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
TIMBAUBA (Enterolobium schomburgkii)
MURURÉ, TULPAY, MATAPALO, OITY,
CARACO
BATIBATRA
AFRICAN CELTIS (Celtis mildbraedii/ zenkeri)
LOTOFA (Sterculia rhinopetala)
NATAL STINKWOOD, NATAL ELM
(Lovoa trichilioides)
(Pericopsis elata)
ASH
(Fraxinus spp.)
BIRCH (Betula spp.)
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
MURURÉ, TULPAY, MATAPALO, OITY,
CARACO
DIAMBE, BLACK GUAREA
KANDA (Beilschmiedia mannii)
AKOK, BOGO
BOXWOOD (Buxus spp.)
BOX
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
MURURÉ, TULPAY, MATAPALO, OITY,
CARACO
BRAZILIAN MAHOGANY
BIG LEAF MAHOGANY
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
OBOTO (Mammea africana)
CARAPA, CRAB WOOD
AFRICAN APPLE, BASTARD MAHOGANY
OGEA (Daniellia ogea)
NSOU, FARO
(Dalbergia nigra)
BAHIA ROSEWOOD,
JACARANDÁ DA BAHIA
DARK & LIGHT RED MERANTI
LAUAN, SERAYA
BRAZILIAN ROSEWOOD
(Shorea spp.)
GERONGGANG (Cratoxylon arborescens)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
WINDOW
FRAMES
DECKING
WAWABIMA
BOSSE (Guarea spp.)
(Swietenia macrophylla)
END USES...
VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
4
USING THIS SPECIES...
OTHER NAMES
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
EBONY (Diospyros spp.)
AZOBÉ, RED IRON WOOD
TIGER WOOD (Astronium fraxinifolium & Astronium lecointei)
EKKI (Lophira alata)
AZOBÉ, RED IRON WOOD
ANGELIM VERMELHO (Dinizia excelsa)
CUBIUBA (Goupia glabra)
EVEUSS (Klainedoxa gabunensis)
OKAN (Cylicodiscus gabunensis)
PEQUIA (Caryocar villosum)
TALI (Erythrophleum suaveolens)
GREENHEART (Ocotea rodiaei)
IPE (Tabebiua serratifolia)
IROKO (Chlorophora excelsa)
MAHOGANY (Swietenia spp.)
MAPLE (Acer spp.)
OTHER NAMES
ANGELIM VERMELHO (Dinizia excelsa)
CUBIUBA (Goupia glabra)
EVEUSS (Klainedoxa gabunensis)
OKAN (Cylicodiscus gabunensis)
TALI (Erythrophleum suaveolens)
BRAZILIAN WALNUT,
LAPACHO
KABUKALLI
BOKOKA, ADUM
BOKOKA, ADUM
PELI, MBELE
END USES...
2 OF 3
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
WINDOW
FRAMES
KABUKALLI
BOKOKA, ADUM
DECKING
PELI, MBELE
CURUPAY (Anadenanthera colubrina)
ANGELIM VERMELHO (Dinizia excelsa)
VILCA, HUILCO, WILCO, CEBIL
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
LATI (Amphimas pterocarpoides)
MANDIOQUEIRA (Qualea paraensis)
TATAJUBA (Bagassa guianensis)
TIMBAUBA (Enterolobium schomburgkii)
MURURÉ, TULPAY, MATAPALO,
OITY, CARACO
BLACK CABBAGE BARK (Lonchocarpus castilloi)
KANDA (Beilschmiedia mannii)
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
MACARATO, TIMBO
AKOK, BOGO
JACAREÚBA, GUANANDI, LANDIM,
OLANDIM, LANDI, OCURE
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
MURURÉ, TULPAY, MATAPALO,
OITY, CARACO
AMAPARANA, BAGASSE, TARAIKO
HARINO, MENUDITO, BOUGOU BATI
BATRA, ACACIA FRANC, JEBIO, HEVIO
VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
5
USING THIS SPECIES...
OTHER NAMES
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
OTHER NAMES
MERANTI
LAUAN, SERAYA (LIGHT
RED MERANTI)
CURUPAY (Anadenanthera colubrina)
JATOBA (Erisma uncinatum)
VILCA, HUILCO, WILCO, CEBIL
(Shorea spp.)
OAK
AFRICAN CELTIS (Celtis mildbraedii/ zenkeri)
BERANGAN (Castanopsis acuminatissima)
NARGUSTA (Terminalia amazonica)
(Quercus spp.)
OKOUME
ANGOUMA, GABOON
(Aucoumea klaineana)
ROSEWOOD
(Dalbergia spp.)
SAPELE
SAPELLI, ABOUDIKRO
(Entandrophragma cylindricum)
TEAK
(Tectona grandis)
SIPO
UTILE
(Entandrophragma utile)
WALNUT
(Juglans spp.)
WENGE
(Millettia laurentii)
WHITE ASH
(Fraxinus americana)
AFRICAN ELEMI, MUPAFU
NATAL WHITE STINKWOOD,
NATAL ELM
WHITE OAK, NEW GUINEA OAK
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
WHITE OLIVE
AFRICAN ELEMI, MUPAFU
MORADO (Machaerium scleroxylon)
TIGER WOOD (Astronium fraxinifolium & Astronium lecointei)
JACARANDA (Jacaranda copaia)
BOLIVIAN ROSEWOOD, CAVIUNA,
JACARANDA PARDO, PAU FERRO
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
CARAPA, CRAB WOOD
JACAREÚBA, GUANANDI, LANDIM,
OLANDIM, LANDI, OCURE
BLACK CABBAGE BARK (Lonchocarpus castilloi)
CHEREK (Peronema canescens)
TIMBAUBA (Enterolobium schomburgkii)
MACARATO, TIMBO
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
CARAPA, CRAB WOOD
KANDA (Beilschmiedia mannii)
TCHITOLA (Oxystigma oxyphyllum)
AKOK, BOGO
SAPUPIRA (Diplotropis purpurea)
TATABU, ZWARTE KABBES,
SUCUPIRA
6
3 OF 3
VILCA, HUILCO, WILCO, CEBIL
AFRICAN CANARIUM (Canarium schweinfurthii)
KONDROTI (Bombax brevicuspe)
JAGUA (Genipa americana)
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
END USES...
SUNGKAI
AKWAKWA, KITOLA, EMOLA
WINDOW
FRAMES
DECKING
VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
JACAREÚBA, GUANANDI, LANDIM,
OLANDIM, LANDI, OCURE
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
AFRICAN CANARIUM (Canarium schweinfurthii)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
T,.B,6"$0"#.$/3#6"*'[email protected]%3B#.6$-+$*,8"-$53+0.$2%"+8%.'$1+*+43
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
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>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"
FLOORING
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
[email protected]#3%-#[email protected],2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
YeM$0"#.$W3'
WV=<NIJI!n
>*,8"-*'$1+%36#
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
D%6'
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
F7bGiGEMMlYRR$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
FLOORING
W43%5*#;$54-$6++.$%/-#3$/#**,.8;$*+86$6"+4*@$5#$-3#%-#@$1"#2,1%**';$
#(-3%1-#@$%[email protected]$1+.&#3-#@$-+$)3#&#.-$,.6#1-$%--%1B
!Do!V=D
GARDEN
FURNITURE
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
NjEGiGEMeMYMe$
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
F>GEGMMQLQR$b$F>GEGMQRmRQ$b$F>GEGMLRemR$b$F>GEGMlLLQe$$$$$$$
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
>-%,.#@$</3,1%.$G%.%3,42$,6$6+$6,2,*%3$,.$%))#%3%.1#$-+$</3,1%.$7%"+8%.'$
9;8'2'(#>/-$&)#):$-"%-$,-$464%**'$3#H4,3#6$%.$#()#[email protected],//#3#.-,%-#$5#-0##.$
-"#$-0+?$<*6+;$%$6456-,-4-#$/+3$iB+42#$9?3./39$'(@0'#&$'&':$/+3$)*'[email protected]?$
!"#$83%,.$6+2#-,2#6$)[email protected]#6$%$&#3'$%--3%1-,&#$6-3,)#$/,843#$+.$H4%3-#3E
14-$643/%1#6?$I.-#3*+1B#@$83%,.$%[email protected]$6,*,1%$1+.-#.-$"%&#$&#3'$",8"$5*4.-,.8$
#//#1-6$+.$14--,.8$-++*6?$!+$)3+1#66$-"#[email protected];$-4.86-#.$-,))#@$14--#36$2%'$5#$
3#H4,3#@?
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
F>GEGMLaQeL$$$$$$$
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
K;!GNA.2#1++&
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%/3,1%b<IDJD?)@/
7
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis, Carapa procera)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
=#@@,6"$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
YlL
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
U+-$B.+0.
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
[email protected]#3%-#[email protected],2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
LRRM$0"#.$W3'
ENGINEERING & RAILWAY
CONSTRUCTION SLEEPERS
DECKING
WINDOW
FRAMES
VENEER
GARDEN
VENEER
DECKING
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
FURNITURE
J+86;$J425#3$9>R>;$>l>$E$#()+3-;$5+%[email protected];$5#%26;$6H4%3#6$%[email protected]$+-"#3$
[email protected]+2#6-,1:$$
K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7$
>%[email protected]$]$*+86$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
GARDEN
VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FURNITURE
Q6A+11R$T$A+$E)/7$$
I.-#3.%-,+.%*$!,25#3$%[email protected][email protected]$!3%@,.8c$E$T%.#*$)[email protected];$6%[email protected];$
2%1",.#@$6+*,@[email protected]
GARDEN
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
>G>EGiGEMMMYam$$
INTERIOR
K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7$ RAILWAY
FURNITURE
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
>ZEF7bGiGEMMfleY$b$GVEGiGEmLlmlQ$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WV=<NIJI!n
Q6A+11R$T$A+$E)/7$$
NjEGiGEMRaaeM
[email protected]#3%-#*'$W43%5*#
FLOORING
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
!Do!V=D
7#@,42$-+$G+%36#
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
7#@,42
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
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-"%-$-"#'$%3#$+/-#.$1+./46#@$0,-"$#%1"$+-"#3?$!"#[email protected]$#(",5,-6$%.$
%--3%1-,&#$6-3,)#$%[email protected]$)%3%**#*;$,33#84*%3$3%'6$0"#.$H4%3-#3$6%0.?$$Z#%-"#3,.8$
1"%3%1-#3,6-,16$%3#$1+2)%3%5*#$-+$-"+6#$+/$-"#$7%"+8%.,#6?$N#[email protected],.8$
6-3#.8-"$+/$%,[email protected],#@[email protected]$,6$6,2,*%3$-+$-"%-$+/$!#%B$9A$.%/&'(6-'&<#):;$
0",1"$,6$1+.6,@#3#@$-+$5#$6-3+.8?$>-3#.8-"$)3+)#3-,#6;$#6)#1,%**'$6-,//.#66;$
%3#$3%-#@$%6$",8"#3$-"%.$-"+6#$+/[email protected]%6$2%"+8%.'?$I-$3#6,[email protected]#.-,.8$%[email protected]$
2%33,.8$%5+4-$%6$0#**$%6$0",-#$+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':$+3$N,31"$9C$%30'()**+:?$$
\[email protected]$3#8#.#3%-,+.;$%[email protected]$)*%.-%-,+.$)+-#.-,%*?$
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
FLOORING
DECKING
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
WINDOW
FRAMES
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
F>GEGMMReYL
FLOORING
K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7$
F>GEGLMlRfa$b$F>GEGLMaYmm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Q6A+11R$T$A+$E)/7$$
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%2#3,1%b<UWI=iN<?)@/
8
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
SANTA MARIA (Calophyllum brasiliense)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
T,.B$*,8"-$53+0.$0,-"$-",[email protected]%3B#3$&#,.6
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
YlL
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
U+-$B.+0.
VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
GARDEN
FURNITURE
WINDOW
FRAMES
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
DECKING
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
GARDEN
VENEER
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
RAILWAY
FURNITURE
K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7$
SLEEPERS
>+*,@[email protected]$96%0.;$1",))#@;$)##*#@:$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
G#.-3%*$]$>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
GARDEN
FURNITURE
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GARDEN
FURNITURE
V+&$W,2%+3/)$;+1#*)7$
RAILWAY
FLOORING
SLEEPERS
J+86$]$6%[email protected]$$
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
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[email protected]#3%-#[email protected],2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'$1%.$5#$%--%,.#@$%/-#3$6#%6+.,.8
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
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LLfM$0"#[email protected]'
FLOORING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7$
>ZEF7bGiGEMMfleY$b$GVEGiGEmLlmlQ$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
=BC<?7$
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WV=<NIJI!n
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
V+&$W,2%+3/)$;+1#*)7$
>ZEF7bGiGEMMfeLa$$
[email protected]#3%-#*'$W43%5*#
FLOORING
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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7#@,42
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
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K1##&$K+3/$;+1#*)1R7
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i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
N#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-"$,.$%,[email protected]'[email protected],-,+.$9%5+4-$LR$)#31#.-$2+,6-43#$1+.-#.-:$,6$
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+3$1+2)3#66,+.$6-3#.8-"$)%3%**#*$-+$83%,.;$,6$",8"?$>+2#$/%2,*,%3$6)#1,#6$
0,-"$",8"$1346",.8$6-3#.8-"$)%3%**#*$-+$83%,.$,.1*[email protected]#$S%[email protected]$2%)*#$9?.$-(
)'..8'-39:;$!#%B;$%[email protected]$Z",-#$+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':?$S%[email protected]#66$,6$3%-#@$%6$
2#@,42?$I-$3#6,[email protected]#.-,.8$%[email protected]$2%33,.8$%5+4-$%6$0#**$%6$Z",-#$+%B$+3$N,31"$
9C$%30'()**+:?$<.$%[email protected]%.-$-3##$6)#1,#6$,.$=,)%3,%.$#.&,3+.2#.-6$/+3$,-6$
)3#/#3#.1#$/+3$1+*+.,C,.8$",8"$0%-#3$6%-43%-,+.$6+,*6?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
V+&$W,2%+3/)$;+1#*)7
F>GEGLMYYlM
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
K;!GNU+3(9(.S$K;!GND#1,
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%2#3,1%b><U!<q7<=I<?)@/
9
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
GUARIUBA (Clarisia racemosa)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
WINDOW
FRAMES
FLOORING
DECKING
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
VENEER
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
C<XQ=7$
W#1B,.8;$/#.1,.8;$-,*#6;[email protected]++3$/43.,-43#
n#**+0$5#1+2,.8$*46-3+46$53+0.$4)+.$1+.-%1-$0,-"$*,8"Q.%#)7$$
W++36;$/*++3,.8$][email protected]#1B,.8$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
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A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
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[email protected]#3%-#$
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`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
eml$0"#[email protected]'$
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
C<XQ=7$
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>ZEGiGEMMLMfe$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WV=<NIJI!n
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$
GVEF7bGiGEmLaaea$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
W43%5*#
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!Do!V=D
7#@,42
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
D%6'
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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F>GEGMLfeMe$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
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!"#$-,25#3$,6$6,2,*%3$,.$)3+)#3-,#6$-+$-"#$</3,1%.$6)#1,#6;$</3+32+6,%$
9,$-#./*)#)($0'%':?$!"#$5#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-"$H4%*,-,#6$+/$-",6$6)#1,#6$,.$%,[email protected]'$
[email protected],-,+.$,6$&#3'$",8";$/%3$64)#3,+3$-+$-"+6#$+/$7%"+8%.'$9!"#$%$&#'()**+:?
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%2#3,1%b\V<=IVN<?)@/
10
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
TIMBAUBA (Enterolobium schomburgkii)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
>#%6+.#@$"#%[email protected]$,6$*,8"-$'#**+0,6"$53+0.$6+2#-,2#6$0,-"[email protected]%3B#3$
6-3#%B6
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
QLa
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
U+-$B.+0.
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
Q.%#)7$
7%.4/%1-43#3$+/[email protected]$)[email protected];$641"$%[email protected]++36;$/*++3,.8$%[email protected]$/43.,-43#$
9,[email protected]++3$%[email protected][email protected]++3:
FLOORING
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
D(1#**#.-$6-%5,*,-'$E$62%**$2+&#2#.-
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RaaM$0"#[email protected]'
WV=<NIJI!n
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j#3'$W43%5*#
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F%,3*'$W,//,14*-
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$3%-#@$%[email protected]?$$!"#$-,25#3$,6$6,2,*%3$,.$
)3+)#3-,#6$-+$-"#$</3,1%.$6)#1,#6$</3+32+6,%$9,$-#./*)#)($0'%':?
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%2#3,1%bN<!IN<!=<?)@/
"--)cbb000?/)*?/6?/#@[email protected]+142.-6b!#1">"##-6bG"[email protected]+//b!3+)<2#3,1%.b
"-2*W+16q-3+)%2#3,1%.bD.-#3+*+5,4261"+25438B,,?"-2*
11
K;!GNU+3(9(.
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
AFRICAN CELTIS (Celtis mildbraedii/ zenkeri)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
GARDEN
FURNITURE
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
F3#6"*'[email protected]$'#**+0,6"E0",-#$-+$*,8"-$5#,8#$,.$1+*+43;$54-$,-$-43.6$
-+$83#',6"$5#,8#$4)+.$#()+643#
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
eae
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
J+0
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
D(1#**#.-$6-%5,*,-'$E$62%**$2+&#2#.-
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
LfaM$0"#[email protected]'
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
FLOORING
F7bGiGEMMlYRR$$
WV=<NIJI!n
U+.EW43%5*#
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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7#@,42bF,.#
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9D'63)()20>'%#.':?$!"#[email protected]$,6$",8"*'$&4*.#3%5*#$-+$/4.8%*$6-%,.,.8;$%[email protected]$
3#H4,3#6$,22#@,%-#$)3#&#.-,&#$2#%643#6$%/-#3$6%0,.8?$T3+)#3-,#6$1%.$
1"%.8#$0,-"$"#%-;$%[email protected]$1%.$-%B#$%[email protected]$6-%,.?$I-$,6$&#3'$6,2,*%3$-+$i%B$
9B3$-.3)()**+:?$I-$,6$%*6+$1+.6,@#3#@$-+$5#$%[email protected]$/*++3,.8$-,25#3$-"%-$
0#%36$62++-"*'?$S%&#$%[email protected]$3#8#.#3%-,+.$)%--#3.
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
F>GEGMMQLQR$b$F>GEGMQRmRQ$b$F>GEGMLRemR$b$F>GEGMlLLQe
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%/3,1%bGDJ!I>qWq<F=IpVD?)@/
12
K;!GNA.2#1++&
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
LOTOFA (WAWABIMA) (Sterculia rhinopetala)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
GARDEN
FURNITURE
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
=#@@,6"$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
emf
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"$
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
J%38#$2+&#2#.-$,.$6#3&,1#
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
LmLM$0"#.$W3'
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
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F7bGiGEMMlYRR$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WV=<NIJI!n
j#3'$W43%5*#
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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)3,2#$,2)+3-%.1#;$641"$%6$,.$-++*$"%[email protected]*#6?$\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$
3%-#@$%[email protected]?$!"#$-,25#3$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$)##*#@$/+3$)*'[email protected]$2%.4/%1-43#;$
1+3#E6-+1B$%[email protected]$/%1,.86$/+3$5*+1B5+%[email protected]?$I-$,6$%*6+$6*,1#@$,.-+$",8"*'[email protected]#1+3%-,&#$
&#.##36$/+3$)%.#**,.8$%[email protected]$,.-#3,[email protected]#1+3%-,+.?$W#613,5#@$%6$%$"#%&'$%[email protected]$
6-3+.8$-,25#3$0,-"$&#3'$",8"$-+48".#66$6-3#.8-";$0",1"$2%B#6$,-$64,-%5*#$/+3$
1+.6-341-,+.$%))*,1%-,+.6$0"#3#$.%-43%*$3#6,6-%.1#[email protected]#1%'$,6$.+-$13,-,1%*?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%/3,1%bJi!iF<?)@/
13
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
KANDA (Beilschmiedia mannii)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
T,.B$53+0.$-+$3#@$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
Yea
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
>%[email protected]
FLOORING
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
D(1#**#.-$6-%5,*,-'$E$62%**$2+&#2#.-
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
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LLYM$0"#.$W3'
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j#3'$W43%5*#
!Do!V=D
7#@,42b$G+%36#
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
7#@,42
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K%[email protected]%$3#6)[email protected]$0#**$-+$6)#1,%**'$-,))#@$-++*6$,.$2%1",.,.8$+)#3%-,+.6$
6,.1#$,-$-#[email protected][email protected]**[email protected],.%3'$-++*6$6#&#3#*'?$K%[email protected]%$,6$/%3$64)#3,+3$
,.$6-3#.8-"$-+$#,-"#3$!#%B$9A$.%/&'(6-'&<#):$+3$S%[email protected]$2%)*#$9?.$-(
)'..8'-39:?
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
"--)[email protected]+3B#366+431#?1+2b+.*,.#q6"[email protected]?
)")[email protected]#,*61"2,#@,%tRM2%..,,
14
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
WV=<NIJI!n
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
S,8"$
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
GARDEN
FURNITURE
K;!GNA.2#1++&
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
OBOTO (Mammea africana)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
I.,-,%**'$3#@$+3$3#@$53+0.;$54-$2%-43#6$,[email protected]%3B$3#@@,6"E53+0.?$!"#$1+*+43$
,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$1+2)%3%5*#$-+$-"%-$+/$-34#$2%"+8%.';$%[email protected]$,6$%--3%1-,&#*'$
2%3B#@$+3$/*#1B#@$0,-"[email protected]?
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
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>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
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7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
W,2#.6,+.%*$1"%.8#6$,.$3#6)+.6#$-+$/*41-4%-,+.6$,.$%-2+6)"#3,[email protected],-,+.6$
%3#$3#)+3-#@$-+$3%.8#$/3+2$2#@,42$-+$",8"?
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
LeLM$0"#.$W3'
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
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FLOORING
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
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NjEGiGEMeMYMe
W43%5*#
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
D%6'
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\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$3%-#@$%6$6%-,6/%1-+3'?$7%(,242$1346",.8$
6-3#.8-";$+3$1+2)3#66,+.$)%3%**#*$-+$83%,.$,.$-"#$%,[email protected]'[email protected],-,+.;$,6$,.$
-"#$&#3'$",8"$3%.8#?$I-$,6$8#.#3%**'$64)#3,+3$-+$</3,1%.$7%"+8%.'$9;8'2'(
#>/-$&)#):$,.$6-3#.8-"$)3+)#3-,#6;$#6)#1,%**'$5#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-"?$S%[email protected]#66$
,6$3%-#@$%6$2#@,42?$I-$3#6,[email protected]#.-,.8$%[email protected]$2%33,.8$%5+4-$%6$0#**$%6$Z",-#$
+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':$+3$N,31"$9C$%30'()**+:?$I-$,6$%$&#3'$"#%&'[email protected];$0,-"$",8"$
@#.6,-'?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
"--)[email protected]+3B#366+431#?1+2b6"+0q)3+)#3-,#6?
)")[email protected]%22#%tRM%/3,1%.%
15
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
WV=<NIJI!n
!Do!V=D
GARDEN
FURNITURE
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
F>GEGMLaQeL$
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
K;!GNA.2#1++&
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
OGEA (Daniellia ogea)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
J,8"-$8+*@#.$53+0.$+3$)%*#$),.B,6"E53+0.$-+$3#@@,6"$53+0.;$6+2#-,2#6$
2%3B#@$0,-"[email protected]%3B#3$6-3#%B6
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
lYl
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
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>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"$
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
[email protected]#3%-#[email protected],2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'$]$#(",5,-6$2#@,42$2+&#2#.-$%/-#3$
2%.4/%1-43#
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eLM$0"#.$W3'
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[email protected]#3%-#*'$W,//,14*-
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
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[email protected]#3%-#
G+%36#$
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
F7bGiGEMMlYRR$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
FLOORING
WV=<NIJI!n
!Do!V=D
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
F>GEGMMQLQR$b$F>GEGMQRmRQ$b$F>GEGMLRemR$b$F>GEGMlLLQe$$$$$$$
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
!"#[email protected]$"%6$2#@,[email protected]#.6,-';$*+0$5#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-";$&#3'$*+0$6-,//.#66$
%[email protected]$3#6,6-%.1#$-+$6"+1B$*+%@6;$%[email protected]$2#@,42$1346",.8$6-3#.8-"?$I-$,6$%$
64,-%5*#$6456-,-4-#$/+3$=+6#[email protected]$94'05$-6#'()**+:$,.$6+*,@$6#1-,+.6?$<$
@#1+3%-,&#$&#.##3$1%.$5#$)[email protected]#@$/3+2$6#*#1-#@$*+86?
I(M2.$C+,.3.7$
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%/3,1%bF<=i?)@/
16
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
GERONGGANG (Cratoxylon arborescens)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
I.,-,%**'[email protected]%3B$),.B$+3$*,8"-$53,1BE3#@?$D()+643#[email protected]%3B#.6$-"#[email protected];$54-$-"#$
3#@$1+*+43$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$3#2%,.?
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
afMEYLM
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"$
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
lRM$/+3$83##.$2%-#3,%*
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
GARDEN
VENEER
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
RAILWAY
X,20,3.&$D#&-,1,*.&$X.R,$X.R.&$!#1#&--.&,[email protected]/&$U"/
FURNITURE
SLEEPERS
ZXDXX![7$>%0.$-,25#3;$/43.,-43#;[email protected]++36$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
[email protected]#3%-#$
@,2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"ED%6-$<6,%
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
WINDOW
FRAMES
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FURNITURE
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RAILWAY
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SLEEPERS
INTERIOR
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FURNITURE
FLOORING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
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FLOORING
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[email protected]#3%-#*'$W43%5*#$E$-3#%-2#.-$3#H4,3#@
FLOORING
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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-+$W%3B$3#@$7#3%.-,$9!8/-$'()**+:$,.$1+*+43$%[email protected]$-+$J,8"-$3#@$7#3%.-,$
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-+$8,&#$\#3+.88%.8$6+2#$%@&%.-%8#$+&#3$7#3%.-,$,.$%))*,1%-,+.6$0"#3#$
-"#$)3#6#.1#$+/$3#6,.$1%.%*6$,6$/[email protected]$-+$5#$+5A#1-,+.%5*#?$!"#[email protected]$"%6$
2#@,[email protected]#.6,-';$%[email protected]$,6$*+0$,.$0#,8"-?$$7%($"%3&#6-$/3+2$J%+6$/+3#6-6$/+3$
.#(-$f$'#%36c$R;QLY2a$GZ$]$afM$2a$F>G?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
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ZXDXX![7$F>GEGMLMaaa$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
"--)cbb000?/)*?/6?/#@[email protected]+142.-6b!#1">"##-6bG"[email protected]+//b>D<6,%.q
i1#%.,1b"-2*W+16q>D<6,%.bG3%-+('*+.%35+3#61#.6?"-2*
17
@.1($U,2($X,*,2.7$$
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[email protected],4.$\.R.$Q.42,17$
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K;!GNQ.3.R*(.S$K;!GNB&/+&#*(.
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
TIGER WOOD (Astronium fraxinifolium & Astronium lecointei)
Muiracatiara
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
WINDOW
FRAMES
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
VENEER
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
i.#$+/$-"#$2+6-$5#%4-,/4*$-3+),1%*[email protected]?$N3+0.$3#@$93466#-$53+0.;$+3%.8#$
53+0.$+3$3#@@,6"$53+0.$0"#.$/3#6";$1"%.8,.8$4)+.$#()+643#$-+$53+0.;$3#@;$
[email protected]%3B$3#@@,6"$53+0.:;$0,-"$6-3#%B6
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
QYL
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
Q.%#)7$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
7%.4/%1-43#3$+/[email protected]$)[email protected];$641"$%[email protected]++36;$/*++3,.8$%[email protected]$/43.,-43#$
GARDEN
9,[email protected]++3$%[email protected][email protected]++3:$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FURNITURE
FLOORING
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
W,2#.6,+.%**'$6-%5*#$%/-#3$6#%6+.,.8
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
WV=<NIJI!n
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!Do!V=D
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Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
F%,3*'$W,//,14*-
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i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$3%-#@$%[email protected]?$$<$*#66#3$B.+0.$6)#1,#6$/3+2$
G#.-3%*$%[email protected]$>+4-"$<2#3,1%?$$$>-3+.8;$64,-#@$)3,2%3,*'$/+3$1+.6-341-,+.$%[email protected]$
6#[email protected]%3,*'$/+3$/,.#$/43.,-43#?
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18
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
ANGELIM VERMELHO (Dinizia excelsa)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
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WINDOW
FRAMES
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DECKING
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VENEER
GARDEN
FURNITURE
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
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7#@,42
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W,//,14*-
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INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
!"#[email protected]$,6$&#3'[email protected]%5*#$%[email protected]$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$"%&#$&#3'[email protected]$3#6,6-%.1#$
-+$%--%1B$5'[email protected]#1%'$/4.8,$%[email protected]$-#32,-#6?$I-6$3#6,6-%.1#[email protected]'[email protected]$,.6#1-6$
%--%1B$,6$3%-#@$%[email protected]?
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)45*,6"#@$,.$RMLL$5'$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1';$!=<W<$#-$%*c$<66#662#.-$
+/$J#66#3$K.+0.$S%[email protected][email protected]$!,25#3$>)#1,#6$/+3$V6#$,.$7%3,.#$%[email protected]$
F3#6"0%-#3$G+.6-341-,+.
19
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
CUBIUBA (Goupia glabra)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
WINDOW
FRAMES
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
J,8"-$3#@@,6"E53+0.$+3$53+0.$5#,8#$-+$+3%.8#$53+0.$%[email protected][email protected]%3B#.6$6*,8"-*'$
4)+.$#()+643#?
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J+86;$J425#3$9>R>;$>l>$E$#()+3-;$5+%[email protected];$5#%26;$6H4%3#6$%[email protected]$+-"#3$
[email protected]+2#6-,1:
DECKING
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7#@,42$1+%36#$-+$1+%36#
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[email protected]#3%-#*'$#%6'
GARDEN
FURNITURE
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>G>EGiGEMMMYam
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
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!"#$-,25#3$,6$",8"*'$/%&+43#@$%6$%.$%**$)43)+6#[email protected]$,.$-"#$\4,%.%6?$I-$
,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$1+2)%3#$/%&+43%5*'$0,-"$+%B;$#(1#)-$,.$6"+1B$3#6,6-%.1#;$
6)*,--,.8;$1+2)3#66,+.;$%[email protected]$1*#%&%8#?$!"#[email protected]$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$6*,8"-*'$
3#6,6-%[email protected]#1%';[email protected]#3%-#*'[email protected]%5*#?$I-6$3#6,6-%.1#$-+$53+0.E3+-$/4.8,;$
0",-#E3+-$/4.8,;$-#32,-#6$%[email protected][email protected]'[email protected]$,.6#1-6$,6$3%-#@$%[email protected]?$I-$"%6$&#3'$
*,--*#$3#6,6-%.1#$-+$%--%1B$5'$2%3,.#$5+3#36?
=#6,6-%.1#$-+$I2)3#8.%-,+.
!"#$"#%[email protected]$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$&#3'$3#6,6-%.-$-+$)3#6#3&%-,&#$-3#%-2#.-?$
!"#$6%)[email protected]$,[email protected]#3%-#*'$3#6,6-%.-?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
F43-"#3$,./+32%-,+.$+.$-",6$6)#1,#6$1%.$5#$/[email protected]$%-$-"#$/+**+0,.8$3#)+3-$
)45*,6"#@$,.$RMLL$5'$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1';$!=<W<$#-$%*c$<66#662#.-$
+/$J#66#3$K.+0.$S%[email protected][email protected]$!,25#3$>)#1,#6$/+3$V6#$,.$7%3,.#$%[email protected]$
F3#6"0%-#3$G+.6-341-,+.
20
VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
F1*.$;3+1#*).37
F>GEGMMReYL$$
FLOORING
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
EVEUSS (Klainedoxa gabunensis)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
WINDOW
FRAMES
I(M2.7
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$
D.33(*6+7$$
J+86;$>%[email protected];$K,*[email protected],#@;$T*%.#@[email protected];$/*++3,.8$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
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6,8.,/,1%.-*'$%/-#3$2%.4/%1-43#?
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
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IU$9JN>?$iF$Fi=GD:
DECKING
VENEER
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NjEGiGEMeMYMe
RffM$0"#.$W3'
D.33(*6+7$$
NjEF7bGiGEmaRRLl$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
WV=<NIJI!n
GARDEN
FURNITURE
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
F7bGiGEMMlYRR
j#3'$W43%5*#
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
!Do!V=D
F,.#
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
D%6'
I(M2.7$
F>GEGMLaQeL$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
D.33(*6+7$$
F>GEGMRLYme$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
!"#$-,25#3$,6$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$3#6,*,#.-$%[email protected]$%*6+$&#3'$3#6,6-%.-$-+$0#%3;$0",1"$
2%B#6$,-$64,-%5*#$/+3$/*++3,.8?
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
F>GEGMMQLQR$b$F>GEGMQRmRQ$b$F>GEGMLRemR$b$F>GEGMlLLQe$
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
F43-"#3$,./+32%-,+.$+.$-",6$6)#1,#6$1%.$5#$/[email protected]$%-$-"#$/+**+0,.8$3#)+3-$
)45*,6"#@$,.$RMLL$5'$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1';$!=<W<$#-$%*c$<66#662#.-$+/$
J#66#3$K.+0.$S%[email protected][email protected]$!,25#3$>)#1,#6$/+3$V6#$,.$7%3,.#$%[email protected]$F3#6"0%-#3$
G+.6-341-,+.
21
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
K;!GNA.2#1++&
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
OKAN (Cylicodiscus gabunensis)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
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FRAMES
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@,2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
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K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
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A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
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I(M2.7$
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WV=<NIJI!n
GARDEN
FURNITURE
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
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F7bGiGEMMlYRR$
j#3'$W43%5*#$
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
!Do!V=D
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0#%3?$<*-"+48"$-"#[email protected]$,6$1+.6,@#3#@$-+$5#$",8"*'$64,-%5*#$/+3$/*++3,.8;$
,-$,6$&#3'[email protected],//,14*-$-+$2%1",.#?$>-3#.8-"$)3+)#3-,#6$%3#$2,@E0%'$5#-0##.$
-"+6#$+/$D43+)#%.$5##1"$9D'63)()20>'%#.':$%[email protected]$\3##."#%3-$9F./%$'(
-/<#'$#:?
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DECKING
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)45*,6"#@$,.$RMLL$5'$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1';$!=<W<$#-$%*c$<66#662#.-$+/$
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G+.6-341-,+.
22
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
D.33(*6+7$$
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K;!GNA.2#1++&
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FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
PEQUIA (Caryocar villosum)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
n#**+0,6"$-+$*,8"-$83#',6"$53+0.$,.$1+*+43
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
mYf
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
DECKING
FLOORING
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
WINDOW
FRAMES
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
VENEER
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J+86;$J425#3$9>R>;$>l>$E$#()+3-;$5+%[email protected];$5#%26;$6H4%3#6$%[email protected]$+-"#3$
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GARDEN
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$ FURNITURE
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
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A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
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`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
!Do!V=D
7#@,42$-+$1+%36#
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
[email protected]#3%-#*'$W,//,14*-
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F>GEGMMReYL$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
i!SD=$TiIU!>$iF$IU!D=D>!
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
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>)#1,#6$,.$-"#$8#.46$G%3'+1%3$%3#$3#)+3-#@$-+$5#$0,@#6)3#%@$-"3+48"+4-$
2+6-$+/$-"#$<2%C+.,%?$!"#$5#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-"$H4%*,-,#6$+/$-",6$6)#1,#6$,.$
-"#$%,[email protected]'[email protected],-,+.$,6$&#3'$",8";$/%3$64)#3,+3$-+$-"+6#$+/$7%"+8%.'?$
G+2)3#66,+.$6-3#.8-"$)%3%**#*$-+$83%,.$,.$-"#$%,[email protected]'[email protected],-,+.$,6$",8"?$
!#%B;$Z",-#$+%B;$%[email protected]$S%[email protected]$2%)*#$"%&#$",8"$1346",.8$6-3#.8-"?$I-$,6$"%[email protected]$E$
"%[email protected]#3$-"%.$!#%B;$%[email protected][email protected]+#6$.+-$2%[email protected]#.-$#%6,*'?$!"#$0#,8"-$,6$&#3'$",8"?$
!"#[email protected]$,6$&#3'[email protected]#.6#?$
"--)cbb000?/)*?/6?/#@[email protected]+142.-6b!#1">"##-6bG"[email protected]+//b!3+)<2#3,1%.b
"-2*q/,*#6b1%3'+1L.#0?"-2*
23
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$
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II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
K;!GND#1,
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
TALI (Erythrophleum suaveolens)
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
N3+0.$-+$3#@$-+$'#**+0;$)%3-*'$0,-"$6-3#%B6
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
QYL
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"$
D.33(*6+NAB;Q$7$
J+86;$6%[email protected];$F*+33,.8$$$
DECKING
I(M2.7$
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A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
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WINDOW
FRAMES
VENEER
D(1#**#.-$6-%5,*,-'$E$62%**$2+&#2#.K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
>ZEGiGEMMlMlY$b$>ZEGZbF7EMMfaRe$b$>ZEGiGEMMleaa$b$>ZE
F7bGiGEMMlYRR$$$$$
GARDEN
FURNITURE
I(M2.7$
NjEGiGEMeMYMe
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WV=<NIJI!n
D.33(*6+7$$
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7#@,42b$F,.#
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\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$3%-#@$%[email protected]?$!"#$6)#1,#6$,6$1+.6,@#3%5*'$
6-3+.8#3$-"%.$Z",-#$+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':$+3$!#%B$9A$.%/&'(6-'&<#):?$I-$"%6$
#(1#)-,+.%**'$",8"$5#[email protected],.8$6-3#.8-"$H4%*,-,#6$0"#.$%,[email protected],#@?$7%(,242$
1346",.8$6-3#.8-";$+3$1+2)3#66,+.$)%3%**#*$-+$83%,.;$,6$#(1#)-,+.%**'$",8"?$
!"#$6)#1,#6$"%6$&#3'$",8"[email protected]#.6,-'?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
F43-"#3$,./+32%-,+.$+.$-",6$6)#1,#6$1%.$5#$/[email protected]$%-$-"#$/+**+0,.8$3#)+3-$
)45*,6"#@$,.$RMLL$5'$-"#$D.&,3+.2#.-$<8#.1';$!=<W<$#-$%*c$<66#662#.-$+/$
J#66#3$K.+0.$S%[email protected][email protected]$!,25#3$>)#1,#6$/+3$V6#$,.$7%3,.#$%[email protected]$F3#6"0%-#3$
G+.6-341-,+.
24
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
F>GEGMMQLQR$b$F>GEGMQRmRQ$b$F>GEGMLRemR$b$F>GEGMlLLQe$ RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
I(M2.7$
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FLOORING
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K;!GNA.2#1++&
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WINDOW
FRAMES
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
CURUPAY (Anadenanthera colubrina)
DECKING
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
W%3B#.6$-+$%$3#@@,6"$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
QQa
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U+-$B.+0.
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
[email protected]#3%-#$
@,2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
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LQQM$0"#[email protected]'
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
VENEER
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
U(+2./#1.*7$
F+3#6-$)[email protected][email protected],6-3,54-+3$b$,2)+3-#3
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
FLOORING
RAILWAY
U(+2./#1.*7$
SLEEPERS
>ZEGiGEMMflfR
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
WV=<NIJI!n
j#3'$W43%5*#
FLOORING
!Do!V=D
Zi=KIU\$pV<JI!n
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
F,.#
F%,3*'$W,//,14*-
U(+2./#1.*7$
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<$&#3'$%--3%1-,&#[email protected];$G434)%'$,6$)3,2%3,*'$46#@$,.$/*++3,.8?$S%[email protected]#3$
%[email protected]$2+3#[email protected]#.6#$-"%.$I)#$9A'5$5#3'()$--'%#G/0#':?$\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$
H4%*,-,#6$%3#$3%-#@$%[email protected]?$$S%6$46#6$-"%-$1+2)#-#$0,-"$J%4%.$9!8/-$'(
)**+:$%[email protected]$I)#$9A'5$5#3'()$--'%#G/0#':?
II;JK;!G$F;;BA<@
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25
K;!GNA+3+2%(.]$<^,./+1]$D.&.2.$T$V#&#Y,#3.]$G+1)"#1&$
=2.Y+&$.&/$A"+6_$C.1(L&]$K;!GNK#12.&R
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
LATI (Amphimas pterocarpoides)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
I.,-,%**'$+3%.8#$%[email protected][email protected]%3B#.6$-+$+3%.8#E53+0.$4)+.$#()+643#?
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
efa
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
U+-$B.+0.
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
I(M2.7$
SLEEPERS
>%[email protected]$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$
D.33(*6+7$$
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INTERIOR
FURNITURE
K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
FLOORING
>%[email protected]$
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
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RAILWAY
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K1+,0#$CL6+39#&.#1#7$
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"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%/3,1%bJ<!I?)@/
26
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
MANDIOQUEIRA (Qualea paraensis)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
T,.B,6"$53+0.$-+$3#@@,6"$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
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@,2#.6,+.%*$6-%5,*,-'
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
DECKING
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
VENEER
INTERIOR
C<XQ=7$
FURNITURE
W#1B,.8;$/#.1,.8;$-,*#6;[email protected]++3$/43.,-43#
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
WINDOW
FRAMES
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
J+86;$J425#3$9>R>;$>l>$E$#()+3-;$5+%[email protected];$5#%26;$6H4%3#6$%[email protected]$+-"#3$
GARDEN
[email protected]+2#6-,1:$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$
SLEEPERS
>%[email protected];$K,*[email protected],#@E$R;$a;$lZE$f$4)JE$Y$-+$LY$/##-
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
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C<XQ=7$
=<EGiGEMMLYfm
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
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>G>EGiGEMMMYam$$$$$$$$
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SLEEPERS
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U+.EW43%5*#
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S#%[email protected]$3#6,6-%.1#[email protected]#1%'$,.$p4%*#%$-,25#36$,6$&%3,%5*#;$54-$-"#$2%-#3,%*$
,6$8#.#3%**'$4.64,-%5*#$/+3$46#[email protected]#3$)3+*+.8#@$2+,[email protected],-,+.6$4.*#66$,-$,6$
)3+-#1-,&#*'$1+%-#@?$
>,2,*%3$-+$-"#$</3,1%.$6)#1,#6$I3+B+$9I80/-/*8/-'($:.$0)':$,.$2#1"%.,1%*$%[email protected]$
)"'6,1%*$)3+)#3-,#6?$I6$%$"%[email protected]$%[email protected][email protected]%5*#[email protected]?$I-$,6$64,-%5*#$/[email protected]#1+3%-,&#$
&#.##3;$/*++3,.8;$-43.#3';[email protected]#1B,.8;$8%[email protected]#.$/43.,-43#;$#(-#3,+3$1+.6-341-,+.$%[email protected]$
3%,*0%'$6*##)#36;$$,-$"%[email protected]$2%1",.,.8$%[email protected]$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6?
7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
C<XQ=7$
F>GEGMLMLLm
"--)[email protected]+3B#366+431#?1+2b+.*,.#q6"[email protected]?
)")[email protected]%*#%tRM)%3%#.6,6
27
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
F>GEGMMReYL$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
A+&*+16(+$;+1#*).3$=2.Y+&(6+7$$
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555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
TATAJUBA (Bagassa guianensis)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
n#**+0$-43.,.8$'#**[email protected]%3B$53+0.$0,-"$%8#
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
emf
>IJIG<$GiU!DU!
S,8"$
VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
GARDEN
FURNITURE
WINDOW
FRAMES
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
DECKING
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
GARDEN
VENEER
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
RAILWAY
FURNITURE
SLEEPERS
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
J+86;$J425#3$9>R>;$>l>$E$#()+3-;$5+%[email protected];$5#%26;$6H4%3#6$%[email protected]$+-"#3$
[email protected]+2#6-,1:$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
GARDEN
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
U(+2./#1.*7$
FURNITURE
F+3#6-$)[email protected][email protected],6-3,54-+3$b$,2)+3-#3$$$$$$$$$$
RAILWAY
FLOORING
SLEEPERS
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
7ijD7DU!$IU$>D=jIGD
D(1#**#.-$6-%5,*,-'$E$62%**$2+&#2#.-
`<UK<b>IWD$S<=WUD>>
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LeaM$0"#.$W3'
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
U(+2./#1.*7$
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WV=<NIJI!n
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F%,3*'$D%6'
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7i=D$IUFi=7<!IiU
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>456-,-4-#$,.$)*'[email protected]$)[email protected],+.$/+3$J,8"-$&,3+*%$9J#-/0'()3-#&'9$&)#):;$
DB+)$9A$%-'5$-0#&#'(%359'&#'&'(K(A+(5#G/0#/0'%'$:;$N3+0.$-#32,.%*,%$
9A$-9#&'0#'(5-'))##:;[email protected]+-,$9C/95':(5-$>#.3)*$:?$$!"#$6)#1,#6$,6$
1+.6,@#3%5*'$6-3+.8#3$-"%.$Z",-#$+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':$+3$!#%B$9A$.%/&'(
6-'&<#):?$I-$,6$"%[email protected]$E$"%[email protected]#3$-"%.$!#%B?$$\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$
3%-#@$%[email protected]?$$I.$83##[email protected],-,+.;$,-$,6$64)#3,+3$,.$)3+)#3-,#6$-+$Z",-#$
i%B?$7#1"%.,1%*$)3+)#3-,#6$,.$-"#[email protected]'[email protected],-,+.$%3#$1+2)%3%5*#$-+$
>"%85%3B$",1B+3'$9I'-2'(/>'%':?
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
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=2.Y+&$.&/$A"+6_$C.1(L&]$K;!GNK#12.&R
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
"--)cbb-3+),(?1,3%@?/3b%2#3,1%b!<!<`VN<?)@/
28
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
BLACK CABBAGE BARK (Lonchocarpus castilloi)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$>+4-"$<2#3,1%
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
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!"#$"#%[email protected]$,6$'#**+0,6"[email protected]%3B$3#@@,6"$53+0.$,.$1+*+43;$
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)+-#.-,%*$6456-,-4-#$/+3$%))*,1%-,+.6$0"#3#$%[email protected]%3BE3#@@,6"[email protected];$641"$%6$
7%"+8%.'$9>"#$%$&#'()**+:$,6$3#H4,3#@?$$!"#[email protected]$-%B#6$/,.,6"#6$0#**;$
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29
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555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
JATOBA (Erisma uncinatum)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
ENGINEERING &
CONSTRUCTION DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
WINDOW
FRAMES
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>+4-"$<2#3,1%
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30
GARDEN
FURNITURE
F1*.$;3+1#*).37$
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INTERIOR
VENEER
FURNITURE
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GARDEN
A<?!B;BA=!<$AFC<
FURNITURE
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K;!GNU+3(9(.
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RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
BERANGAN (Castanopsis acuminatissima)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
@.%."$;+1#*)1R$C#0.1)2#&)7$
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=#@@,6"$53+0.$-+$)%*#$53+0.
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SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
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VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"ED%6-$<6,%
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
X,20,3.&$D#&-,1,*.&$X.R,$X.R.&$!#1#&--.&,[email protected]/&$U"/
INTERIOR
ZXDXX![7$
FURNITURE
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WV=<NIJI!n
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GARDEN
FURNITURE
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p4#3146$+/$-"#$.+3-"#3.$"#2,6)"#3#?$$!"#[email protected]$3#6,[email protected]#.-,.8$%[email protected]$2%33,.8$
%5+4-$%6$0#**$%6$Z",-#$+%B$9B3$-.3)('05':$+3$5,31"$9C$%30'()**+:$%[email protected]$"%6$%$
",8"[email protected]#.6,-'?$$7%($"%3&#6-$/3+2$J%+6$/+3#6-6$/+3$.#(-$f$'#%36c$aR;QLY$2a$GZ$
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31
K;!GNQ.3.R*(.
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
NARGUSTA (Terminalia amazonica)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*$]$>+4-"$<2#3,1%
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RAILWAY
>%[email protected]$]$*+86$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
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3#@@,6"$6-3,)#6$+3$6-3#%B6
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RAILWAY
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WV=<NIJI!n
7#@,42
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
V+&$W,2%+3/)$;+1#*)7$
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GARDEN
FURNITURE
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"%[email protected];$"#%&';$%[email protected]$"%6$",8"[email protected]#.6,-'?$$>)#1,#6$6"+4*@$)3#/#3%5*'$5#$46#@$
[email protected]#3$)3+-#1-,+.$/3+2$-"#$#*#2#.-6$6,.1#$,-$"%6$*,--*#$+3$.+$3#6,6-%.1#$
-+$-"#[email protected]#6-341-,&#$#//#1-6$+/$-"#$0#%-"#3?$\#.#3%*$/,.,6",.8$H4%*,-,#6$%3#$
3%-#@$%[email protected]?$I-$,6$0,@#6)3#%@$-"3+48"+4-$G#.-3%*$%[email protected]$.+3-"#3.$>+4-"$
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"--)[email protected]+3B#366+431#?1+2b6"+0q)3+)#3-,#6?
)")[email protected]!#32,.%*,%tRM%2%C+.,1%
32
<AFE<KGF7$$
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V+&$W,2%+3/)$;+1#*)7$
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K;!GNU+3(9(.S$K;!GND#1,
555O-')&O0.&/.O+1-J.%+,)P-')&J6+&).6)*J
FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
KONDROTI (Bombax brevicuspe)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
FLOORING
VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
G#.-3%*;$Z#6-$]$D%6-$</3,1%
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
SD<=!ZiiW$GiJiV=
T%*#$3#@@,6"$53+0.$,.$1+*+43;$6+2#-,2#6$0,-"[email protected]%3B#3$2%3B,.86
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
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!"#[email protected]$,6$",8"*'$%56+35#.-;$0",1"$1+2)#.6%-#6$/+3$,-6$*[email protected]%5,*,-'$
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INTERIOR
FURNITURE
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SLEEPERS
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33
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
MORADO (Machaerium scleroxylon)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
ENGINEERING & GARDEN
CONSTRUCTION FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
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FRAMES
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VENEER
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
>+4-"$<2#3,1%
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34
K;!GNU+3(9(.S$K;!GND#1,
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INTERIOR
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
FLOORING
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
CHEREK (Peronema canescens)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
J,8"-$53+0.
WDU>I!n$K8b2a
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VENEER
;@A$A<?!B;B<[email protected]>DDEB<[email protected]
GARDEN
FURNITURE
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
X,20,3.&$D#&-,1,*.&$X.R,$X.R.&$!#1#&--.&,[email protected]/&$U"/
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7#@,42bF,.#
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SLEEPERS
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WV=<NIJI!n
!Do!V=D
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FURNITURE
;@A$EBA<[email protected]<$H
X,20,3.&$D#&-,1,*.&$X.R,$X.R.&$!#1#&--.&,[email protected]/&$U"/
ZXDXX![7$
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+/-#.$3#/#33#@$-+$%6$u0",-#$-#%Bv$,.$-"#$-3%@#?$$!",6$6)#1,#6$,6$+/-#.$46#@$,.$
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35
K;!GNQ.3.R*(.S$K;!GNB&/+&#*(.
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
TCHITOLA (Oxystigma oxyphyllum)
;<=!>?<@
! WI>!=INV!IiU
GARDEN
FURNITURE
RAILWAY
SLEEPERS
DECKING
INTERIOR
FURNITURE
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VENEER
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G#.-3%*$]$Z#6-$</3,1%
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55
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
BANG-LANG (LAGERSTROEMIA TORMENTOSA)
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
BONGO (FAGARA HEITZII)
INTERIOR
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58
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
CANA-FISTULA (CASSIA JAVANICA)
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FURNITURE
VENEER
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GARDEN
FURNITURE
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
CHENCHEN (ANTIARIS AFRICANA)
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60
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
DUABANGA (DUABANGA SONNERATOIDES; DUABANGA GRANDIFLORA;
DUABANGA MOLLUCAN)
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61
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
GEGATAL (SCHIMA NORONHAE/ CRENATA)
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VENEER
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
VENEER
HOANG-LINH (PELTOPHORUM DASYRACHIS)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
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63
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ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
KOFRAMIRE (PTELEOPSIS HYLODENDRON)
GARDEN
FURNITURE
VENEER
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CONSTRUCTION DECKING
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SLEEPERS
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64
ALTERNATIVE SPECIES
KO’ NIA/BUSH MANGO (IRVINGIA MALAYANA)
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