dads sms dissemination performance

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dads sms dissemination performance
THE DECISION AND DISSEMINATION SUPPORTS SYSTEMS (DADS) FOR THE
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
Afiq Zhofri bin Abdul Razak, Nasrul Hakim bin Hashim, Mimi Adilla binti
Sarmani, Mohd Ridzuan bin Adam, Zaty Aktar binti Mokhtar, Mohd Rosaidi
bin Che Abas
ABSTRACT
An innovative web based solution of Decision and Dissemination Supports Systems
(DADS) is presented here as part of the Malaysian National Tsunami Early Warning
System. Generally the system presented here is a combination of decision support
tools and dissemination tools delivered through sophisticated but yet user friendly
Graphical User Interface (GUI). The main purpose of this system is to assist the
decision makers in making quick and precise assessment regarding tsunamigenic
earthquake and disseminate relevant bulletin to responsible authorities for further
action. The overall design of this system is aimed to cater the requirement of
Malaysian National Tsunami Early Warning Centre (MNTEWC) and towards the
implementation of service level one and service level two of Regional Tsunami
Service Provider (RTSP). As this systems provided with risk and vulnerability
assessment through complex decision processing in a highly dense environment,
this systems proves to be highly efficient through an innovative solution that makes
this systems stand out from traditional approach that is not just time consuming but
yet prone to human errors. This system denotes a significant improvement in terms
of scale of operability as most of this systems capability is aimed at improving the
standard of operating by reducing unnecessary human interaction in order to
generate and disseminates bulletin. Therefore the system presented here is a
combination of decision support system and dissemination system in order to
accomplish a dedicated solution for end-to-end tsunami early warning systems.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1. Overview
2
1.2. How Decision Support Fit into End-to-End Tsunami
3
Warning System
1.3. Purpose of Study
2.
3.
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
4
5
2.1. Integrated Database Management Systems (IDMS)
5
2.2. Seismological Communication Processor (Seiscomp3)
6
2.3. Antelope 4.10
7
2.4. Data Flow During Event
8
SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
3.1. Architectural View
10
3.2. Decision Processing
11
3.3. Dissemination Processing
12
3.4. System Daemon
13
3.5. Bulletin Variable
15
3.6. Bulletin Threshold Criteria
20
3.7. Malaysian National Tsunami Early Warning System
21
3.7.1. Condition
21
3.7.2. Bulletin Types
23
3.7.3. Assessment Type
23
3.7.4. Product Description Based on Condition
24
3.7.5. Dissemination Group
27
3.7.6. SMS template
27
3.7.7. E-mail template
28
3.7.8. Crawlers Template (English Language)
30
3.7.9. Crawlers template (Malaysian Language)
32
3.7.10.Press Statement (English Language)
34
3.7.11.Press Statement (Malaysian Language)
36
3.8. Regional Tsunami Service Provider (RTSP)
38
3.8.1. Condition
38
3.8.2. Bulletin Types
39
3.8.3. Assessment Types
39
3.8.4. Product Description Based On Condition
40
3.8.5. Dissemination Group
42
3.8.6. E-mail Template
42
3.9. Category of Warning For Pre-Computed
47
Tsunami Scenarios
3.10. Automatic Search for Pre-Computed Tsunami
48
Scenarios
3.11. Sea Level Measurement
4.
50
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
4.1. Web User Interface (UI)
52
4.1.1. Login Screen Perspective
52
4.1.2. Situation Awareness Perspective
53
4.1.3. Issued Bulletin Perspective
57
4.1.4. View Bulletin Perspective
63
4.1.5. Manage Earthquake Data Perspective
65
4.1.6. Manual Search Tsunami Scenarios
66
4.1.7. SMS Communication Test Perspective
67
4.1.8. SMS Queue Perspective
68
4.1.9. E-mail Queue Perspective
69
4.1.10.All Dissemination Performance Perspective
70
4.1.11.Earthquake Parameter Data Entry Perspective
71
4.1.12.User Manager Perspective
72
4.1.13.Group Manager Perspective
73
4.1.14.Personal Manager Perspective
74
4.1.15.User Log Perspective
75
4.1.16.System Daemon Perspective
76
4.1.17.Manage Condition Perspective
77
4.1.18.Configuration of Bulletin Type Perspective
78
4.1.19.Configuration of Assessment Type Perspective
79
4.1.20.Configuration of Telecommunication List
80
Perspective
4.1.21.Configuration of Telecommunication Status
81
Code Perspective
4.1.22.Distribution List Group Perspective
82
4.1.23.Distribution SMS Phone Book Perspective
83
4.1.24.Distribution Email Address Book Perspective
84
4.2. Performance of the System
5.
CONCLUSIONS
85
87
FUTURE PLAN
88
ACKNOLEDGEMENT
88
REFERENCES
89
1. INTRODUCTION
The occurrence and the after effects of the vast tsunami that strike on 26 December
2004 in the Indian Ocean has set the scene for a large scale effort by Malaysian
Government to set up a Tsunami Early Warning Systems in Malaysian
Meteorological Department (MMD). This centre deals with the detection of
tsunamigenic earthquake and effectively disseminates relevant bulletin within certain
time period to the responsible authorities using a network of seismic sensor and sea
level observation.
An innovative web based approach of Decision and Dissemination Supports
Systems (DADS) is presented here as part of the Malaysian National Tsunami Early
Warning System. Generally the system presented here is a combination of decision
support tools and dissemination tools delivered through sophisticated but yet user
friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI). The main purpose of this system is to assist
the decision makers in making quick and precise assessment regarding
tsunamigenic earthquake and disseminate relevant bulletin to responsible authorities
for further action. This system aimed at improving the standard of operation by
reducing unnecessary human interaction to generate and disseminates bulletin.
Generally the overall design of this system is based on seismic analyst
processing software, tide gauges systems and the utilization of pre computed
tsunami model scenarios. All this network of sensor and data are integrated to DADS
comprising a set of rules, database and front-end GUI to enables the decision maker
to make a quick and precise assessment of the situation at hand and disseminate
relevant bulletin. This system are design to cater the requirement of Malaysian
National Tsunami Early Warning Centre (MNTEWC) and towards the implementation
of service level one and service level two of Regional Tsunami Service Provider
(RTSP) respectively. Based on the requirement for RTSP platform DADS will
provided solution in terms of tsunamigenic potential base on the automate search
algorithm from existing pre-computed tsunami scenarios. This will be a critical
solution in supporting the decision for disseminating RTSP bulletin prior to the
tsunamigenic earthquake.
1
1.1. Overview
The primary goal of this system is to generate relevant decision proposal and
disseminates critical information to the responsible authorities and the public
respectively in the shortest time as possible based on the availability of data at
that particular time. Generally this system is comprised of two main component
which is decision component and dissemination component. The combination
of this component will enhance the operation capability of the MNTEWC in
making quick and precise decision regarding current situation at hand and
disseminates proper bulletins either to local authorities or international
communities through RTSP platform
This system is developed using a web based approach methodology
by utilizing the usage of several programming language such as Pre-Hypertext
Processor (PHP) and JQuery. As for the storage mechanism MySQL has been
chosen as the prefer database solution while Apache has been chosen as the
web server platform. By adopting this approach this system able to maximize
network centric communication from existing infrastructure of Integrated
Database Management System (IDMS) which store vast information of precomputed tsunami scenarios, geo-location of major cities and sea level
observation data either from local sea level observation or from the sea level
observation data obtain from the Global Telecommunications Services (GTS).
The decision component digest earthquake parameter data supply by
seismic analyst processing software either the Sesicomp3 or Antelope based
on the current working Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). This component
compute relevant numerical tsunami simulation model based on the predefine
algorithm and determine location that have tsunamigenic possibilities. Based on
the location of predetermine probabilities the system calculates the nearest sea
level gauges location near the epicentre and display these information in order.
Tidal analysis is measure relative to normal sea level and these have to be
done manually as sea level data become available using issued bulletin
perspective. These systems will prepare relevant bulletins based on the amount
of information available at that particular time prior to the SOP. The automatic
2
generation of predefine bulletin template will shorten the response time needed
to issued bulletin (T. Steinmetz et. al, 2010).
The dissemination component functions as a solution to disseminate
bulletin in a timely manner. This component utilize two (2) methods for
dissemination which is by using current infrastructure of short messages
services (SMS) gateway and e-mail gateway. All the bulletins will be send
based on the predefine set of condition which contain bulletins templates and
the sender information group.
1.2. How Decision Support Fit into End-to-End Tsunami Warning Centre
The objective of developing DADS is to combine the power of decision support
system and dissemination system under one integrated system. A decision
support is a tool that is aimed to functions fast but yet reliable in order to digest
incoming data for information fusion. This information fusion allows a tsunami
warning centre to assess any potential threat to the region within its area of
responsibilities.
The importance criteria while developing a reliable decision support
system for tsunami warning centre is the ability to integrate in existing
infrastructure of sea level observation database and pre-computed tsunami
scenarios database. These criteria enable the ability for rapid detection and
characterization of tsunamigenic earthquakes thus provide first indication of the
predicted tsunami potential for an end-to-end tsunami warning centre. The
results of predicted tsunami scenarios can be confirm by analyzing current sea
level data based on the location specified by tsunami scenarios.
The
combination of tsunami model scenarios, sea level observation data and
earthquake parameter will increase the credibility of the warnings by decreasing
false alarm (Tsunami Warning Centre Reference Guide, 2007).
3
1.3. Purpose of Study
The main purpose of this study is to develop a suitable solution of DADS by
utilizing a web based approach. This system will assist the MNTEWC in making
quick and precise decision regarding the situation at hand based on the current
working SOP and disseminate proper bulletins either to the local authorities,
Malaysian public or the international communities through RTSP platform.
4
2. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
DADS uses a combination of sensor and external databases in a flexible and
extensible method across Local Area Network (LAN) creating an observation
and simulation framework which provide critical input that will be digest by the
systems for information fusion in order to make situation assessment based on
the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). These databases enable the
systems to generate decision proposal and relevant bulletin that needed to be
issued.
2.1. Integrated Database Management Systems (IDMS)
Integrated Database Management Systems (IDMS) is the core database
foundation for Geophysics and Tsunami Division. This system stores several
types of data such as:
a. Archive Earthquakes Data
b. Tsunami Numerical Simulation Model
c. Geo Location of major cities
d. Sea Level Observation Data
All of this data serve as a fundamental for the operation of DADS as IDMS will
provide access to its database across LAN thus permits the usability and
extension of the functionality inside DADS without having redundant database
for similar data.
For the time being a total of 32,529 worth of tsunami numerical data
have been stored in IDMS. All of this data have been pre computed using a
software called TunamiF1. Base on these data a search protocol has been
formulated based on three (3) methods available which are simple method,
interpolation method and extrapolation method (Chai et.al, 2009). This search
method takes basic earthquake parameter input such as origin time, latitude,
longitude, depth and magnitude. With the availability of these data, we can
determine the arrival time and the amplitude of the forecast tsunami height.
5
Currently IDMS store all local sea level observation data obtained from
sea level observation site. This system collects and stores the data every
minute. For future improvement IDMS will digest overseas sea level
observation data originated from Global Telecommunication Services (GTS)
and store inside IDMS database. This factor will improve the ability for DADS to
utilized sea level observation data that include a network of international tide
gauges and Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting (DART) buoy.
2.2. Seismological Communication Processor (Seiscomp3)
Seismological Communication Processor 3 or Seiscomp3 is a seismic
processing system developed by the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) from
Potsdam, Germany. It computes earthquake parameter information and
displays this information using graphical user interface called SCESV (Figure
1). Generally this system generates earthquake parameter data using
Extensible Markup Language (XML) format and transfers via Files Transfer
Protocol (FTP) to target destination in DADS server. The data transfer function
for Seiscomp3 is not being done automatically; it depends on seismic analyst
operator to select which earthquake events to be send to DADS server. This is
intentionally done to compensate the usage of Antelope Software. The
selection of this systems as one of the primary data supply to DADS is due to
the availability of magnitude computation that have a higher saturation point,
which is critical as part of the commitment for RTSP.
6
Figure 1. Seiscomp3 SCESV main earthquake data panel
2.3. Antelope 4.10
Antelope 4.10 is a series of seismic processor software developed by Boulder
Real Time Technology (BRTT). Base on this research, this system will function
as secondary systems in providing earthquake parameter data due to the
absent of higher saturation point of earthquake magnitude. For the time being
no system integration has been done between Antelope 4.10 Software and
DADS. The data input for this system need to be done manually using
earthquake parameter data entry perspective as shown in Figure 2.
7
Figure 2. Earthquake parameter data entry perspective
2.4. Data Flow During Event
While DADS in most cases is triggered by using the FTP injection from seismic
analyst processing software namely Seiscomp3, it can however to receive data
input from other seismic processing systems namely Antelope 4.10, Early Bird
or any other third party data provider. When an earthquake occur, DADS will
process the data based on the predefined standard operating procedure (SOP)
and search the pre-computed simulation scenarios based on the data available
at that particular time. This process occurs simultaneously as the data is being
processed. If there is no suitable pre-computed scenarios can be found, other
workflow are trigger which check for location of an earthquake whether it is
inside or outside the area of responsibility, the location of an earthquake is on
the sea or the land, the location is within 200 km from Malaysian coastline or
whether the current earthquake depth is shallow and last but not least it depend
on the apply rules of Malaysian SOP to denote the potential of any particular
earthquake that have the ability to generates tsunami. For earthquake with
8
magnitude lower than 6.5 in the area of reporting, it is assumes that no
destructive tsunami will be generated.
Every incoming data will be dynamically update the main situation
display with results from pre-computed tsunami scenario, and if there is a
possibility of tsunami a counter will start to count down based on the location
that have the highest impact marked with tsunami warning and followed by
the less impact marked with tsunami advisory. This generates awareness
about the current situation in hand and the operators will takes necessary
action in disseminating bulletins to predetermined group. The main interface
will dynamically updated as new data start coming in, this include sea level
observation data that continue to updates every minutes.
The operators for Malaysian Tsunami Early Warning Centre will
disseminate the proper bulletin generated by the system using issued bulletin
perspective to relevant authorities that has been predefined based on group
condition. To include pre-computed tsunami scenarios and sea level data
observation into the bulletin the operators however need to select this
manually. The operators will select which pre-computed tsunami scenarios
location to be includes in the bulletins as well as observes sea level results.
The interface of issued bulletin have two types of bulletin available, the first
bulletin will cater the requirement of Malaysia National SOP and the second
bulletin denote as the prerequisites of the Regional Tsunami Services
Provider (RTSP). These separations allow the operation for both requirements
to be fulfilled.
Presently only two method of dissemination have been configures for
this system which is short message services (SMS) and e-mail. For sending
SMS the systems have 4 preconfigured SMS backend process running in
parallel. This backend process monitors and sends outgoing SMS every
seconds using Maxis Gateway.
9
3. SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
3.1. Architectural View
The architecture of DADS itself is a combination of server component
comprised of database, external sensors or data source, external output such
as the SMS gateway, e-mail gateway and Google map for map production and
Integrated Database Management System (IDMS) containing geo database of
major cities, tsunami numerical simulation model and sea level observation
data. These components communicate among each other using Local Area
Network (LAN) through Malaysian Meteorological Department network
communication.
All of this information will be displayed using DADS graphical user
interface that utilize a web base approach. This method only requires a set up
of web browser for end user to utilize the full function of the system. The main
reason to use web base approach is to increase the usability of existing
database framework and the number of computer that can access the systems
simultaneously without having to install specific software. The architectural view
of DADS is shown in Figure 3.
This system has been developed using PHP and JQuery for the front-end
systems and PHP and bash script for back-end processing daemon. MySQL
has been chosen as the prefer storage mechanism for this system. This allow
the interconection between existing database framework, in this case the IDMS
database. To publish this system across domain we have chosen Apache as
the main webserver. All of this software mention above are open source
software platform in nature and were available for free using open source or
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) licence. Apart from the main
sotware this system relies heavily on using proven yet reliable application
proggraming interface (API) that has shorten the developement time. Among
this API are data table,highland chart,jquery countdown timer and google map
for delivering location output.This API were also available for free under open
source licence.
10
Figure 3. Architectural view of the Decision and Dissemination
Supports Systems (DADS)
3.2. Decision Processing
As part of the Malaysian Tsunami Early Warning Centre, DADS provides
processing, assessment, sea level analyst and pre-computed tsunami
scenarios as part of decision processing module. This module process seismic
data based on the bulletin threshold criteria and generates a reliable decision
proposal. The decision proposal for this system has been divided into two types
of condition which serves different purpose. The first condition is the Malaysian
National Tsunami Early Warning Condition that is based on the current local
SOP. This condition complements the requirement for Malaysia within area of
responsibility of 30˚ N 150˚ E, 15˚ S 150˚ W. Second condition is the RTSP
Condition which cover Indian Ocean requirement.
11
This module is design to process data injection either in the form of
XML or from manual data entry using a build in interface. Information
aggregation in this context generates relevant decision proposal that consist of
bulletin type, assessment types, bulletin templates, dissemination group and
type of condition that match current SOP.
3.3. Dissemination Processing
Dissemination processing is a module that manages outgoing dissemination of
SMS and e-mail using existing infrastructure of SMS gateway and e-mail
gateway. This module however manages the process through a back-end
process developed using PHP System Daemon that operates every seconds
checking incoming new bulletin from DADS web interface.
DADS dissemination processing relies heavily on back-end process
either to monitor outgoing SMS and e-mail transmission or disseminate events
bulletin. This process allows the resending of any particular bulletin that is
either failed or pending to be executes automatically without human interaction.
For the time being the dissemination processing was not configured to send fax
as there are no hardware modems being configure to this system. In order to
disseminate press statement and crawlers users however will still need to
download this bulletin and disseminate using fax machine manually. This
issued will be address later in the future as the upcoming upgrades.
12
3.4. System Daemon
System Daemon is a PHP class that allows developer to create their own
daemon application on Linux systems. This class is focussed entirely on
creating and spawning standalone daemons. A daemon is a Linux program that
runs in the background, just like a ‘Service’ on Windows. It can perform a
variety of tasks that do not require direct user input. The main advantage using
daemon is just that its remove the heavy lifting from front-end web interface to
the back-end interface, so a typical complex system can be very well optimized.
When a daemon program is started, it fires up a second’s child process,
detaches it and the parent process dies. This is called forking, and due to the
nature that the parents process dies it will give the console back to the user and
it will look like nothing has happened. But the child process is still running in
memory until it either stops, crashes or is killed. This is where it is importance
to create a situational awareness display in front-end interface to monitor the
daemon processing and if the daemon either stops, crashes or is killed enduser can easily trying to restart the process. DADS rely heavily on the usages
of System Daemon to monitor and executes heavy task that does not require
user interaction as shown in table 1.
13
Table 1. DADS System Daemon
Daemon Name
Description
Monitor Seiscomp3 XML
This daemon monitors and digests incoming
Injection
XML injection from Seiscomp3.
Monitor Local Email
This daemon monitors and sends any incoming
Queue
email queue with Malaysian bulletin templates.
Monitor RTSP Email
This daemon monitors and sends any incoming
Queue
email queue with RTSP bulletin templates.
This daemon monitors and send any SMS
Monitor All SMS Queue
queue tag with telecommunication service
provider ALL.
Monitor CELCOM SMS
Queue
Monitor MAXIS SMS
Queue
This daemon monitors and sends any SMS
queue tag with telecommunication service
provider CELCOM.
This daemon monitors and sends any SMS
queue tag with telecommunication service
provider MAXIS.
This daemon monitors and sends any SMS
Monitor DIGI SMS Queue
queue tag with telecommunication service
provider DIGI.
14
3.5. Bulletin Variable
To construct a bulletin in a dynamic condition, DADS utilized the usage of
global variable content. The definition of this variable is shown in table 2
Table 2. Data Variable for bulletin template
Description
USER NAME
LOCAL ISSUED
DATETIME 24
HOUR
LOCAL ISSUED
DATETIME 12
HOUR
UTC ISSUED
DATETIME
LOCAL ELAPSED
TIME
UTC ELAPSED
TIME
EMAIL FILE
REFERENCE
PRESS FILE
REFERENCE
CRAWLERS FILE
REFERENCE
FAX FILE
REFERENCE
EMAIL ISO
REFERENCE
PRESS
STATEMENT ISO
REFERENCE
CRAWLERS ISO
REFERENCE
FAX ISO
REFERENCE
LOCAL EQ
ORIGIN TIME
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Variable
$_VAR_USER_UPDATES
Afiq Zhofri bin Abdul Razak
$_VAR_ISSUED_24LOCALDATETIMECO
MPLETE
12:11:41 11 October 2011
$_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMEC
OMPLETE
11:57 am 11 October 2011
$_VAR_ISSUED_UTCDATETIMECOMPLE
TE
04:12:13 UTC 11 October 2011
$_VAR_LOCAL_ELAPSED_TIME
2 Hours 22 Minutes
$_VAR_UTC_ELAPSED_TIME
2 Hours 22 Minutes
$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_EMAIL
REF:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 ( )
$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_PRESS
REF:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 ( )
$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_CRAWLERS
REF:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 ( )
$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_FAX
REF:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 ( )
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_EMAIL
JMM-GFT-LK-03
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_PRESS
Example
JMM-GFT-LK-03
Name
Example
Name
Example
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_CRAWLERS
JMM-GFT-LK-03
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_FAX
JMM-GFT-LK-03
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_SPACELONG_A
MPM
09:52:00 am
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Name
Example
15
Table 2. Data Variable for bulletin template
Description
LOCAL EQ
ORIGIN DATE
LOCAL EQ
ORIGIN TIME
SHORT
LOCAL EQ
ORIGIN DATE
SLASH
UTC EQ ORIGIN
TIME
UTC EQ ORIGIN
DATE
UTC EQ ORIGIN
TIME TZONE
UTC EQ ORIGIN
DATE SLASH
LAT
COORDINATES
NODEGREE
HALF
LAT
COORDINATES
NODEGREE FULL
LONG
COORDINATES
NODEGREE
HALF
LONG
COORDINATES
NO DEGREE
FULL
(BM) LAT
COORDINATES
NODEGREE
HALF
(BM) LONG
COORDINATES
NODEGREE
HALF
BM) LAT
COORDINATES
NODEGREE FULL
Name
Example
Name
Variable
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT
11 October 2011
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
Example
09:52am
Name
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_SHORTSLASH
Example
11/10/11
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
$_VAR_EQ_UTCTIME_SPACELONG_TZO
NE
01:52:00 UTC
$_VAR_EQ_UTCDATE_FULLTEXT
11 October 2011
$_VAR_EQ_UTCTIME_SHORTTZONE
01:52UTC
$_VAR_EQ_UTCDATE_SHORTSLASH
11/10/11
$_VAR_EQ_LATNODEGREEHALF
Example
6.7S
Name
$_VAR_EQ_LATNODEGREEFULL
Example
6.7 South
Name
$_VAR_EQ_LONGNODEGREEHALF
Example
103.9E
Name
$_VAR_EQ_LONGNODEGREEFULL
Example
103.9 East
Name
$_VAR_EQ_BMLATNODEGREEHALF
Example
6.7S
Name
$_VAR_EQ_BMLONGNODEGREEHALF
Example
103.9T
Name
$_VAR_EQ_BMLATNODEGREEFULL
Example
6.7 Selatan
Name
16
Table 2. Data Variable for bulletin template
Description
(BM) LONG
COORDINATES
NODEGREE FULL
LAT DEGREE
HALF
LAT DEGREE
FULL
LONG DEGREE
FULL
LONG DEGREE
HALF
BM DEGREE LAT
HALF
BM DEGREE LAT
FULL
BM LONG
DEGREE HALF
BM LONG
DEGREE FULL
DEPTH KM
DEPTH SPACE
KM
LOCATION
COUNTRY
DISTANCE REST
DISTANCE
MALAYSIA
DISTANCE
MALAYSIA (BM)
DISTANCE REST
(BM)
DEFAULT
MAGNITUDE
DEFAULT
MAGNITUDE
TYPE
MAGNITUDE
STRENGTH
Name
Variable
$_VAR_EQ_BMLONGNODEGREEFULL
Example
103.9 Timur
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Name
Example
Name
$_VAR_EQ_DEGREELATHALF
6.7° S
$_VAR_EQ_DEGREELATFULL
6.7° South
$_VAR_EQ_DEGREELONGFULL
103.4° East
$_VAR_EQ_DEGREELONGHALF
103.7° E
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELATHALF
6.7° S
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELATFULL
6.7° Selatan
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELONGHALF
103.4° T
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELONGFULL
103.7° Timur
$_VAR_EQ_DEPTH_KM
20km
$_VAR_EQ_DEPTH_SPACEKM
20 km
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
Sumatera
$_VAR_EQ_COUNTRY
Indonesia
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST
212km SW from Bandar Lampung,Indonesia
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_MY
912km SE from JB,Malaysia
$_VAR_EQ_BMDISTANCEMY
912km Tenggara dari JB,Malaysia
$_VAR_EQ_BMDISTANCEREST
212km Barat Daya dari Bandar
Lampung,Indonesia
$_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG
7.8
$_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_TYPEMAG
Example
Mwp
Name
Example
$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT
Strong
Example
17
Table 2. Data Variable for bulletin template
Description
MAGNITUDE
STRENGTH (BM)
Name
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE Mw
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE Mwp
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE
Mw(Mwp)
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE mB
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE
Mw(mB)
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE mLv
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE ms
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE ml
Example
Name
MAGNITUDE mb
Example
Name
EVENT
SOLUTION
Example
Name
STATION COUNT
Example
Name
PHASE COUNT
Example
Name
RMS
Example
Name
AZIMUTAL GAP
Example
Name
SOURCE
Example
Name
COVERAGE
Example
Name
PHASE BULLETIN
Example
Name
LOCAL BULETIN
TYPE
Example
Variable
$_VAR_EQ_BMSTRENGTH_TEXT
Kuat
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MW
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MoWP
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MoW_MWP
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MBROAD
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAGMWMBROAD
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MLV
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MS
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_ML
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_MAG_MB
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_EVENT_SOLUTION
Automatic
$_VAR_EQ_STATION_COUNT
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_PHASE_COUNT
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_RMS
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_AZIMUTAL_GAP
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_SOURCE
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_COVERAGE
Sea
$_VAR_EQ_PHASE_BULLETIN
N.A
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALID_BULLETINTYPE
Preliminary
18
Table 2. Data Variable for bulletin template
Description
APPLY BULLETIN
TYPE CODE
LOCAL
ASSESSMENT ID
LOCAL SHORT
ASSESSMENT
LOCAL LONG
ASSESSMENT
LOCAL BM
SHORT
ASSESSMENT
LOCAL BM LONG
ASSESSMENT
RTSP BULLETIN
NAME
RTSP BULLETIN
TYPE
RTSP BULLETIN
CODE
RTSP
ASSESSMENT ID
Example
Name
Variable
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_BULLETIN_TYPE
(PRE)
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_ID_ASSESMENT
NO TSUNAMI THREAT
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_SHORTASSESSMEN
T
No tsunami threat.
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
No tsunami threat to indian ocean
$_VAR_EQ_BMLOCAL_SHORTASSESSM
ENT
Tiada ancaman tsunami
$_VAR_EQ_BMLOCAL_LONGASSESSME
NT
Tiada ancaman tsunami kepada kawasan
laut china selatan
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_NAMEBULLETIN
TSUNAMI INFORMATION BULLETIN
NUMBER 1
$_VAR_EQ_RTWPID_BULLETINTYPE
TSUNAMI INFORMATION BULLETIN
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_BULLETIN_TYPE
TSUNAMI INFO
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_BULLETIN_ID_ASSES
MENT
POTENTIAL FOR A DESCTRUCTIVE
REGIONAL TSUNAMI
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_BULLETIN_ASSESSM
ENT
Potential for a destructive regional tsunami.
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_BULLETIN_LONGASS
ESSMENT
Potential for a destructive regional tsunami.
$_VAR_TSUNAMISIMULATION_RESULTS
Example
NOT FOR SMS
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
Name
Example
RTSP SHORT
ASSESSMENT
Name
RTSP LONG
ASSESSMENT
Name
TSUNAMI
SIMULATION
RESULTS
SEA LEVEL
RESULTS
Example
Name
Example
$_VAR_SEALEVELOBSERVATION_RESU
LTS
NOT FOR SMS
19
3.6. Bulletin Threshold Criteria
Earthquake and tsunami bulletin are initially issued solely on the basis of
seismic data, but to effectively determine earthquake tsunamigenic potential
several condition need to be fulfilled in order to complement data manipulation
from earthquake parameter. Bulletin threshold criteria used for both Malaysian
Condition and RTSP Condition is shown below:
a. Location

Determine the epicentre is within the sea or land area

Determine the epicentre is within 200km from Malaysian coastline

Determine the epicentre is inside area of reporting (AOR)
b. Depth

Determine the earthquake located close enough to the earth
surface to have caused a significant displacement of that surface,
in this case the depth threshold is less than 100 km.
c. Magnitude

Determine the size of an earthquake measure in either Mw,
Mw(Mwp), Mwp, mB, Mw(mB), mb, mLv, ml, or ms.
d. Pre-Computed Tsunami Scenario

Determine the possibility of tsunamigenic earthquake based on
the pre-computed tsunami scenario search algorithm.
e. Sea level Observation (SLO)

Determine the change of sea level observation with interval of ±
0.5 meter.
20
3.7. Malaysian National Tsunami Early Warning
The decision proposal use to determine bulletin criteria for this condition is
based on condition shown in Figure 4(a) and Figure 4(b). Bulletins were issued
as soon as the earthquake parameter has been analyzed. This condition has
been separate between a not felt scenario and felt scenario; this is done to
complement local earthquake or earthquake that causes significant tremors to
Malaysia.
3.7.1.
Condition
The flowchart for determination of condition scenarios is shown in Figure
4(a) and Figure 4(b) whiles definition for certain criteria is shown in Table 3.
Figure 4(a).
This flowchart shows procedure to determine
condition scenarios for Malaysia.
21
Figure 4(b).
This flowchart shows procedure to determine
condition scenarios for Malaysia.
Table 3. Flowchart criteria definition
CRITERIA
DEFINITION
Mag
Magnitude
SLO
Sea Level Observation
TS Results
Tsunami Simulation Results
TS Criteria
Tsunami Simulation Criteria
Tsunami amplitude >= 0.5 &&
Tsunami Arrival Time <= 180 minute
22
3.7.2.
Bulletin Types
The category of bulletin types available for this system is shown below:
a. Preliminary
b. Revised
c. Earthquake Info
d. Tsunami Warning
e. Tsunami Advisory
f. Tsunami Warning Termination
g. Tsunami Advisory Termination
h. No Bulletin
The selection of this bulletin types will be decided by decision processing
module during data injection. This decision proposal however can be
modifies to suit the need based on the current situation at hand. Dynamic
modification of existing bulletin types however will not affected any other
decision proposal determine by previous condition.
3.7.3.
Assessment Type
During data injection process the decision processing module will decide
correct assessment types to be included in the bulletin. However this
assessment can be modify to suit current situation. There are several
options available as shown below:
a. No tsunami threat
b. No tsunami threat to Malaysia
c. No tremors felt in Malaysia
d. Tremors may be felt in Malaysia
e. Tremors felt in Malaysia
f. Potential for a destructive ocean wide tsunami
g. Potential for a destructive regional tsunami
h. Tsunami Warning is hereby terminated
i.
Tsunami Advisory is hereby terminated
23
j.
Custom
k. No assessment
Instead of using existing assessment proposal, the operators can include
custom assessment in the bulletin by selecting custom value.
3.7.4.
Product Description Based on Condition
Table 4 describe bulletin output based on decision proposal from decision
processing module.
Table 4. Condition description based on decision proposal
Condition
LOCAL A
LOCAL B
LOCAL C
LOCAL D
LOCAL E
LOCAL F
LOCAL G
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
24
Decision Proposal
Preliminary
(PRE)
No tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX 2
Revised
(REV)
No tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX 2
Preliminary
(PRE)
No Assessment
MIX2, VIP
Revised
(REV)
No tsunami threat to Malaysia
MIX2, VIP
Preliminary
(PRE)
No Assessment
MIX 2
Revised
(REV)
No tsunami threat
MIX 2
Preliminary
(PRE)
No Assessment
MIX 2
Table 4. Condition description based on decision proposal
Condition
LOCAL H
LOCAL I
LOCAL J
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
LOCAL K
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
LOCAL L
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
LOCAL M
LOCAL N
LOCAL O
LOCAL P
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination Group
25
Decision Proposal
Revised
(REV)
No tsunami threat
MIX 2
Earthquake Info
(EQ INFO)
No Tsunami Threat
MIX 4
Tsunami Warning
(WARNING)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Tsunami Advisory
(ADVISORY)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Tsunami Advisory
(ADVISORY)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Tsunami Warning
(WARNING)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
No Bulletin
N.A
No Assessment
N.A
Preliminary
(PRE)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5, FELT 200KM
Revised
(REV)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5, FELT 200KM
Table 4. Condition description based on decision proposal
Condition
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Q
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
R
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
S
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
T
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
U
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
V
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
W
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
LOCAL X
Assessment
Dissemination Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
LOCAL Y
Assessment
Dissemination Group
26
Decision Proposal
Preliminary
(PRE)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Revised
(REV)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP,MIX 5
Preliminary
(PRE)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Revised
(REV)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Preliminary
(PRE)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Revised
(REV)
Tremors felt in Malaysia
MIX2
Earthquake Info
(EQ INFO)
Tremors may be felt in Malaysia
MIX2
Tsunami Warning Termination
(TSUNAMI WARNING
TERMINATION)
Tsunami Warning is hereby
terminated
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
Tsunami Advisory Termination
(TSUNAMI ADVISORY
TERMINATION)
Tsunami Advisory is hereby
terminated
MIX2, VIP, MIX 5
3.7.5.
Dissemination Group
This system manages dissemination receiver based on standard grouping
apply by Geophysics and Tsunami Division. Each grouping as describe in
table 4 contain different level of receiver. Each receiver will be designated to
specific group based on their requirement. This allows consistent
dissemination to designated target group each time an event occurs.
3.7.6.
SMS template
 SMS template before data variable conversion
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_BULLETIN_TYPE$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT
EQ $_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_SHORTSLASH,$_VAR_EQ_LATNODEGRE
EHALF $_VAR_EQ_LONGNODEGREEHALF
Mag$_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG Dep$_VAR_EQ_DEPTH_KM,
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION. $_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_MY.MMD$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION.
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_MY$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_SHORTASSESSMEN
T.MMD
 SMS template after data variable conversion
(REV)Moderate EQ 06:34pm 24/01/12,8.6N 126.3E Mag5.0
Dep188km,Mindanao,Philippines Islands.186km NE of Davao,Philippine
963km NE of Sandakan,Sabah.MMD
27
3.7.7.
E-mail template

E-mail template before data variable conversion
== $_VAR_EQ_LOCALID_BULLETINTYPE ==
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING CENTRE (MNTEWC)
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Jalan Sultan, 46667, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel:(+6-03)79550470, Fax:(+6-03)79584824/79550482
E-mail:[email protected],Website:http://www.met.gov.my
_______________________________________________________________________
ISSUED AT : $_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMECOMPLETE
1. EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT,
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_SPACELONG_AMPM
Origin Time
:
Coordinates
: $_VAR_EQ_DEGREELATFULL $_VAR_EQ_DEGREELONGFULL
Magnitude
: $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_TYPEMAG
Depth
: $_VAR_EQ_DEPTH_SPACEKM
Land/Ocean
: $_VAR_EQ_COVERAGE
Location
: $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
Distance
: $_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST $_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_MY
Elapsed Time
: This Earthquake Occurred $_VAR_LOCAL_ELAPSED_TIME ago
2. EVALUATION
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
3. ADVICE
This bulletin is issued as advice to government agencies. Only national and local government
agencies have the authority to make decisions regarding the official state of alert in their
area and any actions to be taken in response.
4. ADDITIONAL EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
Event Solution
: $_VAR_EQ_EVENT_SOLUTION
No of station
: $_VAR_EQ_STATION_COUNT
Phase Count
: $_VAR_EQ_PHASE_COUNT
RMS Residual
: $_VAR_EQ_RMS seconds
Azimuthal Gap
: $_VAR_EQ_AZIMUTAL_GAP degree
______________________________________________________
This report supersedes any earlier report about this event.
This is a computer-generated message and has not yet been reviewed by a seismologist.
This will be the final bulletin unless additional information becomes available.
28

E-mail template after data variable conversion
== REVISED ==
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING CENTRE (MNTEWC)
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Jalan Sultan, 46667, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel:(+6-03)79550470, Fax:(+6-03)79584824/79550482
E-mail:[email protected],Website:http://www.met.gov.my
______________________________________________________________________________
ISSUED AT : 10:48 am 19 December 2011
1. EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION
Origin Time
: 19 December 2011, 09:23:28 am
Coordinates
: 1.2° South 119.6° East
Magnitude
: 5.6 mb
Depth
: 30 km
Land/Ocean
: Land
Location
: Sulawesi
Distance
: 311km NE of Balikpapan,Indonesia 585km SE of Sarikei,Malaysia
Elapsed Time
: This Earthquake Occurred 1 Hour 25 Minutes 31 Seconds ago
2. EVALUATION
No Tsunami Threat.
3. ADVICE
This bulletin is issued as advice to government agencies. Only national and local government
agencies have the authority to make decisions regarding the official state of alert in their
area and any actions to be taken in response.
4. ADDITIONAL EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
Event Solution
: manual
No of station
: N.A
Phase Count
: N.A
RMS Residual
: N.A seconds
Azimuthal Gap
: N.A degree
______________________________________________________________________________
This report supersedes any earlier report about this event.
This is a computer-generated message and has not yet been reviewed by a seismologist.
This will be the final bulletin unless additional information becomes available.
29
3.7.8.
Crawlers Template (English Language)
 Crawlers template before data variable conversion
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_CRAWLERS
Ref:$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_CRAWLERS Jld.2 ( )
CRAWLERS
(Issued at: $_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMECOMPLETE)
$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT Earthquake at $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
On $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
A
$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT
earthquake
has
occurred
with
magnitude
$_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG
on
Richter
scale
in
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
at
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT.
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
Duty Officer:$_VAR_USER_UPDATES
Geophysics and Tsunami Division
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Telephone:03-79678066
30
 Crawlers template after data variable conversion
JMM-GFT-LK-03
Ref:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 Jld.2 ( )
CRAWLERS
(Issued at: 06:26 pm 15 December 2011)
Strong Earthquake at South of Kermadec Islands
On 15 December 2011, 06:10pm
A Strong earthquake has occurred with magnitude 6.2 on Richter Scale in South of Kermadec
Islands at 06:10pm, 15 December 2011.
NO Tsunami threat.
Duty Officer:XXXXX
Geophysics and Tsunami Division
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Telephone:03-79678066
31
3.7.9.
Crawlers template (Malaysian Language)
 Crawlers template before data variable conversion
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_CRAWLERS
Ruj:$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_CRAWLERS Jld.2 ( )
CRAWLERS
(Dikeluarkan Pada: $_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMECOMPLETE)
Gempa Bumi $_VAR_EQ_BMSTRENGTH_TEXT di $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
Pada $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
Satu gempa bumi $_VAR_EQ_BMSTRENGTH_TEXT bermagnitud $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG
pada
Skala
Richter
telah
berlaku
di
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
pada
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT.
$_VAR_EQ_BMLOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
Pegawai Bertugas:$_VAR_USER_UPDATES
Bahagian Geofizik dan Tsunami
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia
Telephone:03-79678066
32
 Crawlers template after data variable conversion
JMM-GFT-LK-03
Ruj:JMM.APL15/756/22/08 Jld.2 ( )
CRAWLERS
(Dikeluarkan Pada: 06:26 pm 15 December 2011)
Gempa Bumi Kuat di South of Kermadec Islands
Pada 15 December 2011, 06:10pm
Satu gempa bumi Kuat bermagnitud 6.2 pada Skala Richter telah berlaku di South of Kermadec
Islands pada 06:10pm, 15 December 2011.
TIADA ancaman Tsunami.
Pegawai Bertugas:XXXXX
Bahagian Geofizik dan Tsunami
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia
Telephone:03-79678066
33
3.7.10. Press Statement (English Language)
 Press Statement before data variable conversion
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_PRESS
Ref:$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_PRESS Jld.2 ( )
PRESS STATEMENT
(Issued at: $_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMECOMPLETE)
$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT Earthquake at $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
On $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
A
$_VAR_EQ_STRENGTH_TEXT
earthquake
has
occurred
with
magnitude
$_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG
on
Richter
Scale
near
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
at
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT. The epicentre is
located at latitude $_VAR_EQ_DEGREELATFULL and longitude $_VAR_EQ_DEGREELONGFULL,
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST, $_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_MY.
$_VAR_EQ_LOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
The Malaysian Meteorological Department will continue to monitor the situation closely.
Duty Officer:$_VAR_USER_UPDATES
Geophysics and Tsunami Division
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Telephone:03-79678066
34
 Press Statement after data variable conversion
JMM-GFT-LK-02
Ref:JMM.APL15/756/22/07 Jld.2 (78)
PRESS STATEMENT
(Issued at: 06:25 pm 15 December 2011)
Strong Earthquake at South of Kermadec Islands
On 15 December 2011, 06:10pm
A Strong earthquake has occurred with magnitude 6.2 on Richter Scale near South of Kermadec
Islands at 06:10pm, 15 December 2011. The epicentre is located at latitude 32.8° South and
longitude 178.9° West, 942km NE of New Plymouth,New Zealand, 7798km SE of
Tawau,Malaysia.
NO Tsunami threat.
The Malaysian Meteorological Department will continue to monitor the situation closely.
Duty Officer:XXXXX
Geophysics and Tsunami Division
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Telephone:03-79678066
35
3.7.11. Press Statement (Malaysian Language)
 Press Statement before data variable conversion
$_VAR_ISOREFRENCE_PRESS
Ruj:$_VAR_FILEREFRENCE_PRESS Jld.2 ( )
KENYATAAN AKHBAR
(Dikeluarkan Pada: $_VAR_ISSUED_12HRLOCALDATETIMECOMPLETE)
Gempa Bumi $_VAR_EQ_BMSTRENGTH_TEXT di $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
Pada $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT
Satu gempa bumi $_VAR_EQ_BMSTRENGTH_TEXT bermagnitud $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG
pada
skala
Richter
telah
berlaku
di
$_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
pada
$_VAR_EQ_LOCALTIME_AMPMSHORT, $_VAR_EQ_LOCALDATE_FULLTEXT. Pusat gempa bumi
terletak
di
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELATFULL
dan
$_VAR_EQ_BMDEGREELONGFULL,
$_VAR_EQ_BMDISTANCEREST, $_VAR_EQ_BMDISTANCEMY.
$_VAR_EQ_BMLOCAL_LONGASSESSMENT
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia sedang memantau perkembangan ini dan akan memaklumkan
maklumat yang terkini.
Pegawai Bertugas:$_VAR_USER_UPDATES
Bahagian Geofizik dan Tsunami
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia
Telephone:03-79678066
36
 Press Statement after data variable conversion
JMM-GFT-LK-02
Ruj:JMM.APL15/756/22/07 Jld.2 (77)
KENYATAAN AKHBAR
(Dikeluarkan Pada: 06:25 petang 15 Disember 2011)
Gempa Bumi Kuat di Selatan Kepulauan Kermadec
Pada 15 Disember 2011, 06:10petang
Satu gempa bumi kuat bermagnitud 6.2 pada skala Richter telah berlaku di Selatan Kepulauan
Kermadec pada 06:10 petang, 15 Disember 2011. Pusat gempa bumi terletak di 32.8° Selatan
dan 178.9° Barat, 942km Timur Laut dari New Plymouth,New Zealand, 7798km Tenggara dari
Tawau,Sabah.
TIADA ancaman Tsunami.
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia sedang memantau perkembangan ini dan akan memaklumkan
maklumat yang terkini.
Pegawai Bertugas:Ahmad Zaki Mohamad Saad
Bahagian Geofizik dan Tsunami
Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia
Telephone:03-79678066
37
3.8. Regional Tsunami Service Provider (RTSP)
The decision proposal use to determine bulletin criteria for RTSP is based on
the flowchart shown in Figure 5 (Tsunami Warning Centre Reference Guide,
2007).
3.8.1.
Condition
The condition to determine bulletin criteria for RTSP is based on several
parameters such as earthquake parameter, pre-computed tsunami scenario,
sea level observation and the location of the epicentre.
Figure 5. Procedure to determine condition scenarios for
RTSP
38
3.8.2.
Bulletin Types
The category of bulletin types available for this system as shown below:
a. Tsunami Information Bulletin
b. Earthquake Information Bulletin
c. Tsunami Cancelation
d. No Bulletin
For each and every bulletin either Tsunami Information Bulletin or
Earthquake Information Bulletin a unique number in an incrementally order
will be given. The renumbering process of this bulletin will be monitor and
updates automatically by decision processing module. This allows new
updates for particular bulletin to be disseminates accordingly.
3.8.3.
Assessment Types
During data injection process the decision processing module will decide
correct assessment types to be included in the bulletin. However this
assessment can be modified to suit current situation. There are several
options available as shown below:
a. Potential for a destructive ocean wide tsunami.
b. Potential for a destructive regional tsunami
c. Potential for a destructive local tsunami
d. Very small potential for a destructive local tsunami
e. No tsunami potential.
f. No assessment.
39
3.8.4.
Product Description Based On Condition
Table 5 describe bulletin output based on decision proposal from decision
processing module.
Table 5. Condition description based on decision proposal
Condition
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP A
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP B
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP C
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP D
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP E
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
RTSP F
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Decision Proposal
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive ocean wide
tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive regional
tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive regional
tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive regional
tsunami
RTSP Group A
40
Table 5. Condition description based on decision proposal
Condition
RTSP G
RTSP H
RTSP I
RTSP J
RTSP K
RTSP L
RTSP M
RTSP N
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Bulletin Type
Bulletin Code
Assessment
Dissemination
Group
Decision Proposal
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Tsunami Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
Potential for a destructive local tsunami
RTSP Group A
Earthquake Information Bulletin
(TSUNAMI INFO)
No tsunami potential
RTSP Group A
No Bulletin
N.A
N.A
N.A
41
3.8.5.
Dissemination Group
To cater the requirement for RTSP each dissemination receiver will be group
as RTSP Group A. Each and every RTSP contact person will be included in
this group. This allows consistent dissemination to the designated target
group each time an event occurs.
3.8.6.
E-mail Template
RTSP e-mail template before data variable conversion is shown below:
 Bulletin header
== $_VAR_EQ_RTWP_NAMEBULLETIN ==
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING CENTRE (MNTEWC)
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Jalan Sultan, 46667, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel:(+6-03)79550470, Fax:(+6-03)79584824/79550482
E-mail:[email protected],Website:http://www.met.gov.my
______________________________________________________________________________
ISSUED AT: $_VAR_ISSUED_UTCDATETIMECOMPLETE
 Earthquake Parameter
EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION
Origin Time
:
$_VAR_EQ_UTCDATE_FULLTEXT, $_VAR_EQ_UTCTIME_SPACELONG_TZONE
Coordinates : $_VAR_EQ_LATNODEGREEFULL $_VAR_EQ_LONGNODEGREEFULL
Magnitude
: $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_MAG $_VAR_EQ_DEFAULT_TYPEMAG
Depth
: $_VAR_EQ_DEPTH_SPACEKM
Land/Ocean : $_VAR_EQ_COVERAGE
Location
: $_VAR_EQ_LOCATION
Distance
:
$_VAR_EQ_DISTANCE_REST
Elapsed Time : This Earthquake Occurred $_VAR_LOCAL_ELAPSED_TIME ago
42
 Evaluation
EVALUATION
$_VAR_EQ_RTWP_BULLETIN_LONGASSESSMENT
 Pre-computed tsunami scenarios results
$_VAR_TSUNAMISIMULATION_RESULTS
 Sea Level Observation Results
$_VAR_SEALEVELOBSERVATION_RESULTS
 Advise
ADVICE
This bulletin is issued as advice to government agencies. Only national and local
government agencies have the authority to make decisions regarding the official
state of alert in their area and any actions to be taken in response.
 Additional Earthquake Parameter
ADDITIONAL EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
Event Solution
: $_VAR_EQ_EVENT_SOLUTION
No of station
: $_VAR_EQ_STATION_COUNT
Phase Count
: $_VAR_EQ_PHASE_COUNT
RMS Residual
: $_VAR_EQ_RMS seconds
Azimuthal Gap
: $_VAR_EQ_AZIMUTAL_GAP degree
43
 Bulletin Footer
UPDATES
No further bulletins will be issued by RTSP MALAYSIA for this event unless additional
information becomes available.
Other RTSPs may issued additional information at:
RTSP INDONESIA
RTSP AUSTRALIA
RTSP INDIA
:
:
:
http://rtsp.bmkg.go.id
http://reg.bom.gov.au/tsunami/rtsp/
http://www.incois.gov.in/Incois/tsunami/COMM_login.jsp
In case of conflicting information from RTSPs or the IAS (PTWC, JMA), the more conservative
information should be use for safety.
______________________________________________________________________________
This report supersedes any earlier report about this event.
This is a computer-generated message and has not yet been reviewed by a seismologist.
This will be the final bulletin unless additional information becomes available.
RTSP e-mail template after data variable conversion
 Bulletin header
== TSUNAMI INFORMATION BULLETIN NUMBER 1 ==
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING CENTRE (MNTEWC)
Malaysian Meteorological Department
Jalan Sultan, 46667, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel:(+6-03)79550470, Fax:(+6-03)79584824/79550482
E-mail:[email protected],Website:http://www.met.gov.my
______________________________________________________________________________
ISSUED AT: 04:28:37 UTC 19 December 2011
44
 Earthquake Parameter
EARTHQUAKE INFORMATION
08 April 2011, 11:59:00 UTC
Origin Time
:
Coordinates
: 6.7 South 103.9 East
Magnitude
: 7.9 Mwp
Depth
: 50 km
Land/Ocean
: Sea
Location
: Sumatera
Distance
:
212km SW of Bandar Lampung,Indonesia
Elapsed Time : This Earthquake Occurred 254 Days 4 Hours 29 Minutes 37 Seconds ago
 Evaluation
EVALUATION
Potential for a destructive local tsunami.
 Pre-computed tsunami scenarios results
PRE-COMPUTED TSUNAMI MODEL AND SCENARIOS
The list below show the forecast arrival time from pre-computed model and scenarios based
on the availability of earthquake parameter at the time this bulletin was issued.
Coastal Point Country
Lat
Bandar
Lampung
Indonesia
Bengkulu
Long
Arrival(UTC)
Amplitude(m)
Status
-5.58333 105.333
2011-12-09
01:26:00
1.4
Warning
Indonesia
-3.75
102.25
2011-12-09
01:27:00
1.1
Warning
Cilacap
Indonesia
-7.75
109.167
2011-12-09
01:25:00
0.6
Advisory
Bali
Indonesia
-8.75
115.083
2011-12-09
01:54:00
0.3
Advisory
This centre will continue to monitor real-time sea level gauges near the epicentre region and
report any tsunami wave observed.
45
 Sea Level Observation Results
TSUNAMI WAVE OBSERVATION
Based on the real-time sea level observation it was confirmed that a TSUNAMI has been
triggered. Tsunami wave activity was observed at the following sea level gauges:
Arrival(UTC)
Amplitude(m)
Period
(min)
Malaysia 6.2402 99.75590
2011-04-09
00:45:00
1.57
30
Pantai
Kerancut
Malaysia 5.4492 100.1953
2011-04-08
13:30:00
1.27
15
Pulau
Perhentian
Malaysia 5.9326 102.7002
2011-04-08
19:30:00
1.5
45
Location
Country
Porto Malai
Lat
Long
 Advise
ADVICE
This bulletin is issued as advice to government agencies. Only national and local
government agencies have the authority to make decisions regarding the official
state of alert in their area and any actions to be taken in response.
 Additional Earthquake Parameter
ADDITIONAL EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
Event Solution
: manual
No of station
: N.A
Phase Count
: N.A
RMS Residual
: N.A seconds
Azimuthal Gap
: N.A degree
46
 Bulletin Footer
UPDATES
No further bulletins will be issued by RTSP MALAYSIA for this event unless additional
information becomes available.
Other RTSPs may issued additional information at:
RTSP INDONESIA
RTSP AUSTRALIA
RTSP INDIA
:
:
:
http://rtsp.bmkg.go.id
http://reg.bom.gov.au/tsunami/rtsp/
http://www.incois.gov.in/Incois/tsunami/COMM_login.jsp
In case of conflicting information from RTSPs or the IAS (PTWC, JMA), the more conservative
information should be use for safety.
______________________________________________________________________________
This report supersedes any earlier report about this event.
This is a computer-generated message and has not yet been reviewed by a seismologist.
This will be the final bulletin unless additional information becomes available.
3.9. Category of Warning For Pre-Computed Tsunami Scenario
The category of warning for pre-computed tsunami scenario is based on
several criteria as shown in Table 6.
Table 6. Tsunami warning category for pre-computed tsunami scenario
Tsunami Height
> 0.5 meter
< 0.5 meter
Pre-Computed Tsunami Scenario
(Travel Time and Tsunami Heights)
Travel Times
Bulletin Message
< = 180 minutes
Warning
> 180 minutes
Advisory
47
3.10. Automatic Search For Pre-Computed Tsunami Scenarios
The algorithm used to search for pre-computed tsunami scenarios is based on
several method such as simple method, interpolation method and extrapolation
method (Chai et.al, 2009). This algorithm will be controlled by decision
processing module, where it will search existing pre-computed tsunami
scenarios database using existing earthquake parameter. The results
generated by this algorithm will not be automatically stored inside the database;
it depends on user interaction to select which scenario best fit current situation.
In term of interface, these results will be displayed in situation display
perspective (Figure 6 and Figure 7) and in issued bulletin perspective (Figure
8).
Figure 6. Pre-computed tsunami scenarios arrival countdown
(Tsunami Warning)
Figure 7. Pre-computed tsunami scenarios arrival countdown
(Tsunami Warning)
48
Figure 8. Pre-Computed Tsunami Scenarios show list of location
to be includes in the bulletin
As for situation display perspective the results shown represent current
location that has the highest possible threat. The countdown timer will move to
the next location as the counter end. The design goal for this interface is to give
the operator at Malaysian Tsunami Early Warning Centre a clear overview of
the current situation at hand. However if the operator want to include the results
to existing bulletin, they have to use issued bulletin perspective that show all
results of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. This interface permit the user to
choose between results to be includes in a bulletin.
49
3.11. Sea Level Measurement
In general, tsunami information bulletin are issued based on the earthquake
information data in the first stage. After the issuance of the first bulletin the
operator at Malaysia Tsunami Early Warning Centre (MNTEWC) will start to
monitor the real-time sea level observation stations. When a tsunami waves is
detected, they will be included into the observation data in the subsequent
bulletin accordingly. Basically sea level always changes up and down very
slowly due to the tides. Before tsunami waves measurement can be made there
are factor that will affect the reading (UNESCO.IOC-NOAA, 2010). Thus it is
very importance to eliminate astronomical tides level from the observed record
in order to obtain tsunami signal. If the astronomical tides level from the
observed record were eliminate than this following parameter are measured
(also see Figure 9).
Time of measurement:
Time (UTC) when Malaysia Tsunami Early Warning Centre (MNTEWC)
measured the tsunami amplitude shown on the bulletin.
Period:
The period of time in minutes from one crest to the next.
Amplitude:
Tsunami amplitude (meter) in this case is measured from crest to crest.
50
Time of measurement
Period
Amplitude
Figure 9. Method of tsunami observation measurement use
by MNTEWC
51
4. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
4.1. Web User Interface (UI)
The output for this research is a real time web based system operating from a
Linux Server and can be access at temporary address https://161.142.139.80.
This address however will be change once the server got its permanent domain
name. However as for pre-operational prerequisites this system will continues
to operate at specified address.
4.1.1.
Login Screen Perspective
Accessing the system require every user to be register by Geophysics and
Tsunami Division system administrator. Once register, the user can access
the system as shown in Figure 10. Due to security matter this system can
only be access within Malaysia Meteorological Department internal network
connection.
Figure 10. Login Screen Perspective
52
4.1.2.
Situation Awareness Perspective
Situation awareness perspective functions as the main interface to display
earthquake parameter data as well as relevant guidance before the
issuance of bulletin (Figure 12). This interface operates in real-time as it
constantly updates it content as new data coming in from seismic analyst
software.
The situation awareness perspective has six (6) main panels which are
summary panel, earthquake events panel, map panel (Figure 11),
earthquake origin timer (Figure 13), pre-computed tsunami timer (Figure
14) and information panel (Figure 15). Each panel operates based on the
data selected from the earthquake event panel which display seven (7)
data at any particular time. The summary panel display more information
about particular event and through this panel operator can acknowledge an
event, open issued bulletin perspective or update an earthquake
parameter. As for the map panel, Google Map has been chosen to display
earthquake epicentre and the location results computed from tsunami
scenario database. The main reason for this system to utilized online
mapping compared to offline mapping is due to the vast amount of
geographical resource available in Google Map rather than to reinvent the
wheel by recreating custom map. One of the key components for tsunami
early warning centre to operate effectively is to link the system to precomputed tsunami database scenario and effectively display the results (T.
Steinmetz et.al, 2010). This method is being accomplished by using
tsunami scenario timer which displays the predicted tsunami results with
the countdown timer to indicate the time for tsunami waves to hit the
forecast point. This tsunami timer will display the highest possible tsunami
scenario based on the location and the display will move to the next
location as the current get expired. However, operator can view all the data
as shown in Figure 16 in the form of data table by clicking view button.
53
The other criterion for tsunami early warning to operate effectively is to
have a clear guidance about how long an earthquake has occurred. This is
where earthquake timer plays it role by displaying the counts up timer from
the origin time of an earthquake to the current time define by DADS server
time. Other important function to this interface is the ability to notified user
about new data or updated data with the triggering of alarm. This sound
function can be disable by using sound button located in summary panel. If
there is an event where the interface does not get updated, user can
manually update the content with a refresh button located in event panel.
Figure 11. The main DADS situation awareness perspective
54
Figure 12. DADS Situation Display Perspective with earthquake
epicentre display on map
Figure 13.DADS Situation Display Perspective with earthquake
origin timer
55
Figure 14. DADS Situation Display Perspective with precomputed tsunami results timer
Figure 15. DADS Situation Display Perspective with user
information display
56
Figure 16. DADS Situation Display Perspective with precomputed tsunami simulation results display
4.1.3.
Issued Bulletin Perspective
Issued Bulletin perspective (Figure 17) can be accessed using situational
awareness perspective or manage earthquake data perspective. This
interface display fusion earthquake parameter that has been injected from
seismic analyst software. There are five (5) main panels in this interface
which is earthquake information panel (Figure 18), dissemination status
panel (Figure 19), bulletin configuration panel (Figure 20), sea level
observation panel (Figure 21) and pre-computed tsunami scenarios results
panel (Figure 23).
57
Figure 17. Issued Bulletin Perspective
The earthquake information panel control all earthquake parameter
data available for this system. The modification of existing data can be
done using this panel. Each time this panel get an update a new decision
proposal will be compute based on the availability of the current earthquake
parameter. Any changes to the decision proposal will affect previous setup
for current bulletin type and assessment type selection due to the
conceptual usage of this interface where operator need to updated the
earthquake information panel before further changes can be made to
bulletin configuration panel.
58
Figure 18. Issued bulletin perspective with earthquake information
panel
Dissemination status panel show current status of bulletin that has
been disseminated either using SMS or e-mail. Each and every bulletin
disseminated via this system will be categorized accordingly with a
dissemination elapsed time measured in minutes from the origin time of an
earthquake to the time the bulletin get disseminates. This is a system
indicator to determine the dissemination performance.
Figure 19. Issued bulletin perspective with dissemination status panel
59
Bulletin configuration panel functions as a panel to modify existing
decision proposal. This panel has been divided into two sections which is
the Malaysian Bulletin section and the RTSP Bulletin section. As for the
Malaysian bulletin user can change existing bulletin proposal to desire
bulletin type that match current situation at hand. Same situation apply for
assessment type but with extra boost where user can create custom
assessment by selecting custom value and a dialog box will appear to
compensate this function. There are two information displays which is the
SOP panel that display current decision proposal for both section and mode
panel to display the current status of the bulletin. For instance current mode
of existing bulletin will change from normal to custom mode if there is any
modification made to bulletin content. While the bulletin mode is in custom
condition the bulletin content will not be overwritten, to change this to the
normal mode the user need to change the bulletin type to normal mode.
Figure 20. Issued bulletin perspective with bulletin configuration panel
60
The sea level observation panel shows the list of sea level
observation network either from Malaysia Tidal Gauges Network or
International Sea Level Network. This panel sorts sea level observation
network based on the nearest distance of any particular station to the
source of an earthquake. Sea level station with the nearest distance to the
epicentre will be located on top of this list following other station in an
ascending order.
To include a sea level reading to the bulletin, user need to manually
plot the results based on the sea level chart includes in this panel (Figure
22). Sea level chart generated by this panel will continuously updates data
every one (1) minute. If tsunami waves are observed in these data their
amplitude and period (the time of one complete wave cycle) is measured.
This method is accomplished by clicking the onset of the generated waves
to the complete cycle of the waves in order for the system to calculate the
results. This result will be automatically assign to the panel marked with red
font colour indicated that this data need to be saves.
To save this data, user need to tick a checkbox located beside the
data and the font colour of the data will be revert back to default black. This
indicates that the data has been successfully store in the database.
Removing these data from the database requires the user to tick the
checkbox again and the system will automatically remove the data. These
data panel for particular station will change to not available (N.A) status to
note that the process of removing data has been succeeded.
61
Figure 21. Issued bulletin perspective with sea level observation panel
Figure 22. Sea level chart plotted from sea level observation panel
The pre-computed tsunami panel display the list of predetermines
location based on the level of threat. There are two (2) level of threat
category available in this panel which is warning marked by the colour red
and advisory marked with yellow. In order to include the results to the
bulletin user has to manually save the data by checking the checkbox
available for each set of data. The system will automatically save the
results once user ticks the checkbox. The same procedure applies if the
user decided to remove the data. In this case the user needs to unchecked
62
the checkbox and the system will automatically remove the data from the
database.
Figure 23. Issued bulletin perspective with pre-computed tsunami
scenario results
4.1.4.
View Bulletin Perspective
This interface serves as bulletin viewer and bulletin dissemination panel.
Accessing this interface is only available using view button located in
issued bulletin perspective (Figure 24). This interface has three (3) main
panels which is the view bulletin panel, recent bulletin panel and the
dissemination panel (Figure 25).
63
Hyperlink to view bulletin
perspective
Figure 24. Hyperlink to view bulletin perspective
View bulletin panel
Recent bulletin panel
Dissemination panel
Figure 25. View bulletin perspective
64
4.1.5.
Manage Earthquake Data Perspective
The function of this interface is to manage earthquake data and relevant
bulletin. Using this interface user can remove earthquake data, open issued
bulletin perspective and view location map. This interface is shown in
Figure 26.
Figure 26. Interface to manage earthquake data and bulletin
65
4.1.6.
Manual Search Tsunami Scenarios
This interface enables direct access to search pre-computed tsunami
scenarios base on the earthquake parameter. This interface search the
database using simple method, interpolation method or extrapolation
method (Chai et.al, 2009) and the results will be display in a form of data
table. This interface is shown in Figure 27.
Figure 27. The interface to search for tsunami scenario database
66
4.1.7.
SMS Communication Test Perspective
This interface allows the operator to create a SMS communication test by
sending messages regularly. Operator has an option to include a
dissemination group, dissemination user or even manually insert user that
is not available in the current phone book database (Figure 28).
Figure 28. SMS Communication Test Interface
67
4.1.8.
SMS Queue Perspective
The purpose of this interface is to display the status of SMS dissemination
queue. This interface monitors current status of the queue and if there is
any messages that is either pending or in failed states, SMS daemon will
try to resend thus messages. There is absolutely no human interaction
needed to resend the message. SMS queue perspective is shown in Figure
29.
Figure 29. SMS queue perspective
68
4.1.9.
E-mail Queue Perspective
The purpose of this interface is to display the status of e-mail dissemination
queue (Figure 30). This interface has the same function like SMS queue
perspective where it only displays e-mail dissemination status and content.
The dissemination method will be executed using back-end process which
in this case e-mail daemon. These daemons continuously monitor new email that needed to be disseminated or e-mail that are either in pending or
failed states.
Figure 30. E-mail queue perspective
69
4.1.10.
All Dissemination Performance Perspective
One important aspect to monitor in the dissemination environment is the
amount of time needed to disseminate particular bulletin. Using DADS this
method can be monitor with all dissemination performance perspective.
This interface display the elapsed time for particular bulletin to be send,
total amount of bulletin send and the status of the bulletin either in failed or
send states. This indication is important to determine the total performance
of this system. This interface is shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31. All dissemination performance perspective
70
4.1.11.
Earthquake Parameter Data Entry Perspective
Despite the ability to digest XML data injection through Seiscomp3, this
system has a failed over interface to insert earthquake parameter manually.
This interface was developed to support the usage of Antelope software as
there is no direct integration yet to be done with this seismic analyst
software. In general this interface has a build in form to insert earthquake
parameter data. Once this form has been submitted, issued bulletin
perspective will be emerges replacing earthquake parameter data entry
perspective. This interface is shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32. Earthquake parameter data entry perspective
71
4.1.12.
User Manager Perspective
Managing current user information that has the ability to login to this system
can be done using this interface. Basically this interface manages user
information and its respective group. This group gives the ability for
different user to have different level of access to this system. This interface
is shown in Figure 33.
Figure 33. User manager perspective
72
4.1.13.
Group Manager Perspective
Group manager perspective manages group level for this system. This
allows multi level access to system by creating different group with different
level of access to this system. System administrator is responsible to create
and manage group content for this system. This interface is shown in
Figure 34.
Figure 34. Group manager perspective
73
4.1.14.
Personal Manager Perspective
This interface uniquely differs in its content from one user to another as this
interface manages personal user account information. In general this
system allows user to change their respective user id, user name or
password thus permit the user to control their own account while
maintaining security and privacy. This interface is shown in Figure 35.
Figure 35. Personal manager perspective
74
4.1.15.
User Log Perspective
This interface monitors all user logging activity and its respective location. It
display login information such as login time, logout time, user, group ,
internet protocol (IP) address and the counter to show how many times the
user has login to the system. This interface is shown is Figure 36.
Figure 36. User log perspective
75
4.1.16.
System Daemon Perspective
The method of controlling a typical back-end process contain system
daemon was very difficult for end-user that does not have the ability to
access the main server. As a solution a front-end interface was developed
that allowed the end-user to control and monitor system daemon from their
accounts. Basically this interface permits the ability for end-user to start,
stop and monitor specific daemon process as shown in Figure 37. Instead
of monitoring daemon process this interface also display the connection
status for external database and FTP status.
Figure 37. System daemon perspective
76
4.1.17.
Manage Condition Perspective
One of importance aspect for any decision support system is to have the
ability to control the information contained in pre determine decision
proposal condition. Using this interface end-user has the ability to change
several aspects regarding decision proposal condition such as bulletin
templates, dissemination group, bulletin types and assessment types. This
interface is shown in Figure 38.
Figure 38. Manage condition perspective
77
4.1.18.
Configuration of Bulletin Type Perspective
This interface manages the types of bulletin available for this system as
shown in Figure 39. Using this interface end-user can create, remove or
updated existing bulletin types and its information.
Figure 39. Bulletin type perspective
78
4.1.19.
Configuration of Assessment Type Perspective
The configuration of assessment types available for this system can be
done using this interface as shown in Figure 40. Using this interface enduser have the ability to create, remove and updated information available
for assessment types.
Figure 40. Configuration of assessment type perspective
79
4.1.20.
Configuration of Telecommunication List Perspective
This interface manages the configuration of telecommunication provider list.
This interface is shown in Figure 41.
Figure 41. Configuration of telecommunication list perspective
80
4.1.21.
Configuration of Telecommunication Status Code Perspective
This interface defined telecommunication status code and description used
by SMS daemon as shown in Figure 42. All of this code contributes to the
status of SMS dissemination. Using this interface end-user have the ability
to create, remove and updates the content.
Figure 42. Configuration of telecommunication status code
81
4.1.22.
Distribution List Group Perspective
This interface differs in term of functionalities between group manager
perspectives as this interface manages dissemination group use in SMS, email and fax dissemination. Dissemination group created in this interface
can be include in decision proposal by using manage condition perspective.
This interface is shown in Figure 43.
Figure 43. Distribution group perspective
82
4.1.23.
Distribution SMS Phone Book Perspective
The purpose of this interface is to manage phone book for SMS
dissemination purpose as shown in Figure 44. Using this interface system
administrator has the ability to create, remove and updates the content of
system phone book. One important feature using this interface is the ability
to enable or disable dissemination user status. While dissemination user
status is in disable mode no SMS will be send to this number until their
status being revert to enable mode.
Figure 44. Distribution SMS phone book perspective
83
4.1.24.
Distribution E-mail Address Book Perspective
This interface manage e-mail address book for DADS as shown in Figure
45. Using this interface system administrator has the ability to create,
remove or updates the e-mail address book information. Dissemination
user status can be enables or disable based on the requirement at any
particular time. While dissemination user in a disable mode no e-mail will
be send to this address until their status being revert back to enable mode.
Figure 45. Distribution email address book perspective
84
4.2. Performance of the System
This system has begun pre-operation status on the 10 November 2011, and
until this report is made there are a total of ten (10) earthquake events has
been processed and disseminated using this system. The performance results
for this system regarding SMS dissemination is shown in Table 7. The
performance chart for SMS dissemination is shown is Figure 46.
Table 7. Average time for SMS bulletin dissemination
Elapsed Time (minutes)
Origin Time (UTC)
Preliminary
Revised
Earthquake Info
10-11-2010 02:34:54
9
20
N.A
14-11-2011 04:05:16
7
13
N.A
13-12-2011 01:20:43
5
17
N.A
13-12-2011 07:52:00
7
14
N.A
14-12-2011 05:04:59
6
22
N.A
15-12-2011 10:10:05
N.A
N.A
15
16-12-2011 23:18:10
3
11
N.A
19-12-2011 01:23:28
2
14
N.A
20-12-2011 18:45:31
8
16
N.A
22-12-2011 12:11:52
8
14
N.A
Average Time (minutes)
6
16
15
85
DADS SMS DISSEMINATION PERFORMANCE
Preliminary
Revised
Earthquake Info
24
22
20
18
minutes
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Earthquake Event (UTC)
Figure 46. SMS dissemination performance
Based on this result the average performance for preliminary bulletin
types is within 6 minutes duration while key performance index (KPI) for this
types of bulletin is 12 minutes. As for revision bulletin the average performance
is within 16 minutes while KPI for these types of bulletin has been set to 24
minutes. The introduction of this system to the operation environment of
MNTEWC has significantly boosted the performance in terms of disseminating
SMS.
86
5. CONCLUSIONS
The development of DADS is particularly challenging considering the approach
of combining different sensor and database through one system integration
framework, but the outcome of this system have contributed immensely to the
efficiency and increasing the level of productivity in terms of operation for
MNTEWC. Total response time measured from the time of detection for an
earthquake to the dissemination of bulletin has been significantly improve. This
denotes a significant improvement in term of scale of operability as most of this
systems capability aimed at improving the standard of operating by reducing
unnecessary human interaction to generate and disseminates bulletin. Many of
the improvements have been achieved in a sense of technical and
communication infrastructure as well as a standard operating procedure in
determines warning dissemination. The integration of sea level observation
along with pre-computed tsunami scenarios increase the level of confident
while determines a tsunamigenic earthquake. Therefore as this systems
provided with risk and vulnerability assessment through complex decision
processing in a highly dense environment, this systems proves to be highly
efficient through an innovative solution that makes this systems stand out from
traditional approach that is not just time consuming but yet prone to human
errors. One of the key factors in ensuring a sustainable operation for this
system is the ability to undergo continuous improvement on major aspect of
system functionality through indigenous development. This will ensure an
atmosphere of progress within MNTEWC. Therefore this system will continue to
evolve as a dedicated solution for an end-to-end tsunami early warning
systems.
87
FUTURE PLAN
The development phase for this system is still far from completion as this
product will undergo continuous improvement in term of performance and the
functionality of this system. In the near future several improvements have been
formulated to strengthen the foundation of this system itself. This includes the
configuration of new dissemination method to disseminate fax bulletin.
Furthermore
several
RTSP
bulletin
such
as
SMS,
fax
and
Global
Telecommunication Services (GTS) is set to be develop in order to complement
international requirement.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all the staff of Malaysian
Tsunami Early Warning Centre (MNTEWC) for giving valuable comments,
feedbacks and suggestion for further improvement during development process
of this system. Special thanks to the management of Geophysics and Tsunami
Division for their support during this research.
88
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