2012 Program - International Behavioral Neuroscience Society

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2012 Program - International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
International Behavioral
Neuroscience Society
Annual Meeting
Program and Abstracts
Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA
June 5-10, 2012
Abstracts of the International Behavioral Neuroscience
Society, Volume 21, June 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstracts..................................................................................................................... 32-113
Acknowledgments................................................................................................................5
Advertisements......................................................................................................... 121-128
Author Index ............................................................................................................ 114-120
Call for 2013 Symposium Proposals....................................................................................6
Exhibitors/Sponsors .............................................................................................................4
Future Meeting .....................................................................................................................6
Officers/Council ...................................................................................................................2
Program/Schedule
Tuesday ......................................................................................................................7
Wednesday .................................................................................................................8
Thursday ..................................................................................................................15
Friday.......................................................................................................................23
Saturday ...................................................................................................................29
Sunday......................................................................................................................31
Summary Program ................................................................................... Inside Back Cover
Travel Awards ......................................................................................................................3
IBNS CENTRAL OFFICE
`tÜ|tÇÇx itÇ jtzÇxÜ? Xåxvâà|äx VÉÉÜw|ÇtàÉÜ
International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
8181 Tezel Road #10269
San Antonio, Texas 78250 USA
(830) 796-9393 tel.
(830) 796-9394 fax
(866) 377-4416 (toll-free from within the US)
[email protected]
http://www.ibnshomepage.org
PRESIDENTIAL WELCOME
Aloha and Welcome to the 21st Annual Meeting of the International
Behavioral Neuroscience Society, in Kona, Hawaii. The meeting is
projected to be the largest meeting IBNS has ever had, and I look
forward to an exciting and instructive program, in which recent
developments in behavioral neuroscience will be described and
discussed.
This site also provides lessons in history. The Kona coast is deeply
embedded in the history of Hawaii. It was the site of first arrival of
Europeans, under the command of Captain James Cook, who landed
here in 1778. Returning to Hawaii after a brief expedition to what is
now Alaska, Captain Cook was killed –again on this coast, at
Kealakekua Bay—in 1779.
Kamehameha I (“the great”) was born in Hawaii, at the northern tip of this coastline, and was a
young man at the time of the Cook landings. Later, using western arms (he was an observant
young man!) he conquered and united almost all of the islands, becoming the first King of
Hawaii.
Aside from science and history, we have an extra event for attendees, one that will not be
repeated for nearly 120 years. The transit of Venus across the sun will take place in the
afternoon of June 5, the first day of our meeting. Hawaii and Alaska are the only parts of the US
where the entire transit, lasting several hours, will be visible. (if you plan to view it, protect
your eyes with eclipse shades)…as another point of connection to the history of Hawaii, Captain
Cook’s first voyage, in 1769, was to Tahiti, to observe---a transit of Venus!
http://star.arm.ac.uk/history/transit.html
In sum, this meeting promises to be one that is totally without parallel! I sincerely hope that you
find it deeply rewarding, and also a lot of fun, and that you come to appreciate Hawaii and its
history, as we who live here do.
Sincerely,
D. Caroline Blanchard
President, International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
1
OFFICERS
President ................................................................................................................... D. Caroline Blanchard
Past-President........................................................................................................................ Kelly Lambert
Acting Secretary.....................................................................................................................Elena Choleris
Treasurer..........................................................................................................................Stefan Brudzynski
Past Presidents
Robert Gerlai ............................................................................................................................... 2007-2008
Joseph Huston ........................................................................................................................................2006
Robert Adamec ......................................................................................................................................2005
C. Sue Carter..........................................................................................................................................2004
Robert J. Blanchard................................................................................................................................2003
Mark A. Geyer .......................................................................................................................................2002
John P. Bruno.........................................................................................................................................2001
Jacqueline N. Crawley ..........................................................................................................................2000
László Lénárd.........................................................................................................................................1999
Robert L. Isaacson ................................................................................................................................1998
Michael L. Woodruff ............................................................................................................................1997
Gerard P. Smith......................................................................................................................................1996
Linda P. Spear........................................................................................................................................1995
Robert D. Myers.....................................................................................................................................1994
Paul R. Sanberg......................................................................................................................................1993
Founding President
Matthew J. Wayner ................................................................................................................................1992
COUNCIL MEMBERS
Australasia............................................................................................................................... Simon Crowe
Canada............................................................................................................................... Henry Szechtman
Europe .................................................................................................................................Giovanni Biggio
Francesca Cirulli
Latin America .................................................................................................. Rosalinda Guevara-Guzman
Student ........................................................................................................................ Sarah Kaye Williams
USA........................................................................................................................Franciso Gonzalez-Lima
Byron C. Jones
Mark B. Kristal
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STUDENT/POSTDOC TRAVEL AWARDS
We are pleased to announce the recipients of the IBNS Travel Awards for the 2012 meeting in Kona,
Hawaii, USA. Award winners will receive hotel and travel reimbursement, certificate, and waiver of
registration fees. Travel awardees are presenting orally and will also have their research presented in a
poster session. Congratulations to all.
TRAVEL AWARDS
(listed alphabetically)
Postdoctoral Travel Awards
Alaine Keebaugh, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Alexxai Kravitz, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California, USA
Erik Oleson, University of Maryland-School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Tori Schaefer, Cincinnati Children’s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Moriel Zelikowsky, Caltech, Pasadena, California, USA
Graduate Student Travel Awards
Catherine Barrett, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Collin Challis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Nina Donner, University of Colorado-Boulder, Colorado, USA
Stephanie Groman, University of California-Los Angeles, California, USA
Anna Phan, University of Guelph, Ontario, CANADA
Kartik Ramamoorthi, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Adam Smith, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Brandon Warren, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
IBNS Regional Travel Awards
Michael Bowen, University of Sydney, Australia
Áron Tulogdi, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary
3
The IBNS would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations that have
given financial support to the 21st International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
Conference. This financial support enabled many students to attend the conference.
SPONSORS
National Institutes of Health
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Division of Clinical Neuroscience and Behavioral Research
Special Populations Office
SUSTAINING CORPORATE SPONSOR
Elsevier Science, Inc.
CORPORATE SPONSORS
Brain Vision*
Stoelting Co.*
San Diego Instruments*
EXHIBITORS
Med Associates*
Clever Sys., Inc.*
MEMBERS
In addition to the sponsors above we are appreciative of our IBNS Members for their continued support
and to those who donated this year: especially Student/Postdoctoral Members and an anonymous
Member who covered the costs of the Regional Travel Awards.
*These companies will be onsite during the meeting. Please take time to stop by and thank them for
their support.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Society would like to extend our deep appreciation to the following committees that are responsible
for the success of this meeting:
Program Committee
Stephen Kent, La Trobe University, Australia (Chair)
D. Caroline Blanchard, University of Hawaii, USA
Leonie de Visser, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, The Netherlands
Byron C. Jones, Pennsylvania State University, USA
Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Nancy L. Ostrowski, Eli Lilly & Company, USA
Eimeira Padilla, University of Texas, USA
Mikhail Pletnikov, John Hopkins Univ. Sch. Of Medicine, USA
Hee-Sup Shin, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea
Cliff H. Summers, University of South Dakota, USA
Sarah K. Williams, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, USA
Jared W. Young, University of California-San Diego, USA
Education and Training Committee
Anders Agmo, University of Tromso, NORWAY
Robert Benno, William Paterson University of New Jersey, USA
Jonathan Brigman, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, USA
Kimberly M. Gerecke, Rhodes College, USA (Co-Chair)
Robert Gerlai, University of Toronto at Mississauga, CANADA (Chair)
Brandon Pearson, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Peter Shiromani, Medical University of South Carolina-Charleston, USA
Matthew Skelton, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, USA
Local Organizing Committee
Robert Blanchard, University of Hawaii, USA
Brandon Pearson, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Gary Ten Eyck, University of Hawaii at Hilo, USA (Chair)
Any IBNS member who would like to become more involved in the Society may volunteer
to serve on an IBNS committee. Committee details can be found on our website at
http://www.ibnshomepage.org/committees.htm.
5
IBNS 2013 - CALL FOR SYMPOSIA and SATELLITE PROPOSALS
The Program Committee is now soliciting proposals for symposia and satellites for the 2013 Annual
Meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society to be held at the Grand Hotel, Malahide,
County Dublin, Ireland, June 25-30.
A typical symposium includes four (4) speakers and is scheduled for two (2) hours. The time and date
of symposia are set by the Program Committee. Satellites are structured and financed by the organizers.
Satellite meetings and may be held either prior to or after the IBNS meeting dates.
All proposals should include a title, the name of the chairperson(s), a substantive description of the topic
and proposed talks, the list of speakers, their affiliations, and tentative titles of their talks. Satellite
proposals should also include the anticipated location and plans for financing. All proposals are
reviewed by the Program Committee and then submitted to the IBNS Council for consideration.
The deadline for priority consideration of symposium proposals is September 4, 2012. Please send your
proposal to the IBNS Central Office at [email protected] Please use subject line:
Symposia/Satellite Proposal 2013.
IBNS 2013
Grand Hotel
Malahide, County Dublin, Ireland
JUNE 25-30
6
PROGRAM
PROGRAM NOTES:
ƒ
Presenting authors are indicated in the program by bold type.
ƒ
Unless otherwise indicated in program, events will be held in the Convention Center Keauhou II.
Tuesday, June 5, 2012
4:00-6:00
Registration – POOL TERRACE
6:00-8:00
Symposium: THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF RESILIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR
ADAPTIVE FUNCTIONS AND MENTAL HEALTH. Chair: Kelly Lambert.
KEAUHOU II
6:00
RODENT MODELS EXPLORING EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES FOR
MENTAL HEALTH RESILIENCE: EVALUATION OF PREDISPOSED COPING
STRATEGIES AND EFFORT-BASED REWARD CONTINGENCY TRAINING.
Lambert, K.
6:25
A RODENT MODEL OF HUMAN BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION:
DEVELOPMENTAL PRECURSORS AND ADULT NEURONAL CORRELATES OF
PERI-WEANING INHIBITION. Cavigelli, S.A.; Ragan, C.M.
6:50
STRESS RESILIENCE AND VULNERABILITY: THE ASSOCIATION WITH
REARING CONDITIONS, ENDOCRINE FUNCTION, IMMUNOLOGY, AND
ANXIOUS BEHAVIOR. Kent, S.
7:15
Discussant: Robert Blanchard, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
8:00-10:00
Welcome Reception – BAYVIEW GROUNDS
Educational Manta Ray talk – Christopher Blunt, Fair-Wind Tours
Appetizers, complimentary Manta Punch (alcoholic or non-alcoholic) and cash bar
Live Hawaiian Music – Keoni Thompson
Manta Ray viewing – Suites 1329 & 1425
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Wednesday, June 6, 2012
8:45-9:00
Welcome: IBNS President, D. Caroline Blanchard. KEAUHOU II
9:00-10:00
Keynote Speaker: Sarah F. Leibowitz, The Rockefeller University.
MATERNAL HIGH-FAT DIET, ALCOHOL AND FETAL PROGRAMMING
10:00-10:30
Coffee/Snack Break - Exhibits
10:30-12:30
Symposium: STRESS, INFLAMMATION, NEUROINFLAMMATION AND
BEHAVIOR: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND TREATMENT.
Chair: Frederick Rohan Walker
10:30 THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN THE REGULATION OF MOOD STATE AND
COGNITIVE FUNCTION. Walker, F.R.
10:55 IMMUNE AND BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF MICROGLIAL REACTIVITY
FOLLOWING REPEATED SOCIAL DEFEAT. Wohleb, E.; Fenn, A.; Pacenta, A.;
Powell, N.; Sheridan, J.; Godbout, J.P.
11:20 EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF CALORIE RESTRICTION UPON THE
BEHAVIOURAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND METABOLIC INDICATORS OF
ILLNESS. Kent, S.
11:45 ISOLATION STRESS: RETHINKING THE MECHANISMS OF STRESS-IMPAIRED
HEALING. Engeland, C.G.; Yang, L.; Pyter; L.M., McKenzie, C.
12:10 Discussant: David Diamond, University of South Florida, FL, USA
12:30-2:00
Mid-Day Break - Exhibits
2:00-4:00
Symposium: GENETIC AND EPIGENETIC FACTORS IN AUTISM.
Chair: Joanne Berger-Sweeney, Tufts University, USA. BAYVIEW ROOMS
2:00
ADULT SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN BTBR T+ TF/J MICE FOLLOWING NEONATAL
ADMINISTRATION OF OXYTOCIN. Benno, R.; McKim, D.; Rendon, T.; Schanz, N.
2:25
DO ABNORMAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX SYSTEMS CONTRIBUTE TO
EPIGENETIC FACTORS IN AUTISM? Blanchard, D.C.
2:50
DIETARY INTERVENTIONS IN MOUSE MODELS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM
DISORDERS: THE CASE OF CHOLINE. Ricceri, L.
3:15
THE ONE-CARBON (C1) METABOLIC CYCLE, NEURAL CIRCUITS, AND
COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIORS IN AUTISM. Berger-Sweeney, J.;
Schaevitz, L.
3:40
Discussant: Christine Hohmann, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
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2:00-4:00
Symposium: MODELING SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS AND NEUROBIOLOGY
IN MICE. Chair: Francesco Papaleo KEAUHAU II
2:00
COGNITIVE AND NEUROIMAGING PHENOTYPES REVEAL BRAIN
DYSFUNCTION IN DYSBINDIN-1 MUTANT MICE. Jentsch, J.
2:25
DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE DEFICITS RELEVANT TO SCHIZOPHRENIA IN
COMT AND DYSBINDIN MOUSE MUTANTS. Papaleo, F.
2:50
ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS IN MICE: A TOOL TO MODEL NEGATIVE
SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS. Scattoni, M.L.
3:15
MODELING THE POSITIVE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MICE: FOCUS
ON DOPAMINERGIC AND GLUTAMATERGIC MECHANISMS. Van den Buuse,
M.
3:40
Discussant: Cyndi Shannon Weickert, University of New South Wales, Sydney,
Australia
4:00-4:30
Snack Break - Exhibits
4:30-7:00
Symposium: UNRAVELING THE CONTRIBUTION OF OXYTOCIN TO POSITIVE
AFFECT AND DRUG-RELATED REWARD: A TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE.
Chairs: Femke Buisman-Pijlman and Jillian Broadbear
4:30
PRENATAL AND GESTATIONAL DRUG EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON THE
OXYTOCIN SYSTEM, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND VULNERABILITY IN RATS.
Williams, S.K.; McMurray, M.S.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox, E.T.; Jameison-Drake, A..; Walker,
C.H.; Robinson, D.L.; Johns, J.M.
4:52
OXYTOCINERGIC REGULATION OF ENDOGENOUS AS WELL AS DRUGINDUCED MOOD. Broadbear, J.H.; Mak, P.; Beringer, K.
5:14
PREFRONTAL OXYTOCIN MEDIATES DRUG AND SOCIAL REWARD
INTERACTION. Wang, Z.; Young, K.A.
5:36
A CONDITIONAL KNOCKOUT MOUSE LINE OF THE OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR:
FINDINGS RELATING TO SOCIAL RELATIONS AND LEARNING. Pagani, J.H.;
Young, W.S.
5:58
OXYTOCIN AS A REGULATOR OF ADDICTION: A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL
PERSPECTIVE. Buisman-Pijlman, F.T.A.; Tops, M.
6:20
BREAKING THE LOOP: PRECLINICAL AND EARLY CLINICAL EVIDENCE FOR
OXYTOCIN AS A TREATMENT FOR DRUG ADDICTION. McGregor, I.
6:42
Discussant: Zoltan Sarnyai, University of Cambridge and James Cook University,
Australia.
7:00-8:00
Evening Break
9
8:00-10:00
Exhibits
8:00-10:00
Poster Session 1: Brain and Behavior. KEAUHOU I
1.
ROLE OF VENTRAL SUBICULUM IN CONTEXT-INDUCED REINSTATEMENT OF
HEROIN SEEKING. Bossert J.M.; Eichenbaum, H; Wang, H.L.; Morales, M.; Shaham, Y.
2.
THE COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF OVARIECTOMY TRANSITIONS FROM DETRIMENTAL
TO BENEFICIAL WITH AGE. Acosta, J.I.; Engler, E.B.; Talboom, J.S.; Bimonte-Nelson,
H.A.
3.
DIFFERENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MESOHABENULAR AND MESOACCUMBENS
DOPAMINE NEUROTRANSMISSION TO BRAIN STIMULATION REWARD. Duchesne,
V.; Boye, S.M.
4.
D1 RECEPTORS IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS SHELL REGULATE THE
EXPRESSION OF CONTEXTUAL FEAR CONDITIONING AND ACTIVITY OF THE
ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IN RATS. Albrechet-Souza, L.; Carvalho, M.C.;
Brandao, M.L.
5.
MUSCARINIC M4 POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATION OF CIRCADIAN ACTIVITY
RHYTHMS. Gannon, R.; Millan, M.J.
6.
DOES FETAL HANDEDNESS REFLECT THE FUNCTIONAL MATURITY OF ITS BRAIN?
Hepper, P.G.; Dornan, J.C.; Lynch, C.; Wells, D.L.
7.
DEVELOPMENT OF A LABORATORY PARADIGM THAT ELICITS CHECKING UPON
ACTIVATION OF SECURITY MOTIVATION. Hinds, A.; Van Ameringen, M.; Schmidt, L.;
Woody, E.; Szechtman, H.
8.
EVALUATING NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AMONG KHAT USERS.
Ismail, A.A.; El-Setouhy, M.; El Sansoy, R.; Rohlman, D.S.
9.
TEMPORAL INVOLVEMENT OF THE PERIRHINAL CORTEX IN CROSSMODAL
OBJECT RECOGNITION. Jacklin, D.L.; Potvin, A.; Winters, B.D.
10.
DISPLAY AND SEARCH DYNAMICS IN MULTI-ATTRIBUTE CHOICE. Janowski, V.;
Madsen, E.; Willemsen, M.; Johnson, E.; Rangel, A.
11.
OXYTOCIN SYNTHESIS IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS ARE INFLUENCED BY FASTING
AND REFEEDING IN THE OXYTOCIN-MONOMERIC RED FLUORESCENT PROTEIN 1
TRANSGENIC RATS. Katoh, A.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Ohkubo, J.; Onaka, T.; Suzuki,
H.; Ueta, Y.
12.
NATURAL ELEMENTS IN ENRICHED ENVIRONMENTS ENHANCE EMOTIONAL
RESILIENCE IN MALE LONG EVANS RATS. Kaufman, C.; Brown, M.; Tschirhart, M.;
Rzucidlo, A.; Hyer, M.; Bardi, M.; Lambert, K.
10
13.
EXPERIENCE-BASED PREFERENCE FOR DRIED-BONITO DASHI (A TRADITIONAL
JAPANESE FISH STOCK). Kondoh, T.; Matsunaga, T.
14.
THE ROLE OF DORSAL AND VENTRAL HIPPOCAMPUS IN THE ACQUISITION,
STRENGTHENING AND EXPRESSION OF OLFACTORY FEAR CONDITIONING IN
RATS. Kroon, J.A.V.; Carobrez, A.P.
15.
A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF FEAR CONDITIONING IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS:
IMPLICATIONS FOR PTSD. Moustafa, A.; Gilbertson, M.W.; Orr, S. P.; Servatius, R. J.;
Myers, C.E.
16.
THE ROLE OF NEURONAL NITRIC OXIDE IN THE LONG-TERM MEMORY TO
OLFACTORY FEAR LEARNING. Pavesi, E.; Heldt, S.A.; Fletcher, M.L.
17.
SOCIETAL IMPACT OF DIETARY PHYTOESTROGEN AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR IN
ANIMAL MODELS AND COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES: PERSONALITIY AND
PHYSIOLOGICAL ANXIOLYTIC REACTIONS. Sanstrum, B.J.; Totton, R.T.
18.
A NEW TASKTO STUDY EXECUTIVE CONTROL IN MICE. Scheggia, D.; Bebensee, A.;
Weinberger, D.; Papaleo, F.
19.
BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION TRAIT AFFECTS FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING WITH
AN AVOIDANCE OPTION. Sheynin, J.; Shikari, S.; Ostovich, J.; Gluck, M.A.; Moustafa,
A.A.; Servatius, R.J.; Myers, C. E.
20.
BRAIN SPECIFIC DELETION OF THE CREATINE TRANSPORTER (CRT) LEADS TO
SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS WITHOUT REDUCTIONS IN BODY
WEIGHT. Skelton, M.; Hautman, E.; Williams, M.; Vorhees C.
21.
PARAVENTRICULAR OXYTOCIN REGULATES SOCIAL-MEDIATION OF THE STRESS
RESPONSE IN FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES. Smith, A.S.; Wang, Z.
22.
DOES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITOR (ANISOMYCIN) MODULATES STEP-DOWN
INHIBITORY AVOIDANCE IN MICE? Canto-de-Souza, L.; Mattioli, R.
23.
WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH, DO FATHERS MATTER? AN INVESTIGATION OF
FAMILY STRUCTURE AND RESILIENCE IN A BIPARENTAL (PEROMYSCUS
CALIFORNICUS) AND UNIPARENTAL (PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS) MOUSE
SPECIES. Tschirhart, M.; Kaufman, C.; Brown, M.; Rzucidlo, A.; Hyer, M.; Bardi, M.;
Lambert, K.
24.
EFFECTS OF NOCICEPTIVE STIMULATION ON FOS EXPRESSION AND BEHAVIOR IN
MICE. Ueta, Y.; Ishikura, T.; Matsuura, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Ohkubo, J.; Ohnishi, H.
25.
NEUROMODULATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE C IN THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA
CONTROLS FEAR MEMORY CONSOLIDATION. Young, M.B.; Ouyang, M.; Thomas, S.A.
11
26.
VISUAL ABILITIES AND SOCIAL INTERACTION OF MANTA RAYS WITH THE
LARGEST BRAIN OF FISHES AND THE POSSIBLE UNDERLYING NEUROLOGICAL
STRUCTURES. Ari, C.
27.
NEONATAL EFFECT OF TWO PHYTO-OESTROGENS ON MALE RAT PARTNER
PREFERENCE. Morales-Otal, A.; Ferreira-Nuño, A.; Olayo-Lortia, J.; Fernandez-Soto, C.;
Tarrag-Castellanos, R.
28.
NEURAL BASIS OF MATERNAL LOVE. Kikuchi, Y.; Noriuchi, M.
29.
MATERNAL BRAIN RESPONSES TO INFANT’S CRYING. Noriuchi, M.; Kikuchi, Y.
30.
EFFECT OF LITHIUM ON THE BEHAVIORAL DISINHIBITION INDUCED BY THE
LESION OF MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEUS AREA. Pezzato, F.A.; Novais, D.B.; Silveira,
D.T.L.; Olivato, S.; Garcia-Mijares, M.; Hoshino, K.
31.
INCREASED HEDONIC BEHAVIOR IN RATS SUBMMITED TO THE ELECTROLYTIC
LESION OF MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEUS AREA. Pezzato, F.A.; Horta Junior, J.A.C.;
Mijares, M.G.; Hoshino, K.
32.
NEUROPEPTIDES AND HORMONE RECEPTOR CHANGES FOLLOWING PARENTAL
EXPERIENCE IN MONGOLIAN GERBILS. Phan, A.; Roberts, V.; Abadilla, R.; Mong, J.A.;
Choleris E.; Clark, M.M.
33.
THE NATURE OF HIPPOCAMPAL INVOLVEMENT IN ESTROGEN-MEDIATED
LEARNING ENHANCEMENT. Phan, A.; Suschkov, S.; Pecchioli, N.; Seguin, L.; Winters, B.;
Choleris, E.
34.
DEFENSIVE AGGREGATION (HUDDLING) IN LABORATORY RATS IN RESPONSE TO
PREDATOR ODORS: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND NEURAL CORRELATES.
Bowen, M.T.; Kevin, R.; Kendig, M.D.; McGregor, I.S.
35.
AROMATASE INHIBITION IN THE ZEBRA FINCH HIPPOCAMPUS DECREASES
ACQUISITION AND PERFORMANCE IN A SPATIAL MEMORY TASK. Bailey, D.J.;
Saldanha, C.J.
36.
EMBRACING COMPLEXITY: TIME SERIES, LONG-RANGE CORRELATIONS, AND
DIMENSIONAL SCALING AS ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS IN
BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. Bardi, M.; Lambert, K.G.
37.
FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM BETWEEN EMISSION OF 50 kHz AND 22 kHz
ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS. Silkstone, M.; Brudzynski, S.M.
38.
ADOLESCENT STRESS HORMONE EXPOSURE AFFECTS HIPPOCAMPAL
NEUROGENESIS IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS. Brummelte, S.; Duarte-Guterman, P.;
Crozier, T.M.; Lieblich, S.E.; Galea, L.A.M.
39.
SWIM STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON SCRATCHING
BEHAVIOR IN RATS. Spradley, J.; Iodi Carstens, M.; Carstens, E.
12
40.
NEURAL CORRELATES OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF
ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING, TEMPERAMENT, AND CEREBELLAR REACTIVITY TO
NOVEL SOCIAL STIMULI. Caulfield, M.D.; McAuley, J.D.; Zhu, D.C.; Servatius, R.J.
41.
GENETICALLY-INFLUENCED DEFICITS IN INHIBITORY CONTROL ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH PROPENSITY FOR ADDICTION-RELATED BEHAVIORS IN MICE.
Cervantes, M.C.; Jentsch, J.D.
42.
DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF PRE- AND POST-ACQUISITION ADMINISTRATION OF
AN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA AGONIST ON THE SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF
FOOD PREFERENCES. Clipperton-Allen, A.E.; Flaxey, I.; Foucault, J.N.; Rush, S.T.;
Webster, H.K.; Nediu-Mihalache, C.; Choleris, E.
43.
STRESS FACILITATES PREDATOR FEAR MEMORY CONSOLIDATION AND INDUCES
EXTINCTION-RESISTANT FEAR IN A TIME-DEPENDENT MANNER. Corley, M.;
Takahashi, L.
44.
ROLE OF THE NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM IN THE REACQUISITION OF HEROINSEEKING IN RATS. Cummins, E.; Boughner, E.; Grant, J.; Ricchetti, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.;
Leri, F.
45.
RAPID EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR AGONISTS ON SOCIAL TRANSMISSION
OF FOOD PREFERENCES IN FEMALE MICE. Ervin, K.; Friesen, J.; Gallagher, N.; Roussel,
V.; Zicherman, J.; Clipperton Allen, A.; Phan, A.; Choleris, E.
46.
NUTRRHYTHM-DEPENDENT EVALUATION OF HIGH-FAT DIET FEEDING ON
LEARNING AND MEMORY IN MICE. Horie, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oishi, K.
47.
THE COGNITIVE OVERRIDE OF ANXIETY IS ACCOMPLISHED BY SOCIAL
FAMILIARITY AND IS MEDIATED BY THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX.
Lungwitz, E.A.; Sanghani, S.; Harvey, B.; Bah, A.; Dietrich, A.; Truitt, W.A.
48.
KETAMINE BLOCKS LATENT INHIBITION OF A CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION IN
FETAL RATS. Mickley, G.A.; Hoxha, Z.; DiSorbo, A.; Wilson, G.N.; Remus, J.; Biesan, O.;
Ketchesin, K.; Ramos, L.; Luchsinger, J.; Prodan, S.; Rogers, M.; Hoxha, N.
49.
SEXY PREDATORS; A TWO PRONGED MANIPULATION OF VASOPRESSIN-SOCIAL
SYSTEM DRIVES TOXOPLASMA INDUCED BEHAVIOR CHANGES. Hari Dass, S.A.;
Vyas, A.
50.
EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT SOCIAL DEFEAT ON COGNITION AND PREFRONTAL
CORTEX DOPAMINE FUNCTION. Novick, A.M.; Forster G.L.; Watt, M.J.
51.
TOXIN-INDUCED GUSTATORY CONDITIONING IN RATS: THE EFFECTS OF ORAL
INGESTION OF LOW LEVELS OF A TOXIN (LITHIUM CHLORIDE) ON DRINKING
BEHAVIORS. Good, A.N.; Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.-P.
13
52.
ACUTE RESTRAINT DIFFERENTLY ALTERS DEFENSIVE RESPONSES AND FOS
IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE RAT BRAIN. Andrade, J.S.; Abrao, R.O.; Cespedes, I.C.;
Garcia, M.C.; Nascimento, J.O.G.; Spadari-Bratfisch, R.C.; Melo, L.L.; da Silva, R.B.; Viana,
M.B.
53.
AN EXAMINATION OF PREDISPOSED COPING STRATEGIES AND
NEUROBIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO VARIOUS PROBLEMSOLVING TASKS. Brown, M.; Kaufman, C.; Tschirhart, M.; Rzucidlo, A.; Hyer, M.; Bardi,
M.; de Silva, I.; Lambert, K.
54.
NEURONAL ACTIVATION PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPER-EMOTIONAL
AGGRESSION IN RATS SOCIALLY ISOLATED FROM WEANING. Tulogdi, A.; Toth, M.;
Biro, L.; Soros, P.; Haller, J.
55.
NPAS4 REGULATES A TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROGRAM IN CA3 REQUIRED FOR
CONTEXTUAL MEMORY FORMATION. Ramamoorthi, K.; Fropf, R.; Belfort, G.M.;
Fitzmaurice, H.L.; McKinney, R.M.; Neve, R.L.; Otto, T.; Lin, Y.
56.
NEURONAL ENSEMBLES IN CA1 AND MPFC DIFFERENTIALLY REPRESENT
RECENT AND REMOTE CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORIES. Zelikowsky, M.; Fanselow,
M.S.
14
Thursday, June 7, 2012
9:00-10:00
Presidential Lecture: BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE: A VIEW FROM DOWN
UNDER. Stephen Kent, La Trobe University; Iain McGregor, University of Sydney
10:00-10:30
Coffee/Snack Break - Exhibits
10:30-12:30
Symposium: PLASTICITY IN THE MATERNAL BRAIN: EFFECTS OF STRESS,
DRUGS AND MEDICATION. Chair: Jodi Pawluski
10:30 MATERNAL CORTICOSTERONE: DIFFERENCES IN PRE- VERSUS POSTPARTUM EXPOSURE IN THE DAM AND HER OFFSPRING. Galea, L.A.M.;
Brummelte, S.
10:55 EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL STRESS AND SSRI MEDICATION USE ON
HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS IN THE MOTHER. Pawluski, J.
11:20 EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL COCAINE ON SPINE DENSITY IN PREGNANT RAT
DAMS. Liuine, V.; Frankfurt, M.
11:45 MOTHERHOOD AND AGING: THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ESTROGENS ON
HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND COGNITION IN MIDDLE-AGED
FEMALES. Barha, C.K.; Lieblich, S.L.; Chow, C.; Galea, L.A.M.
12:10 Discussant: Kelly Lambert, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA, USA
12:30-2:00
Mid-Day Break - Exhibits
Meet the Profs – CONVENTION CENTER LAWN
2:00-4:00
Oral Session 1: Psychiatry and Cognition. Chair: Jared Young. KEAUHOU
BALLROOM
2:00
DIFFERENCES IN FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING AND PREFRONTAL
DOPAMINE UTILIZATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN THE DRD4
GENE. Groman, S.M.; Feiler, K.; Seu, E.; Woods, J.A.; Jentsch, J.D.
2:15
MEASUREMENT OF A SCHIZOPHRENIA ENDOPHENOTPE IN A RODENT
MODEL: MISMATCH NEGATIVITY (MMN) TO FREQUENCY DEVIANTS.
Hodgson, D.M.; Harms, L.; Nakamura, T.; Fulham, W.R.; Todd, J.; Schall, U.; Michie,
P.T.
2:30
IMPAIRED ATTENTION OF DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER (DAT) KNOCKDOWN
(KD) MICE IN A CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE TEST: SIMILARITIES TO
PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER (BD). van Enkhuizen, J.; Geyer, M.;
Young, J.
2:45
SUBSECOND MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE RELEASE PREDICTS THE
AVOIDANCE OF PUNISHMENT. Oleson, E.B.; Gentry, R.N.; Cheer, J.F.
15
3:00
DISTINCT NEURAL SUBSTRATES FOR REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT
IN THE STRIATUM. Kravitz, A.V.; Tye, L.D.; Kreitzer, A.C.
3:15
MEDIAL SEPTAL-DIAGONAL BAND (MSDB) AND HIPPOCAMPAL
INVOLVEMENT IN THE CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED EYEBLINK RESPONSE.
Roland, J.J.; Gluck, M.A.; Myers, C.; Pang, K.C.H.; Servatius, R.J.
3:30
NPAS4 REGULATES A TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROGRAM IN CA3 REQUIRED FOR
CONTEXTUAL MEMORY FORMATION. Ramamoorthi, K.; Fropf, R.; Belfort,
G.M.; Fitzmaurice, H.L.; McKinney, R.M.; Neve, R.L.; Otto, T.; Lin, Y.
3:45
ON MAKING ZEBRAFISH SAD AND ANXIOUS: DEVELOPING NOVEL
AQUATIC MODELS OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS. Kyzar, E.; Roth, A.; Gaikwad,
S.; Green, J.; Collins, C.; El-Ounsi, M.; Davis, A.; Pham, M.; Stewart, A.M.; Cachat, J.;
Zukowska, Z.; Kalueff, A.V.
2:00-4:00
Oral Session 2: Stress and the Environment. Chair: Nancy Ostrowski. KEAUHOU II
2:00
MEDIAL SEPTAL-DIAGONAL BAND (MSDB) AND HIPPOCAMPAL
INVOLVEMENT IN THE APPEASING PHEROMONE MEDIATES SOCIAL
BUFFERING OF CONDITIONED FEAR RESPONSES. Kiyokawa, Y.; Takahashi, Y.;
Takeuchi, Y.; Mori, Y.
2:15
BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES OF MALE MICE PERINATALLY EXPOSED TO
FLUOXETINE. Kiryanova, V.; Smith, V.M.; Antle, M.C.; Dyck, R.H.
2:30
NEONATAL PROGRAMMING OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM BY
IMMUNOLOGICAL CHALLENGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ANXIETY. Sominsky, L.;
Fuller, A.E.; Bondarenko, E.; Ong, L.K.; Clark, V.R.; Bobrovskaya, L.; Dunkley, P.;
Nalivaiko, E.; Hodgson, D.M.
2:45
INDIVIDUALLY VENTILATED CAGE SYSTEMS: A NOVEL HOUSING TYPE
CAUSING PROBLEMS FOR MOUSE MODEL RESEARCH. Logge, W.; Kingham, J.;
Karl, T.
3:00
EXERCISE PROTECTS AGAINST APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY CHRONIC
RESTRAINT STRESS. Gerecke, K.M.; Kolobova, A.; Allen, S.
3:15
ANXIOGENIC-LIKE EFFECTS INDUCED BY CRF RECEPTOR ACTIVATION
WITHIN THE AMYGDALA IN MICE. Cipriano, A.C.; Gomes, K.S.; Nunes-de-Souza,
R.
3:30
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHRONIC MILD STRESS IN MICE. Jones, B.C.; Lu, L.;
Williams, R.W.; Cavigelli, S. A.; Mormede, P.
3:45
WHAT BETWEEN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE (OCD) RITUALS, SPORT
RITUALS, AND DAILY MOTOR TASKS? A POSSIBLE ADAPTIVE VALUE FOR
SEEMINGLY UNNECESSARY ACTS. Eilam, D.; Keren, H.; Mort, J.; Weiss, O.
16
4:00-4:30
Snack Break - Exhibits
4:30-6:30
Student Slide Blitz
4:30
Introduction: Robert Gerlai, Chair
4:40 OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR KNOCKDOWN PRAIRIE VOLES DISPLAY SOCIAL
DEFICITS AND PROVIDE NOVEL MODELS FOR THE SCREENING OF
PHARMACOTHERAPUTICS. Keebaugh, A.; Barrett, C.; Jenkins, J.; Young, L.
4:50 DEVELOPMENTAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ALTERS
NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS: POTENTIAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
OF LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN RATS. Schaefer, T.L.; Graham, D.L.; AmosKroohs, R.M.; Braun, A.A.; Grace, C.E.; Skelton, M.R.; Williams, M.T.; Vorhees, C.V.
4:60 RESILIENCE TO EARLY LIFE STRESS IN FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS
OCHROGASTER): POTENTIAL MODERATION BY OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS. Barrett,
C.E.; Modi, M.; Young, L.J.
5:00 TOP DOWN CONTROL OF SEROTONERGIC SYSTEMS IN DEPRESSIVE-LIKE
BEHAVIORS. Challis, C.; Boulden, J.; Beck, S.G.; Berton, O.
5:10 INESCAPABLE TAIL SHOCK AND COLD SWIM STRESS INTERACT TO
ELEVATE TPH2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN AN ANXIETY-RELATED SUBSET OF
SEROTONERGIC NEURONS. Donner, N.C.; Kubala, K.H.; Drugan, R.C.; Maier, S.F.;
Lowry, C.A.
5:20 THE NATURE OF HIPPOCAMPAL INVOLVEMENT IN ESTROGEN-MEDIATED
LEARNING ENHANCEMENT. Phan, A.; Suschkov, S.; Pecchioli, N.; Seguin, L.; Winters,
B.D.; Choleris, E.
5:30 PARAVENTRICULAR OXYTOCIN REGULATES SOCIAL-MEDIATION OF THE
STRESS RESPONSE IN FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES. Smith, A.S.; Wang, Z.
5:40 BEHAVIOR AND DYSREGULATES GENE EXPRESSION WITHIN THE VTA.
Warren B.L.; Alcantara L.F.; Wright, K.N.; Vialou, V.; Iiguez, S.D.; Nestler, E.J.; BolaosGuzman, C.A.
5:50 DEFENSIVE AGGREGATION (HUDDLING) IN LABORATORY RATS IN
RESPONSE TO PREDATOR ODORS: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND NEURAL
CORRELATES. Bowen, M.T.; Kevin, R.; Kendig, M.D.; McGregor, I.S.
6:00 NEURONAL ACTIVATION PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPEREMOTIONAL AGGRESSION IN RATS SOCIALLY ISOLATED FROM WEANING.
Tulogdi, A.; Toth, M.; Biro, L.; Soros, P.; Haller, J.
6:30-8:00
Evening Break
8:00-10:00
Exhibits
17
8:00-10:00
Poster Session 2: Pharmacology. KEAUHOU I
57.
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM CRITICALLY MODULATES THE EXPRESSION OF
SOCIAL BEHAVIORS IN ADULT MALE MICE. Pietropaolo, S.; Le Maire, V.; Bellocchio, L.;
Crusio, W.E.; Marsicano, G.
58.
RELATIVELY BRIEF EXPOSURE TO AN ENRICHED ENVIRONMENT EFFECTIVELY
BLOCKS SUCROSE SEEKING AND REDUCES SUCROSE SELF-ADMINISTRATION IN
RATS. Grimm, J.W.; Weber, R.; Barnes, J.; Koerber, J.; Dorsey, K.; Deuse, L.; Glueck, E.;
Collins, S.; North, K.
59.
CHRONIC TREATMENT WITH FLUOXETINE IMPAIRS THE FACILITATORY EFFECT
PRODUCED BY 5-HT2C RECEPTOR ACTIVATION WITHIN THE DORSAL
PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY (DPAG) ON ELEVATED PLUS MAZE (EPM)-INDUCED
ANTINOCICEPTION IN MICE. Baptista, D.; Nunes-de-Souza, R.L.; Canto-de-Souza, A.
60.
DIMINISHED NICOTINE BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION IN GHRELIN RECEPTOR
NULL RATS. Wellman, P.J.; Clifford, P.S.; Rodriguez, J.A.
61.
SOCIAL CONTEXT ENHANCES INITIAL REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE.
Peartree, N.A.; Chandler, K. N.; Goenagga, J.; Whillock, C. L.; Neisewander, J.L.
62.
EFFECTS OF KETOGENIC DIET ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR IN
MOUSE MODELS OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. D’Agostino, D.; Brownlow, M.; Leif
Benner, L.; Gordon, M.N.; Morgan, D.
63.
DEVELOPMENT, TESTING AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF KETONE ESTERS
(KE) FOR CNS OXYGEN TOXICITY (CNS-OT); I.E., HYPERBARIC OXYGEN (HBO2)INDUCED SEIZURES. D’Agostino, D.P.; Pilla, R.; Held, H.; Landon, C.S.; Ari, C.; Arnold,
P.; Dean, J.B.
64.
THE USE OF AGOMELATINA IN DRUG ADDICTED PATIENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC
DISORDERS. Pieri, M.C.; Comaschi, A.C.
65.
THE EFFECTS OF THE AGONIST THERAPY IN ANXIOUS-DEPRESSED POSITIVE HCV
DRUG-ABUSERS TREATED WITH IFN THERAPY. Pieri, M.C.; Comaschi, A.C.
66.
CB1-RECEPTOR LIGAND PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCES BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS
INDUCED BY REPEATED COCAINE ADMINISTRATIONS IN MARMOSET MONKEYS.
Cagni, P.; Netto, G.C.M.; Jesus, A.G.L.; Barros, M.
67.
THE ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG ARIPIPRAZOLE ENHANCES COGNITION
AFTER EXPERIMENTAL TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. Phelps, T.I.; Cheng, J.P.; Kline,
A.E.
68.
ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AT JOKSAMNI AND PUNGNYUNG ACUPOINTS
ALLEVIATES POLOXAMER 407-INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA THROUGH THE
REGULATION OF SREBP-2 EXPRESSION IN RATS. Park, J.; Lee, B.; Yin, C.S.; Shim, I.;
Lee, H.; Hahm, D.H.
18
69.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF IXERIS DENTATE ON DEVELOPMENT AND EXPRESSION
OF BEHAVIORAL LOCOMOTOR SENSTIZATION TO NICOTINE IN RATS. Park J.H.;
Lee, B.; Shim, I.; Lee, H.; Hahm, D.H.
70.
CRF2 RECEPTORS MEDIATE ANXIETY STATES DURING AMPHETAMINE
WITHDRAWAL. Scholl, J.; Reinbold, E.; Oliver, K.; Watt, M.; Forster, G.
71.
ETHANOL DOSE GENERALIZATION CURVES FOLLOWING MULTIPLE
DISCRIMINATION TRAINING CONDITIONS IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS.
Anderson, R.I.; Spear, L.P.
72.
ADOLESCENT CB1 RECEPTOR AGONISM, BUT NOT ANTAGONISM , ENHANCES
ADULT MALE SEXUAL PERFORMANCE. Gorzalka, B.; Lee, T.-Y.T.
73.
THE ROLE OF THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA IN CONDITIONED CUE-INDUCED
ALTERATIONS IN ALCOHOL-SEEKING. Deehan, G.A. Jr.; Hauser, S.R.; Engleman, E.A.;
Ding, Z-M.; McBride, W.J.; Rodd, Z.A.
74.
THE GALANIN-3 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, SNAP 37889, REDUCES BREAKPOINT
AND CUE-INDUCED RELAPSE TO ETHANOL IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING RATS. Ash,
B.L.; Tsegay, S.; Williams, S.J.; Lawrence, A.J.; Djouma, E.
75.
CAN THE COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND THE NON-OPIOID ANALGESIC
FLUPIRTINE, REDUCE MORPHINE’S ABUSE POTENTIAL? Elkman, L.; Goodchild, C.S.;
Kolosov, A.; Broadbear, J.H.
76.
DEVELOPMENT OF A DISCRETE TRIALS TASK TO ASSESS SEROTONERGIC
MODULATION ON INTERVAL TIMING IN MICE. Halberstadt, A.L.; Young, J.W.; Geyer,
M.A.
77.
THE EFFECTS OF GENE KNOCKOUT OF CADHERIN 13 (CDH13) ON NICOTINE
CONSUMPTION. Hall, F.S.; Arnold, E.R.; Deshmukh, A.A.; Perona, M.T.G.; Drgonova, J.;
Ranscht, B.; Uhl, G.R.
78.
THE EFFECT OF COCAINE ON ROTOROD PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE
C57BL/6J MICE. Heyser, C.J.; Vishnevetsky, D. Berten, S.
79.
IN VIVO CHARACTERISATION OF SOC-1: A NOVEL PROSOCIAL COMPOUND. Hicks,
C.; Bowen, M.T.; Ramos, L.; Jorgensen, W.; Kassiou, M.; Hunt, G.E.; McGregor, I.S.
80.
SHORT-TERM AND ENDURING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC RISPERIDONE
IN THE ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RAT. Karanges, E.; Caminer, A.; McGregor, I.S.
81.
ANALYSIS BY AUTORADIOGRAPHY FOLLOWING MEPHEDRONE (4METHYLMETHCATHINONE) INDUCED SELF ADMINISTRATION BEHAVIOUR IN
ADOLESCENT RATS. Motbey, C.P.; Karanges, E.; Apetz, N.; Callaghan, P.D.; Clemens, K.;
Cornish, J.; McGregor, I.S.
19
82.
PROGESTERONE DECREASES COCAINE CHOICE IN FEMALE RATS. Kippin, T.E.;
Kerstetter, K.A.; Carr, A.E.; Lee; J.I.; Togal, V.L.
83.
THE ROLE OF MIDBRAIN DOPAMINE IN PREDICTIVE FEAR LEARNING. Li, S.;
McNally, G.P.
84.
CONTEXT-INDUCED RELAPSE TO ALCOHOL SEEKING AFTER PUNISHMENT IN A
RAT MODEL. Marchant, N. J.; Khuc, T. N.; Bonci, A.; Shaham, Y.
85.
COMBINATIONS OF SKF 38393 WITH MEMANTINE DO NOT HAVE AN ADDITIVE
EFFECT TO REDUCE THE VOLITIONAL CONSUMPTION OF ETHANOL BY THE
MYERS MHEP RAT. McMillen, B. A.; Lommatzsch, C.L.; Sayonh, M.J.; Williams, H.L.
86.
DEVELOPMENTAL FLUOXETINE EXPOSURE, BUT NOT PRENATAL STRESS,
DEMASCULINIZES SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN MALES, BUT HAS NO EFFECT ON
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN FEMALES. Rayen, I.; Charlier, T.D.; Balthazart, J.; Steinbusch,
H.W.M.; Pawluski, J.L.
87.
EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM TREATMENT WITH LOW DOSE OF FLUOXETINE ON THE
EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS OF SEROTONIN IN THE PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY
MATTER OF FEMALE RATS IN LATE DIESTRUS. Santos, J.M.; Carvalho, M.C.; Lovick,
T.A.; Brandao, M.L.
88.
DEVELOPMENTAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ALTERS
NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS: POTENTIAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
OF LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN RATS. Schaefer, T.L.; Graham, D.L.; AmosKroohs, R.M.; Braun, A.A.; Grace, C.E.; Skelton, M.R.; Williams, M.T.; Vorhees, C.V.
89.
DOES PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE INDUCE CROSSSENSITIZATION TO OTHER DRUGS IN ADULT MALE RATS? Slamberova, R.;
Pometlova, M.; Schutova, B.; Hruba, L.; Deykun, K.
90.
NOREPINEPHRINE ANTAGONISM IN THE EXTENDED AMYGDALA REDUCES THE
APPROACH-AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OF RATS RUNNING AN ALLEY FOR IV
COCAINE. Wenzel, J.M.; Su, Z.-I.; Haber, Z.M.; Ettenberg, A.
91.
GIT1 IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADHD. Won, H.; Mah, W.; Kim, E.
92.
ADOLESCENTS ARE AT GREATER RISK FOR COCAINE ADDICTION THAN ADULTS.
Wong, W.C.; Bamman, M.T.; Ford, K.A.; McCutcheon, J.M.; Marinelli, M.
93.
ADOLESCENTS ARE INSENSITIVE TO PUNISHMENT-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF
COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION. Wong, W.C.; Lamoureux, L.; Bamman, M.T.;
Marinelli, M.
94.
THE MULTIPLE PARTNER CHOICE ARENA SATISFIES THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
OF AN ANIMAL MODEL TO STUDY PREMETURE EJACULATION. Ferreira-Nuno, A.;
Olayo-Lortia, J.; Cruz-Benites, A.; Velazquez-Moctezuma, J.; Morales-Otal, A.
20
95.
TRANSIENT CRF OVEREXPRESSION IN THE FOREBRAIN DURING EARLY LIFE
INCREASES STARTLE REACTIVITY AND ANXIETY IN ADULTHOOD. Gresack, J.E.;
Toth, M.; Gross, M.; Vicentini, E.; Mangiarini, L.; Mansuy, I.M.; Merlo-Pich, E.; Risbrough,
V.B.
96.
ENDURING EFFECTS OF METHYLPHENIDATE: THE ROLE PLAYED BY ROUTE OF
DRUG ADMINISTRATION. Bigney, E.; Taukulis, H.
97.
EARLY ADOLESCENT IMPULSIVITY PREDICTS LATE ADOLESCENT BINGE IN
FEMALE RATS. McClure, J.R.; Richardson, H.N.
98.
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HALLUCINOGENIC NMDA ANTAGONISTS AND XYLAZINE
ON FEAR EXTINCTION. Padilla, E.; DeMis, J.; Seo, D.; Adkins, D.; Monfils, M.
99.
ACUTE PROSOCIAL EFFECTS OF PERIPHERALLY ADMINISTERED OXYTOCIN IN
RATS: REVERSAL BY THE V1A ANTAGONIST SR49059. Ramos, L.; Hicks, C.; Kevin,
R.; McGregor, I.S.
100.
INCREASE IN THE SENSITIVITY OF NICOTINE WITHIN THE POSTERIOR VENTRAL
TEGMENTAL AREA PRODUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL CONSUMPTION. Hauser, S.;
Deehan, G.; Toalston, J.; Truitt, W.; McBride, W.; Rodd, Z.
101.
FUCOIDAN AMELIORATES SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED NEURONAL IMPAIRMENT
AND MEMORY DYSFUNCTION IN RATS VIA ACTIVATION OF CHOLINERGIC
SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF CREB AND BDNF EXPRESSION. Sur, B.J.; Lee, B.;
Kwon, S.; Shim, I.; Yin, C.S.; Lee, H.; Hahm, D.H.
102.
INVOLVEMENT OF KAPPA OPIOD RECEPTOR IN DSL AND PDSM STRIATUM
DURING HABITUAL AND GOAL DIRECTED COCAINE SEEKING. Wang, Y.; Zapata, A.;
Minney, V.; Shippenberg, T.
103.
RESILIENCE TO EARLY LIFE STRESS IN FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS
OCHROGASTER): POTENTIAL MODERATION BY OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS. Barrett,
C.E.; Modi, M.; Young, L.J.
104.
EFFECTS OF A DYSFUNCTIONAL BRAIN SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM ON SOCIAL
BEHAVIORS IN MALE PET-1 KNOCKOUT MICE. Can, A.; Piantadosi, S.C.; Gould, T.D.
105.
INESCAPABLE TAIL SHOCK AND COLD SWIM STRESS INTERACT TO ELEVATE
TPH2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN AN ANXIETY-RELATED SUBSET OF SEROTONERGIC
NEURONS. Donner, N.C.; Kubala, K.H.; Drugan, R.C.; Maier, S.F.; Lowry, C.A.
106.
PLATELET SEROTONIN FUNCTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ADOLESCENT
SUICIDAL IDEATION AND HISTORIES OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS. Dougherty, D.;
Mathias, C.; Hill-Kapturczak, N.; Tian, P.; Javors, M.
21
107.
DOPAMINE MANIPULATIONS IN THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX MODULATE
REVERSAL LEARNING DEFICITS OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS IN
AN ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING TASK. Li, J.-S.; Cheng, J.-T.
108.
G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 6 DEFICIENCY AND MOUSE MODELS OF
PARKINSON’S DISEASE. Manago’, F.; Espinoza, S.; Salahpour, A.; Sotnikova, T.D.; Caron,
M.G.; Premont, R.T.; Gainetdinov, R.R.
109.
EXERCISE DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL PARKINSONISM IN
MICE DEFICIENT IN BDNF. Gerecke, K.; Jiao, Y.; Pagala, V.; Pani, A.; Smeyne, R.
110.
DISTINCT NEURAL SUBSTRATES FOR REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT IN THE
STRIATUM. Kravitz, A.V.; Tye, L.D.; Kreitzer, A.C.
111.
SUBSECOND MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE RELEASE PREDICTS THE AVOIDANCE OF
PUNISHMENT. Oleson, E.B.; Gentry, R.N.; Cheer, J.F.
112.
STRUCTURAL NEUROANATOMY CORRELATES WITH FUNCTIONAL MOTORRELATED NETWORKS IN STROKE PATIENTS. Liew, S-L.; Garrison, K.; Haldar, J.;
Winstein, C.; Damasio, H.; Aziz-Zadeh, L.
22
Friday, June 8, 2012
9:00-10:00
Keynote: David M. Diamond, University of South Florida
A NOVEL PERSPECTIVE ON THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN
FLASHBULB AND TRAUMATIC MEMORIES.
10:00-10:30
Coffee/Snack Break - Exhibits
10:30-12:30
Symposium: USE OF OPTOGENETICS IN BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE.
Chair: Peter Shiromani, Ralph H. Johnson VA and the Medical University of South
Carolina, Charleston
10:30 SHINING LIGHT ON WAKEFULNESS AND AROUSAL USING OPTOGENETICS.
Carter, M.E.; de Lecea, L.
10:55 DISSECTING ADDICTION CIRCUITRY WITH OPTOGENETICS. Moorman, D.E.;
Vazey, E.M.; Aston-Jones, G.
11:20 SEEING IS BREATHING. Feldman, J.L.
11:45 SLEEP INDUCTION BY OPTOGENETIC INHIBITION OF HYPOCRETIN
NEURONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR INSOMNIA. Kilduff, T.S.
12:10 Discussant: Peter Shiromani
12:30-2:00
Mid-Day Break - Exhibits
Grant Workshop – KEAUHOU II
2:00-3:35
Symposium: BRAIN HEALTH: THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY
ACIDS. Chairs: Corina O. Bondi and Michael J. Weiser
2:00
DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA) IS ESSENTIAL FOR NEURAL
DEVELOPMENT: A BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE. Weiser, M.J.; Salem, N.;
Dahms, I.
2:25
OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS: LIMITING DIETARY NUTRIENTS WITH CRITICAL
ROLES IN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT. Innis, S.M.
2:50
DIETARY DEFICIENCY IN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS PRODUCES ALTERATIONS
IN RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MARKERS OF MONOAMINERGIC
INNERVATION. Bondi, C.O.; Tock, J.L.; Moghaddam, B.
3:15
Discussant: David Jentsch, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3:35-4:30
Coffee/Snack Break - Exhibits
23
4:30-6:30
Symposium: AGGRESSION, NEUROMODULATION, AND SOCIAL
ADAPTATION: LESSONS FROM MULTIPLE ANIMAL MODELS. Chairs: Gary R.
Ten Eyck and Cliff H. Summers. BAYVIEW ROOMS
4:30
SOCIAL ADAPTATION IN THE MOUSE. Blanchard, R.J.; Pearson, B.L.
4:55
THE NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SEX CHANGE IN
CORAL REEF FISHES. Godwin, J.; Slane, M.A.
5:20
CHOICES IN SOCIAL ADAPTATION TO AGGRESSION: NEUROMODULATORY
MECHANISMS IN DECISION MAKING. Summers, C.H.; Summers, T.R.; Arendt, D.
H.; Smith, J.P.; Carpenter, R.E.
5:45
AGGRESSION, DEFENSE, AND PATERNAL CARE IN THE INVASIVE PUERTO
RICAN COQUÍ FROG, ELEUTHERODACTYLUS COQUI. Ten Eyck, G.R.;
Calibuso, M.J.
6:10
Discussant: Lorey K. Takahashi, University of Hawaii at Manoa, HI, USA
4:30-6:30
Symposium: CONTEXTUAL CONTROL OVER FEAR BEHAVIORS: RECENT
ADVANCES AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS. Chair: Gavan P. McNally,
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. KEAUHOU II
4:30
ELECTRICAL SYNAPTIC CONTROL OVER FEAR BEHAVIORS. Bissiere, S.
4:55
NEURONAL ENSEMBLES IN CA1 AND MPFC DIFFERENTIALLY REPRESENT
RECENT AND REMOTE CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORIES. Zelikowsky, M.;
Fanselow, M.S.
5:20
CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCE IN CONDITIONED FEAR IN JUVENILE RATS:
FORGETTING VS. EXTINCTION. Kim, J.H.
5:45
TRACES OF MEMORY: WHY RELEARNING FEAR FOLLOWING FORGETTING
IS AN NMDAR-INDEPENDENT PROCESS. Li, S.; Langton, J.M.; Richardson, R.
6:10
Discussant: Gavan P. McNally
6:30-8:00
Evening Break
8:00-10:00
Exhibits
24
8:00-10:00
Poster Session 3: Disease Models. KEAUHOU I
113.
LOCAL OREXINERGIC ACTIVATION AND THE INFLUENCE ON THE FORCED SWIM
TEST. Arendt, D.; Oliver, K.; Summers, C.
114.
NEUREGULIN 1 AND REPEATED RESTRAINT STRESS INTERACT TO PROMOTE
DEFICITS IN SENSORIMOTOR GATING AND GROWTH OF DENDRITIC SPINES IN
ADOLESCENT MICE. Arnold, J.C.; Chohan T.W.; Boucher A.A.; Karl, T.; Bennett M.R.
115.
WHAT DRIVES A FISH TO DIVE? MOTIVATION AND DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR IN
ZEBRAFISH. Blaser, R.; Goldsteinholm, K.
116.
DISTINCT NEUROBEHAVIOURAL PROFILE OF P2X7-/- MICE: IMPLICATIONS FOR
MANIA, ANXIETY AND AGGRESSION. Boucher, A.A.; Todd, S.; Bennett, M.; Kassiou,
M.; Arnold, J.C.
117.
EFFECTS OF MATERNAL SEPARATION ON SOCIAL INTERACTION. Diehl, L.A.;
Henriques, T.P.; Corrêa, C.N.; Lucion, A.B.; Dalmaz, C.
118.
IMPAIRED CONTEXT DISCRIMINATION AND NMDA RECEPTOR EXPRESSION AND
FUNCTION IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF A MOUSE MODEL OF FRAGILE X
SYNDROME. Eadie, B.; Majaess, N.; Bostrom, C.; Cushman, J.; Kannangara, T.; Fanselow,
M.; Christie, B.
119.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO PROPIONIC ACID PRODUCES DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY,
HYPER-SENSITIVITY TO ACOUSTIC STARTLE, AND SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT IN
ADOLESCENT RATS. Foley, K.A.; MacFabe, D.F.; Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.-P.
120.
CHEMOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF COCCINIA INDICA AGAINST
CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND GENOTOXICITY IN
BONE MARROW. Hirani, K.; Nitharwal, R.; Singh, K.; Patel, H.; Ugale, R.R.
121.
LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDE EXPRESSION
AND INDUCES A STATE OF NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE THROUGH THE CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 DEPENDENT PRODUCTION OF PROSTAGLANDINS. Ganegala, H.;
Parkington, H.; Hollis, J.
122.
EXTENDED EXPOSURE TO NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ENRICHED
ENVIRONMENTS: NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES IN MALE
LONG EVANS RATS. Hyer, M.; Rzucidlo, A.; de Silva, I.; Bardi, M.; Lambert, K.
123.
BEHAVIORAL DISCREPANCY BETWEEN GIT1-/- AND GIT1+/- MICE. Lee, J.
124.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF PHELLODENDRI CORTEX ON LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDEINDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN RATS. Lee, B.; Sur, B.J.; Shim, I.; Lee, H.; Hahm,
D.H.
125.
WHAT ARE WE ASSESSING IN JUVENILE PLAY BEHAVIOR? Lewter, L.; Hohmann,
C.F.
25
126.
GIT1 KNOCK-OUT MICE DISPLAY IMPAIRED HABITUATION AND ANXIOLYTIC
BEHAVIORS. Mah, W.; Won, H.; Kim. E.
127.
THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ON SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND
NEUROCHEMISTRY IN TWO DIFFERENT ZEBRAFISH STRAINS. Mahabir, S.;
Chatterjee, D.; Buske, C.; Gerlai, R.
128.
ABNORMAL NEURONAL ACTIVATION IN RESPONSE TO NOVELTY AND SOCIAL
INTERACTION IN BTBR T+tf/J MICE. Meyza, K.Z.; Pearson, B.L.; Pobbe, R.L.H.;
Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
129.
ELEVATED BRAIN HEPARAN SULFATES IN THE NEUROGENIC LATERAL
VENTRICLE WALL OF MECP2 MUTANT MICE. Pearson, B.L.; Corley, M.J.; Blanchard,
D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
130.
OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR AND MECP2(308/Y) KNOCKOUT MOUSE STRAINS DISPLAY
ALTERED EXPRESSION OF AUTISM-RELATED SOCIAL BEHAVIORS. Pobbe, R.L.;
Pearson, B.L.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
131.
DEPRESSION & ANXIETY DIFFERENTIALLY PREDICT HPA REACTIVITY TO
COUPLE CONFLICT. Powers, S.; Laurent, H.; Gunlicks-Stoessel, M.; Balaban, S.; Bent, E.
132.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO BACTERIAL LPS LEADS TO LONG-LASTING
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES IN MALE OFFSPRING. Solati, J. ; Asiaei, M.
133.
TAIL-PINCH-INDUCED EATING IS ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONALITY AND
ACTIVATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS. Someya, N.;
Narikiyo, K.; Masuda, A.; Hata, T.; Tsuneyoshi, D.; Aou, S.
134.
MATERNAL SEPARATION AND POSTNATAL OXYTOCIN ADMINISTRATION ALTER
SOCIAL RECOGNITION MEMORY IN ADOLESCENT FEMALE MICE. Thomas, N.R.;
Cornwell, C.A.
135.
VICARIOUS SOCIAL DEFEAT INDUCES DEPRESSION- AND ANXIETY-LIKE
BEHAVIOR AND DYSREGULATES GENE EXPRESSION WITHIN THE VTA. Warren,
B.L.; Alcantara, L.F.; Wright, K.N.; Vialou, V.; Iiguez, S.D.; Nestler, E.J.; Bolaos-Guzman,
C.A.
136.
KAOLIN-INDUCED VENTRICULOMEGALY AT WEANING PRODUCES LONG-TERM
LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN RATS. Williams, M.T.; Lindquist, D.M.;
McAllister, J.P.; Mangano, F.T.; Yuan, W.; Vorhees, C.V.
137.
FACILITATION OF PANIC-RELATED DEFENSIVE BEHAVIORS AFTER
CORTICOTROPHIN-RELEASING FACTOR (CRF) INJECTION IN THE RAT
DORSOLATERAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY. Zangrossi, H.; Sergio, T.O
138.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DEFECTS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER AND
NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS CAUSED BY EG5 MOTOR PROTEIN INHIBITION IN
ALZHEIMER`S DISEASE. Ari, C.; Borysov, S.I.; Wu, J.; Padmanabhan, J.; Potter, H.
26
139.
BCL9 AND C9ORF5 ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN
SCHIZOPHRENIA: META-ANALYSIS OF TWO GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
STUDIES. Xu, C.; Aragam, N.; Villla, E.C.; Posada, Y.; Mao, C.X.; Camarillo, C.; Mao, Y.;
Escamilla, M.A.; Wang, K-S.
140.
SEIZURE 6-LIKE GENE ASSOCIATED WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER I. Xu, C.; Mullersman,
J.; Wang, L.; Su, B.B.; Mao, C.X.; Posada, Y.; Mao, Y.; Escamilla, M.A.; Wang, K-S.
141.
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS IN AGENESIS OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM: WORKING
MEMORY AND SUSTAINED ATTENTION IN BTBR MICE. Gregg, M.; Sample, H.; Neal,
H.; Branson, N.; Martin, L.A.
142.
QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL MOTIVATION IN BTBR AND C57BL/6J
MICE THROUGH NOVEL OPERANT CONDITIONING PARADIGMS. Wood, C.; Sample,
H.; Neal, H.; Gregg, M.; Branson, N.; Martin, L.A.
143.
MATERNAL PROBIOTIC INTERVENTION PROTECTS AGAINST NEUROENDOCRINE
AND IMMUNE DYSFUNCTIONS AND DISRUPTION OF GUT MICROFLORA BALANCE
PROVOKED BY NEONATAL AND SUBSEQUENT ADULT STRESS IN WISTAR RATS.
Barouei, J.; Hodgson, D.
144.
NEONATAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ALTERS NOCICEPTION. Zouikr, I.;
Tadros, M.A.; Callister, R.J.; Nakamura, T.; Beagley, K.; Clifton, V.; Hodgson, D.M.
145.
COMMUNICATION AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS OF MICE EXPOSED TO
MATERNAL IMMUNE ACTIVATION. Defensor, E.B.; Jensen, A.L.; Miske, M.M.;
Yamamoto, L.H.L.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
146.
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF MICE EXPOSED TO MATERNAL IMMUNE ACTIVATION.
Jensen, A.L.; Defensor, E.B.; Yamamoto, L.H.L.; Miske, M.M.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
147.
DETERMINATION OF ANXIETY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN C57BL/6 N AND J MICE TO
INVESTIGATE EMOTIONAL PERSEVERATION. Landrau, S.; Rodríguez, C.; Vilarchao, J.;
Sáez, E.; Santos, I.; López, O.; Budet, A.; Hernández, G.; Peña De Ortíz, S.; Méndez-Merced, A.T.
148.
GENETIC BASES OF DIFFERENCES RELATED TO EMOTIONAL PERSEVERATION IN
MOUSE SUBSTRAINS. Sáez, E.; Budet, A.; Landrau, S.; Hernández, G; Peña de Ortíz, S.;
Méndez-Merced, A.T.
149.
PREDATOR EXPOSURE INDUCES INHIBITED EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOR AND
INCREASED AVOIDANCE OF TRAUMA-ASSOCIATED CUES. Toth, M.; Gross, M.;
Adamec, R.; Risbrough, V.
150.
BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HDC-KO MICE, A MODEL OF A
GENETIC FORM OF TOURETTE SYNDROME. Baldan Ramsey, L.C.; Crowley, M.J.;
Hughes, Z.A.; Gorczyca, R.; Ohtsu, H.; De Araujo, I.; State, M.; Mayes, L.C.; Pittenger, C.
151.
TOP DOWN CONTROL OF SEROTONERGIC SYSTEMS IN DEPRESSIVE-LIKE
BEHAVIORS. Challis, C.; Boulden, J.; Beck, S.G.; Berton, O.
27
152.
KLP-1 RESCUES PREPULSE INHIBITION DISRUPTIONS AND SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL
INDUCED BY NMDA CHANNEL BLOCKERS: A POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC. Chiou,
L.-C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chen, H.-L.; Chou, R.-F.; Mouri, A.; Huang, W.-J.; Nabeshima, T.
153.
RESTRAINT STRESS RELIEVES DEPRESSION-LIKE BEHAVIOR AND INDUCES
ADULT NEUROGENESIS VIA OREXIN 2 RECEPTORS IN MICE. Chiu, S.-Y.; Teng, S.-F.;
Chang, L.-Y.; Chiou, L.-C.
154.
GIT1+/- MICE DISPLAY DIFFERENT CELLULAR PHENOTYPES IN BRAIN FROM GIT1/- MICE WHICH ARE AN ADHD MOUSE MODEL. Chung, C.
155.
IMPLICATION OF THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NPAS4 IN COGNITIVE AND
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS. Coutellier, L.; Beraki, S.; Saw, N.L.; Shamloo, M.
156.
NEONATAL EXPOSURE TO ANTIDEPRESSANT RESULTED IN ADULT DECREASE OF
NEUROLIGIN 1 IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX IN RATS. Feng, P.; Zhang, J.; Akladious,
A.; Hu, Y.
157.
CANNABINOIDS: A RISK FACTOR FOR A NEUREGULIN 1 MOUSE MODEL OF
SCHIZOPHRENIA? Karl T.; Long L.; Boucher A.; McGregor I.; Huang X.-F.; Arnold J.
158.
OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR KNOCKDOWN PRAIRIE VOLES DISPLAY SOCIAL DEFICITS
AND PROVIDE NOVEL MODELS FOR THE SCREENING OF
PHARMACOTHERAPUTICS. Keebaugh, A.; Barrett, C.; Jenkins, J.; Young, L.
159.
SLEEPING IN CLASS: ARE STUDENT SCHEDULES PHYSIOLOGICALLY INHIBITING
LEARNING? Baynard, M.; McEachron, D.L.
160.
ACTIVATION OF B1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AS A POTENTIAL MEMORY
ENHANCEMENT STRATEGY IN NEURO COGNITIVE DISORDERS. Saw, N.L.;
Coutellier, L.; Shamloo, M.
161.
HYPOCRETIN GENE TRANSFER IN MICE MODELS OF NARCOLEPSY. Konadhode, R.;
Pelluru, D.; Blanco-Centurion, C.; Liu, M.; Shiromani, P.J.
162.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF GLUCOSYLCERAMIDE IN LPS-INDUCED RAW
264.7 CELLS. Park, J.; Yeom, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Han, J.J.; Yin, C.S.; Park, H.J.; Lee, H.;
Hahm, D.H.
163.
INVOLVEMENTS OF CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR, BUT NOT
GLUCOCORTICOID IN THE RESTRAINT-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE
PREFERENCE. Mei, Y.Y.; Li, J.S.
164.
DIFFERENCES IN FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING AND PREFRONTAL DOPAMINE
UTILIZATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN THE DRD4 GENE. Groman,
S.M.; Feiler, K.; Seu, E.; Woods, J.A.; Jentsch, J.D.
165.
SPATIAL LEARNING DEFICITS IN MOUSE MODELS OF CONGENITAL MUSCULAR
DYSTROPHIES. Yu, M.; Liu, Y.; Bampoe, K.; Hu, H.
28
Saturday, June 9, 2012
9:00-10:00
Bench-to-Bedside Lecture: David L. McKinzie, Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, USA
FROM BENCH TO CLINIC: DEVELOPMENT OF METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE2/3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
10:00-10:30
Coffee/Snack Break - Exhibits
10:30-12:30
Symposium: THE PROMISE AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS OF TRANSLATIONAL
RESEARCH. Chair: Eva Ihle, University of California, San Francisco, USA
10:30 RESEARCH IN TRANSLATION: TOWARD CLARITY IN COMMUNICATION
BETWEEN BASIC AND CLINICAL SCIENCES. Ihle, E.
10:55 TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH: FINDING THE "SWEET SPOT". Blanchard, D.C.
11:20 MIND THE GAP: A REPORT CARD ON TRANSLATIONAL TREATMENT
ATTEMPTS IN AUTISM AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS.
McCracken, J. T.
11:45 WHAT ARE THESE THINGS CALLED WORKING MEMORY: TRANSLATIONAL
PITFALLS IN DEVELOPING PROCOGNITIVE TREATMENTS. Young, J.W.
12:10 Discussant: Eva Ihle
12:30-2:00
Mid-Day Break - Exhibits
Meet the Profs - CONVENTION CENTER LAWN
2:00-4:00
Symposium: NEW ANIMAL MODELS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Chairs: Francisco Gonzalez-Lima and Eimeira Padilla
2:00
REDUCED DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER FUNCTION: A MODEL OF MANIA
WITH CROSS-SPECIES TRANSLATIONAL VALIDITY. Young, J.W.; van
Enkhuizen, J.; Geyer, M.A.
2:25
MUTANT POLG1 TRANSGENIC MICE AS A MODEL OF BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Kubota-Sakashita, M.; Kasahara, T.; Kato, T.
2:50
FORCED DESYNCHRONIZATION AS A BEHAVIORAL MODEL OF BIPOLAR
DISORDER. Koike, B.D.V.; Ribeiro, J.M.; Gonalves, B.S.B.; Araujo, J.F.
3:15
BIPOLAR-DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN HOLTZMAN RATS. Padilla, E.; Shumake,
J.; Auchter, A.; Barrett, D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.
3:40
Discussant: Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA
4:00-4:30
Snack Break - Exhibits
29
4:30-6:30
Symposium: THE ROLE OF NEUROINFLAMMATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD). Chairs: Christine F. Hohmann and Judy
Van de Water
4:30
NEUROINFLAMMATION AND NEUROIMMUNE ABNORMALITIES IN
CHILDREN WITH ASD. Van de Water, J.; Ashwood, P.
4:55
VALIDATING IMMUNE FINDINGS IN ANIMAL MODELS OF AUTISM.
Ashwood, P.; Van de Water, J.
5:20
SEROTONIN AS POSSIBLE MODULATOR OF NEUROINFLAMMATION IN THE
FOREBRAIN: STUDIES IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR ASD. Hohmann, C.F.; Blue,
M.E.
5:45
PROGRAMMING INNATE IMMUNITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEURAL AND
BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT. Bilbo, S.D.
6:10
Discussant: Robert Benno, William Paterson University of New Jersey, Wayne, NJ,
USA
6:30-7:00
Business Meeting – KEAUHOU II
7:00-9:00
Luau – HAWAII LAWN
7:00-8:00
7:30
8:00-9:00
9:00-12:00
Luau (buffet dinner)
Live Music starts
Cultural Show
Dance and music – KEAUHOU I
Live band featuring LT Smooth
30
Sunday, June 10, 2012
9:00-11:00
Symposium: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF ADDICTION:
NEUROCHEMICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS TO LONG TERM
DRUG EXPOSURE. Chairs: Christian P. Müller and Tomasz Schneider
9:00
PRENATAL NICOTINE EXPOSURE AND ADHD: CURRENT CONTROVERSIES
AND ANIMAL MODELS. Schneider, T.
9:25
SHIFT OF DRUG CUE-INDUCED PHASIC DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM LIMBIC
TO SENSORIMOTOR STRIATUM DURING THE PROGRESSION OF DRUG
TAKING. Willuhn, I.; Everitt, B.J.; Phillips, P.E.
9:50
A HISTORY OF EXTENDED ACCESS TO COCAINE PRODUCES ANOMALIES IN
CORTICO-ACCUMBENS GLUTAMATE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDICTION
THERAPY. Szumlinski, K.K.
10:15 CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT KINASES IN THE ACQUISITION AND
EXPRESSION OF ADDICTION RELATED BEHAVIOUR IN MAN AND MICE.
Müller, C.P.
10:40 Discussant: Aaron Ettenberg, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA
11:00-11:30
Coffee/Snack Break
11:30-1:30
Symposium: EXAMINING A LEARNING DIATHESIS MODEL FOR ANXIETY
DISORDERS. Chairs: Xilu Jiao and Kevin C.H. Pang
11:30 LEARNING DIATHESIS AS A MODEL FOR THE ETIOLOGY OF ANXIETY
DISORDERS. Servatius, R.J.
11:50 ANIMAL MODELS OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY: INFLUENCE OF RISK
FACTORS ON AVOIDANCE LEARNING. Pang, K.
12:10 NEUROBIOLOGY OF FASTER ACQUISITION AND PERSEVERATION IN
ANIMALS. Jiao, X.
12:30 COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF AVOIDANCE LEARNING: MECHANISMS OF
BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION. Myers, C.E.
12:50 BEHAVIORAL AND NEURAL MARKERS OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY IN
HUMANS. McAuley, J.D.
1:10
Discussant: Israel Liberzon, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
31
Tuesday, June 5, 2012
6:00-8:00
Symposium: THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF RESILIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTIVE
FUNCTIONS AND MENTAL HEALTH. Chair: Kelly Lambert
RODENT MODELS EXPLORING EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES FOR MENTAL HEALTH RESILIENCE:
EVALUATION OF PREDISPOSED COPING STRATEGIES AND EFFORT-BASED REWARD CONTINGENCY
TRAINING. Lambert, K. G. Department of Psychology. Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA 23005 USA. Our
laboratory has previously reported that post-weaned rats exhibit passive, active and variable coping strategies (Hawley et al.,
2010). In contrast to the more consistently responding passive and active copers, variable coping rats exhibit situationdependent, as opposed to fixed, behavioural responses to various stressors. Additionally, more adaptive neurobiological
responses (e.g., increased NPY-immunoreactivity in stress-related brain areas) have been observed in the variable coping
animals. Further, we have reported that rats exposed to five weeks of contingency training [i.e., Effort-Based Reward (EBR)
Training; Lambert, 2006] exhibit more resilient responses (e.g., more persistent attempts in problem-solving tasks, lower
CORT/DHEA ratios, more adaptive/conservative responses to repeated swim tests). Interestingly, when rats representing the
various coping strategies are exposed to either contingent EBR training or non-contingent training, variable copers exhibit
enhanced resiliency in the contingent training group whereas variable copers lose their advantage in the non-contingent
group. Thus far we have not observed contingency training to alter the responses of passive and active animals in such a
dramatic fashion. These results suggest that the variable copers are differentially prepared to respond to contingency training
and, in the absence of behavioral control, exhibit higher stress hormone levels and less adaptive behavioural responses (Bardi
et al., 2012), making them more susceptible to experiencing allostatic load. In sum, the combined coping profile assessment
and EBR training models may be used as an approach to explore the effectiveness of behavioural therapies for building
emotional resilience in rodents, allowing the investigation of differential effects on animals exhibiting varying types of
coping responses.
A RODENT MODEL OF HUMAN BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION: DEVELOPMENTAL PRECURSORS AND ADULT
NEURONAL CORRELATES OF PERI-WEANING INHIBITION. Cavigelli, S.A.; Ragan, C.M. Dept. of Biobehavioral
Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802; Dept. of Psychology, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824 USA. Childhood behavioral inhibition (or dysregulated fear) is an important predictor of adult anxiety
(particularly social anxiety). Although behavioral inhibition often predicts adult anxiety, the early environmental and
neurological underpinnings are not understood. To identify potential long-term biological and health consequences of early
behavioral inhibition and to test how early life experiences may influence the trajectory of a fearful temperament, we have
been developing a rodent model of behavioral inhibition. In this talk, we will: (1) review the rodent model, (2) present results
on glucocorticoid, cardiovascular, and longevity correlates of the behavioral fear trait, (3) identify maternal-neonate
interactions that predict this trait, and (4) identify some adult neuronal processes mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing
hormone receptor 1 in the hippocampus and serotonin transporters in the dorsal raphe associated with pre-adult inhibition in
mice and rats. The findings suggest a useful rodent model of human behavioral inhibition and identify some interesting areas
of future investigation (in humans and animal models) on the causes and consequences of human childhood behavioral
inhibition/dysregulated fear.
STRESS RESILIENCE AND VULNERABILITY: THE ASSOCIATION WITH REARING CONDITIONS, ENDOCRINE
FUNCTION, IMMUNOLOGY, AND ANXIOUS BEHAVIOR. Kent, S. School of Psychological Science, La Trobe
University. Melbourne (Bundoora), VIC 3086 Australia. Background: The current study explored the underlying behavioural,
endocrine, and immune markers of vulnerability to stress-induced depression, and the impact of rearing environments on
adult functioning. Method: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=195) were reared in either Maternal Separation (MS), Early
Weaning and Isolation (EWI), or Non-Handled (NH) conditions. Anxiety behaviour was assessed using the emergence test at
mean postnatal day (PND) 60. Stress-induced depressive behaviour was measured at mean PND 86 using intermittent cold
water swim stress and swim escape test (SET) paradigm. Immediately following the SET, and in a sample of nave controls
(N=31), trunk blood was collected to assay for serum corticosterone (CORT) and spleens were removed for determination of
Concanavalin A (Con-A) stimulated T-cell proliferation. Results: Stress vulnerable rats (top tertile of SET swim time) were
characterised by increased anxiety-like behaviour, greater post-stress CORT concentrations, and a significantly higher Con-A
induced T-cell proliferative response compared to stress resilient rats (bottom tertile of SET swim time). The EWI rearing
condition was a contributing factor in predicting total swim escape time, however MS was not. MS offspring did have double
the basal level of CORT than NH offspring, suggestive of a hyperfunctioning HPA axis. Conclusion: The swim stress animal
model enabled observation of stress vulnerability and resilience; results point towards the existence of distinct behavioural,
endocrine, and immunological profiles of the vulnerable and resilient animal, which may have important implications for
mental health and stress research.
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Wednesday, June 6, 2012
9:00-10:00
Keynote Speaker: Sarah F. Leibowitz, The Rockefeller University.
MATERNAL HIGH-FAT DIET, ALCOHOL AND FETAL PROGRAMMING
MATERNAL HIGH-FAT DIET, ALCOHOL AND FETAL PROGRAMMING. Leibowitz, S.F. Maternal consumption of a
fat-rich diet or alcohol during pregnancy has been shown, in both human and preclinical studies, to increase the offspring’s
appetite for dietary fat and alcohol. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena have yet to be identified. Our recent studies in
rodents demonstrate that in utero exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD), as compared to a balanced diet, stimulates the birth of excess
neurons that express specific neurochemicals, such as the peptides galanin (GAL), orexin (OX), and opioid enkephalin (ENK),
that are potent stimulants of both fat consumption and alcohol drinking. The density at birth of these peptide-expressing neurons in
the hypothalamus is markedly increased. This phenomenon, which occurs in close association with higher blood lipids caused by
the HFD, persists postnatally long after the diet is removed, suggesting that the neuronal changes at this early age are permanent.
This is supported by evidence showing that a HFD during pregnancy simulates the proliferation of neuroepithelial and neuronal
precursor cells of the embryonic hypothalamic third ventricle, the proliferation and differentiation of neurons, and the migration
of these neurons toward hypothalamic areas where the peptides act. Remarkably, very similar results are obtained with
maternal consumption of a low dose of alcohol, which also increases circulating lipids. Together with other disturbances in
opioid and dopamine receptor systems in extra-hypothalamic areas, these neuronal changes associated with maternal
hyperlipidemia may contribute to the increased appetite for fat and alcohol observed in the offspring.
Research supported by USPHS grants: DA 21518 and AA 12882
10:30-12:30
Symposium: STRESS, INFLAMMATION, NEUROINFLAMMATION AND BEHAVIOR: CAUSES,
CONSEQUENCES AND TREATMENT.
Chair: Frederick Rohan Walker
THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN THE REGULATION OF MOOD STATE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION. Walker, F.R.
University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Several recent reports have identified that psychological stress can both
structurally and functionally alter microglia, cells that are pivotal to the production and maintenance of a neuroinflammatory
state in the brain. The ability of stress to modulate microglial activity is of interest for two main reasons (a) stress is major
risk factor in the emergence of depression and (b) depression appears to be characterised by enhanced levels of
neuroinflammation. These two facts have led to the hypothesis that psychological stress may elicit changes in mood state and
cognitive function by driving microglial mediated neuroinflammatory events. In investigating this hypothesis our research
group, using a variety of behavioural approaches, has previously found that chronic stress sufficient to induce an increase in
anhedonia and a decline in cognitive performance co-occurred with an increase in microglial activation within mood
regulatory forebrain nuclei (notably the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). We have now subsequently, established that
targeting stress induced microglial activation with anti-inflammatory agents improves stress induced cognitive decline.
Moreover, using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques we have identified at a cellular level that microglial activity is
intimately linked with neuronal activity. Interestingly, we have also observed that the stress induced changes in microglial
activity are not clearly associated with signs of neurodegeneration. Indicating that the stress induced increase in microglial
activation is occurring via a non classical mechanism. Currently, our group is now functionally characterizing, using a variety
of ex-vivo techniques, the inflammatory status of microglia within the mood regulatory nuclei where we have observed
differences following exposure chronic stress. Collectively, these findings may prove to be relevant in furthering our
understanding of the neurobiology of depression.
IMMUNE AND BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF MICROGLIAL REACTIVITY FOLLOWING REPEATED
SOCIAL DEFEAT. Wohleb, E.; Fenn, A.; Pacenta, A.; Powell, N.; Sheridan, J.; Godbout, J.P. The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH.Repeated social defeat (RSD) activates neuroendocrine pathways that have a significant influence on
immunity and behavior. Our work indicates that social defeat in mice enhances the inflammatory capacity of CD11b+ cells in
the brain and promotes anxiety-like behavior in an interleukin (IL)-1 and beta-adrenergic receptor manner. These previous
data will be highlighted in the presentation. In addition, new data will be presented showing that mice subjected to RSD are
more responsive to a secondary immune challenge. In these experiments, RSD or control mice were injected with saline or
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of brain CD11b+ cells (e.g., microglia and CNS macrophages) and behavioral
responses were determined. Peripheral LPS injection caused an extended sickness response with exaggerated weight loss and
prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice. LPS injection also amplified mRNA expression of inflammatory
mediators including IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD14 in enriched
CD11b+ cells isolated from socially defeated mice. In addition, IL-beta mRNA levels in enriched CD11b+ cells remained
elevated in socially defeated mice 24 h and 72 h after LPS. Moreover, microglia and CNS macrophages isolated from
socially defeated mice had the highest CD14 expression after LPS injection. Both social defeat and LPS injection increased
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the percentage of CD11b+/CD45hi macrophages in the brain and the number of inflammatory macrophages
(CD11b+/CD45hi/CCR2+) was highest in RSD-LPS mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased by social defeat, but was not
exacerbated by the LPS challenge. Nonetheless, reduced locomotor activity and increased social withdrawal were still present
in socially defeated mice 72 h after LPS. Last, LPS-induced microglia activation was most evident in the hippocampus of
socially defeated mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated social defeat enhanced the
neuroinflammatory response and caused prolonged sickness following innate immune challenge.
EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF CALORIE RESTRICTION UPON THE BEHAVIOURAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND
METABOLIC INDICATORS OF ILLNESS. Kent, S. School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University. Melbourne
(Bundoora), VIC 3086 Australia. The physiological outcomes of a diet reduced in calories have been well established.
However, there has been limited research on the impact of calorie restriction (CR) on sickness behaviour including fever.
Recently, we have explored the relationship between a CR diet and behavioural, physiological, molecular, and metabolic
indicators of illness. Initially we determined that a 50% CR for 28 days in mice and rats attenuated fever after administration
with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, in the CR mice there was a shift towards a central anti-inflammatory bias as
indicated by several hypothalamic immune and diet related markers changing at two and four hours post-LPS. In the CR rats
there was a significant increase in peripheral corticosterone at two hours post-LPS and also a significant attenuation of the
increase in interleukin-6 at two hours post-LPS. In addition, it was demonstrated that the rats CR to 50% for 28 days
demonstrated a reduction in metabolic rate after the CR period and no change in metabolism post-LPS. In the final
experiment the 50% CR rats selected a higher ambient temperature (Ta) compared to control rats. Further, the CR rats were
able to produce a febrile response post-LPS once at this heightened Ta; however, other measures of sickness behaviour
remained attenuated in the CR rats. These findings suggest that a 50% CR leads to altered inflammatory pathways (namely a
bias towards anti-inflammatory) and that when the CR animals are able to self-select their preferred Ta it possibly becomes
less metabolically costly for them to increase their Tb post-LPS. Funding was provided by the Australian Research Council
Grant (LP 0775284) and Jims Group Pty Ltd.
ISOLATION STRESS: RETHINKING THE MECHANISMS OF STRESS-IMPAIRED HEALING Engeland, C.G., Yang,
L., Pyter, L.M., McKenzie, C. Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration, University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago IL USA. Wound healing in humans and rodents is impaired by exposure to chronic stress. Isolation stress, which is
akin to loneliness/isolation in humans, has been shown to negatively affect immunity. This is important to many scientific
studies in which, to prevent potentially confounding interactions, mice are often separated. In a series of studies, we
investigated the effects of isolation stress on gene expression and healing rates in skin wounds of mice. 160 male and female
hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into two groups: isolate-housed (ISO), and group-housed controls (GRO). ISO mice were
individually housed from 3 weeks before wounding. Under anesthesia, two 3.5mm biopsy punch wounds were placed
dorsally on each mouse and harvested at day 1, 3, 5 or 7 post-wounding. Wound closure was assessed through daily pictures.
Biopsies were analyzed by RT-PCR for gene expression of proteins important to early tissue repair including keratinocyte
growth factor (KGF), important for re-epithelialization, and -smooth muscle actin (-SMA) which correlates with fibroblast
contractile ability. Isolation stress significantly delayed wound closure rates (p<0.001 each sex). Female ISO mice had lower
KGF gene expression at days 1&3. Male ISO mice had lower gene expression for KGF at days 1&3, and -SMA at days 3&5.
Surprisingly, ISO mice had less bacteria in the wounds than controls (p<0.01). Unlike other stress models in mice, a high
bacterial burden was not necessary to induce stress-impaired healing in this relatively naturalistic model. These findings,
which differ from other models of stress-impaired wound healing, suggest that isolation affects tissue repair through
alterations in re-epithelialization and wound contraction independent of infection.
2:00-4:00
Symposium: GENETIC AND EPIGENETIC FACTORS IN AUTISM.
Chair: Joanne Berger-Sweeney, Tufts University, USA
ADULT SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN BTBR T+ tf/J MICE FOLLOWING NEONATAL ADMINISTRATION OF
OXYTOCIN. Benno, R.; McKim, D.; Rendon, T.; Schanz, N. William Paterson University of NJ, Wayne NJ, 07470 USA.
Numerous studies have shown the importance of oxytocin in social behavior. It has been suggested that abnormal regulation
of oxytocin function may be in part responsible for the expression of autisticlike behaviors. There is conflicting data whether
or not the BTBR mouse has significant differences in the levels of oxytocin and/or oxytocin receptors compared to control
mice and if so whether these differences are related to the expression of the autistic-like symptoms in this strain. In this study
we have sought to determine if postnatal manipulation of oxytocin function can normalize social behaviors in the BTBR
strain. The background for this approach is based on studies reviewed by Carter (2003) which showed that neonatal
administration of oxytocin to the montane vole altered the brain levels of oxytocin and produced monogamous like behaviors
in this species similar to that which is observed in the nave prairie vole. The subjects of this mixed litter design study were
C57BL/6J and BTBR T+tf/J mice. Litters consisting of three male and three females pups received either saline, oxytocin or
atosiban (an oxytocin antagonist). Drugs were administered either acutely (one single intraperitoneal injection on postnatal
34
day 1) or chronically (days 1-7 postnatal). The pups were tested as adults using a three chambered social apparatus during
which we measured both sociability (1st trail) and social novelty preference (2nd trial). In addition, we recorded grooming
during the trials. The results of this study show that postnatal manipulation of oxytocin has only minimal effects upon autistic
like symptoms in the BTBR mouse. In addition, there were also minimal effects upon social behaviors in the C57 mice. As
expected, there were significant strain differences in most of the behaviors analyzed, but for the most part this was
independent of drug or length of treatment. Grooming behavior appeared to be somewhat more effected by the drug
treatments with both strains increasing grooming following chronic drug treatment. In summary, it appears that manipulation
of oxytocin during the postnatal period does not alleviate the autistic like symptoms demonstrated by the BTBR mouse. Our
findings lend support to the belief that the abnormal social behaviors exhibited by BTBR mice are independent of any
potential differences in oxytocin function which might exist between them and C57 mice. Carter, S. (2003). Developmental
consequences of oxytocin. Physiology and Behavior, 79(3): 383-397.
DO ABNORMAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX SYSTEMS CONTRIBUTE TO EPIGENETIC FACTORS IN AUTISM?
Blanchard, D.C., University of Hawaii, USA. Attempts to model an autism-relevant behavioral phenotype in laboratory
animals have increased in recent years, in line with dramatic increases in diagnoses of this disorder. Reverse genetics
approaches are complicated by the plethora of potentially relevant genes, and by potential specificities in the geneexperiential challenge interactions that may be involved in the etiology of autism. Using behavior alone to select a relevant
model has yielded one, the BTBR T+tf/J strain, that provides excellent parallels to all three defining symptom groupings for
autism, whereas other genetic models have tended to show either inconsistent or partial parallels. BTBR mice are also
beginning to reveal neural and molecular differences that may provide clues to the biology of these autism-like behavior
changes. They show differences from C57BL/6J (B6) controls in regional levels and turnover of several neurotransmitters;
early gene expression in a wide variety of brain sites; and reductions in plasma sulfates; the latter parallel reductions reported
in autistic children. BTBR also show a significant reduction in heparan sulfate –a cell-surface and extracellular molecule that
modulates the activity of a host of growth and guidance factors. Heparan sulfate distribution, as well as amount, was altered
in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, one of two neurogenic zones in the adult mammalian brain. These
differences provide potential links between factors altering odds ratios for autism, and aberrant neuronal connectivity in the
nervous system.
DIETARY INTERVENTIONS IN MOUSE MODELS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: THE CASE OF
CHOLINE. Ricceri, L. Dept. of Cell Biology and Neuroscience. Istituto Superiore di Sanit, Rome ITALY. Choline is a
dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. Choline, or its metabolites, is needed for the structural integrity
and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is one of the sources of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline metabolites,
betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine), and it directly affects cholinergic
neurotransmission, trans-membrane signaling and lipid metabolism. Changes in choline availability during the neonatal
period profoundly (and permanently) affect brain development: perinatal choline supplementation enhances transmission at
cholinergic synapses, protects against neurodegeneration, improves performance on several behavioural tasks and,
importantly for exploitation of the treatment in the context of neurodevelopmental disorders, upregulates expression of
different growth factors. Studies in a knock-out mouse models of Rett syndrome (RTT), an autism-spectrum disorder
primarily caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), have shown that
developmental choline supplementation ameliorates RTT symptoms. We extended these results showing that postnatal
choline supplementation attenuates some of the behavioural and neurobiological abnormalities also in the truncated Mecp2308 mouse line: choline treatment (from birth till weaning) restored wt-like locomotor activity levels in hemyzygous (hz)
mice. Lower striatal choline acetyl-trasferase (ChAT) activity and decreased levels of cortical mRNA NGF were found in hz
mice: choline supplementation increased striatal ChAT activity and enhanced NGF and BDNF expression in cortical and
hippocampal regions. In preclinical studies developmental choline supplementation thus exerts beneficial effects on the RTT
phenotype accompanied by increases in BDNF and NGF expression: these results could be translationally relevant for
development of dietary therapeutic approaches for neurodevelopmental disorders.
THE ONE-CARBON (C1) METABOLIC CYCLE, NEURAL CIRCUITS, AND COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIORS
IN AUTISM. Berger-Sweeney, J.; Schaevitz, L. Increasing evidence makes it clear that both genetic and epigenetic factors
are critical in the etiology of developmental disorders such as autism. With so many genetic and epigenetic influences in
neurological disorders, recent studies focus on elucidating common underlying pathways, and determining how specific
genetic and epigenetic factors may interact within a given pathway. A variety of environmental factors can influence
epigenetic programming and DNA methylation including nutrition, stress, maternal care, or toxins; the focus of our work has
been on nutritional factors such as choline and folate. In the brain, epigenetic programming appears to be most sensitive to
nutritional influences in utero and early in postnatal life, which also correspond to critical periods of synaptic refinement in
cortical circuitry. As such, epigenetic programs can set the stage for neural circuitry that underlie complex cognitive and
social behaviors later in life. In this talk, we will examine the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors in the onecarbon (C1) metabolic cycle and implications for autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesize that alterations in C1 metabolic
35
function in utero and during early postnatal development lead to changes in cholinergic and glutamatergic synaptic
transmission, which act as neuromodulators in the developing cerebral cortex. Models for how these alterations (though
combinations of genetic and epigenetic factors) could lead to dysfunctional neural circuits that result in an autistic phenotype
will be explored. The C1 metabolic cycle utilizes nutrients to establish and maintain DNA methylation patterns. Alterations
in C1 metabolites affect widespread functions that include acetylcholine biosynthesis, NMDA receptor functions, as well as
DNA methylation rates. Alterations of key neuromodulators, such as acetylcholine and glutamate, during critical periods in
cortical development can perturb the formation of normal neural networks that support complex cognitive and social
behaviors later in life that are likely disturbed in autism.
2:00-4:00
Symposium: MODELING SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS AND NEUROBIOLOGY IN MICE. Chair:
Francesco Papaleo
COGNITIVE AND NEUROIMAGING PHENOTYPES REVEAL BRAIN DYSFUNCTION IN DYSBINDIN-1 MUTANT
MICE. Jentsch, J. UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. Multimodal neuroimaging approaches and measures of cognition are
increasingly powerful tools for interrogating patterns of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. That said, mouse models that are
used to examine putative genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms that are causal for syndromal aspects of the disorder are
often assessed with unsophisticated tools or with approaches that lack translational appeal. Here, we report the results of
studies that begin with cognitive and neuroimaging measurements to determine validity of a particular genetic model for
schizophrenia - reduced expression of the candidate risk gene, dysbindin-1. These studies have uncovered specific patterns of
brain dysfunction that span from frontal cortical to hippocampal networks, while also implicating midbrain dopaminergic
circuitry. Mechanistic studies directed at these brain regions have revealed cellular and synaptic phenotypes consistent with
both compromised pre-synaptic mechanisms (reduced neurotransmitter release under high frequency conditions), impaired
synaptic plasticity and compromised post-synaptic glutamate receptor function. The use of translational cognitive and
neuroimaging methodologies, as described above, allow us to both validate the models and connect cellular dysfunction with
human phenotypes in increasingly powerful and informative ways.
DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE DEFICITS RELEVANT TO SCHIZOPHRENIA IN COMT AND DYSBINDIN
MOUSE MUTANTS. Papaleo, F. Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.
Development of cognitive deficits relevant to schizophrenia in COMT and Dysbindin mouse mutants F. Papaleo, Department
of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova - Italy Cognitive
abnormalities are core manifestations of schizophrenia that precede the onset of the diagnostic psychosis, dramatically
contribute to poor functional outcomes in patients, and are currently not effectively treatable. Cognitive dysfunctions in
schizophrenia have been linked to genetic susceptibility for the illness. I will then illustrate cognitive abnormalities in mutant
mice bearing targeted, clinically-relevant mutations of two schizophrenia-susceptibility genes, catechol-O-methyl transferase
(COMT) and dysbindin. COMT and dysbindin are both involved in cortical dopamine signaling. The dysregulation of this
system is implicated in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, including attendant cognitive deficits. Special attention will be
given to the study in mice of working memory and extra-dimensional shifting abilities. These are among the cognitive
functions mainly affected in schizophrenia and which greatly depend on the prefrontal cortex.
ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS IN MICE: A TOOL TO MODEL NEGATIVE SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS.
Scattoni, M.L.; Dept. of Cell Biology and Neuroscience. Istituto Superiore di Sanit, I-00161 Rome, ITALY. Patients with
schizophrenia often display a lack of spontaneous seeking to share interests with other people, abnormal hedonic behavior
and low social reciprocity, while the ability to recognize different individuals is intact. Mus musculus is a social species that
engages in high levels of reciprocal social interactions, communal nesting, sexual and parenting behaviors, territorial scent
marking and aggressive behaviors. In these social contexts, mice communicate predominantly in the ultrasonic range of
sound frequencies. Pups separated from the nest emit vocalizations, signals which the parents use to locate the straying pup
and retrieve it to the nest. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different
experimental/social contexts such as play, aggressive or sexual interactions. This talk will focus primarily on the evaluation
of negative schizophrenia symptoms in mice through the detailed spectrographic analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations emitted
during infant social isolation, adult dyadic interactions and sniffing of estrus female urine by male mice, a novel approach for
monitoring reward-seeking behavior in rodents. Ultrasonic emission is a consistent and robust phenomenon in rodents during
adult social interactions, and can be considered an index of social interest and motivation. Experimental evidence indicates as
vocalizations are a valuable tool for identifying alterations in several mouse models of human neurodevelopmental disorders,
starting from those in which deficits in social communication are a primary core symptom e.g. schizophrenia and autism
spectrum disorders.
36
MODELING THE POSITIVE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MICE: FOCUS ON DOPAMINERGIC AND
GLUTAMATERGIC MECHANISMS M. van den Buuse Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, Mental Health Research
Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia. Hyperactivity of the subcortical dopamine system has been suggested as a core
feature of psychosis. All antipsychotic drugs share blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor as their core mechanism of action.
In addition, in schizophrenia hypoactivation of the glutamate NMDA receptor has been postulated. These main
neurotransmitter alterations and their modulation by other factors, such as serotonin and neuropeptides, have been widely
modeled in rat and mouse studies. This presentation will include an overview of commonly used animal behavioural
approaches for psychotic symptoms, including locomotor hyperactivity and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and how these relate to
human findings. I will also outline some of the advantages as well as pitfalls which are associated with this experimental
methodology and include studies in mice with mutations in schizophrenia candidate genes. For example, neuregulin-1
hypomorphic mice showed mild baseline locomotor hyperactivity but no changes in the effects of the dopamine releaser,
amphetamine, or the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. On the other hand, reelin heterozygous mutant mice showed
markedly enhanced locomotor hyperactivity induced by MK-801, but not amphetamine. Notably, this effect was only seen in
male mice and not in female mice, illustrating how straightforward experimental factors, such as the sex of the animals, can
influence the results. Developmental environmental factors and treatments can further interact with genetically-induced
changes in behaviour. For example, chronic young-adult treatment with methamphetamine leads to sensitization to the
locomotor hyperactivity-inducing effects of amphetamine in adulthood and this has been used as a model of psychosis
development. We recently found that this sensitization is absent in mice heterozygous for a mutation in the brain-derived
neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Hets). Strikingly, again this interaction was only observed in male mice. Further details and
examples of gene effects and gene-environment interactions will be discussed.
4:30-7:00
Symposium: UNRAVELING THE CONTRIBUTION OF OXYTOCIN TO POSITIVE AFFECT AND
DRUG-RELATED REWARD: A TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE. Chairs: Femke Buisman-Pijlman
and Jillian Broadbear
PRENATAL AND GESTATIONAL DRUG EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM, SOCIAL
BEHAVIOR AND VULNERABILITY IN RATS. Williams, S.K.; McMurray, M.S.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox,E.T.; JameisonDrake, A.; Walker,C.H.; Robinson, D.L.; Johns, J.M. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA. Drug abuse
during pregnancy is major public health concern, with negative consequences throughout development. Prenatal cocaine
exposure (PCE) in rats produces deficits in social behavior with corresponding changes in neuroendocrine and
monoaminergic signaling. The relevance of parental care in social behavior maturity cannot be ignored, and gestational
exposure to cocaine severely disrupts parental care, thus impacting the early environment of the offspring. Oxytocin (Oxt) is
critical in regulating social behaviors and central levels are disrupted following acute and chronic cocaine (CC) treatment in
postpartum rat dams, coincident with deficits in maternal care. We will discuss studies aimed to determine the relative
contribution of PCE and CC-induced deficits in maternal care to social behaviors and Oxt signaling across development. Our
animal model entails either bidaily injections on cocaine (15 mg/kg) from gestational day 1-20 or intermittent injections
throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were either cross-fostered to drug-free rat dams or remained with their biological
dams until testing. PCE results in decreased social (including parental) behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. PCE is also
associated with increased aggression in adults. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers synergistically increases the behavioral
effects of PCE. Rearing by CC-exposed mothers, but not PCE, disrupts Oxt levels and mRNA in regions relevant to social
behavior, but does not affect receptors in postpartum adult offspring. Preliminary work indicates PCE/CC rearing has
dynamic effects on Oxt levels and receptors in neonatal rat pups, suggesting very early regulation of Oxt signaling. This work
highlights how the interactive role of Oxt signaling and behavioral context throughout development can be derailed by drug
abuse during pregnancy.
OXYTOCINERGIC REGULATION OF ENDOGENOUS AS WELL AS DRUG-INDUCED MOOD. Broadbear, J.H.; Mak,
P.; Beringer, K. School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. The
interconnections between the serotonergic and oxytocinergic systems in the brain suggest that changes in oxytocin levels
from either natural or drug-induced stimuli may lead to measureable changes in mood. In this series of studies, we evaluated
the effects of oxytocin and vasopressin receptor ligands in several models of animal behaviour. Our first aim was to
investigate whether stimulation of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors, via central or systemic drug administration, would
produce behavioral changes indicative of anti-depressant or anxiolytic activity. Our second aim was to examine whether
oxytocin receptor activation was implicated in the effects experienced using the popular party drug, MDMA (ecstasy).
Carbetocin, an oxytocin analogue, had anti-depressant actions in the forced swim test following systemic and central
administration. These effects were blocked by the oxytocin and vasopressin 1A receptor antagonist, atosiban. Carbetocin also
had anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze, but only after central administration. Systemic administration of
desmopressin, a vasopressin analog, was anxiogenic; its effects were blocked by atosiban which on its own produced robust
anxiolytic behavioural changes. MDMAs drug effects were evaluated using a drug discrimination paradigm. Carbetocin
partially substituted for MDMA, while atosiban interfered with MDMA discrimination, suggesting that oxytocin receptor
37
activation was an important component of the interoceptive cues that some rats had learned to associate with MDMA
treatment. The results of these and other preclinical studies provide compelling evidence that oxytocin, as well as its closely
related counterpart vasopressin, may provide alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression.
Regulation of mood via the use of drugs such as MDMA, with its pronounced serotonergic effects, is also likely to recruit
oxytocin to produce its effects.
PREFRONTAL OXYTOCIN MEDIATES DRUG AND SOCIAL REWARD INTERACTION. Wang, Z.; Young, K.A.
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form
pair bonds after mating. This behavior is mediated by dopamine (DA) and oxytocin (OT) neurotransmission in
mesocorticolimbic brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Similarly, the
rewarding effects of drugs of abuse are also mediated by these neurotransmitter systems. Our recent studies in the prairie vole
have demonstrated that exposure to the psychostimulant, amphetamine (AMPH), impairs mating-induced pair bonding; pairbonding experience decreases the rewarding properties of AMPH; and such behavioral interactions are regulated by NAcc
DA via a receptor-specific mechanism. In a most recent study in female prairie voles, we found that an AMPH treatment
paradigm known to inhibit pair bonding decreased oxytocin receptor (OTR) density in the PFC. As PFC OTR activation is
essential for pair bonding, decreased OT neurotransmission may mediate the AMPH-impairment of pair bonding. This notion
is supported by our data showing that intra-PFC OT infusions restored mating-induced pair bonding in AMPH-treated voles.
AMPH treatment also decreased DA D2-type (D2R), but not D1-type (D1R), receptor density and increased extracellular
levels of DA in the NAcc. Both of these changes increase the likelihood of NAcc D1R activation, which inhibits pair bond
formation. Interestingly, intra-PFC OT infusion tended to decrease NAcc DA activity, suggesting that PFC OT may interact
with NAcc DA to restore pair bonding in AMPH-treated voles. Collectively, these data demonstrate that alterations in OT
and DA neurotransmission underlie the AMPH-impairment of pair bonding and suggest that it may be worthwhile to pursue
pharmacotherapies targeting central OT to restore prosocial behaviors in the addicted. (Supported by NIDAR01-19627,
NIDAK02-23048, & NIMHR01-58616 to ZW and NIDAF31-25570 to KY).
A CONDITIONAL KNOCKOUT MOUSE LINE OF THE OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR: FINDINGS RELATING TO
SOCIAL RELATIONS AND LEARNING. Pagani, J.H. & Young, W.S. SNGE/NIMH/HHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
Our understanding of oxytocin (Oxt) has moved beyond a role in lactation and parturition to centrally mediated effects on
anxiety, social and reproductive behaviors, and learning and memory. Oxt and Oxt receptor (Oxtr) knockout (KO) mice have
contributed to the work outlining the Oxt systems influence on many of these behaviors. In our attempts to understand Oxts
role in specific circuitry, we have created mice with loxP sites flanking the gene for the Oxtr (Oxtr flox/flox). When crossed
with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of cell or region specific promoters, very selective inactivation of the
Oxtr is achieved. We have created a line with Oxtr loss specific to the forebrain by crossing Oxtr flox/flox with a transgenic
line expressing Cre under the Camk2a promoter. These KO mice (Oxtr FB/FB) develop normally until post-natal day 21, at
which point the Oxtr begins to disappear. The result is a pattern of behavioral phenotype that is unlike wildtype or total Oxtr
(/) KO mice. OxtrFB/FB mice have normal maternal behavior but still have pup mortality rates higher than wildtype mice.
Oxtr/ and OxtrFB/FB have social recognition deficits, but those of the OxtrFB/FB may reveal a more profound intrastrain
recognition failure. Furthermore, unlike the Oxtr/, OxtrFB/FB mice show a deficit in contextual and auditory fear
conditioning. This learning deficit is coupled with a reduction in vasopressin 1a receptors in the central nucleus of the
amygdala, something also not seen in Oxtr/. By creating receptor specific lesions with defined spatial and temporal
properties, we learn more about Oxts critical functions across the brain and lifespan. The NIMH Intramural Research
Program (Z01-MH-002498-22) supported this research.
OXYTOCIN AS A REGULATOR OF ADDICTION: A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE. Buisman-Pijlman,
F.T.A. 1; Tops, M. 2 1) Lecturer, Pharmacology and Psychiatry. University of Adelaide, Australia; 2) Assistant Professor,
Centre for Child and Family Studies, University of Leiden, Netherlands. Oxytocin is more than a neuropeptide involved in
childbirth and bonding. It has an important role in facilitating social relationships and can directly influence rewarding effects
of social relations and drugs of abuse. This paper will discuss whether oxytocin plays a role in individual differences in
sensitivity to addiction from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Early life-events and parenting can influence the developing
oxytocin systems. The oxytocin system is a modulator of the HPA-axis and of the dopamine and immune systems. These
systems are all important, even vital, in different phases of addiction. Adverse early life-events or insecure attachment might
have long-term effects on alcohol and drug use by reducing the protective effect of oxytocin. We showed that oxytocin is
involved in social awareness and stress habituation: oxytocin increases trust in novel social contexts, allowing for habituation
of stress responses. Alcohol and drugs are often used to cope in such situations. Interestingly, the oxytocin response to
novelty will counter-regulate itself: by facilitating familiarization to social contexts, oxytocin decreases novelty responses
that would trigger its own release. The balance between the rewarding properties of drugs and social relations can also affect
drug use. Strong social relations have been shown to delay initiation of drug use. Recent studies show rewarding properties of
social relations in social animals, mediated via a direct interaction between the dopamine and oxytocin system. Special social
relations could be rewarding in itself and therefore balance the need for drug reward. However, how rewarding social
38
relations are depends on social experiences. Supported by University of Adelaide (FBP) and Veni grant by NWO (451-07013) (MT).
BREAKING THE LOOP: PRECLINICAL AND EARLY CLINICAL EVIDENCE FOR OXYTOCIN AS A TREATMENT
FOR DRUG ADDICTION. McGregor, I. School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
There is accumulating evidence for an interaction between the neural substrates of affiliation and those of drug reward, and
particularly for a role for oxytocin systems in modulating acute and long-term drug effects. In rats and mice, oxytocin
administration can prevent development of tolerance to ethanol and opiates, the induction of stereotyped, hyperactive
behavior by stimulants, and the withdrawal symptoms associated with sudden abstinence from drugs and alcohol.
Additionally, stimulation of endogenous oxytocin systems is a key effect of prosocial party drugs such as MDMA (Ecstasy)
and GHB (Fantasy). Brain oxytocin systems are highly plastic and drugs of abuse cause long-term changes in markers of
oxytocin function that can be linked to enduring deficits in social behavior that may parallel the social disintegration seen in
persons with drug problems. Very recent preclinical studies have illustrated a remarkable ability of exogenously delivered
oxytocin to inhibit stimulant and alcohol self-administration, to modulate associated drug-induced changes in dopamine and
glutamate release, and to prevent stress and priming-induced relapse to drug seeking. In summary, oxytocin has fascinating
potential to reverse the corrosive effects of long-term drugs abuse on social behavior and to perhaps inoculate people against
future vulnerability to addictive disorders. The results of clinical studies examining intranasal oxytocin in humans with drug
use disorders are ongoing and results are eagerly awaited. Supported by grants from the ARC and NHMRC
8:00-10:00
Poster Session 1: Brain and Behavior
1.
ROLE OF VENTRAL SUBICULUM IN CONTEXT-INDUCED REINSTATEMENT OF HEROIN SEEKING.
Bossert JM1; Eichenbaum, H1; Marchant NJ1; Wang HL2; Morales M2; Shaham Y1 Behavioral Neuroscience
Branch1, Cellular Neurobiology Research Branch2, IRP/NIDA/NIH/DHHS. In humans, exposure to contexts
previously associated with heroin use can provoke relapse. In rats, exposure to heroin-paired contexts after
extinction of drug-reinforced responding in different contexts reinstates heroin seeking. This reinstatement is
attenuated by inhibition of glutamate or dopamine transmission in nucleus accumbens shell, or inactivation of
ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). More recently, we assessed whether the glutamatergic projection from
vmPFC to accumbens shell is activated during context-induced reinstatement. To accomplish this, we combined the
marker of neuronal activity, Fos, with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) and found that context-induced
reinstatement was associated with increased Fos expression in vmPFC neurons, including those projecting to
accumbens shell. Another brain site that sends glutamatergic projections to accumbens shell is the ventral
subiculum. Therefore, in the current study we examined whether this brain area also contributes to context-induced
reinstatement of heroin seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 12 days; drug infusions were paired
with a discrete tone-light cue. Lever-pressing was subsequently extinguished in a non-drug-associated context in the
presence of the discrete cue. Rats were then tested in the heroin- or extinction-associated contexts under extinction
conditions. Bilateral injections of muscimol+baclofen into ventral subiculum decreased context-induced
reinstatement of heroin seeking. Using the same anatomical procedure as described above, we are currently
exploring whether exposure to heroin contexts previously paired with heroin intake activate the glutamatergic
projections from ventral subiculum to accumbens shell.
2.
THE COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF OVARIECTOMY TRANSITIONS FROM DETRIMENTAL TO BENEFICIAL
WITH AGE Acosta, J.I.; Engler, E.B.; Talboom,J.S.; and Bimonte-Nelson, H.A. Department of Psychology,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 Arizona Alzheimers Consortium It is well established that cognitive
decline occurs with aging, and hormone loss may exacerbate this decline. Recent evidence from our laboratory
suggests that in rats, the cognitive effects of hormone loss depend on the age of ovariectomy (Ovx). For example, in
one study we found that Ovx in young female rats was detrimental to spatial working memory (WM) performance
(Bimonte and Denenberg, 1999), and in another study Ovx in aged female rats facilitated spatial WM performance
(Bimonte-Nelson et al., 2003). However, the effects of Ovx at multiple timepoints during aging has not yet been
methodically addressed in one study. Here, we test the hypothesis that the effects of Ovx on cognition would
transition from beneficial to detrimental based on our previous findings. We used a between-subjects design to test
spatial WM and reference memory (RM), on the water radial arm maze (WRAM), in ovary-intact Sham or Ovx rats
at 5, 12, 18, and 20 months old. At the end of behavioral testing, serum was collected and levels of LH, FSH,
estradiol, and progesterone were measured. Results demonstrated that for the later testing block (days 11-12) of the
WRAM, 12 month old Ovx animals made more WM errors relative to Sham animals, as trials progressed and WM
load increased. However, at 18 months of age, the WM detriment after Ovx was reversed, with 18 month old Ovx
animals making less WM memory errors on two orthogonal measures relative to 18 month old sham animals. On the
trial with the highest working memory load, 12 month old Ovx animals exhibiting impaired performance and 18
month old Ovx animals exhibiting enhanced performance relative to Sham age groups. At 18 months, Ovx also
39
enhanced RM performance on the WRAM relative to Sham. Collectively, the data support a transition of Ovx from
detrimental at 12 months, to beneficial, at 18 months of age. There were distinct patterns of hormone change across
age for LH, FSH, progesterone, and estradiol.
3.
DIFFERENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MESOHABENULAR AND MESOACCUMBENS DOPAMINE
NEUROTRANSMISSION TO BRAIN STIMULATION REWARD. Duchesne, V.; Boye, S.M. Department of
Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The contribution of mesoaccumbens dopamine
neurotransmission to reward and reinforcement has been the focus of many years of study. Other terminal sites have
received comparatively less research attention, but may be potentially important. One of these sites is the lateral
habenula, a medially-located structure that receives dopaminergic innervation from ventral tegmental area dopamine
cells. Very little is known about the contribution of this mesohabenular pathway to reward in general and to brain
stimulation reward in particular. The goal of this study was to begin to understand the contribution of the
mesohabenular dopamine pathway to reward function. To this end, we employed intracranial self-stimulation of the
posterior mesencephalon, a brain region that supports robust responding and is highly sensitive to changes in
dopamine neurotransmission. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae in the lateral
habenula and a monopolar stimulation electrode in the posterior mesencephalon, in and around the dorsal raphe
nucleus. Using the curve-shift paradigm, we measured the reward-enhancing effect of intra-habenular infusions of
amphetamine (10-40 g) or vehicle. Control rats received amphetamine (or vehicle) infusions into nucleus accumbens
core or shell subregions (1-20 g). Our findings show that regardless of concentration, intra-habenular amphetamine
does not alter brain stimulation reward. As expected, infusions into the nucleus accumbens enhanced the rewarding
effectiveness of the stimulation, as previously shown by others. Our findings suggest that dopaminergic
neurotransmission within the lateral habenula does not contribute significantly to the function of the circuitry that
mediates the rewarding effect of electrical brain stimulation.
4.
D1 RECEPTORS IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS SHELL REGULATE THE EXPRESSION OF
CONTEXTUAL FEAR CONDITIONING AND ACTIVITY OF THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IN
RATS. Albrechet-Souza, L; Carvalho, MC; Brando, ML. Department of Psychobiology, University of Sao Paulo,
Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Although the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dopamine-related circuits are best known for
their roles in appetitive motivation, consistent data have implicated both in some forms of aversive-related
processes, including fear conditioning. The NAc, however, is an anatomically heterogeneous structure divided into
two subregionsthe medioventral shell (NAcSh) and dorsolateral core (NAcC)characterized by distinct connectional,
neurochemical, and regulatory properties. In the present study, we initially investigated the involvement of the
NAcSh and NAcC in the expression of contextual and cued conditioned fear. In addition to the freezing response,
Fos protein expression was measured in the brains of rats conditioned to a context (i.e., a light or tone previously
paired with footshock). The three conditioned stimuli were able to increase the freezing response. Nonetheless, in
contrast to the animals exposed to explicit cues, rats subjected to contextual fear presented a significant increase in
Fos protein expression in the NAcSh and NAcC. We then examined the effects of the D1- and D2-like receptor
agonists and antagonists SKF38393, SCH23390, quinpirole, and sulpiride injected bilaterally into the NAcSh on the
expression of contextual fear. SKF38393, quinpirole, and sulpiride induced no behavioral changes, but the D1-like
receptor antagonist SCH23390 increased the freezing response and reduced Fos protein expression in the anterior
cingulate cortex. These findings suggest the involvement of the NAc in the expression of contextual fear memories
and indicate the selective role of NAcSh D1-like receptors and the anterior cingulate cortex in this process.
5.
MUSCARINIC M4 POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATION OF CIRCADIAN ACTIVITY RHYTHMS.
Gannon, R.; Millan, M.J. MUSCARINIC M4 POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATION OF CIRCADIAN
ACTIVITY RHYTHMS aGannon, R.L.; bMillan, M.J. aDepartment of Biology, Valdosta State University,
Valdosta, Georgia USA bCNS Unit, Institut de Recherches Servier, Paris, France. Entrainment of circadian rhythms
to the light-dark cycle is essential for restorative sleep, and abnormal sleep timing is implicated in CNS disorders
like depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimers disease. Since positive allosteric modulators of muscarinic M4
receptors are candidates for treatment of mood and cognitive deficits of CNS disorders, it is important to evaluate
their circadian actions, a question addressed employing hamsters, a model organism for studying activity rhythms.
Systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.01 - 0.04 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced
phase delays and advances of hamster circadian wheel running rhythms. The M4 positive allosteric modulator,
LY2033298 (10 - 40 mg/kg) had no effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone, yet significantly
enhanced (at 20 mg/kg) the inhibitory influence of oxotremorine on light-induced phase delays. In addition, the
muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, which was without effect on light-induced phase shifts when
administered alone (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) antagonized (at 0.1 mg/kg) the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine and
LY2033298 on light-induced phase delays. These results are the first to demonstrate that systemically-applied
40
muscarinic receptor agonists modulate circadian activity rhythms, and they also reveal a specific role for M4
receptors.
6.
DOES FETAL HANDEDNESS REFLECTS THE FUNCTIONAL MATURITY OF ITS BRAIN. Hepper, P.;
Dornan, J.; Lynch, C.; Wells, D. Fetal Behaviour Research Centre, Psychology, Queens University, Belfast. The link
between handedness and brain function remains elusive. Here we relate the prenatal development of handedness to
performance on an habituation task, an indicator of information processing, at 36 weeks gestation. Left and right
arm movements were recorded for 60 minutes at 3 weekly intervals from 24 to 36 weeks gestation in 156 fetuses.
Laterality was assessed at each age by the determining its direction and strength. The development of laterality was
calculated as a change score between the strength exhibited at 36 and 24 weeks. The number of stimulus
presentations to habituate was recorded. 18 fetuses exhibited more left arm movements, 130 more right arm
movements and 8 no consistent pattern. Across gestation 130 fetuses exhibited a decrease in the strength of
laterality, 26 became more lateralised. There was no correlation between the direction (p>0.05) or strength (p>0.05)
of laterality and habituation performance. There was a significant correlation between the change in the strength of
laterality and habituation (p<0.05). The greater the decrease in the strength of handedness the fewer stimuli were
required to habituate (indicating more efficient information processing). The results suggest a link between the
development of handedness and the brains ability to process information. We speculate that this is mediated by a
greater functional integration between the two hemispheres. The study suggests that a greater understanding of fetal
neurobehavioural development may elucidate the link(s) between brain function and laterality.
7.
DEVELOPMENT OF A LABORATORY PARADIGM THAT ELICITS CHECKING UPON ACTIVATION OF
SECURITY MOTIVATION. Hinds, A1; Van Ameringen1, M; Schmidt, L2; Woody, E3; Szechtman, H1. 1Dept. of
Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences; 2; Dept. of Psychology, Neurosci. & Behaviour, McMaster Univ.,
Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. An evolved special
motivational system the Security Motivation System (SMS) is proposed to manage detection, and response to, the
risk from potential dangers (Szechtman & Woody, 2004). Because the environment is not able to supply a signal for
the absence of potential (as opposed to imminent) danger, the signal for termination of the SMS is proposed to come
from performance of precautionary behaviours such as washing or checking. Previous work by Hinds et al (2010;
2012) tested this hypothesis using a paradigm in which stimuli suggesting potential harm from contamination were
effective in producing a state of SMS activation, a state which returned to baseline only after engagement in
corrective hand washing. We sought to determine if similar results could be seen with exposure to checking-related
threats. In a preliminary test of such a checking paradigm, participants (N=40) were told they would be directly
responsible for the success of a novel medication classification system by acting as a beta tester for the program.
After exposure to potential threat (the possibility of failure in the critical task) or a neutral control situation,
checking for task success was either permitted or delayed; checking was later permitted for as long as desired for all
participants. Rhythmical sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and subjective ratings were measured to monitor the state of
activation and deactivation produced by exposure to potential threat, and by checking. Exposure to potential threat
did indeed produce SMS activation, and no such activation was evident in the control (no threat) condition.
Engagement in corrective checking behavior for 90 seconds produced a deactivation of RSA to baseline, while RSA
remained elevated for those in the delayed check condition (results approaching significance). Continuation of this
paradigm will provide further evidence for the role of the SMS in checking-related threats; significant results would
support the hypothesis that the SMS is similarly sensitive to checking threat detection and corrective behavior as has
been previously determined for contamination based threats. This research was supported by operating grants from
the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR MOP-74553 and CIHR MOP-64424). ALH was supported by a
Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship (CIHR GSD-104525).
8.
EVALUATING NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AMONG KHAT USERS. Ismail A.A.;1 ElSetouhy, M.;2 El Sansoy, R.;2 Rohlman, D.S.3 1Community and Family Medicine Department, Faculty of
Medicine, Jazan University, Jizan, Saudi Arabia, 2Substance Abuse Research Center (SARC), Jazan University,
Jizan, Saudi Arabia, 3Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology (CROET), Oregon
Health and Sciences University (OHSU), Portland, OR 97239, USA. The cultivation and consumption of the
stimulant leaf Khat is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Most of the effect of
chewing khat is thought to come from cathinone and cathine which are structurally related to amphetamine. The
central nervous activity of cathinone is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of amphetamine. However
studies on behavioral and cognitive problems following khat use in humans is not extensive as several of the
available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. The aim of the study
was to test neuropsychological functions among khat chewers. A sample of 65 adult male khat chewers were
recruited from Jazan region in south-west Saudi Arabia, a matched control group on age, and educational level was
also tested. A structured questionnaire about the socioeconomic background; medical and occupational history;
41
education; chewing khat habit and its frequency, other habits associated with chewing, e.g. smoking, tea, coffee, or
soft drinks drinking. Neurobehavioral performance of both groups were assessed using the Behavioral Assessment
and Research System (BARS), it includes tests to assess the memory, attention, sustained attention, motor speed and
coordination, information processing speed, and visuomotor functions. The preliminary results of the study showed
that khat chewers demonstrated deficits in the most of the assessed neurobehavioral functions. There are many
factors contribute to the deficits in neurobehavioral performance among khat chewers e.g. duration and amount of
chewed khat, age of the chewers.
9.
TEMPORAL INVOLVEMENT OF THE PERIRHINAL CORTEX IN CROSSMODAL OBJECT RECOGNITION.
Jacklin, D.L.; Potvin, A.; Winters, B.D. psychology, Univ. Guelph, Guelph, ON. Canada. Object representations that
integrate information from multiple sensory modalities likely provide optimal information for such processes as the
production of object-appropriate behaviour. We have recently developed a novel version of the spontaneous object
recognition paradigm that allows us to investigate crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) in rats. In fact, we have
recently shown that the perirhinal cortex (PRh) is critically involved in spontaneous tactile-to-visual CMOR. In the
current study, we assessed the role of PRh in the formation of multisensory object representations. Male rats were
tested in a modified version of the CMOR paradigm, in which the retention delay between the tactile sample phase
and the visual choice phase was increased to 3 hours. This increased mnemonic demand abolished the ability of rats
to perform the CMOR task. However, providing rats with a brief (10-sec) multimodal pre-exposure to the sample
object 24 hours prior to the tactile sample phase rescued their CMOR performance using the 3-hour delay.
Moreover, this multimodal pre-exposure was insufficient as a sample session, as rats receiving this pre-exposure
were unable to recognize the object in a visual choice phase 27 hours later if the tactile sample phase was omitted.
Additionally, by utilizing an immunohistochemical stain for the immediate early gene c-fos, we show that cells in
PRh but not the hippocampus are activated following repeated multimodal pre-exposure to objects. Finally, we
demonstrate that PRh is critically involved in the pro-mnemonic effects of multimodal pre-exposure, as transient
inactivation of PRh via local infusions of lidocaine before or after pre-exposure or prior to the tactile sample phase,
abolished the facilitatory effects of the pre-exposure session. These results extend previous findings implicating PRh
in object representational functions and suggest an important role for PRh in the formation of complex associations
between multisensory object features.
10.
DISPLAY AND SEARCH DYNAMICS IN MULTI-ATTRIBUTE CHOICE. Vanessa Janowski1, Erik Madsen2,
Martijn Willemsen3, Eric Johnson4, Antonio Rangel1. 1California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; 2Stanford
Graduate School of Business, Palo Alto, CA; 3Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands;
4
Columbia Business School, New York, NY. Consumer choices are a crucial component of everyday decisions.
When entering a store to make a purchase, consumers are confronted with shelves full of items and must quickly
parse and select among a variety of options. Understanding the details of this decision-making process is therefore
essential for developing models of choice behavior. We hypothesized that (1) while display configuration would
have a significant impact on search, (2) search patterns would impact choice through value integration. We tested
these hypotheses using a two-item, two-attribute choice task to determine how decision-making processes are
modified by the introduction of multiple discrete attributes for each item. Subjects were presented with pairs of
posters, each of a different design and size, and asked to choose the more desirable one. Attributes of each choice
were arranged in two visual conditions: designs on top, and sizes on top. Mouselab was used to gather detailed
search-process data. Choices were then compared to prior value measures to construct psychometric choice curves.
We found striking differences in search patterns depending on the condition, which subsequently impacted choice
through differential weighting and integration of the attributes. Our results have important implications for product
attribute emphasis and placement.
11.
OXYTOCIN SYNTHESIS IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS ARE INFLUENCED BY FASTING AND REFEEDING
IN THE OXYTOCIN-MONOMERIC RED FLUORESCENT PROTEIN 1 TRANSGENIC RATS. Katoh, A. ;
Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Ohkubo, J.; Onaka, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ueta, Y. Department of Physiology and
Otorhynolaryngology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 807-8555, Japan
Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical School, 329-0498, Japan. We have generated oxytocin (OXT)-monomeric
red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) transgenic rats that express the OXT-mRFP1 fusion gene in the hypothalamus
and the posterior pituitary. The mRFP1 fluorescence was observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the
paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the internal layer of the median eminence (ME) and the posterior pituitary. Our
previous study demonstrated that salt loading for 5 days caused a marked increase in the expression of the mRFP1
gene in the hypothalamus and that the response of the OXT-mRFP1 transgene to chronic salt loading was greatly
exaggerated in comparison with that of the OXT gene in the SON and the PVN (Katoh et al., Endocrinology 2011).
The present study demonstrated that fasting for 2 days caused a marked increase of mRFP1 fluorescence in the
SON, the PVN and the ME, and after fasting for 2 days, refeeding for 2 days returned the mRFP1 fluorescence on
42
the same extent as control levels. These results suggest that OXT may be involved in the regulation of feeding and
metabolic status in rats.
12.
NATURAL ELEMENTS IN ENRICHED ENVIRONMENTS ENHANCE EMOTIONAL RESILIENCE IN MALE
LONG EVANS RATS. 1Kaufman, C.; 1Brown, M.; 1Tschirhart, M.; 1Rzucidlo, A.; 1Hyer, M.; 2Bardi, M.;
1Lambert, K.; Dept of Psychology, 1Randolph-Macon College, Ashland VA USA 23005; Dept of Psychology,
2Marshall University, Huntington WV USA 25755. Enriched environments are beneficial to neurobiological
development; specifically, rodents exposed to complex, rather than standard laboratory, environments exhibit
evidence of neuroplasticity and enhanced cognitive performance (Diamond, 1988). In the current study, the nature
of elements placed in the complex environment was investigated. Accordingly, rats (n=8) were housed in a natural
environment characterized by stimuli such as dirt and rocks; an artificial environment characterized by plastic toys
and synthetic nesting materials, a natural/artificial environment characterized by a combination of artificial and
natural stimuli or a laboratory standard environment characterized by no enrichment stimuli. Following exposure to
emotional and cognitive behavioral tasks including a cricket hunting task, novel object preference task and forced
swim task, brains were processed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-, neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-, and brain
derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-immunoreactivity (ir). Baseline and stress fecal samples were collected to
assess corticosterone (CORT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Natural environment animals exhibited shorter
diving latencies and increased diving frequencies in the second forced swim task, along with higher DHEA/CORT
ratios, and higher GFAP-ir in the hippocampus. Type of environmental enrichment did not influence levels of
BDNF-ir in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus; however, natural environment animals exhibited
higher levels of NeuN-ir in the retrosplenial cortex, an area involved in spatial memory and other cognitive
functions. These results suggest that, in addition to enhancing behavioral and endocrinological variables associated
with resilience, exposure to natural stimuli alters plasticity in brain areas associated with cortical processing and
learning.
13.
EXPERIENCE-BASED PREFERENCE FOR DRIED-BONITO DASHI (A TRADITIONAL JAPANESE FISH
STOCK). Kondoh, T.; Matsunaga, T. AJINOMOTO Integrative Research for Advanced Dieting, Graduate School of
Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. The dried-bonito dashi is a traditional Japanese fish stock
that improves the palatability of various dishes, possibly via enhancement of umami taste. Here we investigated
sensory and physiological mechanisms involved in preferences for dried-bonito dashi using 48-h two-bottle choice
tests in rats. We found that preference for dashi was suppressed by chronic exposure to high fat or high sucrose
diets. However, past experience/learning associated with dashi ingestion was the most important factor overcoming
the influences of diet exposure. In particular, repeated exposure to dashi solutions eliminated the influences of high
fat/sucrose diets on dashi preference. In descending concentration series, preference for dashi increased 100-fold
compared to those obtained from ascending series. These results suggest that chemosensation (taste and smell) as
well as postingestive signals regulate preference for dashi solutions in addition to the macronutrient composition of
currently consumed foods.
14.
THE ROLE OF DORSAL AND VENTRAL HIPPOCAMPUS IN THE ACQUISITION, STRENGTHENING AND
EXPRESSION OF OLFACTORY FEAR CONDITIONING IN RATS. Kroon, J.A.V.; Carobrez, A.P.
Departamento de Farmacologia. UFSC, Florianopolis, Brazil. The association between an odor and an aversive
event is an effective model to study the neurobiology of associative fear memories. Several studies revealed
differential contributions for the dorsal and ventral portions of hippocampus (HPC) in cognition and emotion
processes. The present work was outlined to evaluate the role of NMDA receptors in the ventral and dorsal HPC on
the generation, strengthening and expression of aversive memories of rats submitted to the Olfactory Fear
Conditioning (OFC) paradigm. The acquisition phase occurred in a conditioning chamber where subjects received 5footshock-pairings associated with amyl acetate odor (CS; conditioned stimulus). The expression of conditioned
emotional responses (CER) occurred in an odor box where the CS was exposed. Male Wistar rats bilaterally
implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the ventral (HPCv) or the dorsal (HPCd) HPC were injected with NMDA
receptor antagonist (AP5 6 or 24nmol) or NMDA receptor agonist (NMDA100 or 200pmol) or PBS before/after the
conditioning or pre-CS test session. In Experiment 1, AP5 into the HPCd, pre-conditioning session, reduced the
CER toward CS when compared to the PBS-group. In Experiment 2, AP5 either into the HPCd or the HPCv, pre-CS
test, reduced CER toward CS. In experiment 3, NMDA into the HPCd, immediately after a weak training paradigm
(1footshock+odor), promoted OFC, while PBS or NMDA-only (no-shock) failed. These results suggest that the
acquisition and strengthening of fear memory requires the participation of HPCd NMDA receptors. Moreover, the
expression of fear requires the activation of NMDA receptors from both HPCd and HPCv.
43
15.
A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF FEAR CONDITIONING IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS: IMPLICATIONS
FOR PTSD. Moustafa, A.1,2, Gilbertson, M.W.3,4; Orr, S. P.4,5; Servatius, R. J.2,6,7; Myers, C.E 2,7,8. 1 School
of Psychology, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia,2 Department of Veterans Affairs, New Jersey
Health Care System, East Orange, NJ, 3 Manchester VA Medical Center, Manchester, NH.,4 Harvard Medical
School, Boston, MA, 5 Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 6 Stress & Motivated Behavior Institute, New
Jersey Medical School, 7 Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New
Jersey, Newark, NJ, 8 Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ. Fear conditioning involves
establishing learned responses to an aversive stimulus. It is commonly measured in terms of physiological changes
such as heart rate and skin conductance that are associated with fear. Empirical research has shown that the
amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are involved in fear conditioning; however, the
functional contribution of each brain area and the nature of their interactions are not yet clearly understood. Here,
we present a computational model that assumes that the basolateral amygdala participates in fear acquisition, the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the formation of extinction memory, and the hippocampus in the representation of
contextual information. In our model, hippocampal input to both the basolateral amygdala and ventromedial
prefrontal cortex is essential for contextual modulation of acquisition and extinction. Each brain area is simulated
using a layer of nodes and learning is modeled so as to occur differently in different simulated brain areas. The
amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex modules in our model are trained using the temporal difference (TD)
learning algorithm, while the hippocampus module is trained using Hebbian learning (coupled with k-winner-takeall competition). This model successfully simulates various aspects of fear conditioning in animals, including
acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, renewal, and the context specificity effects. Consistent with studies on lesioned
animals (as well as animal models of PTSD), our model shows that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
impairs fear extinction, while damage to the hippocampus impairs extinction in a different context. Second, we also
present data from an extended model that additionally simulates the (a) role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in
fear acquisition, and (b) generation of skin conductance responses in human subjects and individuals with PTSD.
16.
THE ROLE OF NEURONAL NITRIC OXIDE IN THE LONG-TERM MEMORY TO OLFACTORY FEAR
LEARNING. Pavesi, E.; Heldt, S.A.; Fletcher, M.L. Dept of Anatomy and Neurobiology. University of Tennessee
Health Science Center. Memphis-TN 38163 USA. In rodents, the neural mechanisms involved in odor learning are
important for social interaction, feeding behavior and protect to threatening situation. Experience-induced changes
associated with odor learning are mediated by a number signaling molecules including nitric oxide (NO) which is
predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we
investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. In our protocol, mice
received 6 training trials each consisting of an odor-CS co-terminating with the shock-US. One and 7 days after
training, fear to the odor-CS was assessed in a different context using the conditioned freezing paradigm. Mice
lacking the nNOS (nNOS knock-out) showed reduced fear to the odor-CS both 24h and 7-days after training when
compared to wild-type mice. Pre-training systemic injections of the NO donor, Molsidomine, rescued fear retention
7-days after training in nNOS knock-out mice. In wild-type mice, pre-training systemic injections of L-NAME, a
non-specific nNOS blocker, disrupted odor-CS fear retention in a dose-dependent manner. Neither wild-type mice
receiving L-NAME nor nNOS knock-out mice showed any deficits in novel odor recognition or odor habituation,
suggesting intact short-term olfactory memory .These results suggest nNOS signaling is necessary for normal
retention of odor conditioned fear. In contrast, nNOS signaling may not be necessary odor perception or shortmemory olfactory learning.
17.
SOCIETAL IMPACT OF DIETARY PHYTOESTROGEN AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR IN ANIMAL MODELS
AND COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES: PERSONALITIY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ANXIOLYTIC
REACTIONS. Sanstrum, B.J., Totton, R.T. Depart. of Psychology and Neuroscience. University of Evansville,
Evansville, Indiana 47722 USA. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens present in a variety of plant products.
Isoflavones are the most common phytoestrogens and they can be found in soybeans and fermenting (Price &
Fenwick, 1985). Isoflavones are heterocyclic phenols that are similar in structure to human steroidal estrogen
(Messina, 1994). They are capable of having both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects on physiology and the
endocrine system (Adlercreutz, Hockersteadt, Bannwart, Bloigu, Hamalainen, Fotsis, & Ollus, 1987). Evidence in
rats suggests that the amount of phytoestrogen intake can alter anxiolytic behavioral responses into adulthood
(Sanstrum, B.J., Totton, R.R., & Becker, L.A., 2011). Asian cultures consume far more phytoestrogens and are more
empathic then individuals of Western culture (Okazaki, Sumie, 2010). Undergraduates from varying cultural
backgrounds were measured on social, emotional opinions, dietary habits, as well as physiological galvanic skin
responses. It was noted that foreign exchange students and those with special diets (vegans and vegetarians) have
higher levels of societal guilt, lower anxiety levels, and lower aggression than the native typical diet population.
This shows effects of diet between differing cultures and later components of adult behavior.
44
18.
A NEW TASKTO STUDY EXECUTIVE CONTROL IN MICE. Scheggia, D.1; Bebensee, A.2; Weinberger, D.2;
Papaleo, F1,2. 1Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.
2Clinical Brain Disorders Branch; National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. Similarly to the
analogous regions of the PFC in human and monkey, rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to
mediate the ability to shift an attentional set. In human, these PFC-dependent functions can be investigated using the
Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCST) tests which have proven clinical
relevance for several neuropsychiatric diseases. These tasks have been successfully adapted for rodents in the
Attentional Set-Shifting Task digging version (ASST). Despite its unquestionable validity, the ASST presents
practical limitations due to its manual-based testing procedure. We created a novel semi-automated behavioral
apparatus that avoids the problems linked with the manual version of the ASST and closely mimics the task used in
primates. Our apparatus is a reward-based operant box equipped with nose-poke holes that allows manipulating four
dimensions (olfactory, tactile, visual and position - left or right). Firstly, we validated the task using C57BL/6J male
mice. The results show that these mice were able to develop an attentional set for a specific dimension, as they
needed more time and trials to reach the criterion to solve the extradimensional shifting (EDS) compared to the other
stages. This task is specifically linked to dopamine in the PFC and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) activity.
Thus we used COMT mutant mice to study the effects of genetic variations resulting in relatively low COMT
activity, and by inference increased dopamine, on attentional shifting abilities. In particular, we found that the
COMT+/- and -/- male mice performed better than their wild-type littermates at the EDS. These results indicate this
is a promising, efficient new tool for studying attentional set-shifting abilities and PFC-dependent functions in mice.
19.
BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION TRAIT AFFECTS FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING WITH AN AVOIDANCE
OPTION. Sheynin, J.1,2; Shikari, S.3; Ostovich, J.3; Gluck, M.A.4; Moustafa, A.A.5; Servatius, R.J.1,2,6; Myers,
C. E.1,2,6. 1Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of NJ, Newark, NJ 07103;
2Stress & Motivated Behavior Institute, NJ Medical School, Newark, NJ; 3Honors College, Rutgers Univ., Newark,
NJ; 4Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ; 5School of Psychology, Univ.
of Western Sydney, Australia; 6Dept. of Veterans Affairs, NJ Health Care System, East Orange, NJ. Avoidance is a
core feature of anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The tendency to avoid may
represent a risk factor for anxiety disorders. Although avoidance learning has been studied extensively in animal
models, such research in human subjects is lacking. Here, we administered personality scales, including those to
assess behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, a risk factor for anxiety disorders, to college students. We have also
modified a computer-based task for probabilistic learning in which subjects predict an outcome and either increment
or decrement points depending on cues (Bódi et al., 2009), to allow subjects to skip trials (eliminating forced
choice). In one experimental condition, no feedback was provided on skipped trials; in a second condition, feedback
regarding the correct choice was provided on skipped trials. Results show that BI affects learning when an option to
avoid exists. Furthermore, results suggest that subjects with high BI change their avoidance behavior in response to
manipulations with the feedback provided by the task. This work was supported by NSF/NIH Collaborative
Research in Computational Neuroscience (CRCNS) Program, NIAAA (R01 AA018737) and SMBI.
20.
BRAIN SPECIFIC DELETION OF THE CREATINE TRANSPORTER (CRT) LEADS TO SPATIAL LEARNING
AND MEMORY DEFICITS WITHOUT REDUCTIONS IN BODY WEIGHT Matthew R. Skelton, Emily R.
Hautman, Michael T. Williams and Charles V. Vorhees Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Childrens Research
Foundation and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. In humans, loss of the
creatine transporter (CrT) gene leads to intellectual disability, loss of speech, increased seizure risk, and sometimes
autistic-like features. In order to develop a mouse model of CrT deficiency, exons 2-4 of the CrT were flanked with
loxP sites. In a previous study, ubiquitous knockout mice were created from this line and show learning and memory
deficits, suggesting that this mouse is an excellent model of the disease. However, there were some motor
performance deficits observed in the CrT-/y mice and they were significantly smaller than WT. In order to
determine if the deficits observed were due to motor deficits, brain-specific CrT knockout (bKO) mice were
generated using the nestin-cre expressing mouse. CrT(flox/y) mice served as controls. Cr levels were reduced in the
brain of bKO mice. In the Morris water maze, bKO mice showed and increase latency and path length to find the
hidden platform in two phases of the maze (acquisition and reversal). bKO mice showed an increase in average
distance during probe trials during both phases . There were no differences in swim speed observed during MWM
testing. bKO mice did not show a preference in novel object recognition, performing at chance levels. The results of
this study show that the learning and memory deficits observed in ubiquitous CrT-/y mice are attributable to the loss
of Cr in the brain and not the periphery. In addition, it shows that CrT expression is required in the CNS, as the CrT
is expressed in the cells of the blood brain barrier.
45
21.
PARAVENTRICULAR OXYTOCIN REGULATES SOCIAL-MEDIATION OF THE STRESS RESPONSE IN
FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES. Smith, A.S.; Wang, Z. Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience,
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA. Stressful life events promote homeostatic imbalance, via the
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and can be deleterious to mental health. Social support from an intimate
partner can ameliorate such effects, yet the neuroendocrine mechanism is unknown. The prairie vole (Microtus
ochrogaster) is a monogamous rodent, forming long-term pair bonds that affect HPA axis activity and mediating
hormones. Recently, we evaluated the effects of social support on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine
response in pair-bonded female prairie voles to 1 hr immobilization stress. In Experiment 1, immobilized females
recovered alone or with their male partner for 30-min. Social support attenuated the stress-induced increases in
corticosterone (CORT) and anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze (EPM) test. In Experiment 2, oxytocin,
vasopressin, and corticotrophin-releasing hormones (CRH) content and receptor densities were assessed in brain
tissue punches from females in Experiment 1. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin or CRH, content in the paraventricular
nucleus (PVN) was significantly decreased after 30-min of social support. In Experiment 3, microdialysis samples
from the PVN were collected from females to monitor oxytocin release during immobilization stress and recovery.
While oxytocin was released in all immobilized females, only females recovering with their partner, but not alone,
had elevated oxytocin during recovery. In Experiment 4, we did pharmacological manipulation of oxytocin in the
PVN, via site-specific administration of oxytocin or a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) at varying doses.
Intra-PVN oxytocin injections reduced CORT levels and EPM anxiety-like behavior in immobilized females
recovering alone. In addition, the anxiolytic effects of recovering with the social partner were no longer apparent
after intra-PVN OTA injections. Together, our data demonstrate that oxytocin has anxiolytic effects and regulates
the socially-derived reduction in the biobehavioral stress response. (Supported by NSF Graduate Research
Fellowship, APF Graduate Student Scholarship, and NIMHF31-095464 to AS and NIMHR01-058616 and
NIDAK02-23048 to ZW).
22.
DOES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITOR (ANISOMYCIN) MODULATES STEP-DOWN INHIBITORY
AVOIDANCE IN MICE? 1Canto-de-Souza, L.; 2Mattioli, R. 1Faculdade de Filosofia, Cincias e Letras de Ribeiro
Preto, FFCLRP-USP;2Departamento de Fisioterapia, CCBS-UFSCar. Several studies using inhibitory avoidance
models have demonstrated the importance of limbic structures as the hippocampus on emotional memory. On the
other hand, there are few studies assessing the involvement of this limbic structure on the emotional memory of
mice exposed to the step-down inhibitory avoidance. Given to that, our goal was to investigate the role of the dorsal
hippocampus, through bilaterally microinfusions of anisomycin (ANI-40g; a protein synthesis inhibitor), on the
modulation of emotional memory in mice subjected to the step-down model. The experiment consisted of two
sessions: Training (footshock; 0.5mA/10sec) and Test (24h later; without footshock). For this purpose, 15 male
Swiss mice, weighing from 25 and 35g were assigned into two groups: control (n=7), animals that were treated with
vehicle into the dorsal hippocampus 30 min before Training and ANI (n=8), animals that were treated with ANI into
the dorsal hippocampus 30 min before Training. The step-down latency increased in both groups on the Test day,
and no statistical differences were observed between groups at Training and Test day. Based on our results, we
suggest that the dorsal hippocampus of mice is not involved on the acquisition/consolidation of the emotional
memory in the step-down inhibitory avoidance model. Moreover, we cannot exclude the hypothesis that the dose of
ANI (40 g) microinjected did not promote sufficient protein synthesis inhibition.
23.
WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH, DO FATHERS MATTER? AN INVESTIGATION OF FAMILY
STRUCTURE AND RESILIENCE IN A BIPARENTAL (PEROMYSCUS CALIFORNICUS) AND
UNIPARENTAL (PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS) MOUSE SPECIES. 1Tschirhart, M.; 1Kaufman, C.,
1Brown, M.; 1Rzucidlo, A.; 1Hyer, M.; 2Bardi, M.; 1Lambert, K. Dept of Psychology, 1Randolph-Macon College,
Ashland VA USA 23005; Dept of Psychology, 2Marshall University, Huntington WV USA 25755. Parental support
is vital to the development of offspring; however, in approximately 95% of mammalian species, the female is the
sole caregiver. Of interest in the current study was the behavioral and neurobiological responses of mothers housed
with paternal mice (intact families) compared to females with no male present (single mother families) in biparental
and uniparental mice (Peromyscus californicus and Peromyscus maniculatus, respectively). Both species were
divided into intact families (n=9) and single mother families (n= 8) and exposed to two parental challenge tasks: the
pup-rescue test and the pup-restraint test. In the rescue task, a pup was placed into an open cup centered in an open
field apparatus. In the pup-restraint task, pups were placed in an enclosed wire mesh container; in both tasks, mice
were videotaped and response latencies and interaction durations between the parent(s) and pup were recorded.
Fecal samples were collected from the mothers to determine the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and
corticosterone (CORT) during baseline and stress conditions. Maternal brains were subsequently processed to
quantify oxytocin- and vasopressin-immunoreactivity (ir) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Results from both tasks indicated that californicus females from intact families were more responsive to pups than
their single mother counterparts, an effect not observed in the uniparental maniculatus females. Further, DHEA/
46
CORT ratios were significantly higher in single mothers of both species. Neural quantification results indicated
higher oxytocin-ir levels in the maniculatus females than found in californicus females, with no effect in
vasopressin-ir. In sum, this research suggests that, in biparental species exposed to distressed pups, the presence of
the father facilitates maternal-pup responsiveness.
24.
EFFECTS OF NOCICEPTIVE STIMULATION ON FOS EXPRESSION AND BEHAVIOR IN MICE. Yoichi
Ueta, Toru Ishikura, Takanori Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Jun-ichi Ohkubo and *Hideo Ohnishi Department of
Physiology and *Orthopedics, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 807-8555
JAPAN.Although the formalin test is widely used as a model of persistent pain, the primary afferent fiber types that
underlie the cellular and behavioral responses to formalin injection are remarkably limited. Transient receptor
potential protein vanilloid (TRPV) 1 and TRPV4 mainly exist in a sensory nerve, and they are well known as ion
channels that are activated by nociceptive stimulation. In the present study, we investigated Fos protein by
immunohistochemistry in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4) and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the
hypothalamus and also investigated nocifensive behavior during phase I and II after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of
formalin (0.5%) or saline in left hind paw of TRPV1 and TRPV4 knockout mice in comparison with wild type mice.
The number of Fos-expressing neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn (L4) in TRPV1 knockout mice was reduced
but not significant difference compared to that of TRPV4 knockout mice and wild type mice after s.c. injection of
formalin. The number of Fos-expressing neurons in the PVN was significantly reduced compared to that of the
TRPV4 knockout mice and wild type mice after s.c. injection of formalin. On the other hand, nocifensive behavior
during phase I was remarkably reduced in the TRPV1 and TRPV4 knockout mice, and nocifensive behavior during
phase II was significantly reduced in the TRPV1 knockout mice but not TRPV4 knockout mice. Our result
suggested that both TRPV1- and TRPV4-expressing neurons were activated directly after s.c. injection of formalin
and TRPV1-expressing neurons were also activated by inflammation secondary after s.c. injection of formalin.
25.
NEUROMODULATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE C IN THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA CONTROLS FEAR
MEMORY CONSOLIDATION. Young, M.B.; Ouyang, M.; Thomas, S.A. Depts. of Neuroscience and
Pharmacology. The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104. Long-term memory storage requires that
learning-induced changes in neural networks are stabilized by intracellular signaling and protein synthesis in the
hours after learning a process called consolidation. Extreme fear is hypothesized to cause abnormally powerful
consolidation and lead to the recurrent intrusive fear memories in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore,
pharmacologically inhibiting consolidation could effectively prevent PTSD. We present a new molecular model of
fear memory consolidation that depends on phospholipase C (PLC) as a point of convergence for a range of
neuromodulatory receptors believed to be unnecessary for consolidation. In mice, the basolateral amygdala (BLA)
undergoes a transient increase in PLCs second-messenger inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate soon after auditory Pavlovian
fear conditioning. Pharmacologically increasing PLC activity in the BLA after training enhances fear memory 24
hours later, whereas inhibiting PLC had the opposite effect. Consolidation and PLC activity in the BLA are both
enhanced by activating either β2-adrenergic or D5-dopaminergic receptors there. However, both receptors must be
blocked together to inhibit consolidation or PLC activity. Further investigation revealed inclusion of the M1
muscarinic receptor in this relationship. These data indicate that a range of neuromodulatory receptors redundantly
activate PLC to ensure reliable consolidation of memory for a frightening experience. This redundant relationship
could explain the ineffectiveness of treating PTSD by inhibiting neuromodulatory systems individually.
26.
VISUAL ABILITIES AND SOCIAL INTERACTION OF MANTA RAYS WITH THE LARGEST BRAIN OF
FISHES AND THE POSSIBLE UNDERLYING NEUROLOGICAL STRUCTURES. Ari, C. University of South
Florida, Byrd Alzheimer`s Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Tampa, FL 33613 USA. Devil rays in the
family Mobulidae have been recently reported to possess the largest brain of all fish, while no scientific data is
available on why this large brain was necessary to be developed or how is it utilized. Some previous studies debate
on whether larger brains can be connected to better cognitive abilities, or the brain weight to body weight ratio is a
better indicator of intelligence in the animal kingdom. While devil rays have higher values in both these parameters,
the present study was intended to reveal a connection between unique features of their brain by gross morphological
and histological studies and their behavior by studying both captive and wild individuals. Behavioral studies
conducted at the Atlantis Aquarium, Bahamas and the Lisbon Aquarium, Portugal show that giant manta rays have
very good visual abilities, in spite of the fact that they live in plankton rich environment with bad visibility, which
finding is supported by their highly developed visual center, the tectum opticum. Observations on captive and wild
animals showed sophisticated social life (courtship, cleaning stations, feeding aggregations, welcoming of new
individuals) in parallel to their enlarged forebrain and central nucleus. Histological studies show that their glial cell
to neurons ratio is much higher than in mammals, which functional role is yet unknown. Understanding more the
sensory and cognitive abilities of the fishes with the largest brain could help us answer how evolution forms brain
structures in response to behavioral adaptations from underwater environmental pressures.
47
27.
NEONATAL EFFECT OF TWO PHYTO-OESTROGENS ON MALE RAT PARTNER PREFERENCE. MoralesOtal A., Ferreira-Nuño A., Olayo-Lortia J., Fernandez-Soto C., and Tarrag-Castellanos R. Dpto. Biologa de la
Reproduccin. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340. [email protected] Soy and
alfalfa-derived products contain isoflavones and coumestans that mimic the actions of oestrogens and may exert
adverse effects on male reproduction. To study the effects of two phyto-oestrogens (coumestrol and genistein) on
reproductive behavior, groups of male rats (n = 10), were injected daily from day 1 to 5 after birth with the
following compounds dissolved in 10 l Olive Oil as vehicle: Coumestrol (COUM, 150 g), Genistein (GEN, 150 g ),
17-beta estradiol (E2, 1 g) and the vehicle (VEH, 10 l). Also a fifth group of Intact rats (INT, n = X), was included.
When adults (age: 7 mo) partner preference was assessed in a Multiple Partner Choice Arena made with 6 cylinders
put it together in circle fashion, with a small entrance directed to the central compartment. One of the next tethered
stimulus animals was introduced in each cylinder: sexually expert male (SEM), castrated male (CASM), receptive
female (RECF) and ovariectomized female (OVXF) and 2 cylinders were left empty. First, each experimental male
was placed in the center of this arena during a 5 min Non-Contact Test (NCT: entrances closed with a wire mesh)
and the partner preference was determined evaluating the time the male spent in front of each entry. Immediately,
each male was tested during 20 times in a 1 min Contact Test (CT: without wire mesh), allowing the male enter in
the preferred cylinder. The partner preference was determined by assessing the frequency with which each option
was chosen by the male. In the NCT, the significant preference for the RECF against the SEM, observed in the INT,
VEH and GEN groups of males, disappear in the COUM group. In the CT, the significant preference for the RECF
was observed only in INT and GEN groups of males. As in both tests estrogen change the preference for the SEM in
the E2 group, COUM had an estrogenic effect and GEN had an antiestrogenic effect on the Partner Preference.
28.
NEURAL BASIS OF MATERNAL LOVE. Kikuchi, Y.; Noriuchi, M. Dept. of Cognitive Neuroscience. Div. of
Frontier Health Science. Graduate School of Tokyo Metropolitan University. 7-2-10 Higashi-ogu, Arakawa, Tokyo,
Japan. Background: Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant
attachment relationship and is important for the infant’s development and mental health. However, little has been
known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in
response to infant cues using video clips. Methods: We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of
approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant’s
mother and crying for her). After the fMRI scan, the mother was asked to rate her feelings (happy, motherly, joyful,
warm, love, excited, anxious, etc.) on a five-point scale while watching each video clip. Results: We found that a
limited number of the mother’s brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother’s own infant,
namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of
putamen. The magnitude of the activation in response to viewing the mother’s own infant versus other infants in the
left OFC was positively correlated with the intensity of joyful (R = .626, p = .022) and happy (R = .635, p = .020),
while that in the right OFC was positively correlated with the intensity of anxious (R = .611, p = .027) reported by
the mother while viewing video clips of her own infant. Conclusions: Our results showed the highly elaborate neural
mechanism mediating maternal love.
29.
MATERNAL BRAIN RESPONSES TO INFANT’S CRYING. Noriuchi, M.; Kikuchi, Y. Dept. of Cognitive
Neuroscience. Div. of Frontier Health Science. Graduate School of Tokyo Metropolitan University. 7-2-10 Higashiogu, Arakawa, Tokyo, Japan. Background: The neural system mediating maternal behavior of the mother who
should protect her infant is a biologically essential mechanism for preservation of the human species. Here, we
investigated the neural brain responses of mother by viewing the situation of her own infant in distress, by using
fMRI. Methods: We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers
viewed infantsf video clips, with no sound (see the methods of gNEURAL BASIS OF MATERNAL LOVEh in the
abstracts). We compared the mother’s brain responses for her own infant’s crying with those for his/her smiling.
Results: We found the strong and specific mother’s brain response for the mother’s own infant’s distress. The
differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal
gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra,
posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), and PFC. In addition, the activity level of the left STS or right STS was
positively correlated with the intensity of love (R = .624, p = .023) or excited feeling (R = .598, p = .031),
respectively. Conclusions: Our findings that a mother responds stronger to cry than smiling of her own infant seem
to be biologically meaningful in terms of adaptation to specific demands associated with successful infant care.
48
30.
EFFECT OF LITHIUM ON THE BEHAVIORAL DISINHIBITION INDUCED BY THE LESION OF MEDIAN
RAPHE NUCLEUS AREA Pezzato, F.A. (1,2); Novais, D.B.(2); Silveira, D.T.L.(2); Olivato, S.(2); Garcia-Mijares,
M.(1); Hoshino, K.(2)/ 1 Sao Paulo University, Brazil; 2 Saao Paulo State University, Brazil. Aim: to study the
effect of chronic lithium treatment on the hyperactivity induced by the electrolytic lesion of the Median Raphe
Nucleus (MRN). It was hypothesized that the behavioral disinhibition produced by that lesion may be associated to
manic manifestations. Methods/Results: 20 Wistar male rats (90 days, 350g) were submitted to the electrolytic
lesion of MRNs area and 20 were sham-lesioned and served as controls. After recovery, baseline locomotor activity
was evaluated for 15 minutes using an automatic activity chamber (Med Associates/ENV-515). Next, half of the
animals of both groups received lithium treatment (47.5 mg/kg, twice a day, i.p.) for 10 days, whereas the remaining
animals were treated with saline under the same schedule. After treatments, locomotor activity was reevaluated.
Baseline evaluation showed hyperactivity development in MRN lesioned groups, but not in sham-lesioned controls.
Lithium treatment significantly reduced the locomotor activity in lesioned rats. No significant change was observed
in the values displayed by the lesioned group treated with saline. Sham-lesioned groups maintained their low level
of activity after lithium and saline treatments. Conclusion: obtained data support the hypothesis that the lesion of
MRNs area induced behavioral manifestations similar to those observed in manic episodes and suggest the need for
further researches about its validity as an animal model of mania. Source of research support: CNPq.
31.
INCREASED HEDONIC BEHAVIOR IN RATS SUBMMITED TO THE ELECTROLYTIC LESION OF
MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEUS AREA Pezzato, F.A. (1,2); Horta Junior, J.A.C.(2); Mijares, M.G.(1); Hoshino,
K.(2)/1 So Paulo University , Brazil; 2 Sao Paulo State University, Brazil. The Median Raphe Nucleus (MRN)
lesion induces behavioral alterations that suggest face validity to manic disorder: hyperactivity, impulsivity, sexual
facilitation, reduced sleep time, increased aggression and fewer submissions in home-intruder tests. This hypothesis
was strengthened by the demonstration that lithium chronic treatment significantly decreases the hyperactivity
induced by this lesion. The present research aimed to investigate if the MRN lesion alters the frequency of responses
on a simple schedule of reinforcement and positive reinforcement value. Thirty Wistar male rats (90 days, 350g)
were MRNs area electrolytic lesioned (L, n=10), sham-lesioned (S, n=10) or non-operated (C, n=10). After recovery
they were tested in double bars (active/control) conditioning chambers under Fixed Ratio (FR2/4 days) and
Progressive Ratio (PR/3 days) schedules for 10% sucrose solution consequence (0,02ml) under food restriction.
Obtained data showed that L group response rates - only in active bar - were significantly higher than the two other
groups in all FR2 days. However there were no significantly differences in Break Points (BP) accomplished in PR
sessions between groups. The obtained data add evidences to consider the participation of MRN in mania`s etiology,
since elation - operationalized as increases in behavioral rates for appetitive consequences (hedonic behavior) - is
considered a central symptom of manic disorder. Null differences in BP may be explained by changes in sensibility
to consequence`s immediacy, but still need further investigation. Sources of research support: CNPq
32.
NEUROPEPTIDES AND HORMONE RECEPTOR CHANGES FOLLOWING PARENTAL EXPERIENCE IN
MONGOLIAN GERBILS. Anna Phan1, Virginia Roberts1, R Abadilla2, Jessica A Mong3, Elena Choleris1,
Mertice M Clark2, 1Psychology, University of Guelph, 2Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster
University, 3Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones
unguiculatus) live in small family units and both males and females contribute to raising their pups. In other rodent
species, oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP), estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors (ERα, PR, AR,
respectively) are involved in a variety of sexually dimorphic social behaviors, as well as parental behaviors. We
investigated the effect of sex, and sexual and parental experience in the expression of these neuropeptides and
receptors. 19 experienced males (which had mated and raised pups), 36 virgin males and 6 female gerbils were
tested for various social behaviors. Separate sections of brain tissue were immunostained for OT, AVP, ERα, PR or
AR and analyzed using ImageJ. Sex differences: There were no sex differences in OT staining, but females had
higher levels of AVP and ERα staining than males, while PR staining was higher in males than females in almost all
brain nuclei analyzed. AR staining is currently being quantified. Differences between virgin and experienced males:
OT and AVP staining was higher in experienced males compared to virgin males. Conversely, ERα staining in
several brain nuclei was higher in virgin males compared to experienced males, but there was no difference in PR
expression between these groups. Overall, neuropeptide and endocrine systems appear to undergo large changes
following the experience of mating, raising pups and/or aging in male Mongolian gerbils. Funded by NSERC.
33.
THE NATURE OF HIPPOCAMPAL INVOLVEMENT IN ESTROGEN-MEDIATED LEARNING
ENHANCEMENT. Phan A, Suschkov S, Pecchioli N, Seguin L, Winters BD, Choleris E. Dept of Psychology,
University of Guelph, ON, Canada. Previously, we reported systemic administration of physiological doses of 17βestradiol rapidly (within 40min) enhanced learning (object placement, object recognition, social recognition), likely
via action at ERα (Phan et al., 2011). Estrogen also rapidly increased dendritic spine density in the CA1
hippocampus, suggesting a site of action of estradiol rapid effects on learning. Therefore, bilateral microinjections of
49
17β-estradiol (25nM, 50nM, and 100nM) into the hippocampus of young adult ovariectomized female CD1 mice
were performed 15min prior to testing in object placement, object recognition and social recognition paradigms. We
found that intrahippocampal 50nM of 17β-estradiol improved performance on all 3 learning paradigms. Thus, the
hippocampus seems capable of mediating 17β-estradiols rapid facilitatory effects on social and object recognition as
well as object location learning. The results with the object placement paradigm are consistent with the established
involvement of the hippocampus in spatial and contextual learning. However, its role in object and social
recognition is unclear. Lesions of the hippocampus do not consistently impair object or social recognition. One
possibility is that the hippocampus is not necessary for, but may facilitate, social and object recognition by providing
spatial contextual information. Therefore, we tested the effects of intrahippocampal infusions of 17β-estradiol on
object or social recognition when mice were tested in a Y-apparatus, which minimizes spatial and contextual cues.
In the Y-apparatus intrahippocampal 17β-estradiol improved object recognition, but not social recognition.
Therefore, while estradiol action in the hippocampus may directly facilitate learning and memory about objects, it
may only indirectly facilitate social recognition, by providing contextual information. Funded by NSERC.
34.
DEFENSIVE AGGREGATION (HUDDLING) IN LABORATORY RATS IN RESPONSE TO PREDATOR
ODORS: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND NEURAL CORRELATES. Bowen, M.T.; Kevin, R.; Kendig,
M.D.; McGregor, I.S. School of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia. Rats show characteristic
defensive responses to predator odors, such as hiding, avoidance, risk assessment, and inhibition of non-defensive
behaviors. While these species-typical responses have been extensively examined in individual rats in the
laboratory, the response of groups of rats has rarely been studied. In a series of recent experiments we have found
that groups of 4 Wistar rats exposed to a ball of cat fur in a large test arena show pronounced defensive aggregation
(huddling), spending long periods in tight clumps of 3 or 4 rats at maximal distance from the odor source. Group
size is an important determinant of huddling, with groups of four, but not two, familiar rats huddling. Many groups
were found to consist of 1-2 active responders that approach the cat odor source more readily, and 2-3 passive
responders who spend nearly all of their time huddling. The traits of these individuals remain remarkably stable over
repeated trials with cat fur although coping style in the cat odor paradigm did not necessarily predict coping style on
other models of anxiety. Fos immunohistochemistry showed that, compared to rats exposed to cat odor alone, those
exposed to cat fur in a group had: less activation in the lateral amygdala, LPO, medial caudoputamen, dorsomedial
PAG and lateral habenula; and more activation in the mitral cell layer of the AOB. Compared to rats with more
passive coping styles, those with more active coping styles had: less activation in the lateral AON, accumbens shell,
ventrolateral septum and barrel cortex; and more activation in the mitral cell layer of the AOB. Finally, blockade of
vasopressin V1a receptors by administration of the V1a receptor antagonist SR 49059 (1 mg/kg IP) interfered with
defensive aggregation, suggesting that, as in songbirds and zebrafish, V1a receptor stimulation plays an important
role in defensive aggregation in rats.
35.
AROMATASE INHIBITION IN THE ZEBRA FINCH HIPPOCAMPUS DECREASES ACQUISITION AND
PERFORMANCE IN A SPATIAL MEMORY TASK. David J. Bailey1 & Colin J. Saldanha2,3 1Biology, St.
Norbert College, De Pere, WI Departments of 2Biology and 3Psychology, American University, Washington D.C.
Songbirds are excellent models for determining the neural substrates of learning and memory. While much attention
is focused on the development of procedural memory systems, such as song learning and production in passerines,
birds also acquire robust episodic-like memories, including hippocampus (HP)-dependent spatial memories. The
vertebrate brain synthesizes estrogens (specifically, 17-estradiol (E2)) via the enzyme aromatase located in neuronal
somata and presynaptic boutons. This synaptic, not somal, aromatase is especially high in the zebra finch HP.
Surprisingly, another source of E2 in the songbird brain results from injury, as reactive glia around areas of damage
express aromatase 24 hr after disruption of the neuropil. Whether this injury-induced aromatase is functionally
(learning and memory) significant remains to be tested. We hypothesized that local inhibition of the constitutive,
presynaptic aromatase would disrupt learning and memory performance in a spatial task, and that the up-regulation
of glial aromatase in the HP would enhance these behaviors. Birds with the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene3,17-dione (ATD) placed bilaterally onto the HP took more trials to acquire the task and made more mistakes than
controls following a retention interval. Importantly, performance in ATD birds was similar to birds whose HP was
lesioned. Aromatase induced by sham HP lesions did not have an effect in this task. We believe these data are
among the first to suggest a physiological role for constitutive, presynaptic aromatization in any vertebrate.
Supported by NIH grant NS042767 (CJS)
36.
EMBRACING COMPLEXITY: TIME SERIES, LONG-RANGE CORRELATIONS, AND DIMENSIONAL
SCALING AS ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. Bardi,
M1, Lambert, KG2. 1Psychology Department, Marshall University, Huntington, WV -2Department of Psychology,
Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA. Detailed analyses of behavioral responses are not often utilized in
neurobiological research. When behavioral responses have been investigated, dependent variables such as latency,
50
duration, and frequency of behaviors have been reported. These general measures lack the sensitivity to detect
relevant trends, especially when interactions exist among multiple rapidly changing variables. The common and
widespread use of averaged measures taken at specific time intervals is useful for collecting snap-shots summaries
of behavior, but they fail to disentangle more subtle variations. Also, when multiple measures are collected in the
same study, it is common practice to investigate the relationship between each single behavioral measure and the set
of neuroendocrine measures assessed, assuming a de facto very unlikely independence among the observed
behaviors. Behavioral time series analysis during a variety of experimental conditions, though they may appear
erratic, often reveals precise spectra. In other words, such analyses generate characteristics that could better
represent the neuroendocrine status of the animals. To illustrate these points, a comparative analysis of specific data
sets from our laboratories will be presented. Long-range correlation in biological systems is also informative
because it serves as an organizing principle for highly complex, nonlinear processes and it avoids restricting the
functional response of an organism to highly periodic behavior. Theoretical issues related to the use of traditional
behavioral measures, such as the ceiling effect for latency, will also be discussed. Thus, comparisons between
traditional and non-traditional assessments of behavior reveal a striking difference in the overall conclusions and
interpretation of the exact same studies.
37.
FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM BETWEEN EMISSION OF 50 kHz AND 22 kHz ULTRASONIC
VOCALIZATIONS. Silkstone, M.; Brudzynski, S.M. Depts of Psychology and Biology, Brock University, St.
Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada. Emission of 50 kHz vocalizations is driven by release of dopamine or injection
of dopamine agonists, while emission of 22 kHz vocalizations is initiated by release of acetylcholine or injection of
carbachol to specific forebrain regions. Productions of these vocalizations are mutually exclusive in both
pharmacological and natural conditions. In the present study we are proposing a model explaining this phenomenon
and rebound responses occasionally observed. Experiments were performed on 44 Long-Evans rats chronically
cannulated in the anterior hypothalamic-preoptic area or in the lateral septum. Intracerebral injection of carbachol (1
μg) produced long lasting emission of 22 kHz vocalizations from both of these structures. Rats produced
approximately 20 calls/min during the first 4 min of the response. During the decaying phase of the response,
occasional emission of single 50 kHz was observed over the next 6 min. In total, however, there were 15 times more
emitted 22 kHz calls than 50 kHz calls. This late, occasional emission of single 50 kHz calls is interpreted as a
rebound effect. The 50 kHz calls appeared always during the decreasing phase of the carbachol-induced response or
after 22 kHz seized to be produced. After the initial 4 min of exclusive production of 22 kHz calls after injection, the
ratio of 22 kHz : 50 kHz was significantly decreasing from 20-40 times more 22 kHz than 50 kHz calls to
approximately 4-5 times more of these calls toward the end of the response. The results are explained by functional
antagonism between emission of 22 kHz and 50 kHz vocalizations. Supported by NSERC of Canada.
38.
ADOLESCENT STRESS HORMONE EXPOSURE AFFECTS HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS IN MALE
AND FEMALE RATS. Brummelte S.; Duarte-Guterman P.; Crozier T.M.; Lieblich S.E.; Galea L.A.M. Dept. of
Psychology, University of British Columbia. Chronic stress or elevated levels of glucocorticoids are known to cause
sexually dimorphic changes in behaviour and brain morphology. Stress decreases hippocampal neurogenesis in adult
males, but in females, chronic stress studies are equivocal with either no change, an increase or a decrease in
neurogenesis. We have found that adolescence stress decreases adult neurogenesis in females, but not in males.
Prolonged exposure to high levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT: the major glucocorticoid in rodents)
on the other hand reduces hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in both adult male and female rodents. Thus,
the current study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic CORT exposure during adolescence on
hippocampal neurogenesis to better understand the contribution of high stress hormone levels during adolescence.
For this, 30 day old male and female rats received a daily s.c. injection of either a high (40mg/kg) or low (10mg/kg)
dose of CORT, or vehicle (sesame oil) for 14 days. Animals received an i.p. injection of BrdU (50mg/kg) prior to
the start of treatment and were sacrificed either 24 hours after the last injection (adolescence) or in adulthood.
Results reveal that both doses of CORT cause a significant interruption of weight gain in males and females. The
high dose decreased brain weights in adolescence and adulthood in males and females, but brain/body ratios were
only affected in males. Based on previous results we hypothesize that we will see a suppression in hippocampal cell
proliferation and survival, but to different degrees in males and females. These results underline the different
sensitivities of males and females to glucocorticoid exposure, particularly during a vulnerable time of development.
39.
SWIM STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON SCRATCHING BEHAVIOR IN RATS
Jessica M. Spradley, Mirela Iodi Carstens, E. Carstens Neurobiology, Physiology & Behavior, Univ. Calif., Davis
Many acute stressors induce analgesia, but effects on itch are poorly understood. We addressed this using a rat
model that distinguishes between itch and pain behaviors. Male rats were subjected to 3 swim stress conditions: no
stress (NS, 22C for 2 min), opioid-dependent low stress (LS, 12C, 3 min), or opioid-independent high stress (HS,
10C, 5 min), as verified by pretreatment with naltrexone (14 mg/kg ip) using the tail flick assay. We then tested
51
effects of these stress conditions on itch and pain using a cheek model. The pruritogen serotonin (5-HT, 1%/10 l)
elicits hindlimb scratching but few forelimb wipes, whereas the algogen allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 10%/ l) elicits
forelimb wipes but little hindlimb scratch bouts, directed to the site of cheek microinjection. AITC-evoked forelimb
wiping was suppressed under LS and HS conditions. 5-HT-evoked hindlimb scratching was suppressed under the
HS condition only. 5-HT-evoked scratching was also suppressed by a combination of cold exposure and shaking,
suggesting that thermal and psychological stressors contributed to analgesia. Curiously, 5-HT-evoked wiping was
enhanced under the NS condition, as well as by exercise (wheel running), suggesting a pronociceptive effect of
motor activity. Thus, pain-related behavior is suppressed by both opioid-dependent (LS) and -independent (HS)
stressors, while itch-related scratching behavior was only suppressed under the opioid-independent HS swim
condition and may be enhanced by exercise. Future studies identifying the mechanism by which high stress
attenuates both itch and pain will be beneficial in developing novel treatments for both of these conditions.
40.
NEURAL CORRELATES OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATIVE
LEARNING, TEMPERAMENT, AND CEREBELLAR REACTIVITY TO NOVEL SOCIAL STIMULI. M.D.
Caulfield1,2 J.D. McAuley1,3 D.C. Zhu3,4 and R.J. Servatius1,2,5 1Stress & Motivated Behavior Institute, NJMS,
2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, UMDNJ, 3Department of Psychology, Michigan State University,
4Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, 5Department of Veterans Affairs, NJHCS, East Orange,
New Jersey 07019. Behavioral inhibition is a risk factor for anxiety disorders typified by extreme withdrawal when
facing novel social and nonsocial challenges. Here, we assess the relationship between scales measuring risk for
anxiety disorders, associative learning and cerebellar activity. 150 college students were given a battery of
sociobehavioral measures before undergoing delay eyeblink conditioning. Significant interactions of acquisition and
the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (F(8,736)=5.324, p<.05), and both scales of the STAI (Trait:
F(8,728)=3.280, p<.05,; State: F(8,728)=5.580, p<.05) indicate facilitated eyeblink acquisition in the at-risk group.
Thus far, a subset (n=9) have participated in a follow-up imaging study. Participants are familiarized to 96 faces and
scenes on day one and then scanned on day two while making Old/New behavioral responses to the familiar stimuli
and 96 new faces and scenes. A within-group ANOVA, voxel based p<.005, whole brain corrected p<.019, resulted
in a significant cluster (familiar face > non-familiar face) at Lobule VII, Crus II used for subsequent ROI analyses.
Comparisons of BOLD % signal change in this area revealed larger correlations with eyeblink acquisition when
viewing faces (r=.57, n=9) than scenes (r=.26, n=9). Behavioral data during fMRI revealed no significant differences
of corrected recognition (d) between face and scene stimuli, t(8)=.079, p=.939. Recruitment for this project is
ongoing with the intention of comparing cerebellar activity of high and low scoring groups on measures of anxiety
vulnerability. Supported by the GSBS, Foundation of UMDNJ and the SMBI.
41.
GENETICALLY-INFLUENCED DEFICITS IN INHIBITORY CONTROL ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
PROPENSITY FOR ADDICTION-RELATED BEHAVIORS IN MICE Cervantes, M.C., Jentsch, J.D. Semel
Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA 90095.
While initial studies attributed inhibitory control deficits to drug use, recent work shows that impulsive traits can
predict addiction susceptibility. As we have determined that impulsivity in a reversal learning task is heritable, we
now aimed to test whether genetically-determined differences in this phenotype predicts propensity for addictionrelated behaviors; specifically, if strains with poor impulse control engage in high levels of cocaine selfadministration (SA) and have difficulty in extinguishing this behavior. BxD mice from strains exhibiting either good
or poor reversal ability were tested for cocaine SA under FR1, FR2, and FR5 schedules and for drug-seeking
behavior under extinction. Psychomotor effects were also assessed after IP cocaine administration. Overall, mice
from impulsive strains exhibited faster and higher rates of cocaine SA during acquisition. While these higher rates
were maintained in subsequent SA phases, along with an overall slower decrease in drug-seeking responses during
extinction, more complex differences in behavioral trajectories were identified between strains. Impulsive strains
also exhibited larger locomotor responses to cocaine at higher doses. In summary, strains with a phenotype of poor
inhibitory control over impulsive responses show an increased sensitivity to the psychomotor, reinforcing, and
conditioning effects of cocaine. These data suggest that genetically-influenced deficits in this form of impulsivity
are predisposing factors for susceptibility to substance abuse.
42.
DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF PRE- AND POST-ACQUISITION ADMINISTRATION OF AN ESTROGEN
RECEPTOR BETA AGONIST ON THE SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF FOOD PREFERENCES. ClippertonAllen, A.E.1,2; Flaxey, I.1; Foucault, J.N.1; Rush, S.T.1; Webster, H.K.1; Nediu-Mihalache, C.1; Choleris, E.1
1Dept Psychology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada 2Now at Dept Neuroscience, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, FL,
U.S.A Estrogens are gonadal hormones that bind to two intranuclear receptors, alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), and can
modulate numerous behaviours, including the social transmission of food preferences paradigm (STFP). In this task,
a demonstrator animal eats of one of two distinctively flavoured but otherwise identical foods. After interacting with
the demonstrator for 30 minutes, an observer animal is given an 8 hour choice between the two flavoured foods, one
52
of which the demonstrator had eaten. We have previously shown that when treated prior to learning a socially
acquired food preference, mice given an ERα agonist show no preference for the demonstrators food, while mice
receiving and ERβ agonist show a socially acquired food preference for twice as long as vehicle controls (Clipperton
et al., 2008), suggesting ER facilitation of the STFP. However, it is unclear how ERβ is involved in three phases
of memory: acquisition, consolidation or retrieval of this memory. Hence, mice were administered ERβ agonist DPN
(0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) immediately, or 24h, following the interaction with the demonstrator. When tested 48h after
treatment, mice that received any dose of DPN immediately after the social interaction failed to show a preference
for the demonstrated food, while results of the 24h post-acquisition administration are more varied. Feeding
behaviour per se was not affected by drug treatment. These results suggest that ER activation can impair the
consolidation of a socially acquired memory. Conversely, the pre-acquisition facilitation of social learning we found
previously may be due to ER effects on dominance-related behavior during the social interaction. Funded by
NSERC.
43.
STRESS FACILITATES PREDATOR FEAR MEMORY CONSOLIDATION AND INDUCES EXTINCTIONRESISTANT FEAR IN A TIME-DEPENDENT MANNER. Corley M.J.; Takahashi, L.K. Psychology Dept. Univ.
of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA. Previous studies reported that exposure to stress prior to fear conditioning
enhances conditioned fear behavior. However, it remains to be determined whether stress facilitates the
consolidation of fear conditioning in a time-dependent manner and whether an enhanced consolidated fear memory
becomes resistant to extinction. To address this issue, we first exposed rats to a unique auditory fear conditioning
training procedure by pairing auditory clicks (CS) with a cloth containing the predator odor of a cat (US). Rats were
then exposed to acute footshock stress (0.8 mA) at post-training intervals of 0, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr. During the next 5
days, rats were placed in a runway apparatus containing a small hide box and tested for fear extinction to the
auditory CS. Results showed that rats exposed to footshock stress 0, 1, or 3 hr after auditory fear conditioning
exhibited significantly higher levels of freezing throughout extinction than their respective no shock controls and
rats exposed to footshock 9 and 24 hr after fear conditioning. These results suggest that exposure to stress within 3
hr after auditory fear conditioning plays an important role in facilitating the consolidation of a conditioned fear
memory that becomes resistant to extinction. In summary, our study highlights a limited time-dependent effect of
stress on enhancing the consolidation of an emotional memory that becomes resistant to extinction. The results have
implications for eventually determining how stress-induced enhancement of fear memory consolidation produces
extinction resistant fear, which is a hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder.
44.
ROLE OF THE NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM IN THE REACQUISITION OF HEROIN-SEEKING IN RATS.
Cummins, E; Boughner, E; Grant, J; Ricchetti, A; Kwiatkowski, D; Leri, F. Psychology, Univ. Guelph, Guelph, ON,
Canada. We investigated the role of the noradrenergic system on reacquisition of heroin seeking using the
conditioned place preference in male SpragueDawley rats. To accomplish this, we used a reacquisition procedure
involving: place conditioning (1 mg/kg heroin and vehicle; 4 pairings each over 8 days), test of conditioning (drugfree; 1 day), extinction (vehicle and vehicle; 4 pairings each over 8 days), test of extinction (drug-free; 1 day),
reconditioning (1 mg/kg heroin and vehicle; single pairing with each over 2 days) and test of reconditioning (drugfree; 1 day). Animals were injected with clonidine, an alpha 2-receptor agonist, either immediately (vehicle, 10, 40
or 100 ug/kg SC; n=15, 13, 12 and 14 respectively) or 4h (vehicle, 10 or 40 ug/kg; n=3, 12, 12) following
reconditioning, with the goal of interfering with the consolidation of information acquired during reconditioning and
hence block reacquisition. At the end of the experiment, to verify the action of systemically administered clonidine,
animals were tested for locomotion activity immediately following injections of the same doses (latin square
design). It was found that 10 and 40 ug/kg of clonidine administered either immediately or 4h post-reconditioning,
significantly blocked the reacquisition of heroin CPP, while the 100 ug/kg dose had no effect. However, similar to
the lower doses, heroin reacquisition was blocked when the highest clonidine dose was co-administered with
idazoxan (0.5 or 5 mg/kg IP), an alpha 2-receptor antagonist, immediately following reconditioning. Further, while
all clonidine doses decreased spontaneous locomotion, this effect was dose dependently reversed when animals also
received idazoxan. These data suggest that reacquisition of drug-cue associations involves a memory process
sensitive to manipulations of the noradrenergic system. Follow up studies will investigate the effects of systemic
clonidine injections on the expression of heroin reacquisition, as well as infusions aimed at the locus coeruleus.
45.
RAPID EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR AGONISTS ON SOCIAL TRANSMISSION OF FOOD
PREFERENCES IN FEMALE MICE. Ervin, K.; Friesen, J.; Gallagher, N.; Roussel, V.; Zicherman, J.; Clipperton
Allen, A.; Phan, A.; Choleris, E. Dept. of Psychology. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 Canada. The
social transmission of food preferences (STFP) is a specifically social learning paradigm in which an animal exhibits
a preference for a novel food based on olfactory cues provided by a conspecific. Estrogens can modulate
performance on this task. In mice, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) agonists eliminate the preference for the
demonstrated food, whereas estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) agonists prolong the preference (Clipperton et al.,
53
2008). In these studies, STFP was assessed 48 hours after drug administration. This time scale points at long-term
effects of estrogen. Estrogens are also known to have behavioural effects within minutes of treatment. On this rapid
time scale, ER-alpha agonists improve social recognition and increase dendritic spine density in the hippocampus,
while ER-beta agonists impair social recognition (Phan et al., 2011). Whether social learning would also be affected
in a similarly rapid time scale is currently unknown. We therefore administered 17beta-estradiol, the ER-alpha
agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), and the ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) to ovariectomized observer
mice 15 minutes prior to brief social exposure to a recently fed demonstrator mouse. We used a modified STFP
paradigm that allowed us to examine the effect on the acquisition phase of STFP, with specific attention to the first
hour of testing for possible rapid effects. Results show that within this first hour, 17beta-estradiol improves
performance. These results extend the rapid effects of estrogens to a social learning paradigm and shows that
estrogenic effects on learning of socially acquired information can be much more rapid than previously thought.
46.
NUTRRHYTHM-DEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF HIGH-FAT DIET ON LEARNING AND
MEMORY IN MICE. Horie, S.1; Nakamura, S.1; Oishi, K.2 1Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288,
Japan. 2National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan. Nutrrhythm is
a coined term from the nutrition and the biological rhythm, and we realize that a study of food-dependent effect on
circadian clock could serve understanding various physiological and pathological phenomena including the field of
brain neuroscience. In this study, we examined the effect of a high-fat diet on learning and memory functions in
male and female clock-mutant mice (clock) comparing it to wild mice (wild). Clock and wild mice were divided into
high-fat (24% fat) diet group and control (5% fat) diet group under the condition of feeding by free access (ad lib) or
restricted day-time access to chow through 6 to 40 weeks, and then evaluated those effects on learning and memory
with passive avoidance test (PAT) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). In the results, not only male and female
clock mice fed on the control diet, but also wild female mice fed on the high-fat diet were impaired the retention for
PAT. Although no functional differences were seen between the male mice allowed to eat control and the high-fat
diets ad lib, the mice eating the high-fat diet at day-time only resulted in reduction in the value of MWM, even in
younger mice. Our data suggesting that female mouse is more susceptible to high-fat diet which may cause to impair
the learning function and that entrainment of the peripheral circadian rhythm including gene expression of clock,
which is directly affected by feeding, is essential for maintenance of learning and memory functions in mice.
47.
THE COGNITIVE OVERRIDE OF ANXIETY IS ACCOMPLISHED BY SOCIAL FAMILIARITY AND IS
MEDIATED BY THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX. Lungwitz, E.A.; Sanghani, S.; Harvey, B.; Bah, A.;
Dietrich, A.; Truitt, W.A. In rats, social familiarity can alleviate anxiety-like behavior observed in the social
interaction test. We propose that a neural circuit that includes the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) and Basolateral
Amygdala (BLA), in which the mPFC processes social cues of familiarity and suppresses BLA outputs that lead to
anxiety-like behavior, regulate this social familiarity effect. To investigate the effect of social familiarity on anxiety,
we developed the Social Interaction-Habituation (SI-h) paradigm, consisting of a 5 min social interaction test
repeated daily with the experimental rat exposed to the same partner rat on each test day. As the experimental rat
becomes familiar with the partner rat, a significant increase in SI time is observed by day 5 compared to day 1,
producing a SI-familiarity effect (SI-f). This SI-f effect is dependent on the presence of an anxiogenic stimulus
(bright light), and familiarity to a partner rat. No increases in SI times were observed in rats when the SI-h test was
performed under dark conditions or when exposed to novel partners on days 1-5. After establishing SI-f, exposure to
a novel partner significantly reduces SI times, suggesting the SI-f effect is a result of recognition of the familiar
partner rat. Re-exposure to the original partner in a new environment produces an enhanced SI-f effect; SI time
significantly increases from day 1 to day 3. Bilateral inhibition of the mPFC with a GABAA agonist blocks the
anxiolytic SI-f effect. Exposure to the same partner 24 hours following mPFC inhibition, SI times increase
significantly higher than day 1. These data indicate that the mPFC activity is necessary for expression of the SI-f
effect.
48.
KETAMINE BLOCKS LATENT INHIBITION OF A CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION IN FETAL RATS.
Mickley, G.A.; Hoxha, Z.; DiSorbo, A.; Wilson, G.N.; Remus, J.; Biesan, O.; Ketchesin, K.; Ramos, L.; Luchsinger,
J.; Prodan, S.; Rogers, M.; & Hoxha, N. The Neuroscience Program, Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, OH 44017
USA. Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (Conditioned
Stimulus = CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (Unconditioned Stimulus = US). When later reexposed to the CS, the animal will avoid the taste or reduce consummatory oral-facial movements. In the current
study we sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by non-reinforced pre-exposure to a CS in fetal rats
(i.e., latent inhibition; LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (the taste component
of garlic which crosses the placental barrier; i.p.) or an equal volume of physiological saline. On this day some of
the pregnant dams also received the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA)-receptor blocking drug ketamine (100mg/kg,
i.p.). Later (E19), the pregnant dams received a second injection of the CS, allicin (i.p.) followed by either LiCl (81
54
mg/kg, i.p.; the US) or a saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with 10l, 0.1% allicin and observations of
ingestive orofacial motor responses (mouthing and licking) were recorded. If allicin had been paired with LiCl in
utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this
taste. Pre-exposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a latent inhibition of this CTA. Ketamine significantly
disrupted the formation of both the CTA and LI. Our data provide the first demonstration that fetal rats can acquire a
LI. Moreover, NMDA receptor blockade in E18 fetuses impairs the acquisition of these gustatory memories.
Supported by NSF Award: 9514799
49.
SEXY PREDATORS; A TWO PRONGED MANIPULATION OF VASOPRESSIN-SOCIAL SYSTEM DRIVES
TOXOPLASMA INDUCED BEHAVIOR CHANGES. Hari Dass, S.A.; Vyas, A. School of Biological Sciences,
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551. Parasites can act as puppeteers manipulating behavior of
their host for their benefit. Toxoplamsa rats system is one such example that is tractable for studying defensive and
social behaviors. Infected male rats display a remarkable alteration in defensive behavior; they are attracted to their
feline predators. This enables it masterfully hitch a ride into its only definitive host, the feline gut. We are
investigating the mechanism underlying this manipulation; specifically focusing on the vasopressin-social system in
the medial amygdala. Vasopressin is involved in social affiliation in the extended amygdala. Its promotor contains
two androgen sensitive methylation sites. Cat odor stimulated brains were labeled for AVP-ir and cFOS-ir neurons.
We studied the MEA which governs both defense (posteroventral medial amydgala;MEApv) and affiliation
(posterodorsal medial amygdala; MEApd). Infected males showed a higher proportion of colabelled neuron; cat odor
was activating the affiliative zones here. These changes in behavior arent transient, implying a long lasting robust
proximate mechanism. Epigenetic regulation is an ideal candidate. Infection decreased methylation at both the
androgen dependent sites in the MEApd .Correspondingly we observed a 12 fold boost in AVP mRNA levels here.
Testosterone, in addition to mediating AVP promotor methylation, also influences defensive behavior; castrated
males are more fearful than intact controls. Infected males showed an uncharacteristic; infection decreases sexual
display, increase in testicular T. We have elucidated a two pronged proximate mechanism acting via the
vasopressin- social system in the MEApd of infected males; an atypical cat odor induced activation and epigenetic
driven boost in AVP. These could be driven by a common mediator; Testosterone. Together these result in infected
male rats perceiving an affiliatory cue when exposed to cat odor hence the attraction.
50.
EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT SOCIAL DEFEAT ON COGNITION AND PREFRONTAL CORTEX
DOPAMINE FUNCTION. Novick, A.M.; Forster, G.L.; Watt, M.J. Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford
School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion SD 57069 USA. Bullying victimization during
adolescence is associated with an increased incidence of psychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in executive
function. These often manifest as impairments in working memory, the ability to utilize and maintain task-relevant
information. We have shown that adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat stress, a model of human bullying,
develop persistent reductions in prefrontal cortex dopamine (PFC DA) activity. Given the known role of PFC DA in
mediating executive function, we hypothesized that PFC DA hypofunction caused by adolescent social defeat would
result in decreased working memory in early adulthood. Rats were exposed daily to repeated social defeat from
postnatal day (P) 35-39, with age-matched controls placed into empty cages for the duration of each defeat trial. At
P56, subjects were trained in one of two working memory tasks. Compared to controls, rats defeated in adolescence
exhibited impaired performance both in the delayed win-shift task when a 5 min delay was used, and in the delayed
alternating T-maze test with a 90 s delay. To further investigate mechanisms underlying altered PFC DA activity
and related behaviors following adolescent defeat, quantitative autoradiography was used to identify potential
differences in markers of DA function. Previously defeated rats showed upregulation of the DA transporter, which
may contribute to decreased DA availability within the PFC and subsequent deficits in working memory. Combined,
findings suggest that cognitive deficits associated with bullying victimization may be a direct result of psychosocial
stress-induced insult to the developing adolescent PFC DA system. Support: NIH P20 RR15567, NIDA RO1
DA019921, and USD Joseph F. and Margaret P. Nelson Grant.
51.
TOXIN-INDUCED GUSTATORY CONDITIONING IN RATS: THE EFFECTS OF ORAL INGESTION OF
LOW LEVELS OF A TOXIN (LITHIUM CHLORIDE) ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS. Good, A.N.; Kavaliers,
M.; Ossenkopp, K.-P., Dept. of Psychology, Graduate Neuroscience Program, University of Western Ontario,
London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2. In nature, foraging animals must decide which foods will maximize nutrients
and minimize toxin ingestion. When an organism ingests a novel flavor and subsequently becomes ill within minutes
to hours, it will learn to avoid this flavor in the future. In the laboratory the toxin lithium chloride (LiCl) has been
shown to produce robust conditioned taste avoidances (CTA). The current study examined the effects of orally
ingesting low levels of LiCl (in a palatable 0.3 M sucrose solution) on drinking behavior in rats using a lickometer.
In an acquisition phase ( 5 consecutive days, 20 min sessions) rats were presented with a solution contained 0.3 M
sucrose + 0.12 M salt. The salt component of the solution consisted of NaCl, LiCl, or a combination of both. Four
55
different low concentrations of LiCl were examined (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 M). In addition a 0.12 M NaCl
negative control group and a 0.12 M LiCl positive control group were included. In an extinction phase (5 days, 20
min sessions) all rats were presented with 0.3 M sucrose + 0.12 M NaCl. Volume intake, number of licks, and
licking pattern microstructure variables were recorded for each session. Rats drinking 0.12 M LiCl exhibited very
low levels of consumption. Rats drinking sucrose with low levels of LiCl (0.005 0.02 M), showed significant dose
dependent linear reductions in volume intake and lick totals. Lick cluster size varied significantly across doses in a
non-linear fashion. Present results show that rats adjust their drinking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, to
maximize calorie intake and minimize toxin ingestion.
52.
ACUTE RESTRAINT DIFFERENTLY ALTERS DEFENSIVE RESPONSES AND FOS IMMUNOREACTIVITY
IN THE RAT BRAIN. Andrade, JS; Abrao, RO; Cespedes, IC; Garcia, MC; Nascimento, JOG; Spadari-Bratfisch,
RC; Melo, LL; da Silva, RB; Viana, MB. Dept. of Biosciences. Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP),
Santos, SP 11060001 Brazil. Results from a previous study shows that rats exposed to acute restraint display
anxiogenic-like behavior, evidenced by facilitation of avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) model of
anxiety. In contrast, escape responses were unaltered by stress exposure. Since ETM avoidance and escape tasks
seem to activate distinct sets of brain structures, it is possible that the differences observed with acute restraint are
due to particularities in the neurobiological mechanisms which modulate these responses. In the present study,
analysis of fos protein immunoreactivity (fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by exposure of male Wistar rats to
restraint stress (30 min) previously (30 min) to the ETM. Corticosterone levels were also measured in stressed and
non-stressed animals. Confirming previous observations restraint facilitated avoidance performance, an anxiogenic
result, while leaving escape unaltered. Performance of avoidance task increased fos-ir in the frontal cortex,
intermediate lateral septum, anterior hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In contrast, performance of escape
increased fos-ir in the basolateral amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus
coeruleus. Both behavioral tasks also increased fos-ir in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Restriction significantly
raised corticosterone levels. Additionally after restriction, fos-ir was predominantly seen in the dorsal raphe of
animals submitted to the avoidance task. This data confirms that different sets of brain structures are activated by
ETM avoidance and escape tasks and suggests that acute restraint differently alters ETM behavior and the pattern of
fos activation in the brain.
53.
AN EXAMINATION OF PREDISPOSED COPING STRATEGIES AND NEUROBIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN
MALE RATS EXPOSED TO VARIOUS PROBLEM-SOLVING TASKS 1Brown, M.; 1Kaufman, C.; 1Tschirhart,
M.; 1Rzucidlo, A.; 1Hyer, M.; 2Bardi, M.; 3de Silva, I.; 1Lambert, K. Dept. of Psychology, 1Randolph-Macon
College, Ashland VA USA 23005; Dept. of Psychology, 2Marshall University, Huntington WV USA; Dept. of
Psychology, 3University of Richmond, Richmond VA USA. Stress is a common denominator among many mental
illnesses (e.g., depression and anxiety disorders). Effective coping strategies allow individuals to adapt and respond
appropriately to unpredictable environments, providing a buffer against the detrimental effects of stress on the brain
and body. Accordingly, the current study examined interactions among coping styles, neurobiological indicators of
emotional resilience and performance in novel challenging tasks. The coping styles of 24 male Long-Evans rats
were assessed using the back-test (Hawley, 2010) and were subsequently categorized as passive, active, or variable
copers (n=8). All rats were subsequently exposed to three tasks with varying problem solving requirements, a swim
escape task, a digging task, and a novelty suppression feeding task. Corticosterone (CORT) and
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assessed in fecal samples collected at baseline and after the swim task.
Subsequently, brains were processed for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
immunoreactivity, both associated with resilience, in relevant brain areas. In the problem solving digging task the
variable copers exhibited more exploratory behavior; however, no additional significant effects were observed in the
feeding and diving-escape tasks. Variable copers also exhibited the greatest change in CORT and DHEA responses
(p<0.004 in both cases) from baseline to stress in the swim task and less BDNF immunoreactivity in the dentate
gyrus (p<0.05). A multiple dimensional scaling analysis indicated that the variable copers were characterized by
more reactive CORT and DHEA responses whereas the more consistent passive and active copers were
characterized by longer latencies to respond in the various tasks. Confirming prior research in our lab assessing
coping strategies, variable copers exhibited evidence of more adaptive responses (e.g., higher DHEA levels and
bolder responses).
54.
NEURONAL ACTIVATION PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPER-EMOTIONAL AGGRESSION IN
RATS SOCIALLY ISOLATED FROM WEANING. Tulogdi, A.; Toth, M.; Biro, L.; Soros, P.; Haller, J.
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary. Post-weaning
social isolation in rats is believed to model symptoms of early social neglect-induced externalizing problems
including aggression-related problems. We showed earlier that rats reared in social isolation were hyper-aroused
during aggressive contacts, delivered substantially more attacks that were poorly signaled and were preferentially
56
aimed at vulnerable body parts of opponents (head, throat and belly). Here we studied the neural background of this
type of aggression by assessing the expression of the activation marker c-Fos in 22 brain areas of male Wistar rats
submitted to resident-intruder conflicts. Post-weaning social isolation readily produced the behavioral alterations
noticed earlier. Social isolation significantly increased the activation of brain areas that are known to directly or
indirectly control inter-male aggression. Particularly, the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, anterior cingular
cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and basolateral amygdala, hypothalamic attack area, hypothalamic
paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed increased activation. This contrasts our earlier findings obtained
in rats with experimentally induced hypoarousal, where abnormal attack patterns were associated with overactivated central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray that are believed to control
predatory attacks. We have seen no similar activation patterns in rats socially isolated from weaning. Taken
together, these findings suggest that despite some phenotypic similarities, the neuronal background of hypo and
hyperarousal-associated abnormal forms of aggression are markedly different. While the neuronal activation patterns
induced by normal rivalry and hypoarousal-driven aggression are qualitative different, hyperarousal-associated
aggression appears to be an exaggerated form of rivalry aggression.
55.
NPAS4 REGULATES A TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROGRAM IN CA3 REQUIRED FOR CONTEXTUAL
MEMORY FORMATION. Ramamoorthi, K; Fropf, R; Belfort, GM; Fitzmaurice, HL; McKinney, RM; Neve, RL;
Otto, T; Lin, Y. McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The rapid encoding of contextual memory requires the CA3 region of the
hippocampus, but the necessary genetic pathways remain unclear. We found that the activity-dependent transcription
factor Npas4 regulates a transcriptional program in CA3 that is required for contextual memory formation. Npas4
was specifically expressed in CA3 after contextual learning. Global knockout or selective deletion of Npas4 in CA3
both resulted in impaired contextual memory, and restoration of Npas4 in CA3 was sufficient to reverse the deficit
in global knockout mice. By recruiting RNA polymerase II to promoters and enhancers of target genes, Npas4
regulates a learning-specific transcriptional program in CA3 that includes many well-known activity-regulated
genes, which suggests that Npas4 is a critical regulator of activity-regulated gene programs and is central to memory
formation.
56.
NEURONAL ENSEMBLES IN CA1 AND MPFC DIFFERENTIALLY REPRESENT RECENT AND REMOTE
CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORIES. Zelikowsky, M.; Fanselow, M.S. Caltech, Pasadena, CA. The ability to
recognize contexts and the significant events that occur within them is vital to the survival of any species.
Contextual fear conditioning provides an excellent model of this ability, as it requires an animal to form a contextual
representation and associate that representation with an aversive event. Activity within the brain regions implicated
in contextual fear can be assessed using catFISH (cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using
fluorescence in situ hybridization), which provides a visualization of the neuronal populations involved in two,
temporally distinct events as indexed by Arc mRNA expression (Guzowski et al., 1999). Classically, the dorsal
hippocampus (DH) has been implicated as a key structure in contextual processing (Fanselow, 2000; 2010) and is
thought to initially provide the detailed contextual representation underlying contextual fear conditioning (Wiltgen
et al., 2010). Meanwhile, recent findings suggest a possible role for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in
contextual fear, with an emphasis on the mPFC in the permanent storage of long-term memories (Quinn et al., 2008;
Frankland et al., 2004; Goshen et al. 2011). We investigated the behavior of neuronal ensembles in the CA1 region
of the DH, the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the mPFC (both infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) subregions)
following contextual fear conditioning and testing one or thirty days later (recent vs. remote memory test), in the
same context or in a novel context (generalization test). We found that recently acquired memories were contextspecific and recruited neuronal populations in CA1 and mPFC that showed a profile of Arc induciton consistent with
a role for contextual encoding. In contrast, when contextual fear memories transferred from a recent to remote state,
Arc expression in CA1 persisted but failed to exhibit context-specificity, suggesting that the detailed contextual
representation encoded in CA1 following recently acquired memories may fade with time.
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Thursday, June 7, 2012
9:00-10:00
Presidential Lecture: Behavioral Neuroscience: A View from Down Under
Stephen Kent, La Trobe University; Iain McGregor, University of Sydney
Behavioral Neuroscience: A View from Down Under. Kent, S. School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University.
Melbourne (Bundoora), VIC 3086 Australia. McGregor, I.S. School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New
South Wales, Australia. Following a special request by the current IBNS president, this talk will provide a light-hearted view
of current behavioural neuroscience research in Australia. After exploding a few erroneous beliefs about Australia that are
commonly held by Americans and Europeans we will provide a brief history of Australian neuroscience and of the strong
links between IBNS and Australian researchers over time. We will meander into a discussion of various strange Australian
animals (e.g. koalas, quolls and numbats) and their unusual behaviours, and also focus on some of the unusual behaviours of
Australian people (playing footy, drinking piss and chasing sheilas). More seriously we will also discuss the current
Australian academic and scientific context (e.g., specific challenges, leading universities and research centres and their
rankings). The current work occurring in leading institutions and outstanding researchers will be highlighted. Both speakers
will also provide a brief summary of their ongoing work examining the behavioural and physiological effects of caloric
restriction (SK) and animal models of defensive behaviour and translational studies of drug addiction (ISM). The
opportunities available for overseas graduate students, postdocs and faculty in Australia will be highlighted. We will
conclude with the uncontroversial message that “Australia is the best bloody country in the world mate”.
10:30-12:30
Symposium: Plasticity in the maternal brain: Effects of stress, drugs and medication.
Chair: Jodi Pawluski
MATERNAL CORTICOSTERONE: DIFFERENCES IN PRE- VERSUS POST-PARTUM EXPOSURE IN THE DAM
AND HER OFFSPRING. Galea, L.A.M., Brummelte, S. Univ British Columbia. Postpartum depression (PPD) affects 15%
of women and very few women with PPD seek treatment. Women with untreated PPD have impaired cognitive ability,
marital difficulties, and are more likely to abuse their children. Children of untreated PPD mothers have an increased risk to
develop depression and have impaired cognitive, motor and social development. Steroid hormones play a significant role in
depression. During pregnancy and postpartum, levels of steroid hormones fluctuate dramatically and may contribute to the
etiology of PPD. Furthermore stress is cited as a precipitating event leading to depression. The hippocampus is involved in
depression and maintains the ability to produce new neurons in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus may be
reduced in depressed patients and is modulated by both sex and steroid hormones. We examined the effects of maternal
corticosterone during gestation or the postpartum on behavioural and neural markers of depression in the dam and her
offspring. High CORT during gestation and the postpartum reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in the dam but only high
CORT postpartum resulted in depressive-like behaviours in the dam. Further, offspring of dams exposed to high maternal
CORT in utero showed more depressive-like behavior, while offspring exposed to high maternal CORT postpartum exhibited
more anxiety-like behavior. High CORT during gestation or postpartum altered basal and stress levels of CORT differently in
adult offspring. Together these studies suggest differential effects of gestational versus postpartum high maternal CORT on
the dam and her offspring.
EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL STRESS AND SSRI MEDICATION USE ON HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS IN THE
MOTHER. Pawluski, J.L. School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 4559 ER. The
incidence of stress and stress-related disorders, such as Postpartum Depression, with the transition to motherhood is estimated
to be 20%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRI) are currently the antidepressant of choice to treat anteand post-partum depression. However, little is know about the effects of these medications on the maternal brain and
behavior. Therefore the present study investigated how a commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, affects neurobehavioral outcomes
in the mother using a model of maternal adversity. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat
dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Dams were divided into 4 groups: 1) Control + Vehicle, 2)
Control + Fluoxetine, 3) Stress + Vehicle, 4) Stress + Fluoxetine. Fluoxetine or vehicle was administered to the dam during
the postpartum period via osmotic minipump implants (Alzet) for 28 days. Results show effects of chronic fluoxetine
treatment on maternal care of pups, corticosterone and corticosteroid binding globulin levels as well as anxiety-related
behavior. However, these effects were most prominent in dams that were not subject to gestational stress. In addition,
fluoxetine treatment to gestationally stressed dams increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This research provides important
information on how SSRIs may act on the physiology, behavior, and neural plasticity of the mother. Although this is a first
step in investigating the role of antidepressant treatment on the mother, much more work is needed before we can understand
and improve the efficacy of these medications to treat mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women.
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EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL COCAINE ON SPINE DENSITY IN PREGNANT RAT DAMS. Luine, V.; Frankfurt, M.
Hunter College of CUNY, New York, NY. Several laboratories have shown that cocaine administration is associated with
increased dendritic spine density in different brain areas including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc).
The majority of these studies have been done in males, and the effects of cocaine on spine density in adult female rats is
poorly described. In addition, although many studies have explored effects of gestational cocaine, they are limited to effects
in the pups, rather than the dams. As part of our ongoing studies of parity influences on neural and behavioral function, we
examined the effects of 30mg/kg of cocaine, given on gestational days (GD) 8 to 20, on spine density in brain areas of the
dams within 24 h of parturition. For comparison, cocaine was given at the same dose and for the same duration to adult,
virgin females. Overall, dams appeared more sensitive to cocaine since more areas were affected and larger changes were
seen in dams. Cocaine increased apical and basal PFC spine density by 15% in dams but did not affect virgins. Changes were
higher in basal CA1 of dams, 14% increase, vs 8% increase in virgins. Moreover, in the medial preoptic area, which is critical
for maternal behavior, cocaine decreased spine density in dams but increased it in virgins. Cocaine induced changes in dams
were similar in magnitude to effects seen in pups treated from GD8 to GD20 and analyzed at adulthood. These results show
that pregnancy enhances cocaine dependent neural changes and adversely affects brain areas involved in maternal behavior.
The responses of dams maybe related to high levels of estrogens present during gestation.
MOTHERHOOD AND AGING: THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ESTROGENS ON HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS
AND COGNITION IN MIDDLE-AGED FEMALES. Cindy Barha; Stephanie Lieblich; Carmen Chow; Liisa Galea.
Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia. Estradiol is the more common estrogen in young women, while
estrone is more common in older women. The most commonly prescribed hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists
primarily of estrone, and does not have as many cognitive enhancing benefits as HRTs that consist primarily of estradiol. We
have shown that different estrogens promote cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influence hippocampus-dependent
memory in young female rats. We examined the effects of acute and chronic treatment with different estrogens (17βestradiol, 17α-estradiol, estrone) on hippocampus-dependent memory and neurogenesis, and whether these effects were
dependent on previous reproductive experience (pregnancy and mothering) in middle-aged female rats. Acute treatment with
all three estrogens increased cell proliferation in middle-aged multiparous female rats but had no effect in middle-aged virgin
female rats. Chronic treatment with these estrogens differentially influenced spatial working and reference memory in
multiparous and virgin females. Importantly, ovariectomy impaired reference memory in multiparous rats compared to virgin
rats. Therefore, the effects of estrogens on learning and memory in middle-aged females are dependent on previous
reproductive experience. Findings from this study advance our understanding of how different estrogens mediate cognition in
older rats, and may ultimately lead to the development and tailoring of new therapeutic advances in the treatment of
symptoms associated with menopause in women.
2:00-4:00
Oral Session 1: Psychiatry and Cognition
DIFFERENCES IN FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING AND PREFRONTAL DOPAMINE UTILIZATION ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN THE DRD4 GENE Groman S.M., Feiler K., Seu E., Woods J.A., and Jentsch J.D.
Dept. of Psychology, UCLA The dopamine (DA) D4 receptor (DRD4) gene contains polymorphisms in human and nonhuman animals, and variation in the number of exon III tandem repeats has been linked to risk for attention
deficit/hyperactive disorder and addictions. However, little is known about the functional consequence(s) of this
polymorphism on brain chemistry and putative behavioral endophenotypes. To address this, the current study examined the
behavioral and biochemical impact of this functional polymorphism in vervet monkeys that carried either a rare (or common)
variant similar in structure to that found in humans. Fourteen male monkeys (N=7 monkeys that carried at least one of the
rare alleles (DRD4.5), N=7 monkeys that were homozygous for the common allele (DRD4.6)) were trained to acquire, retain
and reverse 3-choice discrimination problems. After completing the behavioral assessment, levels of DA and related
metabolites in brain homogenates were measured ex vivo with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Carriers of the DRD4.5
allele required more trials to acquire a stimulus-outcome association than those homozygous for the DRD4.6 allele. An
analysis of response patterns revealed that these differences were due DRD4.5 carriers having lower sensitivity to positive
feedback. Ex vivo measurements found elevated levels of DA utilization in prefrontal regions of DRD4.5 allele carriers.
These data provide evidence of the functional impact the DRD4 VNTR has on behavioral and biochemical processes thought
to underlie risk for psychiatric disorders and provide a framework for interpreting the phenotypic abnormalities that associate
with this polymorphism.
MEASUREMENT OF A SCHIZOPHRENIA ENDOPHENOTPE IN A RODENT MODEL: MISMATCH NEGATIVITY
(MMN) TO FREQUENCY DEVIANTS. Hodgson, D.M.; Harms, L.; Nakamura, T.; Fulham, W.R.; Todd, J.; Schall. U.;
Michie, P.T. Centre for Translational Neuroscience & Mental Health Research, University of Newcastle, Callaghan. NSW,
2308, Australia. We have previously reported MMN-like responses in epidural recordings to high but not low frequency
deviants from awake rats that appear to meet stringent criteria for deviance detection as opposed to differential adaptation of
neuronal responses(Nakamura et al.,2011,Frontiers in Psychology, 367). Here we report data from an improved design that
59
replicates some but not all aspects of the previous findings. Responses were recorded during 4 separate sequences in 9 awake
Wistar rats a low (6636 Hz)and a high (8137 Hz) frequency deviant oddball sequence (deviant probability 12.5%), and two
control sequences consisting of 8 different frequencies (12.5% probability) with the two deviants of the oddball sequences
positioned in the middle of the range. Three components were measured, N22, P37 and a late negative displacement (ND)
from 60-100ms. N22 amplitude was larger to deviants than standards in oddball sequences and to the same sounds in control
sequences. P37 effects were similar to N22 - larger to oddball deviants for both frequencies. For the late ND, the deviant
negative displacement was significant for high frequency stimuli only. Except for P37 which was smaller to deviants in our
earlier report, these results confirm our previous findings that it is possible to measure a human equivalent of the MMN, an
endophenotype for schizophrenia, in rodents.
IMPAIRED ATTENTION OF DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER (DAT) KNOCKDOWN (KD) MICE IN A CONTINUOUS
PERFORMANCE TEST: SIMILARITIES TO PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER (BD). van Enkhuizen, J.1,2;
Geyer, M.A.1,3; Young, J.W.1. 1UCSD, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; 3VA, VISN 22, La
Jolla, CA, USA. Impaired attention is apparent in several neuropsychiatric disorders including BD. The continuous
performance test (CPT) is widely used to assess attention in humans using target and non-target stimuli. We have described
DAT KD mice as a model of BD. To further validate this model, we trained wildtype (WT; n=28) and DAT KD (n=31) mice
in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) and the 5-choice CPT (5C)-CPT. We hypothesized that DAT KD mice
would be hyper-responsive in the 5CSRTT but exhibit impaired response control in the 5C-CPT. For the 5CSRTT, mice were
trained to holepoke when a stimulus (target) appeared in 1 of 5 locations. The 5C-CPT included non-target stimuli with 5
locations illuminated, requiring inhibition from responding. During initial training in the 5CSRTT, DAT KD mice made
more premature responses compared with WT mice (F(1,57)=25.7, p<0.001), although levels normalized over time. Once
stable in the 5CSRTT, DAT KD mice omitted fewer trials than WT mice (F(1,57)=7.0, p<0.05). When in the 5C-CPT
however (requiring the inhibition of responding), omission levels of DAT KD mice became comparable to WT mice but the
former responded more often to non-target stimuli (T=-2.2, p<0.05). With training, WT and DAT KD mice improved their
response inhibition to non-target stimuli, but the difference between the two genotypes remained. Mice with reduced DAT
expression exhibited hyper-responding in the 5CSRTT as measured by increased premature responses and fewer omissions.
When discriminated responding was required by introducing non-target stimuli however, DAT KD mice exhibited difficulty
inhibiting from responding while their omissions normalized. Thus, DAT KD mice exhibit impaired attention consistent with
BD patients.
SUBSECOND MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE RELEASE PREDICTS THE AVOIDANCE OF PUNISHMENT Erik B.
Oleson, Ronny N. Gentry and Joseph F. Cheer Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology. University of Maryland School of
Medicine. Baltimore, MD 21201 USA. The mesolimbic dopamine system is generally considered to be a reward pathway. In
support of this theory – when animals are presented with conditioned cues predicting reward availability, midbrain
dopamine neurons fire in high frequency bursts. This pattern of neural activity results in subsecond dopamine release events
in terminal fields such as the nucleus accumbens, which are thought to promote reward seeking. A number of studies,
however, also implicate the mesolimbic dopamine system in behavior requiring the avoidance of punishment. To assess the
role of dopamine during the avoidance of punishment, we measured accumbal dopamine concentrations in near real-time
using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry while well-trained rats responded in an operant signaled shock avoidance task. In this
procedure, a stimulus light was presented as a warning signal while a response lever extended 2s prior to the delivery of
recurring foot shocks (0.5s shock every 2s). A lever response at any time within the session produced a 20s safety period
signaled by a tone. This design allowed us to assess dopamine signaling during warning signal presentation, safety periods
and two distinct behavioral responses (avoidance and escape). We found that dopamine release encodes warning signal
presentation and predicts when animals will successfully avoid punishment. Our data, demonstrating that dopamine
indiscriminately processes motivationally salient stimuli, supports a growing consensus that the mesolimbic dopamine system
is more than merely a reward pathway. Rather, subsecond dopamine signaling might facilitate behavioral orientation in a
manner that promotes behavioral adaptation and survival.
DISTINCT NEURAL SUBSTRATES FOR REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT IN THE STRIATUM. Kravitz, AV;
Tye, LD; Kreitzer, AC. Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA. Reinforcement and
punishment are fundamental processes that shape animal learning. Reinforcement maintains or increases, while punishment
decreases, the future probability of specific behavior. While the striatum is implicated in both reinforcement and punishment,
the specific roles of the two populations of striatal projection neurons are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that
D1-expressing direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs) mediate reinforcement, while D2-expressing indirect pathway
neurons (iMSNs) mediate punishment. We targeted the expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to dMSNs or iMSNs in
separate groups of mice, and trained them on an operant task in which they could self-administer laser stimulation to activate
each pathway. Within the first 30-minute training session, nave mice that expressed ChR2 in dMSNs exhibited a significant
bias towards the laser-paired trigger whereas mice that expressed ChR2 in iMSNs mice exhibited a significant bias away
from the laser-paired trigger. This indicates that activation of direct pathway dMSNs is sufficient for reinforcement, while
60
activation of indirect pathway iMSNs is sufficient for punishment. Our results support our hypothesis, and indicate that these
neural populations could be targeted independently to address specific dysfunctions in reinforcement or punishment
associated with psychiatric disorders.
MEDIAL SEPTAL-DIAGONAL BAND (MSDB) AND HIPPOCAMPAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE CLASSICALLY
CONDITIONED EYEBLINK RESPONSE. Roland, J.J.1; Gluck, M.A.2; Myers, C.1,3; Pang, K.C.H.1,3; Servatius, R.J.1,3;
1SMBI-NJMS, Newark; 2CMBN, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ; 3DVA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ. Human and
animal studies have demonstrated that while the hippocampus is not essential for the acquisition of the delay classically
conditioned eyeblink response (CCER), total MSDB damage retards learning. Both systemic and intraseptal, but not
intrahippocampal, scopolamine retards delay CCER and studies have shown that the effects of intraseptal scopolamine on
learning are mediated by the GABAergic system. Therefore, total MSDB lesion and scopolamine disruption of delay CCER
learning may be due to effects on the MSDB GABAergic system. In this experiment, the effect of GABAergic MSDB lesions
on the acquisition and extinction of delay CCER was examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a GABAergic MSDB
lesion (GAT1-Saporin) or sham surgery. Training consisted of delay eyeblink conditioning (500ms tone CS with 10ms
periorbital stimulation US) on two consecutive days with 100 trials per day and an average intertrial interval of 30s. On the
third day, animals received 40 CS-US paired trials immediately followed by 60 CS-alone extinction trials. Initially,
GABAergic lesioned animals displayed impaired acquisition but eventually reached the same asymptotic performance as
sham animals. There was also no difference in extinction rate between groups. In the future, we will examine whether MSDB
GABAergic lesions affect a CCER task that is hippocampal-dependent (e.g. long-delay) to further assess MSDBhippocampal involvement in the acquisition and extinction of eyeblink conditioning. Supported by NIH T32-NS051157, NIH
R01-NS044373 and the SMBI.
NPAS4 REGULATES A TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROGRAM IN CA3 REQUIRED FOR CONTEXTUAL MEMORY
FORMATION. Ramamoorthi, K; Fropf, R; Belfort, GM; Fitzmaurice, HL; McKinney, RM; Neve, RL; Otto, T; Lin, Y.
McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA
02139, USA. The rapid encoding of contextual memory requires the CA3 region of the hippocampus, but the necessary
genetic pathways remain unclear. We found that the activity-dependent transcription factor Npas4 regulates a transcriptional
program in CA3 that is required for contextual memory formation. Npas4 was specifically expressed in CA3 after contextual
learning. Global knockout or selective deletion of Npas4 in CA3 both resulted in impaired contextual memory, and
restoration of Npas4 in CA3 was sufficient to reverse the deficit in global knockout mice. By recruiting RNA polymerase II
to promoters and enhancers of target genes, Npas4 regulates a learning-specific transcriptional program in CA3 that includes
many well-known activity-regulated genes, which suggests that Npas4 is a critical regulator of activity-regulated gene
programs and is central to memory formation.
ON MAKING ZEBRAFISH SAD AND ANXIOUS: DEVELOPING NOVEL AQUATIC MODELS OF AFFECTIVE
DISORDERS. Kyzar, E.; Roth, A.; Gaikwad, S.; Green, J.; Collins, C.; El-Ounsi, M.; Davis, A.; Pham, M.; Stewart, A.M.;
Cachat, J.; Zukowska, Z.; Kalueff, A.V. Dept. of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Program, Tulane University Medical
School, New Orleans, LA 70112; Dept. of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota Medical School,
Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising translational animal model with significant
physiological homology to humans. Zebrafish are ideal for high-throughput biopsychiatry research due to their low cost, ease
of maintenance/genetic manipulations, and robust behavioral responses to various psychotropic drugs. Here, we present
innovative high-throughput strategies recently developed in our laboratory for the thorough dissection of zebrafish affective
phenotypes. First, we developed and successfully applied 3D mapping of fish exploratory behavior for the analysis of
swimming patterns in response to a wide range of anxiolytic and anxiogenic treatments, using the novel tank test (a zebrafish
version of rodent open field paradigm) and shoaling tests. We also present novel evidence that depression, in addition to
anxiety, can also be modeled in zebrafish. Using reserpine (agent that efficiently depletes brain monoamines, causing
depression in humans and rodents), we have examined the acute and long-term alterations in zebrafish behavior and
physiology in several paradigms, including the novel tank, open field, lightdark box, social preference and shoaling tests.
While reserpine did not evoke overt behavioral effects in these tests acutely, it markedly affected activity after chronic
treatment, with robust hypolocomotion resembling motor retardation observed in depression-like states. Collectively, our
results suggest that zebrafish are highly sensitive to drugs modulating anxiety and depression-like states, generally paralleling
rodent and clinical phenotypes, and strongly supporting the utility of zebrafish models to study a growing spectrum of
affective disorders.
2:00-4:00
Oral Session 2: Stress and the Environment
APPEASING PHEROMONE MEDIATES SOCIAL BUFFERING OF CONDITIONED FEAR RESPONSES. Kiyokawa,
Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Mori, Y. Laboratory of Veterinary Ethology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657
JAPAN. In social buffering, a phenomenon known in various species, stress responses are less distinct when an animal is
61
exposed to a stressor with one or more conspecific animals. We have previously found in male rats that the presence of a
conspecific mitigates conditioned fear responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Furthermore, we have shown that
the social buffering was mediated by signals perceived by the main olfactory system of the subject. Based on these findings,
we hypothesized that the olfactory signals from a conspecific is sufficient for the social buffering of conditioned fear
responses. To assess this issue, we prepared a clean test box and a scented test box in which a conspecific rat had been kept
for three hours to leave scent. Then, fear-conditioned subjects were re-exposed to the CS in one of these two boxes. When the
subjects were tested in the clean box, they showed conditioned fear responses with increased Fos expression in the
paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and amygdala. In contrast, the olfactory signal from a conspecific blocked conditioned fear
responses and increment of Fos expression in the PVN and amygdala. These subjects also showed increased Fos expression
in the posterior part of the anterior olfactory nucleus that is a putative linkage site between the main olfactory system and
amygdala during the social buffering. These results suggest an existence of appeasing pheromone that mediates social
buffering of conditioned fear responses.
BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES OF MALE MICE PERINATALLY EXPOSED TO FLUOXETINE. Kiryanova, V.; Smith,
V.M.; Antle, M.C.; Dyck, R.H. Department of Psychology. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Fluoxetine (Flx)
is the antidepressant most commonly used by pregnant women. Flx can cross the placenta, potentially affecting the fetus by
changing neurodevelopmental processes, thereby affecting the expression of behaviours in adulthood. We examined the
effects of perinatal Flx exposure on behaviour and circadian rhythms of mice as adults. Dams were treated with Flx from
embryonic day 15 to postnatal day 12, and the behaviour of the male offspring was assessed at 6-8 weeks of age. We found
that perinatal Flx exposure leads to increased aggression, improved spatial memory, and decreased anxiety. The circadian
system was also affected, as Flx treated mice had shorter free running periods, larger phase advances to light during the late
subjective night, and smaller phase advances to daytime administration of the serotonin 1A/7 agonist 8-OH-DPAT. Our
results suggest that while perinatal exposure to Flx may have long-term effects on neural functioning, these effects are not
necessarily detrimental.
NEONATAL PROGRAMMING OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM BY IMMUNOLOGICAL CHALLENGE:
IMPLICATIONS FOR ANXIETY. Sominsky, L. 1; Fuller, A.E. 1; Bondarenko, E. 2; Ong, L.K. 3; Clark, V.R. 4;
Bobrovskaya, L. 5; Dunkley, P. 3; Nalivaiko, E. 2; Hodgson, D.M. 1. 1.Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, 2.School of
Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, 3.Medical Biochemistry, The University of Newcastle, Australia. ;4.Human Biology,
Brown University, USA; 5.School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats results in persistent changes to the HPA axis and increased anxietylike behaviours in adulthood. Neonatal immune challenge also alters sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, indicated by
increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation in neonatal adrenals. In the current study, the impact of neonatal LPS
exposure on autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning and its role in anxiety were explored. Autonomic arousal was
assessed by the measurement of respiratory rate, using whole-body plethysmography. Wistar rats were treated with either
LPS (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline on postnatal days (PNDs) 3 and 5. The efficacy of treatment was assessed in a subgroup of
animals via analysis of TH in the adrenals and plasma corticosterone at 4h, 24h and 48h following treatment on PND5. In
adulthood (PND85) respiratory responses to acoustic and light stimuli were recorded in neonatally-treated rats. Animals were
placed for one hour in a transparent plexiglass cylinder receiving a constant flow of compressed air, with a piezoelectric
sensor attached for assessment of motor activity. Blood was collected at the end of the procedure, to assess plasma
corticosterone. Animals were left undisturbed for one week following the respiratory study, after which anxiety-like
behaviours were assessed on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and holeboard, and adrenals were collected for the TH analysis.
LPS exposure resulted in increased and sustained TH phosphorylation and activity on PND5 (p<.001) and increased TH
phosphorylation in adulthood (p<.05). Elevated plasma corticosterone levels in LPS-treated males were observed on PND5
and in adulthood (p<.05). LPS-treated animals had significantly increased respiratory responses to acoustic (80db) and light
stimuli(p<.05). These animals also exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviours (p<.05). These data indicate that neonatal
immune challenge produces long-term alterations not only to the HPA axis, but also the ANS, and is associated with
increased anxiety-like behaviours. Importantly, augmented respiratory responses in LPS-treated animals validate the
respiratory rate as a sensitive index of ANS activity and correspond to human data indicating that respiratory dysregulation is
characteristic of anxiety and panic disorders.
INDIVIDUALLY VENTILATED CAGE SYSTEMS: A NOVEL HOUSING TYPE CAUSING PROBLEMS FOR MOUSE
MODEL RESEARCH. Logge W.1, Kingham J.2 and Karl T.1 1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Australia
2
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia. Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage
(IVC) rack systems in laboratory mouse facilities has increased. Compared to conventional housing, these IVC rack systems
provide a very different environment, as cage structures are limited as is external acoustic and olfactory stimulation. The
frequency of stressful cage changes is also reduced. Importantly, studies so far have concentrated on the evaluation of
behavioural effects of IVC rack systems on wild type-like (WT) mice. Here we present the first data on how different cage
systems (IVC versus traditional) impact on the behavioural phenotype of a mouse mutant for the schizophrenia candidate
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gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 HET mice). Male and female Nrg1 HET mice and their WT littermates (all on pure C57BL/6J
background) were bred and raised until postnatal day 90 in either IVC or traditional cage systems. Mice (N = 12/cohort) were
then tested in a comprehensive test battery for locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social interaction, cognition and
sensorimotor gating. IVC systems suppressed the hyper-locomotive phenotype typical for Nrg1 HET mice kept in traditional
cage systems. Furthermore, impairments in fear-associated contextual learning of Nrg1 hypomorphs were modified by IVC
housing and sensorimotor gating deficits of Nrg1 HET mice were absent when animals were kept in IVC. Finally, mice in
IVC appeared less sensitive to the locomotor-stimulating effects of an acute challenge with 0.25 mg MK-801. Some of the
behavioural effects described showed sex-specific characteristics.
Our data reveal for the first time the significant impact of IVC systems on genetic mouse models for brain disorders. Thus,
researchers have to consider the breeding and housing conditions of their test cohorts carefully and consider housing
condition differences, when comparing data across institutions.
EXERCISE PROTECTS AGAINST APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY CHRONIC RESTRAINT STRESS. Gerecke, K.M.,
Kolobova, A. and Allen, S. Rhodes College, Dept. of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, Memphis, TN. Chronic
restraint stress has been shown to cause deleterious effects on neurons due to the chronic elevation of glucocorticoids (GCs),
particularly because GCs make neurons vulnerable to other toxic insults such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Exercise
has been shown to protect against this oxidative stress in several models; therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective
effects of exercise against the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. Mice were kept in either sedentary (standard
housing) or exercise (cages with one running wheel per mouse) housing conditions. Chronic psychological stress was
induced using chronic restraint stress for 2 hours per day for 14 consecutive days. To assessed neurotoxicity, astrocytosis and
expression of the apoptotic protein Bax was quantified 1 and 24 hours following the last stress. Exercise significantly
increased the expression of GFAP labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus at 24 hours, suggesting enhanced cellular activity in
that region. In addition, expression of Bax was significantly greater in the cortex of sedentary stressed animals at the 1 hour
time point; however, stressed mice that had exercised were completely protected, as Bax expression was not significantly
greater than controls in those animals. The observed enhanced Bax expression was transient, as there were no differences in
expression at the 24 hr time point. Thus, stress acutely increases Bax expression in the cortex. There were no significant
changes in Bax expression in the hippocampus at either time point. The expression of markers for oxidative stress is also
being assessed. These data indicate that exercise upregulates the adaptive glial response, and protects against chronic
psychological stress induced neurotoxicity.
ANXIOGENIC-LIKE EFFECTS INDUCED BY CRF RECEPTOR ACTIVATION WITHIN THE AMYGDALA IN MICE.
1,2Cipriano, A.C., 2Gomes, K.S., 1,2Nunes-de-Souza, R.L. 1Joint Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences
UFSCar/UNESP, 2Lab. Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Brazil. It is
well-known that the amygdala (Amy) plays an important role in the modulation of aversively motivated behavior. This study
investigated the effects of pharmacological manipulations of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and type 2 receptors
(CRFr1 and CRFr2) on anxiety-like behavior in mice exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM). Male Swiss mice (n= 59/group) received bilateral intra-Amy injections of vehicle, CRF (37.5 or 75pmol/0.1l), CP376395 (1.5 nmol/0.1l), a CRFr1
antagonist, or antisauvagine-30 (1 or 3nmol/0.1l), a CRFr2 antagonist, and 10 min later they were individually placed in the
EPM, where the anxiety indices (% open-arm entries and time: %OE and %OT) and locomotor activity (closed arm entries:
CE) were recorded during a 5-min session. One-way ANOVA followed by Duncan test revealed that intra-Amy CRF 37.5
and 75 pmol reduced both %OE (F2,21 = 5.11, p < 0.02) and %OT (F2,21 = 3.70, p < 0.05) when compared to the saline
control group. Furthermore, CRF 75 pmol increased CE (F2,21 = 4.80, p < 0.02). Intra-Amy injection of the CRFr1
antagonist alone significantly increased %OT (t (12)= -2.85, p < 0.01) and reduced CE (t(12)= 2.48, p < 0.03). No effects
were observed with intra-Amy antisauvagine-30 on behavior (higher F2,17 value = 0.47, p > 0.60). Taken together, these
results suggest that CRFr1 (but not CRFr2) located within the amygdala plays an important role in the mediation of defensive
behavior in mice exposed to the EPM. Financial support: Fapesp, CNPq, PADC/FCF/UNESP
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHRONIC MILD STRESS IN MICE. Jones, B. C.1; Lu, L.2; Williams, R. W.2: Cavigelli,
S.A.1; Mormede, P.3 1Department of Biobehavioral Health, Penn State University, University Park PA 16802, USA,
2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiolgy, UTHSC, Memphis, TN 38163, USA, 3INRA-Laboratoire de Genetique
Cellulaire, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, FRANCE.There have been repeated efforts to detect and analyze individual differences
in stress-related alcohol consumption in animal models. Results have been mixed for reasons that may involve genetic
heterogeneity in responses to stress and ethanol, as well as heterogeneity of stressors themselves. Here we have tested the
effects of chronic mild stress (CMS) on voluntary ethanol consumption across members of a diverse panel of BXD strains.
CMS is a procedure that subjects animals to perturbations in housing, light cycle, social, and exposure to predator-associated
stimuli over several weeks. We recently tested the effects of CMS across a family of 15 BXD recombinant inbred strains of
mice to evaluate their utility to study the genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in stress-related alcohol
consumption and acute stress response. Females from the fifteen strains were subjected to 7 weeks of CMS with alcohol
consumption measured before CMS, during the last week of CMS, and during the week following CMS. After post-CMS
63
alcohol intake measurement and thirty minutes prior to sacrifice, all animals were subjected to 15 min of physical restraint to
assess stress response. At sacrifice, blood, thymus, adrenal glands, and the hippocampus were harvested. Thymus and adrenal
weights were recorded, and serum was assayed for corticosterone. We find significant genetic variation in all measures.
Preliminary quantitative trait locus analysis detected distinct patterns of linkage and several suggestive loci for alcohol
consumption and other measures. We found a significant QTL for corticosterone response to acute restraint following CMS.
The candidate gene identified is Atxn1. Atxn1 is cis-regulated and its expression in hippocampus correlates r=0.79 with
corticosterone response to acute stress (CMS minus control).
WHAT BETWEEN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE (OCD) RITUALS, SPORT RITUALS, AND DAILY MOTOR TASKS?
A POSSIBLE ADAPTIVE VALUE FOR SEEMINGLY UNNECESSARY ACTS. Eilam, D.; Keren, H.; Mort, J.; Weiss, O.
Dept. of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, ISRAEL. Repetitive behaviors are common in daily life, constituting a seemingly
non-functional component, manifested in excess in sport or compulsive rituals. The similarities and differences among
various types of repetitive behavior remain unclear. Here we compared several daily motor tasks (donning a shirt, making
coffee, etc.) with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals and sport rituals during basketball free-throws and
weightlifiting. Commonality of performance of each act was used as a proxy for functionality: the more individuals perform a
specific act, the stronger the inference that this act is functional and relevant to the task at hand. Conversely, the less common
the act, the less functional it was for that task. We found that tasks and rituals comprise functional acts performed by all
subjects, and non-functional acts performed by only few subjects. Each task or ritual comprised three sections: a pragmatic
component (body), which was preceded by a non-pragmatic component (head) and was also followed by a non-pragmatic
component (tail). We suggest that seemingly non-functional acts have an adaptive value, with the head serving as a
preparatory phase and the tail serving as a confirmatory phase. In sport rituals with definite end and high stakes, the head was
long and the tail absent. In everyday tasks, the head and tail were relatively short, whereas OCD rituals featured a relatively
long tail. These comparisons revealed that compulsive pathologic rituals share the same structural components with daily
tasks but not with sport rituals, suggesting that normal and OCD rituals could develop on different grounds. Moreover, the
non-functional content of the tail in OCD, we claim that incompleteness in OCD does not seem to be a product of
perfectionism, but more reasonable a result of an over-activation of security motivation or precautionary system.
8:00-10:00
Poster Session 2: Pharmacology
57.
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM CRITICALLY MODULATES THE EXPRESSION OF SOCIAL
BEHAVIORS IN ADULT MALE MICE. Pietropaolo S.1*, Le Maire V.1*, Bellocchio L.2, Crusio W.E.1,
Marsicano G.2 1Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d’Aquitaine, Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS UMR
5287, 33405 Talence, France; 2Endocannabinoids and Neuroadaptation Group, NeuroCentre Magendie, U862
INSERM, 33077 Bordeaux, France. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important modulator of neuronal
functions in the mammalian brain, critically regulating the expression of several behaviors. Recent lines of evidence
have suggested a role of the ECS in the control of social behaviors in rodents and humans, although the precise
mechanisms involved have not been identified yet. Here, we have combined genetic and pharmacological
approaches to assess whether the ECS indeed mediates the expression of adult social behaviors in male laboratory
mice. The results clearly showed the involvement of the main endocannabinoid receptor, i.e., CB1, in the control of
social investigation and sexual behavior. Furthermore, the behavioral analysis of conditional CB1-KO mice in
specific neuronal populations contributed to disentangle the brain mechanisms underlying the complexity of adult
social interactions. *Contributed equally.
58.
RELATIVELY BRIEF EXPOSURE TO AN ENRICHED ENVIRONMENT EFFECTIVELY BLOCKS SUCROSE
SEEKING AND REDUCES SUCROSE SELF-ADMINISTRATION IN RATS. Grimm J.W.; Weber R.; Barnes J.;
Koerber J.; Dorsey K.; Deuse L.; Glueck E.; Collins S.; North K. Department of Psychology and Program in
Behavioral Neuroscience. Western Washington University. Environmental enrichment dramatically reduces drug
and sucrose seeking in rats. In a previous study we reported that 1 month of environmental enrichment (large cage,
toys, and social cohorts) effectively blocked cue-induced sucrose seeking. In the present study, we examined
whether overnight (22h) enrichment would be as effective. We also examined whether social enrichment (housing
with a conspecific only) might account for the environmental enrichment effect. Rats self-administered 10% sucrose
(.4 mL/delivery) in daily 2-h sessions wherein each sucrose delivery was accompanied by a tone+light cue. Sucrose
seeking was measured after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence in a session identical to training but no sucrose
was delivered with the cue. In the 22 h preceding, rats either remained singly-housed (control), were housed with
another rat in a double-wide cage (social enrichment), or were housed with 2 other rats plus toys in a large habitat
(environmental enrichment). Both enrichment conditions markedly reduced sucrose seeking after 1 day of forced
abstinence. Sucrose consumption was also reduced in a next-day test. Both enrichment conditions also reduced
sucrose seeking when administered after 1 month of forced abstinence, but environmental enrichment was
approximately two and a half times as effective as social enrichment. Self-administration in a next-day test was
64
reduced only in the environmentally-enriched rats. These are the first results we are aware of indicating that a
relatively brief exposure to environmental enrichment can nearly abolish sucrose seeking and decrease sucrose selfadministration. Social enrichment does not completely account for this effect. Preliminary results with pretreatment
of rats immediately prior to enrichment with the corticosterone antagonist mifepristone (20 mg/kg IP) indicate that
HPA activation is not responsible for the effects of either social or environmental enrichment.
59.
CHRONIC TREATMENT WITH FLUOXETINE IMPAIRS THE FACILITATORY EFFECT PRODUCED BY 5HT2C RECEPTOR ACTIVATION WITHIN THE DORSAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY (DPAG) ON
ELEVATED PLUS MAZE (EPM)-INDUCED ANTINOCICEPTION IN MICE. 1,4Baptista, D.; 2,4Nunes-deSouza, R.L.; 1,3,4Canto-de-Souza, A. Dept Psychology-Psycobiology group/UFSCar, Pharmacol,
FCF/Unesp/Araraquara, 3Graduate Program in Psychology/UFSCar/So Carlos, 4Joint Graduate Program in
Physiological Sciences UFSCar/UNESP, Brazil. This study investigated the effects of chronic treatment with
fluoxetine combined with intra-dPAG injection of MK-212 (6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride), a
preferential 5-HT2C receptor agonist on the EPM open arm confinement-induced antinociception (OAA) in mice.
Male Swiss mice (30-35g), (7-10/group) received subcutaneous injection of fluoxetine (5.0 mg/kg) for 21
consecutive days. At 21 day, they were injected with MK-212 (0.63 nmol/0.1l) into the dPAG and then received an
intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid (nociceptive stimulus). After that, each mouse was confined to either
open arm (OA) or enclosed arm (EA) of the EPM for 5 minutes, when the number of writhes was recorded. Threeway ANOVA revealed significant effects only for place of confinement factor [F(1,85) = 100.21, P<0.05], treatment
factor [F(2,85)= 3.13, P<0.05], place of confinement x pretreatment x treatment interaction [F(2,85)= 7.97, P<0.05].
Post hoc comparisons (Duncans test) revealed that OA-confined animals showed lower number of writhes than EA
group, an effect that was increased by intra-dPAG MK-212 [saline + Vehicle saline + MK-212, P<0.05]. Fluoxetine
prevented the effects of MK-212 on OAA [Fluoxetine + Vehicle Fluoxetine + MK-212, P>0.05]. Chronic treatment
with fluoxetine impaired the enhancement of OAA observed in animals receiving intra-dPAG MK-212. Considering
that fluoxetine also acts as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1997), it is likely that serotonin
plays a role facilitating OAA at this receptor subtype within the dPAG in mice. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: UFSCar,
FAPESP (2009/17938-6).
60.
DIMINISHED NICOTINE BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION IN GHRELIN RECEPTOR NULL RATS.
Wellman, P.J.; Clifford, P.S.; Rodriguez, J.A. Dept . of Psychology. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
77843 USA. Ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) located on dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area modulate
the behavioral and reinforcing actions of psychostimulants as well as ethanol. Pharmacological antagonism of GHRRs diminishes the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine as well as to nicotine. Ablation of the GHR-R
in rats has been accomplished using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-driven target-selected mutagenesis (Till et al.,
2007; Zan et al., 2003). GHR-R null rats do not overeat in response to systemic injection (i.p.: 15 nmol) of GHR and
importantly, these rats exhibit diminished induction of locomotor sensitization (relative to WT rats) to daily
injection of cocaine (Clifford et al., 2011). In the present study, we examine the development of locomotor
sensitization to daily administration of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p. per day for 10 days) in wild type (WT) rats and
GHR-R null rats (obtained from Transposagen Biopharmaceuticals, Lexington, KY) and we further studied the
behavioral phenotype of these rats when fed a high-fat diet. Daily administration of nicotine induced a robust
locomotor sensitization in WT rats but was significantly attenuated in GHR-R null rats. Additionally, GHR-R null
rats ate significantly fewer calories per day than did WT rats during a 10 day access period to a 33% high-fat diet.
These results confirm our earlier observations that nicotine sensitization requires functional GHR-Rs and provide
further evidence that ablation of GHR-R function diminishes daily food intake.
61.
SOCIAL CONTEXT ENHANCES INITIAL REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE. Peartree, N.A.; Chandler,
K. N.; Goenagga, J.; Whillock, C. L.; Neisewander, J.L. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe
AZ 85287 USA. Research suggests that the more positive the first drug experience, the more likely addiction will
develop. Since smoking is initiated in a social setting, it is surprising how little is known about social context effects
on acquisition of nicotine self-administration. We examined this issue using conjoined self-administration chambers
that had a removable shared wall. Initially, 58 day-old male rats received 2, 30-min habituation sessions/day over 2
consecutive days without levers present. For one of the daily sessions, the wall separating the 2 self-administration
chambers was solid, black Plexiglas and for the other session the wall contained wire mesh that allowed limited
social contact between rats in their respective chambers. Rats were assigned to training conditions with either the
solid or the mesh partition in place throughout 22 subsequent 2-h daily training sessions. Sessions began with
presentation of a retractable lever and thereafter each response resulted in simultaneous delivery of nicotine (0.015
mg/kg, IV) and lever retraction for a 20-sec time out. The results demonstrated that during the first session, rats in
the social group had higher nicotine intake than the isolated group, but this effect did not persist beyond the first
session. The findings suggest that a social context may enhance the initial reinforcing effects of nicotine. Since the
65
hedonic experience of the initial drug exposure is related to the vulnerability to subsequent addiction, these findings
have important implications for substance use disorders.
62.
EFFECTS OF KETOGENIC DIET ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR IN MOUSE MODELS OF
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. Dominic D’Agostino, Milene Brownlow, Leif Benner, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave
Morgan. Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute and Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of
South Florida, Tampa FL, USA. Interest is emerging in the involvement of dietary manipulations and their
pharmacological outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
patients display an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and/or mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets
(KD), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic
deficits present in AD brains by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel. We investigated the effects of a
ketogenic diet on two mouse models of AD. Five-month-old APP/PS1 and Tg4510 mice were kept on either a KD
or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months, and then submitted to a battery of behavioral tests. Body weight and food
intake were monitored throughout the study; blood was collected at 4 weeks and at the end of the study for ketone
and glucose assessments. Both APP/PS1 and Tg4510 mice weigh less than nontransgenic mice, despite an increased
food intake. Interestingly, the ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption.
We found that both mouse models of AD presented hyperactivity, compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls,
and that this effect was not prevented by KD. This was measured by both open field and y-maze tests. Mice kept on
KD performed significantly better on an endurance trial in the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet. Only a
genotype effect was observed in the radial arm water maze test with no significant differences between diets. Brain
tissue was collected at the end of behavioral testing and analysis of amyloid, tau and microglial markers are
ongoing. This initial data suggests that the metabolic rate of the transgenic mice is considerably greater than the
nontransgenic mice and that ketogenic diet may play an important role in motor performance in mice. Research
Supported by: IIRG-10-174448
63.
DEVELOPMENT, TESTING AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF KETONE ESTERS (KE) FOR CNS
OXYGEN TOXICITY (CNS-OT); I.E., HYPERBARIC OXYGEN (HBO2)-INDUCED SEIZURES. Dominic
D’Agostino1, Raffaele Pilla1, Heather Held1, Carol Landon1,Csilla Ari2, Patrick Arnold3, Jay B Dean1. 1University of
South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, Tampa, FL, 3Savind Inc, Seymour, IL. We previously
described the effect of KEs, non-ionized and pH-neutral precursors of ketone bodies, in delaying seizures in rats
breathing HBO at 5 ATA. We hypothesize that oral administration of specific KEs (esters of acetoacetate) will cause
a rapid and sustained ketosis that confers neuroprotection against CNS-OT in rats. Male rats (n = 53) were
implanted with radio-transmitters to measure diaphragmatic electromyogram (dEMG), ECG and EEG. > 7 days
post-surgery, rats were fasted for 12h and administered intragastrically with 1 of 2 KEs (10g/kg), including R,S-1,3butanediol acetoacetate monoester (mKE) or R,S-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester (dKE) and placed into a
hyperbaric chamber and pressurized to 5 ATA oxygen. Latency to seizure (LS) was measured from the beginning of
maximum level of HBO until the onset of increased EEG activity and/or tonic-clonic twitches. Blood was drawn
from 18 animals and levels of glucose, pH, pO2, pCO2, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone were
analyzed. KEs caused a rapid and sustained ketosis and delayed LS by ~227% (mKE) and ~574% (dKE) compared
to control (water). In conclusion, KEs mimic the mild therapeutic ketosis produced by ketogenic diets and confer a
significant neuroprotective effect by delaying seizures associated with CNS-OT. Supported by Office of Naval
Research (ONR) grant #N0000140910244
64.
THE USE OF AGOMELATINA IN DRUG ADDICTED PATIENTS WITH PSYCHIATRICS DISORDERS.
Pieri, M.C.; Comaschi, A.C. Dept of Mental Health and Drug Dependence Bologna East, Bologna, Italy.
Agomelatine is an antidepressant drug that has a melatoninergic agonist action on receptors MT1 and MT2, and an
antagonistic action on receptor 5HT/20. Agomelatine has no interactions with the reuptake of monoamines and has
no affinity for alpha or beta-adrenergic, histaminergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and benzodiazepine receptors. We
have selected, from the total number of patients treated for heroin, cocaine, alcohol dependence at the SerT East
Bologna, a group of 28 patients. We observed this group during a period of 6 months using Ham A, Ham D, VAS
for craving substances, VAS for sleep, Quality of Life and the number of hours of sleep and sleep quality.
Agomelatine is the first; in a class of melatoninergic drugs that could be very important in the treatment of sleep
disorder, anxiety and mood in patients, in particular, with dependence heroin in opioid agonist treatment but also in
other dependence. Patients improve the quality of their life and increase the number of hours slept and we can see a
decrease in heroin, cocaine and alcohol use.
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65.
THE EFFECTS OF THE AGONIST THERAPY IN ANXIOUS-DEPRESSED POSITIVE HCV DRUG-ABUSERS
TREATED WITH IFN THERAPY. Pieri, M.C.; Comaschi, A.C. Dept of Mental Health and Drug Dependence
Bologna East, Bologna, Italy. Addiction presents in three stages: social use, regulated relapse, and compulsive
relapse. The abuse of drugs as well as stressful events are able to activate CREB determining an increase in the gene
transcription of dynorphins with the consequent increase in the activity of the kappa receptors-mediated. The
important general clinical objectives in addiction are: 1) to induce a stable abstinence condition; 2) to prevent or to
treat co-morbid conditions; 3) to promote and maintain a global Quality of Life and satisfactory state of health.
Buprenorphine, in base to k-receptor antagonism, modify the emotional disregulation, that often appears with
depressive symptoms, dysphoria and anxiety as soon as after the use of the first dose of opioids. The block of k
receptors allows to buprenorphine to decrease these effects. The normalisation of the stress axis induced by
buprenorphine contributes to its stabilizing action on the psycho-physical effect. HCV decreases the mood and a rebalancing with agonist drugs improves also the quality of life. We choose, in the group of patients treated in east
drug addiction unit with agonist of opioid and HCV hepatitis, 44 patients: 30 patients taking buprenorphine (68%);
14 patients taking methadone (32%). We divided the patients into 3 subgroups: 1) Patients taking buprenorphine and
SSRI (escitalopram); 2) Patients taking methadone and SSRI (escitalopram); and 3) Patients taking buprenorphine.
The occupation is an important factor for the success of the treatment. All three subgroups successfully ended the
treatment with INF keeping the depression under control only with buprenorphine or in association with SSRI.
66.
CB1-RECEPTOR LIGAND PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCES BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS INDUCED BY
REPEATED COCAINE ADMINISTRATIONS IN MARMOSET MONKEYS. Cagni, P.; Netto, G.C.M.; Jesus,
A.G.L.; Barros, M. Primate Center and Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Brasilia, DF 70910-900
Brazil. In spite of existing evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction, its precise
role in cocaine dependence has yet to be fully established, particularly in non-human primate models. Thus, we
analyzed the influence of CB1-receptor ligand pre-treatment on the behavioral effects induced by repeated cocaine
administrations in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix penicillata). Each subject was submitted in an open-field apparatus
to six 15-min test trials and then two 15-min withdrawal trials, all held 48-h apart. On each test trial, marmosets
(n=5/group) were pre-treated with either the CB1-receptor agonist WIN 55-212,2 (0 or 1 mg/kg, ip) or the
antagonist AM 251 (0 or 2 mg/kg, ip), followed by a cocaine (5 mg/kg, ip) or saline (ip) injection. Repeated cocaine
administrations, compared to saline controls, significantly increased vigilance-related behaviors (scan, glance) by
the 3rd trial, while locomotion (distance traveled, number of sections crossed, travel speed) remained unaltered
throughout. Pre-treatment with the CB1-receptor antagonist had no effect on its own, yet it immediately potentiated
cocaine-induced hypervigilance, with locomotion also remaining constant. On the other hand, pre-treatment with the
CB1-receptor agonist induced a significant increase in vigilance, yet had no effect on locomotion or cocaine-induced
hypervigilance. Immediate cessation of cocaine and/or CB1-receptor ligand injections rapidly reversed all effects
previously detected. Therefore, CB1-receptors seem to modulate the behavioral effects induced by repeatedlyadministered cocaine in marmoset monkeys. Supported by CNPq and CAPES.
67.
THE ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG ARIPIPRAZOLE ENHANCES COGNITION AFTER
EXPERIMENTAL TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. Phelps, T.I.; Cheng, J.P.; Kline, A.E.; Physical Medicine &
Rehabilitation, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Center for Neuroscience, Center for the Neural Basis of
Cognition, and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Background and aims: Antipsychotic
drugs (APDs) are routinely administered after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to reduce agitation and aggression.
However, APDs with dopamine2 (D2) receptor antagonist properties (e.g., haloperidol and risperidone) impede
cognitive recovery after TBI. Therefore, evaluation of APDs with different mechanisms of action is warranted.
Aripiprazole (ARIP) exhibits 5-HT1A and D2 receptor agonist activity, but not D2 antagonism. Studies from our
laboratory have shown that pharmacological agents with these properties enhance outcome after TBI. Thus, the aim
of the study was to test the hypothesis that ARIP will enhance motor and cognitive performance after TBI. Methods:
Adult male rats were anesthetized and received either a cortical impact (2.8 mm depth) or sham injury and then
received either ARIP (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg; i.p) or saline VEHicle beginning 24 hours after injury and once daily
for 19 days. Motor (beam-balance/walk) and cognitive (Morris water maze) performance was assessed on postoperative days 1-5 and 14-19, respectively. Results: The Sham groups did not differ from one another and thus the
data were pooled. No motor differences were revealed among the TBI+VEH and TBI+ARIP groups [p>0.05]. No
cognitive differences were revealed among the TBI+VEH and the TBI+ARIP (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) groups [p=0.94
and p=0.43]. In contrast, the TBI+ARIP (0.1 mg/kg) group performed better in the water maze vs. the TBI+VEH
group [p=0.0036] and did not differ from the SHAM controls [p>0.05]. Conclusions: No deleterious effects on
behavioral outcome were observed with ARIP after TBI. Furthermore, the lower dose of ARIP facilitated spatial
learning. The findings support our hypothesis and suggest that 1) ARIP may be a safer alternative for alleviating
behavioral disturbances in TBI patients, and 2) may be effective in improving cognitive function. Future studies will
explore specific mechanism(s) mediating the beneficial effects of ARIP on recovery after TBI.
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68.
ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AT JOKSAMNI AND PUNGNYUNG ACUPOINTS ALLEVIATES POLOXAMER
407-INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA THROUGH THE REGULATION OF SREBP-2 EXPRESSION IN RATS.
Jinhee Park1,2, Bombi Lee1, Chang Shik Yin1, Insop Shim1,2, Hye-Jung Lee1,2, and Dae-Hyun Hahm1,2*
1
Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul,
130-701, Republic of Korea. 2The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine, College of Oriental
Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine
whether the electoracupuncture stimulation affects the levels of serum lipids such as total cholesterol (TC) and
triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the expression levels of several target
proteins in the lipid metabolism such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in the rats.
Intraperitoneal injection of poloxamer 407 (P-407) at dose of 400 mg/kg was performed to induce the experimental
acute hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia) which lasted more than 72 hour. The
electroacupuncture stimulation for 10 min each treatment (2Hz, 0.6mA) was bilaterally performed at both Joksamni
(ST36) and Pungnyung (ST40) acupoints totally 3 times with 12 hr-interval starting 30 min before the P-407
injection. Serum levels of TC, TG and HDL-C, and antherogenic index (A.I.) were examined using enzymatic assay
kits, and the expression levels of SREBP-2, HMG-CoA reductase and LDLr mRNAs in the liver tissues were
analyzed using RT-PCR. While serum lipid levels and the expression levels of TC, TG, SREBP-2, HMG-CoA
reductase and LDL-r mRNAs were markedly elevated by P-407 injection, and HDL-C level was decreased. The
electroacupuncture stimulation at two acupoints significantly inhibited P-407-elicited changes of these indicators.
However the same stimulation at a non-acupoint, located on the base of the tail, did not show inhibition of these
changes. These findings demonstrated that the electroacupuncture stimulation showed a significant lipid and proteinlowering activities against P-407-induced hyperlipidemia in the rats, and accordingly might be applicable for
preventing hyperlipidemia as an adjunctive therapy (This work was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering
Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R11-2005-014)).
69.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF IXERIS DENTATE ON DEVELOPMENT AND EXPRESSION OF BEHAVIORAL
LOCOMOTOR SENSTIZATION TO NICOTINE IN RATS Park J.H.1,2; Lee, B.1; Shim, I.1,2; Lee, H.1,2; Hahm,
D.H.1,2. 1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee
University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea, 2The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine,
College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea. The aim of this study was
to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentate (IXD) extract on the development and expression of nicotine-induced
locomotor sensitization in rats and underlying neuronal activation reflected by c-Fos expression in brain tissue. Rats
were pretreated with IXD (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before a daily injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) during
an 8-day development phase and then challenged with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) after a 6-day withdrawal period.
Locomoter activity was analyzed daily during the development phase (days 1-8), once after the withdrawal period
(day 15) and once on the final day (day 22). In another set of experiments, the same IXD doses were administered
once 30 min before nicotine challenge following a 6-day withdrawal period. Daily IXD treatment during the
development phase was not effective in blocking nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats. However, a single
IXD treatment after the development and withdrawal periods of nicotine sensitization significantly alleviated
sensitized locomotor behavior on day 15. These behavioral results were coincident with significant inhibition of
nicotine-induced c-Fos expression by IXD treatment in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results
indicated that IXD extract pretreatment significantly blocked the expression (i.e., the continuation of addictive
behavior), but not the development (i.e., initial neuroadaptation) of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats.
Thus, IXD might be useful in developing new therapies to treat nicotine addiction despite its limited effect on early
neuroadaptation during nicotine-dependence (This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of
Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST)(2010-0003678) and the Korea Science and Engineering
Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R11-2005-014)).
70.
CRF2 RECEPTORS MEDIATE ANXIETY STATES DURING AMPHETAMINE WITHDRAWAL. Jamie L.
Scholl, Emily D. Reinbold, Kathryn M. Oliver, Michael J. Watt & Gina L. Forster. Neuroscience Group, Division
of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA.
Increased anxiety-like behaviors are commonly exhibited by rats and humans experiencing withdrawal from
psychostimulants. Previous studies have shown that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 receptors are
increased in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN) during amphetamine withdrawal. These experiments
determined whether CRF2 receptors in the dRN mediate anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal. Adult male
rats were treated with either amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) or saline, or were unhandled in their home cages prior to
testing. Following 2 weeks withdrawal, rats were infused with 2g ASV-30 or vehicle into the lateral ventricle (icv.)
or into the dRN, 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Amphetamine pretreatment increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, which was reversed by both icv. and dRN ASV-30 treatment.
68
Ventricular, but not dRN, ASV-30 infusion increased anxiety-like behavior in rats pre-treated with saline. To
explore this further, western blots were used to measure CRF1 and CRF2 receptor levels in several brain regions that
mediate anxiety-like behavior. Saline pre-treatment reduced CRF1 receptor expression in the lateral septum (LS),
and both saline and amphetamine pre-treatment reduced CRF1 expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala.
There were no treatment effects on CRF2 receptor expression in any of the amygdala and septal regions tested.
These results suggest that CRF2 receptor antagonism of saline pre-treated rats unmasked the reduction in LS CRF1
receptors to increase anxiety states. Overall, results show that central CRF2 receptor antagonism reduces anxiety
states during amphetamine withdrawal, likely mediated through the dRN. Supported by: NIH NIDA R01 DA019921
71.
ETHANOL DOSE GENERALIZATION CURVES FOLLOWING MULTIPLE DISCRIMINATION TRAINING
CONDITIONS IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS. Anderson, RI; Spear, LP. Binghamton University,
Binghamton NY 13905. The present study assessed ethanol (EtOH) dose generalization curves in adolescent and
adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following training in a conditioned approach discrimination procedure previously
only used in adults. One of 3 doses of EtOH (0.75, 1 and 1.25 g/kg, ip) at 2 time points (5 or 30 min post-injection)
served as a positive occasion setter for reward delivery following 15-s presentations of two cue lights located on
either side of a reward delivery area. Following 10 days of acquisition (2 trials/day) beginning at postnatal day (P)
28 or 70, cycles of maintenance and test sessions were conducted for 15 days. Duration of head entries into the
reward delivery area was measured during each 15-s cue presentation and expressed as an elevation score over total
head entry duration during the preceding 15 s. For adolescents, the 1.0 g/kg training dose yielded a generalization
curve, with the 0.5-1.25 g/kg testing doses eliciting responding higher than saline. The other two training doses did
not produce differential responding to the test doses from saline. Adults were differentially responsive to the test
doses depending on training dose. Animals trained at 0.75 g/kg responded more for 0.5 and 0.75 than saline,
whereas those trained at 1.0 demonstrated increased responding relative to saline at 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25. Adults
trained with 1.25 g/kg responded more than saline to doses of 0.75 up to the highest test dose of 1.5 g/kg. Despite
meeting training criteria at all 3 doses, adolescents may have failed to exhibit differential responding at test after the
lower and higher training doses in part due to the emergence of EtOH tolerance and/or toxicity.
72.
ADOLESCENT CB1 RECEPTOR AGONISM, BUT NOT ANTAGONISM, ENHANCES ADULT MALE
SEXUAL PERFORMANCE. Gorzalka, B.; Lee, T.-Y.T. Dept. of Psychology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada. An extensive literature documents the frequently adverse effects of cannabinoids
on adult male reproductive behavior in many species, including humans. However, very little is known about
whether adolescent cannabinoid exposure affects male reproductive processes in the long term. Previous work in our
laboratory has shown that both CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism during adolescence induces long term neural
and behavioral changes in adulthood related to stress reactivity and emotionality. Given that cannabinoids have
powerful effects on neuroendocrine regulation, we examined whether adolescent treatment with the CB1 receptor
agonist, HU-210, or the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251, would influence sexual activity in adulthood. Male rats
received escalating doses of HU-210 (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg for 4 days each) or 1 mg/kg AM-251 daily from
post-natal days 35-46 and were then left undisturbed. On postnatal day 70, blood samples were collected and males
began sexual training at 75 days of age with estrogen/progesterone primed female rats. During training, males were
exposed to a sexually receptive female rat twice a week for three consecutive weeks, during which sexual behaviors
were scored. Throughout the repeated exposures to female rats, all males progressively increased their sexual
proficiency as revealed by significant increases in ejaculations and significant reductions in latencies to engage in
sexual activity from the initial sessions to the final session. Surprisingly, males which had received HU-210 during
adolescence exhibited enhanced sexual performance as revealed by more ejaculations in fewer sessions with a
primed female, and ultimately greater sexual activity across all six sessions than what was seen in the vehicle treated
males. On the other hand, adult male sexual behavior was unaffected by AM-251 treatment during adolescence,
relative to control males. Moreover, males administered HU-210 during adolescence also exhibited a strong trend to
having elevated levels of basal testosterone at day 70, while not demonstrating any difference in testicular weight.
Thus, against expectations, adolescent CB1 receptor agonist exposure enhanced male sexual performance in
adulthood while adolescent antagonist exposure did not.
73.
THE ROLE OF THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA IN CONDITIONED CUE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN
ALCOHOL-SEEKING G.A. Deehan Jr.; S. R. Hauser; E.A. Engleman; Z-M. Ding; W.J. McBride; Z.A. Rodd.
Indiana University School of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Indianapolis IN, 46202. Exposure to stimuli
(conditioned cues) previously associated with drug availability can elicit drug-seeking behaviors thereby increasing
the likelihood of drug relapse. Conditioned cues can be positively (CS+) or negatively (CS-) associated with the
availability of a reinforcer and neurobiological data indicate that presentation of a CS+, associated with alcohol
(EtOH) access, increased c-Fos+ neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Therefore, the current experiments
examined the effects of the pharmacological silencing of the BLA (GABA agents) on conditioned cue-induced
69
EtOH-seeking and the effect of conditioned cue presentation on glutamate (GLU) levels in the BLA. Alcoholpreferring (P) rats were trained to self-administer EtOH in an operant chamber in which a CS+ or CS- signaled the
availability or absence of EtOH respectively. A CS0 was presented in neutral environment with no association to
EtOH access. Pharmacological silencing of the BLA was effective at blocking the ability of the CS+ to enhance
EtOH-seeking, but failed to prevent the expression of EtOH-seeking or the ability of the CS- to reduce EtOHseeking. Microdialysis data indicated that presentation of the CS- decreased, while presentation of the CS+
increased, GLU levels in the BLA. The CS0 did not significantly alter GLU levels in the BLA. Overall, the data
suggest that the BLA can mediate the effects of conditioned cues on drug-seeking, but not the expression of drugseeking, and that alterations in GLU signaling in the BLA may represent an underlying neurological mechanism
contributing to drug craving and relapse.
74.
THE GALANIN-3 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, SNAP 37889, REDUCES BREAKPOINT AND CUE-INDUCED
RELAPSE TO ETHANOL IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING RATS Belinda L. Ash1, Sammi Tsegay2, Spencer J.
Williams2, Andrew J. Lawrence3,4 & Elvan Djouma1 1Department of Human Biosciences, Faculty of Health
Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia 2Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology
Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Parkville,
Victoria, Australia 4Melbourne Brain Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia The galanin-3
receptor (GALR3) subtype has been identified as having a role in addiction. We have previously shown that the
selective GALR3 antagonist, SNAP 37889, reduces voluntary alcohol consumption in the iP (alcohol-preferring) rat.
Therefore, the present study firstly aimed to investigate the effect of GALR3 blockade on the breakpoint at which
rats cease responding for ethanol. Secondly, the potential of GALR3 as a therapeutic target in the prevention of
relapse was investigated in response to drug related cues. iP rats were trained to lever press for water and a 10%
(v/v) ethanol solution. Rewards were delivered on a progressive ratio schedule where the response requirement
increased by one additional lever press to receive each subsequent reward. Once a base level breakpoint was
established, rats were pre-treated with SNAP 37889 (30mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle prior to the operant session and the
breakpoint for this session was recorded. The same cohort of rats was then used to investigate the effect of SNAP
37889 on cue-induced re-instatement for ethanol. Following a lengthy period of extinction, cues that had previously
been associated with the delivery of alcohol were re-introduced in to the chambers for a single re-instatement
session. Rats were pre-treated with SNAP 37889 (30mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle prior to this session and the number of
rewards made during the operant session was recorded. Administration of SNAP 37889 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to the
progressive ratio operant session significantly reduced the breakpoint for ethanol. SNAP 37889 was also found to
successfully reduce cue-induced re-instatement when compared with the extinction sessions and vehicle treatment
group. Collectively, results from the current study provide further evidence that GALR3 antagonism reduces the
motivational drive to consume alcohol and suggests that GALR3 may be implicated in cue-induced relapse of drugseeking behaviour.
75.
CAN THE COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND THE NON-OPIOID ANALGESIC FLUPIRTINE, REDUCE
MORPHINE’S ABUSE POTENTIAL? Elkman, L.; Goodchild, C.S.; Kolosov A.; Broadbear, J.H. School of
Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Morphine is an opioid drug used
widely in the treatment of severe pain. Although it is effective for treating many pain states, its analgesic benefits are
coupled with addictive properties that make it liable to abuse. A promising approach for improving the utility and
reducing the abuse liability of opioids is to combine a lower opioid dose with non-opioid analgesics, thus
maintaining an optimal level of analgesia with reduced adverse effects. Our aim was to assess whether the
reinforcing effects of morphine differ when morphine and flupirtine when given alone and in combination. 80 male
Wistar rats were evaluated using Conditioned Place Preference (CPP), in which they learned to associate one
distinctive environment with the effects experienced following drug treatment, and another environment with the
absence of the drug. The doses of morphine and flupirtine chosen for evaluation are known to be efficacious in
producing analgesia in rat chronic pain models. The results showed that intraperitoneally administered morphine
produced CPP at two doses (4 and 8mg/kg). Flupirtine (10 and 20mg/kg) did not cause significant CPP, suggesting
that the non-opioid has a low abuse potential. Drug co-administration (2mg/kg morphine+ 10mg/kg flupirtine and
4mg/kg morphine + 20mg/kg flupirtine) did not result in CPP, suggesting that the addition of flupirtine reduced
morphine CPP. This study provides preliminary evidence that combining low-dose morphine with flupirtine, at
doses which have potent analgesic effects, may confer less abuse potential than the use of similarly analgesic doses
of morphine alone. The development and utilization of combination analgesics containing flupirtine and low-dose
morphine may be an effective strategy for reducing the potential for opioid abuse.
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76.
DEVELOPMENT OF A DISCRETE TRIALS TASK TO ASSESS SEROTONERGIC MODULATION ON
INTERVAL TIMING IN MICE. Halberstadt, AL; Young, JW; Geyer, MA. University of California San Diego,
La Jolla, CA. The perception of time is essential for survival and is required for the precise organization of
sequences of activity as well as the anticipation of behavioral outcomes and future events. One form of temporal
perception is interval timing, which refers to the discrimination of durations, typically in the seconds to minutes
range. A variety of reports indicate that schizophrenia is associated with timing deficits, and it has been proposed
that impaired temporal processing is a core deficit of schizophrenia that contributes to cognitive dysfunction,
hallucinations, and inappropriate behavior. There is also evidence that the serotonergic system, which is believed to
play a role in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, regulates temporal perception and timing behavior.
Unfortunately, very little is known about the neural substrate(s) that are involved in serotonergic modulation of
timing. We have developed a discrete trials interval timing task in mice that can be used to elucidate the neural and
receptor mechanisms underlying the modulation of interval timing by both endogenous serotonin and hallucinogenic
drugs. In the discrete trials task, a lamp is illuminated for a variable duration, and then two levers are presented.
Responding on lever A is reinforced if the stimulus duration is shorter than 6.5 s, and responding on lever B is
reinforced if the stimulus duration is longer than 6.5 s. C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate between short
(2.5 and 5.0 s) and long (8 and 10.5 s) stimulus durations, and then challenged with a wider range of test stimuli
(2.5, 3.75, 5.0, 6.5, 8.0, 9.25, and 10.5 s). We also examined whether the 5-HT2A/2C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4iodoamphetamine (DOI), a serotonergic hallucinogen, alters performance of the task. We found that mice can learn
to reliably discriminate between the short and long duration training stimuli, responding on the correct lever >80%
of the time for the two extreme stimulus durations (2.5 and 10.5 s). Challenge studies demonstrated that the
proportion lever B responding increased with the stimulus duration, and showed that administration of DOI (0.25-1
mg/kg, IP) altered interval timing. Our goal is to use this behavioral paradigm to investigate the regulation of
interval timing by the serotonergic system, and to determine the neural site(s) involved in this effect. It is possible
that the disruption of temporal perception induced by hallucinogens could be developed as an animal model relevant
to schizophrenia, potentially facilitating the development of novel agents with antipsychotic activity.
77.
THE EFFECTS OF GENE KNOCKOUT OF CADHERIN 13 (CDH13) ON NICOTINE CONSUMPTION Hall,
F.S.; Arnold, E.R.; Deshmukh, A.A.; Perona, M.T.G.; Drgonova, J.1; Ranscht, B.; Uhl, G.R. Molec. Neurobiol.
Branch, NIDA-IRP, Baltimore, MD, USA; Sanford-Burnham Med. Res. Inst., La Jolla, CA, USA The gene for the
cell adhesion molecule Cadherin 13 (CDH13) has been repeatedly associated with drug addiction in genome wide
association studies (GWAS). More recently GWAS have also associated CDH13 with both nicotine cessation and
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nicotine use is especially high, nearly twice that in the general
population in individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD, and even higher in individuals with schizophrenia. This
suggests the possibility that the associations of CDH13 with nicotine addiction, nicotine cessation and ADHD may
share a common basis. To assess the potential role of CDH13 in nicotine addiction, nicotine consumption was
examined in CDH13 KO (+/+, +/- and -/-) mice using a home-cage two-bottle test. Mice were presented with a
bottle containing nicotine solution (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg/L, concentration increased every 2 days) and a bottle
containing water. In +/+ mice high nicotine concentrations were aversive, so that with increasing concentrations
preference for nicotine solutions was reduced and consumption (mg/kg/day) leveled off. CDH13 -/- mice were
resistant to these effects so that more nicotine was consumed compared to +/+ mice at high nicotine concentrations.
One of the consequences of such a reduction in nicotine aversiveness at high concentrations might be to expand the
range of tolerable concentrations. Such a circumstance has been suggested for some other genes associated with
nicotine addiction. This may make self-medication more likely, such as appears to be the case for nicotine use in
ADHD and schizophrenia. Thus, further studies are underway to examine behavioral phenotypes associated with
cognitive impairments observed in ADHD and schizophrenia. (Support: NIDA-IRP)
78.
THE EFFECT OF COCAINE ON ROTOROD PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE C57BL/6J MICE.
Heyser, C.J.; Vishnevetsky, D.; Berten, S. Franklin & Marshall College, Dept of Psychology, Lancaster, PA 17604.
Surprisingly, there is little research examining the effect of cocaine on motor learning. Given that changes in motor
performance can confound behavioral assays of learning and memory a direct assessment of cocaine on motor
learning seems warranted. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of cocaine exposure on motor
learning using an accelerating rotorod test. Adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were given 3 trials per day, with
a 30 sec intertrial interval. In the first phase of the experiment, mice were given an injection of either saline or
cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 10 min prior to the start of each days testing for 5 consecutive days. In the second phase,
half the animals continued to receive saline or cocaine prior to testing, while the other half were switched from
saline to cocaine or from cocaine to saline (an A-B crossover design) and then tested for an additional 5 days. The
latency to fall was recorded for each trial. There were no differences between saline- or cocaine-treated mice on the
first day of testing. All mice exhibited motor learning as evidenced by an increased latency to fall across days.
Animals that received cocaine injections exhibited significantly longer latencies to fall on days 2 5 compared to
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those mice receiving saline. This enhanced performance was lost when cocaine-injected animals were switched to
saline on day 6. The pattern of results was similar for male and female mice. It is hypothesized that the performance
enhancing effects of cocaine are the due to increased stamina and/or psychomotor stimulation and not the result of
increased motor learning as increased performance was lost when the drug was discontinued.
79.
IN VIVO CHARACTERISATION OF SOC-1: A NOVEL PROSOCIAL COMPOUND. Hicks, C.1; Bowen, M.T.1;
Ramos, L.1; Jorgensen, W.2; Kassiou, M.2; Hunt, G.E.3; McGregor, I.S.1. 1School of Psychology, Brennan
MacCallum Building, University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia; 2Brain and Mind Research Institute,
University of Sydney; 3Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Concord Hospital,
Concord, N.S.W. 2139, Australia. Psychiatric disorders (e.g. autism) may benefit through the development of
compounds that act to stimulate social behaviour. Accordingly, our drug discovery program is focused on
compounds that modulate brain oxytocin, vasopressin and neurosteroid systems to facilitate social behaviour in
rodents. SOC-1 evolved from our program producing non-peptide compounds that interact with brain oxytocin
receptors. SOC-1 (5 mg/kg, IP) caused similar brain Fos expression to the non-peptide oxytocin agonist/vasopressin
antagonist WAY 267,464 (100 mg/kg, IP) and oxytocin itself (1 mg/kg, IP), with pronounced expression in the
supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral parabrachial nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract,
and greater activation in the lateral septal nucleus and medial preoptic area. In the ‘classic’ social interaction test,
SOC-1 (5 mg/kg) increased the time rats spent lying adjacent to a novel conspecific. The same dose also increased
the time rats spent interacting with a caged live rat, relative to a caged dummy rat, in a social preference paradigm.
These prosocial effects appeared to be independent of a general anxiolytic effect as SOC-1 failed to affect behaviour
on the elevated plus-maze. Biotelemetry studies in rats showed that SOC-1 (5 mg/kg) had a strong hypothermic
effect, similar to oxytocin (1 mg/kg), but unlike oxytocin did not cause reductions in heart rate. SOC-1 also reversed
the hyperthermia seen during acute social interaction. Pretreatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (Pfizer
Compound 25, 10 mg/kg, IP), vasopressin 1a receptor antagonist (SR 49059, 10 mg/kg, IP) or a benzodiazepine
antagonist (flumazenil, 10 mg/kg, IP) did not prevent the hypothermic effects of SOC-1. Ongoing receptor binding
studies suggest that SOC-1 actually has low affinity for oxytocin and vasopressin receptors and may therefore be
acting on an upstream target to indirectly modulate these systems. Overall, SOC-1 is a novel prosocial compound
with an oxytocin-like profile of brain activation and body temperature. It represents a novel research tool for
examining in vivo the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying social behaviour.
80.
SHORT-TERM AND ENDURING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC RISPERIDONE IN THE
ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RAT Karanges, E.; Caminer, A.; McGregor, I.S. School of Psychology, The
University of Sydney, Australia. Second-generation antipsychotics are frequently prescribed to adolescents, yet their
safety has not been convincingly demonstrated in this population. Atypical antipsychotics act on neurotransmitter
systems undergoing development during adolescence; hence the long-term consequences of these treatment
practices are of particular concern. Here we investigated the immediate and long-term behavioral effects of chronic
(28-day) risperidone (RISP) administration during rat adolescence or adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were
treated concurrently with RISP (2.5 mg/kg/day in drinking water) and a high-fat diet during adolescence (P28-56) or
early adulthood (P66-94). Rats were examined for on-drug changes in weight, blood glucose, anxiety-like behavior
(open field (OF), social interaction), locomotor activity, and cognition (novel object recognition/location
(NOR/NOL)). This test battery was repeated 6-8 weeks after drug cessation to explore lasting effects of prior drug
exposure. Behavioral inhibition was examined in a task requiring rats to perform a 3s nose poke for 2% sucrose
solution. Performance was assessed in cued (poke exceeding 3s is signaled with a tone) and uncued (unsignaled)
probe sessions. During drug administration, RISP treatment was associated with decreased OF exploration in
adolescent rats only; while NOR/NOL deficits were apparent only in treated adults. Locomotor activity, social
interaction and object investigation were reduced in both RISP-treated cohorts. A trend to increased blood glucose
was observed in treated rats despite no change in body weight. RISP cessation normalized on-drug changes in
anxiety, locomotor activity, cognition and blood glucose. However, reductions in social interaction persisted.
Moreover, rats treated with RISP during adolescence, but not adulthood, performed more nose pokes of insufficient
duration during the uncued probe session, indicating possible impairments in time estimation and/or impulsivity.
Consequently, ongoing work is assessing the effects of chronic exposure to RISP during adolescence on the
maturation of the dopamine system and higher cortical areas.
81.
ANALYSIS BY AUTORADIOGRAPHY FOLLOWING MEPHEDRONE (4-METHYLMETHCATHINONE)
INDUCED SELF ADMINISTRATION BEHAVIOUR IN ADOLESCENT RATS. Craig P. Motbey1, Emily
Karanges1, Nadine Apetz1, Paul D. Callaghan2, Kelly Clemens3, Jennifer Cornish3, Iain S. McGregor1.
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, MMC) is a novel recreational drug that has rapidly increased in popularity in
recent years. In this study, we compared MMC-driven self-administration behaviour in male adolescent SpragueDawley rats with the well-characterised stimulant methamphetamine (METH). A variety of doses and schedules
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were used in order to develop dose-response curves for both fixed- and progressive-ratio reward schedules before a
final stage of maximum-dosage drug access. During this final period, MMC rats self-administered a mean of 31.3
mg/kg/day MMC, while METH rats self-administered a mean of 4 mg/kg/day METH. Three days after the
completion of dosing, brains were analysed using OX-42 immunohistochemistry and FluoroJade-C fluorescence
microscopy. In addition, autoradiographic analyses measured potential changes in levels of serotonin and dopamine
transporters (SERT, DAT) as well as the inflammation marker TSPO. MMC was found to promote extremely
vigorous self administration behaviour. Mean response levels for MMC under progressive ratio testing more than
doubled those found for METH, with the most strongly responding animals continuing to work for MMC until the
response/reward ratio passed 400. To the best of the authors knowledge, this rate of responding exceeds that found
with any other drug of abuse. Under an FR1 schedule, peak responding for MMC was found at a dose of 0.1
mg/kg/infusion, while the highest response rate for METH was found at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg/infusion. During the
progressive ratio test, MMC responding peaked at 1 mg/kg/infusion while the METH response was greatest at 0.3
mg/kg/infusion. All treatment groups tolerated dosage without mortality or apparent morbidity, although MMC
animals gained less weight relative to other groups. No significant changes were observed on any of the neurological
measures conducted. Although MMC does not appear to easily induce neurotoxicity, these findings suggest that
MMC has an extremely high potential for inducing uncontrolled use and addiction. 1School of Psychology,
University of Sydney 2Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation 3Department of Psychology,
Macquarie University
82.
PROGESTERONE DECREASES COCAINE CHOICE IN FEMALE RATS. Kippin, TE, Kerstetter, KA, Carr AE,
Lee JI, Togal VL. University of California, Santa Barbara, CA. Sex differences in cocaine dependence indicate that
women relative to men exhibit a more severe addiction prolife. In animal experiments, female rats exhibit higher
operant responding for cocaine reinforcement relative to males which varies across the estrous cycle and can be
modulated by estrogen and progesterone. Recently, we have shown that female rats will choose cocaine
reinforcement over food reinforcement more frequently than will males and that this difference is estrogen
dependent. In the present study, we extend our analysis by examining the impact of progesterone on the choice
between cocaine and food reinforcement in intact female rats. Intact female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a
FI:20s schedule to respond on distinct levers for food (2 x 45 mg pellets) or cocaine (1.0 mg/kg IV) during separate
daily sessions and then were allowed to choose between the two reinforcers on 25 trials per daily sessions.
Throughout training and testing one group of females received daily progesterone (0.5 mg) and another received
vehicle (0.1 ml of peanut oil). All rats acquired operant responding for both food and for cocaine at approximately
equivalent rates. During choice tests, females treated with vehicle exhibited a preference for cocaine over food
(selecting cocaine on > 80% of choice trials) whereas, females treated with progesterone exhibited a preference for
food over cocaine. These data replicate our previous finding that females exhibit a high preference for cocaine over
food reinforcement and, further, indicate that progesterone can suppress cocaine choice in females. However, it
remains unclear as to whether these effects are due to the genomic effects of progesterone or to the neuromodualtory
effects of progesterone metabolites. Supported by NIDA (1R01DA027525).
83.
THE ROLE OF MIDBRAIN DOPAMINE IN PREDICTIVE FEAR LEARNING. Li, S.; McNally, G.P. School of
Psychology. University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia. The firing of midbrain dopamine
neurons during appetitive learning tasks conforms to the assumptions of associative learning theories. Some
dopamine neurons also respond to aversive USs and CSs predictive of such USs. However, the role of dopamine in
predictive fear learning, and its relationship to amygdala mechanisms for fear learning, remains unclear. Here we
studied the role of dopamine in predictive fear learning using blocking designs and assessing fear via conditioned
freezing and conditioned suppression. Blocking involved training rats to fear conditioned stimulus (CS) A in Stage I
via pairings with shock. In Stage II, rats received pairings of CSA+CSB and shock. Blocking was shown by less fear
to CSB than a control group that received Stage II, but not Stage I, training. Whilst microinjections of the D2
antagonist sulpiride into the VTA prior to Stage II conditioning prevented blocking using freezing as a measure of
fear, they failed to do so when fear was assessed via conditioned suppression. Intra-VTA microinjections of the
kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI also failed to prevent blocking as assessed via conditioned suppression.
Additional experiments studying the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism in terminal regions, namely the
amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex will be reported.
84.
CONTEXT-INDUCED RELAPSE TO ALCOHOL SEEKING AFTER PUNISHMENT IN A RAT MODEL.
Marchant, N. J.; Khuc, T. N.; Bonci, A.; Shaham, Y. Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, NIDA, Baltimore,
MD, USA. Rationale and objective: Many studies have demonstrated context-induced reinstatement of alcohol
seeking after its suppression by extinction of the alcohol-reinforced responding. However, it is unknown whether
contexts can provoke relapse to alcohol seeking that is suppressed by punishment. This is an important question
because abstinence in humans typically occurs because of the increasing negative consequences associated with
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excessive alcohol use. Methods: Two groups of alcohol-preferring P rats were given 12 24-hr sessions of home cage
intermittent access to 20% ethanol. Next, they were trained every other day in 2-h sessions to self-administer 20%
ethanol (0.1 ml/reward delivery) in one context (context A); the final reinforcement schedule was VI30.
Subsequently, all rats continued to self-administer alcohol in the punishment context (context B). For one group,
50% of alcohol deliveries were punished by footshock (0.4-0.9 mA, 0.5-s) for 3-7 sessions until alcohol-reinforced
responding less than 20 responses; the other group received no shocks. All rats were then tested for alcohol seeking
in 30-min extinction tests in both contexts. Results: We found that alcohol seeking recovered on test in context A. In
contrast, alcohol seeking remained suppressed on test in context B. Interestingly, responding in context A on test did
not differ between groups Punished and Unpunished. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the effect of punishment
on alcohol seeking is context specific. We propose that the punishment-context relapse model can be used to explore
mechanisms of relapse after conditions that more closely mimic abstinence promotion in humans.
85.
COMBINATIONS OF SKF 38393 WITH MEMANTINE DO NOT HAVE AN ADDITIVE EFFECT TO REDUCE
THE VOLITIONAL CONSUMPTION OF ETHANOL BY THE MYERS MHEP RAT. McMillen, B. A.;
Lommatzsch, C.L.; Sayonh, M.J.; Williams, H.L. Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC. Dopamine- and
cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) is an important protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor in neurons
that express the PPP1R1B gene. Stimulation of the dopamine D1 receptor to increase intraneuronal levels of cAMP
increases PKA activity, lead to phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at the threonine 34 and 75 positions and activate the
protein. If intracellular Ca2+ is increased, then PP2B, or calcineurin, activity increases and the phosphates will be
removed. This balance of phosphorylation control suggests that a D1 receptor agonist and a NMDA glutamate
receptor antagonist should have additive or synergistic actions to increase activated DARPP-32 and consequent
behavioral effects. This hypothesis was tested in a volitional consumption of ethanol model. Male Myers mHEP rats
(N=9, F33 generation) were screened for high consumption of ethanol solutions, 3% to 30% (v/v) over 10 days, and
the concentration that resulted in the greatest consumption with a proportion of ethanol solution to tap water closest
to 0.5 chosen as the fixed concentration for each rat. A 3-day baseline period was followed by 3-days of twice daily
injections of drug or vehicle and then a 3-day post-treatment period. Consumption of fluids and food along with
body weight were measured daily. Vehicle, the D1 agonist SKF 38393, the non-competitive NMDA receptor
antagonist memantine, or their combination were injected 2 hr before and after lights out. During treatment with 5.0
mg/kg SKF, consumption of ethanol declined by 27.3% and during 10 mg/kg memantine treatment by 39.8%. When
the two drugs were combined, consumption declined by 48.2% and the proportion declined by 17%. However, the
consumption of food also declined by 36.6%. The latter result indicates that an anorexic action rather than an effect
specifically for ethanol occurred. The lack of additivity and specificity suggests that the hypothesis may not be
correct. The interaction of these different receptor systems with intraneuronal signaling and behaviors needs to be
studied further.
86.
DEVELOPMENTAL FLUOXETINE EXPOSURE, BUT NOT PRENATAL STRESS, DEMASCULINIZES
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN MALES, BUT HAS NO EFFECT ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN FEMALES. Rayen I.;
Charlier T.D.; Balthazart J.; Steinbusch H.W.M.; Pawluski J.L. School for Mental Health and Neuroscience,
Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands; University of Lige, GIGANeurosciences, 1 avenue de l’Hpital (Bat. B36), B-4000 Lige, Belgium; EURON, European Graduate School for
Neuroscience.Depression during pregnancy and postpartum is a significant health problem and affects up to 20% of
women. While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) medications are commonly used for treatment of
maternal depression, the combined effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring
development is poorly investigated. Here, our aim was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during
development on sexual behavior in offspring using a rodent model of maternal adversity. To do this, gestationally
stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were chronically treated throughout lactation with either
fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1). Four groups of male and female offspring
were obtained: 1) prenatal stress + fluoxetine, 2) prenatal stress + vehicle, 3) fluoxetine alone, and 4) vehicle alone.
In Experiment 1, we assessed ano-genital (AG) distance in juvenile male and female offspring. In Experiment 2,
adult male and female offspring were tested to assess the effect of developmental fluoxetine exposure and prenatal
stress on sexual behavior. Maternal fluoxetine exposure significantly decreased AG distance in juvenile male
offspring, regardless of prenatal stress. In adult male offspring, maternal fluoxetine treatment, regardless of exposure
to prenatal stress, significantly increased the latency to first intromission, decreased the number of intromissions and
tended to increase the latency to the first ejaculation. In adult female offspring, preliminary results show that
prenatal stress, regardless of maternal fluoxetine treatment, significantly increased the female lordosis response to a
male mount and decreased the number of rejections by the female. These results provide important evidence for the
long-term impact of maternal adversity and maternal fluoxetine use on the development of fundamental
physiological systems in male and female offspring. Further work will investigate the neurobiological plasticity
underlying these behavioral effects.
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87.
EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM TREATMENT WITH LOW DOSE OF FLUOXETINE ON THE
EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS OF SEROTONIN IN THE PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY MATTER OF FEMALE
RATS IN LATE DIESTRUS. Santos JM; Carvalho MC; Lovick TA; Brandao ML. During late diestrus (LD) in
female rats, the rapid fall in brain allopregnanolone (ALLO) concentration triggers for neuronal changes that lead to
increased excitability of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). In males, it has been showed that fluoxetine (FLX), a
well-known SSRI, can enhance the brain content of ALLO at low doses by a mechanism independent from 5-HT
reuptake inhibition. Behavioral experiments have showed that short-term treatment with FLX (1.75 mg/kg)
prevented the development of stress-induced hyperalgesia and the decrease in threshold for evoking fear-like
responses in the PAG of female rats in LD. In this study we have investigated whether short-term administration of
low dose of FLX affects 5-HT efflux in the PAG, measured by in-vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC. Female
Wistar rats were treated with 2 i.p. injections of saline or FLX (1.75 mg/kg FLX1.75 - or 10 mg/kg FLX10). The
first injection was given around 6 pm in the day previous to the experiment when rats were in early diestrus phase of
the cycle. The second one was given during microdialysis next day (around 11 am) when they were in LD. The
results indicate that treatment with FLX 1.75 did not change 5-HT release in the PAG whereas treatment with
FLX10 decreased the extracellular levels of 5-HT. Although preliminary, these results suggest that the effects of low
dose of FLX on behavior take place by a mechanism independent from serotonergic system. FLX might slows the
kinetics of the rapid fall in ALLO by raising its concentration during LD, thus removing the trigger for the neuronal
changes that lead to increased excitability of the PAG.
88.
DEVELOPMENTAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ALTERS NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS:
POTENTIAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN RATS.
Schaefer, T.L.; Graham, D.L.; Amos-Kroohs, R.M.; Braun, A.A.; Grace, C.E.; Skelton, M.R.; Williams, M.T.; and
Vorhees, C.V. Cincinnati Childrens Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH 45229 USA. Prenatal exposure to the
highly addictive psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA) has been shown to cause learning and memory deficits in
children and neonatal rats (model of 2nd-3rd trimester brain exposure). This problem may be increasing since the
proportion of pregnant women seeking treatment for MA abuse is rising. It was 8% in 1994 and rose to 24% in
2006, the latest data available. Little is known about the pathophysiology induced by developmental MA exposure.
We previously demonstrated neurotransmitter and cytoarchitectural changes after neonatal MA exposure, including
decreases in dorsostriatal D2 receptor binding and PKA activity (a modulator of the D1 receptor), reductions in
entorhinal cortex and striatal 5-HT levels, and decreased dendritic length and spine densities in the nucleus
accumbens and hippocampus. However, the functional contribution of such changes to behavioral responses is
unknown. Rats were treated from postnatal days 11-20 (stage that approximates third trimester human development)
with MA or saline and assessed as adults using locomotor activity as a readout following pharmacological challenge
with dopamine, 5-HT, or glutamate agonists or antagonists. Exposure to MA early in life resulted in exaggerated
adult locomotor hyperactivity in response to the dopamine D1 agonist SKF-82958 at multiple doses, underresponsiveness to higher but not lower doses of the D2 agonist quinpirole, and a marked under-responsiveness to the
activating effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. No change in response was seen following challenge
with the 5-HT releaser p-chloroamphetamine, or the 5-HT2/3 receptor agonist, quipazine. These are the first data to
show that P11-20 MA exposure induces long lasting alterations to the functional expression of dopamine D1, D2,
and glutamate NMDA receptors and may provide clues to future studies to determine if these same receptors are
involved in the learning and memory deficits induced by early MA exposure. (Supported by NIH grants DA006733
and T32 ES07051)
89.
DOES PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE INDUCE CROSS-SENSITIZATION TO OTHER
DRUGS IN ADULT MALE RATS? Slamberova R; Pometlova M; Schutova B; Hruba L; Deykun K. Charles
University in Prague, Third Faculty of Medicine, Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology,
Prague, Czech Republic. Our recent studies demonstated that prenatal methamphetamine MA exposure makes adult
rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug. Other studies show that abuse of one drug may increase
sensitivity to abuse of another drug (cross-sensitization). The aim of the present study was to examine the crosssensitization between prenatal MA exposure and challenge dose of other drugs. Rat mothers received a daily
injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male offspring were divided to groups
with challenge dose of the tested drug; (1) the same drug as prenatally (MA), (2) drugs with similar mechanism of
action (amphetamine, cocaine and MDMA), and (3) drugs with different mechanism of action (morphine and
cannabinoids). Behavior in unknown environment was examined in Laboras, and active drug-seeking behavior in
the Conditioned place preference (CPP). In the Laboras, prenatal MA exposure induced sensitization and crosssensitization only after administration of MA and amphetamine challenge dose, while animals with cocaine and
morphine challenge displayed rather tolerance. The active drug-seeking behavior in the CPP was induced by MA
and morphine regardless of prenatal drug exposure and by cocaine in controls but not in prenatally MA-exposed
rats. While control rats after amphetamine challenge dose did not show drug-seeking behavior, the increase was
75
apparent in prenatally MA-exposed rats suggesting cross-sensitization. MDMA and cannabinoids did not induce
drug-seeking behavior or even decreased it. Thus, our data demonstrate that there are cross-effects between prenatal
MA exposure and the challenge dose of other drug in adulthood, however, prenatally MA-exposed rats do not
display higher drug-seeking behavior (with exception of amphetamine challenge) as we expected. Supported by:
GACR 305/09/0126, 264706/SVV/2012, CSM 110
90.
NOREPINEPHRINE ANTAGONISM IN THE EXTENDED AMYGDALA REDUCES THE APPROACHAVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR OF RATS RUNNING AN ALLEY FOR IV COCAINE. Wenzel,J.M.;Su,Z.-I.;
Haber,Z.M.;Ettenberg, A. Dept. of Psychological and Brain Sciences. University of California Santa Barbara, Santa
Barbara, CA 93106 USA. Cocaine self-administration is known to produce both positive/euphoric and
negative/anxiogenic effects. While the rewarding effects of cocaine have been well-documented, the neurobiology
underlying its anxiogenic effects remain unclear. Our laboratory has developed a self-administration runway
paradigm to investigate cocaine’s dual effects within the same trial. Rats trained to run a straight alley for IV
cocaine reinforcement develop a unique approach-avoidance behavior over trials not seen with other drug or natural
rewards. Subjects rapidly approach the goal, but then stop, turn, and retreat back towards the start box. These
retreats stem from the association of the goal with both the positive (approach) and negative (avoidance) effects of
cocaine. Previous work from our lab has identified a role for regions within the extended amygdala (the central
nucleus of the amygdala/CeA and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/BNST) in the development of retreats.
Given that norepinephrine (NE) signaling in the extended amygdala has been implicated in anxiety states during
drug withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking, the current project sought to explore the role
of NE within the CeA and BNST in cocaine’s anxiogenic effects. Rats received single daily runway trials for IV
cocaine following bilateral intra-BNST or intra-CeA administration of one of two doses of an equal mixture of β1
and β2 NE antagonists (betaxolol + ICI-118,551; 0.5g or 1g/0.5l/side) or nanopure water vehicle. While vehicletreated rats developed retreats over trials, NE antagonism within either the CeA or BNST dose-dependently
attenuated the development of retreat behavior. These data suggest that NE signaling in regions of the extended
amygdala contributes to cocaine’s anxiogenic properties.
91.
GIT1 IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADHD. Won, H. Mah, W. Kim, E. Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST,
Daejeon, South Korea. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder with high
prevalence. However, mechanisms underlying ADHD are still unclear. Here I report a novel ADHD associted gene
G proteincoupled receptor kinaseinteracting protein-1 (GIT1): an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism in GIT1
shows a strong association with ADHD susceptibility in humans. GIT1 knockout mice also show ADHD-like
phenotypes such as hyperactivity, enhanced electroencephalogram theta rhythms and impaired learning and
memory. Hyperactivity learning impairment, and elevated theta rhythms in GIT1 knockout mice are ameliorated by
amphetamine, psychostimulants commonly used to treat ADHD. In the hippocampus of GIT1 knockout
mice,neuronal excitation-inhibition balance in postsynaptic neurons was disrupted toward excitation. Our study
identifies a previously unknown involvement of GIT1 in ADHD and suggests a novel mechanism for ADHD
pathogenesis.
92.
ADOLESCENTS ARE AT GREATER RISK FOR COCAINE ADDICTION THAN ADULTS. Wong, WC;
Bamman MT; Ford KA; McCutcheon JM; Marinelli M. Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Chicago Medical
School, IL, USA. In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop cocaine addiction. We
used preclinical models to examine the nature of this observation, and the neurobiological mechanisms involved.
Adolescent (postnatal day 42) and adult (~postnatal day 88) rats were compared for cocaine addiction liability
according to DSM-IV criteria, using intravenous self-administration. Relative to adult rats, adolescents took cocaine
more readily, escalated cocaine intake, and worked harder for cocaine. This was associated with elevated activity of
midbrain dopamine neurons, as measured with in vivo extracellular recordings. The next question to ask is: are
adolescents more likely to remain addicted to cocaine compared with adults? We tested how punishment (electric
footshock) associated with drug intake affects drug use. Cocaine intake was suppressed for both ages on the day of
punishment. However, on the next day, adolescents resumed cocaine taking whereas adults did not. Next, we tested
the long-term consequence of drug use by examining relapse in response to different stressors. Relapse was far more
pronounced if onset of cocaine use occurred during adolescence vs. adulthood. Our research is the first to offer
scientific evidence that when all opportunities to take drugs are equal, adolescents are more prone to cocaine
addiction compared with adults. Importantly, adolescents do not refrain from taking cocaine after punishment and
they are more likely to relapse in response to stress later on in life. These results have broad implications for the
attempts to steer adolescents away from drug use using punishments as well as for preventing relapse.
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93.
ADOLESCENTS ARE INSENSITIVE TO PUNISHMENT-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF COCAINE SELFADMINISTRATION. Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Chicago Medical School, IL, USA. Wong, WC;
Lamoureux, L; Bamman MT; Marinelli M. In humans, adolescence is a period of heightened propensity to develop
cocaine addiction. One hallmark of addiction is continuation of drug use despite adverse consequences. We tested
the sensitivity of adolescents vs. adults to punishment associated with cocaine. Adolescent and adult rats were
trained to self-administer cocaine. Punishment in the form of a electric footshock paired with cocaine infusions was
administered at various phases of drug use. When footshock was administered upon initial exposure to cocaine, none
of the adult rats learned self-administration of cocaine, whereas majority of adolescents did. When electric footshock
was administered aAfter acquisition of cocaine self-administration was established, cocaine intake was suppressed
for all ages on the day of punishment. However, the next days adolescents resumed cocaine taking whereas adults
did not. In addition, adolescents showed shorter latency than adults in returning to cocaine taking. When footshock
was administered to aged rats with adolescent- or adult-history of cocaine self-administration, responses to
punishment were similar across ages. These results indicate that punishment produces long-term suppression of
cocaine taking in adults, but not in adolescents. Such Insensitivity insensitivity of adolescents to following
punishment associated with cocaine may contribute to the high susceptibility of drug addiction during adolescence.
Furthermore, these findings have implications for methods used for drug cessation; our data suggests that
punishment is not an effective means for drug cessation during adolescence, and prompts to explored other means to
more effectively manage adolescent addiction.
94.
THE MULTIPLE PARTNER CHOICE ARENA SATISFIES THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF AN ANIMAL
MODEL TO STUDY PREMETURE EJACULATION. Ferreira-Nuño, A.; Olayo-Lortia, J.; Cruz-Benites, A.;
Velazquez-Moctezuma, J.; Morales-Otal, A. Dpto. Biologia de la Reproducción. Universidad Autónoma
Metropolitana - Iztapalapa. México D.F. 09340. [email protected] Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent
male sexual complaint. According to Waldinger (2005), this sexual disorder is mediated mainly by disturbances of
serotonergic neurotransmission and certain serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In the actual animal model (AM) to study
PE, once the male sexual behavior (MSB) of a rat is obtained in a Standard Arena (SA, a closed cylinder), the male
receives a chronic administration of a drug to test later if the treatment could prolong their ejaculation latency. This
AM satisfies the construct and predictive validity criteria, but not the face validity, because the male rat do not
behaves as PE from the beginning. Recently we develop a new AM to study PE: the Multiple Partner Choice Arena
(MPCA) made with four acrylic cylinders placed together in a cross fashion and each with a small hole in the
bottom directed to the central area. A sexually expert male rat is placed in each cylinder and a receptive female
located in the central area is allowed choose the male who wants to copulate with. Under the competitive conditions
imposed by the MPCA all the males behave as PE, satisfying the face validity criteria of an AM. To demonstrate if
the MPCA also satisfies the construct validity of an AM, 0.1mg/kg of WAY 100635 (a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist)
in 0.03 ml of saline was administered during 15 consecutive days to 14 male rats (WAY Group) while the
CONTROL group (CON Group, n =14) only received the saline. During days 1, 8 and 15 of the treatment MSB was
registered in the SA in half of the males of each group and the other half was tested in the MPCA. The chronic
administration of WAY 100635 could abolish the PE behavior as significant reductions in mount, intromission and
ejaculation latencies and intromission frequency observed in the CON group tested in the MPCA disappear in the
WAY Group. Then MPCA could satisfy the construct criteria of an animal model.
95.
TRANSIENT CRF OVEREXPRESSION IN THE FOREBRAIN DURING EARLY LIFE INCREASES STARTLE
REACTIVITY AND ANXIETY IN ADULTHOOD. Gresack, J.E.; Toth, M.; Gross, M.; Vicentini, E.; Mangiarini,
L.; Mansuy, I.M.; Merlo-Pich, E.; Risbrough, V.B. UCSD, San Diego, CA. Transient CRF overexpression in the
forebrain during early life increases startle reactivity and anxiety in adulthood JE Gresack1,5, M Toth1*, M Gross4,
E Vicentini2, L Mangiarini2, IM Mansuy3, E Merlo-Pich2, and VB Risbrough1,4 1UCSD; 2GSK; 3 SFIT; 4VAH;
5Rockefeller University The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) pathway coordinates behavioral and
neuroendocrine respones to stress. Increased CRF concentrations have been associated with depression, childhood
trauma and posttraumtic stress disorder (PTSD) and genetic variance in CRF receptors is linked to altered risk for
these disorders. To test the hypothesis that increased CRF neurotransmission increases the risk of development of
PTSD symptoms, we compared three animal models of CRF hypersignaling: (1) mice with lifetime CRF
overexpression (CRFOE) to model a heritable increase of CRF, (2) mice in which CRFOE is induced only during
development to model early life stress or (3) only during adulthood to model adult onset stress. To induce CRFOE
we used a double mutant mouse line that shows forebrain-specific CRF over-expression that can be controlled by
doxycycline administration in food at discrete developmental stages. We examined fear conditioning, behavioral
activity, anxiety and startle reactivity at adulthood. Mice exposed to CRFOE during early development showed
normal fear conditioning and behavioral activity, but showed increased anxiety, startle potentiation, and reduced
prepulse inhibition. Suprisingly, mice with lifetime CRFOE exhibited a similar pattern of startle but no anxiety-like
behavior. In contrast, mice with adult-onset CRFOE showed none of the phenotypic changes observed in the
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developmental or lifetime CRFOE models. These data suggest that CRFOE is sufficient to induce robust alterations
in anxiety-like traits, especially during developmental stages.
96.
ENDURING EFFECTS OF METHYLPHENIDATE: THE ROLE PLAYED BY ROUTE OF DRUG
ADMINISTRATION. Bigney, E.; Taukulis, H. Dept. of Psychology. The University of New Brunswick, Saint John,
Canada. Methylphenidate (MPD; Ritalin) is a psychostimulant used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
In rodents, chronic treatment with MPD via intraperitoneal (IP) injection during adolescence results in both
neurochemical and behavioral indices of depression during adulthood; however, in clinical practice, MPD is
administered orally. Drug effects can vary widely depending on mode of administration, and therefore it is necessary
to determine if oral treatment with MPD also enhances modeled depression. Experiment 1 investigated blood plasma
levels of MPD following both oral and IP administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The quantitative plasma
results demonstrated that 2 mg/kg IP and 5 mg/kg oral MPD resulted in equivalent and clinically relevant levels of
systemic MPD. Experiment 2 investigated the enduring effects of both IP and oral chronic MPD on two of the
hallmark symptoms of depression (anhedonia and behavioral despair) and a measure of anxiety. The current study
showed that in the sucrose preference test and the forced swim test (measures of anhedonia and behavioral despair,
respectively), MPD resulted in an increase in depressive-like behaviours, independent of mode of administration.
MPD effects on anxiety (as measured by the elevated-plus maze) were dependent upon mode of administration. IP
administration of MPD resulted in a significant increase in anxiety, whereas oral administration of MPD had no
effect on anxiety levels. The results of this study indicated that different mode of administrations can alter research
findings, resulting in vastly different conclusions.
97.
EARLY ADOLESCENT IMPULSIVITY PREDICTS LATE ADOLESCENT BINGE IN FEMALE RATS
McClure JR, Richardson HN Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behavior Program, University of
Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003. Impulsivity is a behavioral trait that has been implicated in a number
of disorders ranging from attention deicit hyperactivity disorder to addiction. While animal models have provided
useful insights to these human conditions, inconsistent patterns of results remain. Between-study inconsistencies in
the relationship between impulsivity and addiction may stem from the fact that some studies focus only on one sex
of model organism, or from diferences in the route and rate of delivery of the addictive substance. The current study
uses a recently established test of impulsive choice to assess impulsivity during early adolescence in male and
female rats. The rats are then allowed to self-administer sweetened alcohol (10% v/v) in a voluntary two-week binge
during late adolescence. Our data suggest that early adolescent impulsivity may predict late adolescent alcohol
consumption selectively in females, while male consumption seems independent of impulsivity score. Preliminary
results also suggest that alcohol consumption may also have sex-dependent efects on adult impulsivity. Together
these data highlight the importance of accounting for diferent patterns between the sexes in studies of addiction. By
accounting for such diferences we may strengthen our ability to detect general trends, while also allowing for a sexdependent understanding of addiction which may inform treatment methods for human addiction.
98.
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HALLUCINOGENIC NMDA ANTAGONISTS AND XYLAZINE ON FEAR
EXTINCTION. Eimeira Padilla, John DeMis, Dong-Oh Seo, DeAnna Adkins and Marie H. Monfils. Department of
Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, USA.Ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) are NMDA antagonists
with hallucinogenic properties. Recently, ketamine has been used to treat patients with treatment-resistant
depression (Ibrahim et al., 2011, Messer et al., 2010). However, peritrauma ketamine administration can also
produce sustained posttraumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic experience (Schnenberg et. al., 2005, Winter
and Irle 2004). Given the high co-morbidity of depression and anxiety-related disorders (DeVane et al., 2005),
administration of ketamine may exacerbate trauma-linked memories. The present study examines the long-term
effects of NMDA antagonists on the extinction of traumatic memories. In animals and humans, ketamine is usually
given in combination with a sedative (e.g. xylazine in animals) for anesthesia. Thus, we examined the long-term
effects of ketamine plus xylazine, ketamine alone, xylazine or PCP alone on later fear extinction in rats. Rats were
fear conditioned by pairing a tone with a footshock. One day after fear conditioning, they received systemic
injections of ketamine plus xylazine, ketamine, PCP, xylazine or vehicle. The rats then received an extinction
session either 1-day or 1-week following drug injection. Ketamine plus xylazine impaired fear extinction (i.e. more
freezing behavior) compared to vehicle in the 1-day and 1-week extinction groups. Ketamine alone impaired fear
extinction in the 1-day extinction group. There were no effects of PCP or xylazine alone on fear extinction. The
current study provides evidence that a single injection of ketamine impairs fear extinction 24 hours later and a longterm impairment is observed with the addition of xylazine, a potent sedative. The goal of ongoing studies is to
identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying short-term and long-term retrieval and extinction of fear
memories that have been reinforced with ketamine.
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99.
ACUTE PROSOCIAL EFFECTS OF PERIPHERALLY ADMINISTERED OXYTOCIN IN RATS: REVERSAL
BY THE V1A ANTAGONIST SR49059. Linnet Ramos, Callum Hicks, Richard Kevin, Iain S. McGregor.
University of Sydney, Australia. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is renowned for its role in regulating social
behaviour and social cognition in mammals including humans. It has often been thought that peripherally injected
OT does not permeate the blood brain barrier (BBB) in adequate quantities to alter behavior. For this reason, human
studies usually give OT intranasally, while animal studies typically involve intracranial administration of OT2.
However recent studies from our laboratory suggests reasonable penetration of the BBB by intraperitoneal (IP)
injections of OT3 and it was therefore of interest to examine possible prosocial effects arising from this. Male Long
Evan rats received IP injections of OT (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) and saline in a counterbalanced order with 2 washout
days between treatments. After injection they were placed in a testing chamber with an unfamiliar conspecific given
the same drug treatment. Testing continued for 30 min at an ambient temperature of 23˚C. Rats given the 0.5 mg/kg
OT dose displayed a profound increase in adjacent lying behaviour (somewhat akin to cuddling) and a decrease in
rearing relative to the other treatments. In a further study, pre-treatment with the non-peptide, centrally active,
vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A) antagonist SR49059 (1 mg/kg) prevented the increased adjacent lying caused by OT
(0.5 mg/kg). As OT has substantial affinity for V1A receptors, this suggests that the prosocial effects of OT may be
VIA mediated. Ongoing experiments are assessing the effects of centrally active OT antagonist drugs on these
prosocial effects of OT. Overall our results show for the first time that peripherally delivered OT can stimulate
social behaviour in rodents and that this effect may be, somewhat surprisingly, mediated by vasopressin receptors.
100.
INCREASE IN THE SENSITIVITY OF NICOTINE WITHIN THE POSTERIOR VENTRAL TEGMENTAL
AREA PRODUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL CONSUMPTION Hauser S; Deehan G; Toalston J; Truitt W;
McBride W; Rodd Z Department of Psychiatry; Indiana University: School of Medicine There is evidence for a
genetic association between alcoholism and nicotine dependence. Ethanol (EtOH) drinking has been shown to
increase the sensitivity of the pVTA to the reinforcing effects of EtOH. There is also evidence that prior exposure to
nicotine can increase the sensitivity of the pVTA to the stimulating actions of EtOH. The current study examined the
effects of chronic EtOH consumption on the self-administration of nicotine directly into the pVTA. Adult alcoholpreferring (P) rats were allowed to consume water only or 15% EtOh and water for 10 consecutive weeks. Following
a two week EtOH abstinence period, rats were tested in standard 2-lever operant chambers (active and inactive) for
the self-administration of nicotine directly into the pVTA. Rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups that
self-infused (FR1 schedule) artificial CSF (aCSF), or 1, 3, or 10 M nicotine (nicotine tartrate) in a volume of 100
nl/infusion for sessions 1-4; only aCSF for sessions 5 and 6; and the original infusate for sessions 7. EtOH nave P
rats failed to self-administer either 1 or 3 M nicotine, but did self-administer 10 M nicotine (25 + 4
infusions/session). In contrast, P rats that chronically consumed EtOH self-administered all concentrations of
nicotine (e.g., 33 + 6 infusions/session for 1 M nicotine) into the pVTA. In addition, P rats with chronic EtOH
experienced received more self-infusions of 10 M nicotine than nave P rats (44 + 5 vs 25 + 4 infusions/session). The
current data indicate that chronic EtOH consumption increased the reinforcing properties of nicotine within the
pVTA, and suggest that cross-sensitization can occur to the reinforcing effects of EtOH and nicotine in this region,
which can persist in the absence of EtOH. AA019366, AA07611
101.
FUCOIDAN AMELIORATES SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED NEURONAL IMPAIRMENT AND MEMORY
DYSFUNCTION IN RATS VIA ACTIVATION OF CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF CREB
AND BDNF EXPRESSION. Sur, B.J.1,2; Lee, B.2; Kwon, S.1,2; Shim, I.1,2; Yin, CS1,2; Lee, H.1,2; Hahm,
D.H.1,2*. 1The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee
University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea, 2Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, College of
Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine
whether fucoidan (FCN) improves memory defects caused by administration of scopolamine (SCO) to the rat. The
effects of FCN on the acetylcholinergic system as well as the expression of cAMP-response element-binding protein
(CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNAs in the hippocampus were also investigated. Male
rats were administered daily doses for 14 days of FCN (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before scopolamine
injection (2 mg/kg, i.p.). Daily administration of FCN improved memory impairment as measured by the passive
avoidance test (PAT) and reduced the escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze (MWM) test.
Administration of FCN significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in cholinergic immunoreactivity and
restored the expression level of BDNF and CREB mRNAs in the hippocampus. Additionally, FCN significantly
decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-) mRNAs in the hippocampus. These results demonstrated that FCN has significant neuroprotective effects
against neuronal impairment and memory dysfunction caused by scopolamine in rats. Thus, these findings suggest
that FCN might be useful as a therapeutic agent for improving cognitive functioning via stimulating cholinergic
enzyme activities and regulating CREB and BDNF expression in the brain (This research was supported by the
National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST)(2010-0003678) and the
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Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R11-2005014)).
102.
THE INVOLVEMENT OF KAPPA OPIOD RECEPTORS IN THE DSL STRIATUM AND PDSM STRIATUM
DURING HABITUAL AND GOAL DIRECTED COCAINE SEEKING. Wang, Y; Zapata, A; Minney, V;
Shippenberg, T; Integrative Neuroscience Branch, NIDA IRP, Baltimore, MD 21224. In this study, Long Evans rats
were trained under a seeking/taking chained schedule of intravenous cocaine self-administration. An outcome
devaluation method is implemented to determine whether cocaine seeking behavior is goal-directed or habitual by
devaluing the outcome of the drug seeking link (the drug taking response) via extinction. Characterization
experiments indicated that cocaine seeking was goal-directed after limited experience but became habitual after
extensive training. Furthermore, transient inactivation of the pDSM striatum by local lidocaine infusion blocked
goal-directed cocaine seeking while inactivation of the DSL striatum blocked habitual responding. To determine the
involvement of KORs in goal-directed and habitual cocaine seeking, Norbinaltorphimine, a kappa-opiod receptor
antagonist, locally microinjected into the pDSM striatum in animals with a short training history, did not alter goal
directed cocaine seeking compared to the control group. Conversely, local infusions of Norbinaltorphimine into the
DSL striatum in well-trained animals was able to block habitual cocaine seeking behavior. These studies provide
direct evidence that KORs in the DSL striatum play a critical role in regulating established habitual cocaine seeking
behavior and contribute to our understanding of the neural circuitry involved in goal-directed and habitual cocaine
seeking.
103.
RESILIENCE TO EARLY LIFE STRESS IN FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER):
POTENTIAL MODERATION BY OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS. Barrett, C.E.; Modi, M.;Young, L.J. Ctr. Transl.
Soc. Neurosci. Yerkes Primate Ctr. Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. We examined effects of stress during
the postnatal period on adult attachment in the highly social, monogamous prairie vole. Between PND1-14 litters
underwent daily 3hr social isolations, and adult offspring were assessed for partner preference formation. Neonatally
isolated females did not display a partner preference after 48 hrs of cohabitation while controls did
(F1,18=5.33,p=0.033). To explore the neural mechanisms underlying this disruption in females, we quantified
oxytocin receptor (OTR) density in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), which is critical for partner preference
formation. Early social isolation did not alter NAcc OTR expression. However, isolated females with low levels of
NAcc OTR did not display a preference for their mated partner, while those with high OTR densities did
(F1,16=8.11,p=0.012). In isolated females, but not controls, time spent huddling with the partner correlated strongly
with oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens (R=0.66,R2=0.43,p<0.05). This potential gene by
environment interaction suggests that females with low OTR levels in the NAcc may have a heightened
susceptibility to disruptions in social development. We also present findings that postnatal treatment during the first
week of life with an MC4 receptor agonist, which activates oxytocin neurons, enhances adult social bonding in
female voles (F1,32=4.87,p=0.035). The role of oxytocin in the neonatal environment may be critical in the
development of social neural circuits. Future studies will examine the potential of neonatal oxytocin enhancements
in buffering against adverse early events.
104.
EFFECTS OF A DYSFUNCTIONAL BRAIN SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM ON SOCIAL BEHAVIORS IN MALE
PET-1 KNOCKOUT MICE Can, A.1; Piantadosi, S.C.1; Gould, T.D. 1,2 1.Department of Psychiatry, University of
Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore MD. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics,
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore MD. Serotonin has largely inhibitory control over sexual
behaviors. Studies using pharmacological manipulations of serotonin in the rodent brain indicated that higher levels
of serotonergic activity are associated with diminished performance and some motivational aspects of the male
sexual behavior. While pharmacological agents, such as para-chlorophenylalanine, deplete the brain from its
serotonin, they also have effect on other monoamines. This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the specific
role of serotonin on male sexual behavior. However, recently, it had been found that male mice with a genetically
induced complete lack of brain serotonin lost their preference for females over males in targeting their sexually
motivated behaviors. The Pet-1 gene codes for a transcription factor necessary for the normal development of brain
serotonergic system. We tested Pet-1 knockout male mice for social and related behaviors. Our results indicate that
Pet-1 knockout male mice spent significantly less time engaging in grooming and other social behaviors toward
male intruders compared to wildtype mice, but did not differ in terms of aggression. Pet-1 knockout males also
manifested more episodes of sexually specific mounting behavior toward male intruders and they also spent more
time in engaging mounting behavior. While the majority of serotonergic neurons are missing in the Pet-1 knockout
mouse brain, a specific subpopulation of them remains intact. The remaining serotonergic neurons innervate brain
areas such as the basolateral amygdala and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings indicate
that serotonergic innervation of these areas is likely to be not associated with male sexual preference, even though
compensatory activity from other areas is still possible. Pet-1 knockout males also loose the sexually dimorphic
80
serotonergic innervation of the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, suggesting the
possibility that serotonergic activity in this region plays an important role in male sexual preference.
105.
INESCAPABLE TAIL SHOCK AND COLD SWIM STRESS INTERACT TO ELEVATE TPH2 MRNA
EXPRESSION IN AN ANXIETY-RELATED SUBSET OF SEROTONERGIC NEURONS. 1Donner, N.C.;
2Kubala, K.H.; 3Drugan, R.C.; 2Maier, S.F.; 1Lowry, C.A. Depts. of 1Integrative Physiology, 2Psychology &
1,2Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA. 3Dept. of Psychology, University
of New Hampshire, NH, USA. The effects of stressful stimuli on the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2)
mRNA expression are controversial. The tph2 gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin synthesis. Here,
we studied the effects of inescapable tail shock (IS; 100 5 s, 1.0 mA shocks with random intervals), cold swim stress
(SWIM; 10 min, 15 C), or the succession of IS and SWIM on tph2 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus
(DR), using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Adult male rats served as home cage controls (HC, n=8), or were
exposed to IS (n=8) or SWIM (n=8), and were killed 4 h after the start of either stressor. Another group of rats was
exposed to IS on day 1, and either HC (n=8) or SWIM (n=8) on day 2, with all rats being killed 4 h after the start of
SWIM. IS, but not SWIM, was sufficient to increase tph2 expression selectively in the anxiety-related dorso-caudal
DR (cDRD). Furthermore, IS on day 1 sensitized rats to SWIM-induced increases of tph2 expression in the cDRD
and to increases in the ratio of plasma interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 on day 2. Compared to HC-SWIM control rats,
the IS-SWIM group also displayed increased immobility and decreased climbing behavior in the SWIM test. Our
results indicate that stressor type and severity are crucial factors in regulating tph2 expression, and that IS creates a
neuronal, immunological, and behavioral vulnerability to a succeeding stressor.
106.
PLATELET Platelet Serotonin Function and its Relationship to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Histories of
Suicide Attempts. Dougherty, D.M.; Mathias, C.M.; Hill-Kapturczak, N.; Tian, P. Y.; Javors, M. Dept. of
Psychiatry. UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system
has been related to suicide in postmortem studies, but there are public health motivations to assess its function
among living individuals. We have completed two studies examining platelet serotonin transporter (SERT) function
among individuals expressing suicidal ideation and having histories of attempts. Study 1, SERT function was
compared among three adolescent groups: controls (n=95), and patients expressing high (n=37) or low (n=45) levels
of suicidal ideation. In Study 2, SERT function among controls (N=95) was compared to psychiatric patients with
(n=35) or without (n=79) histories of suicide attempts. Three kinetic parameters of SERT function were assessed in
fresh blood platelets: the maximum velocity of serotonin uptake (Vmax), the equilibrium constant (Km), and SERT
uptake potential (Vmax/Km). We found: in Study 1 that those with high suicidal ideation had a significantly higher
Km, and lower uptake potential (Vmax /Km), than patients with low suicidal ideation or healthy controls. Both the
patient groups in this study had lower Vmax than healthy controls; and in Study 2 that Vmax and SERT uptake
potential (Vmax / Km) were significantly higher in the healthy control and non-attempter groups than the attempter
group. Km was lower in the control and non-attempter groups versus the attempter group. Collectively, these studies
suggest that current thoughts of suicide and histories of previous attempts are associated with disruptions in the
serotonin neurotransmitter system. These findings indicate that the measure of platelet SERT uptake potential
(Vmax / Km) may be a clinically useful biological marker.
107.
DOPAMINE MANIPULATIONS IN THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX MODULATE REVERSAL LEARNING
DEFICITS OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS IN AN ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING TASK.
Li, J.-S.; Cheng, J.-T. Dept. of Psychology. National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan. Numerous studies suggest
that dysfunctions of prefrontal cortex can impair inhibitory controls of patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD), resulting in their impulsive behaviors. Furthermore, rats with lesions in the orbitofrontal cortex
show deficits in the reversal learning of attentional set-shifting task (ASST), a behavioral test frequently used in
human studies to asses the inhibition system. However, the role of orbitofrontal dopamine system in the mechanism
responsible for the dysfunctions of inhibitory controls in ADHD patients and animal models remains unknown. In
the present study, we manipulated orbitofrontal dopamine activities of spontaneously hypertensive rats, a widely
used ADHD animal model, through intra-peritoneal injection of methylphenidate (MPH) and central infusion of
haloperidol, and observed performances of animals in ASST. The results show that juvenile SHRs learned slower
than Wistar controls in the first and second reversal learnings of ASST. The deficits could be removed by intraperitoneal injections of MPH. Furthermore, central infusions of haloperidol in the orbitofrontal cortex blocked the
effects of MPH. In conclusion, dopamine manipulations in orbitofrontal cortex can modulate deficits of reversal
learning in SHRs, suggesting a possible involvement of the orbitofrontal dopamine system in the pathology of
ADHD.
81
108.
G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 6 DEFICIENCY AND MOUSE MODELS OF PARKINSON’S
DISEASE. Manago’, F.; Espinoza, S.; Salahpour, A.; Sotnikova, T.D.; Caron, M.G.; Premont, R.T.; Gainetdinov,
R.R. 1. Neuroscience and Brain Technologies Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy. 2.
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, University of Toronto, Toronto (ON), Canada. 3. Cell Biology
Department, Duke University, Durham (NC), USA. 4. Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham (NC),
USA. GRKs belongs to a family of seven serine/threonine kinases that phosphorilate GPCR activated by an agonist
leading to rapid desensitization. Phosphorylation of GPCRs by GRKs and recruitment of arrestin proteins could also
promote novel G-protein-independent signaling events. It has been reported that animal models of PD and PD
patients have an increased levels of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (GRK6) in the striatum. A study on
GRK6-KO mice has revealed an enhanced coupling of striatal D2-like dopamine receptors and reduced D2 receptor
desensitization in absence of GRK6. Furthermore, it has been shown that GRK6-KO mice are supersensitive to
several direct and indirect dopaminergic agonists including cocaine and amphetamine. Thus, it is important to
understand how GRK6 deletion can affect the behavioral manifestations of dopamine deficiency and responses to LDOPA in mouse models of PD. For this purpose we evaluated: 1) the cataleptic response to D2 dopamine antagonist
haloperidol in GRK6-KO mice; 2) the role of GRK6 in the regulation of locomotor activity in mice with persistently
increased dopaminergic tone by crossing GRK6 deficient mice to dopamine transporter knockout (DAT-KO) mice;
3) the role of GRK6 in acute responses to L-DOPA by crossing these mutants to dopamine transporter knockout
(DAT-KO) mice and developing an acute model of absolute dopamine deficiency, DDD mice; 4) the role of GRK6
in chronic responses to L-DOPA in hemiparkisonian 6-OHDA mouse model. To further clarify the role of GRK6mediated regulation in β-Arrestin2/AKT/GSK3β and MAPK signaling we analyzed the pattern of phosphorylation
of AKT/GSK3β and ERK1/2. The results demonstrated that GRK6 deficiency in animal models of PD leads to a
reduction in cataleptic behavior, potentiate the effect L-DOPA induced and induces a reduction of the rotational
behavior and AIMs. This may suggest that future pharmacological approaches to regulate GRK6 activity could be
effective in reducing L-DOPA side-effects.
109.
EXERCISE DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL PARKINSONISM IN MICE DEFICIENT IN
BDNF. Gerecke, K; Jiao, Y; Pagala, V; Pani, A; Smeyne, R. Rhodes College and St. Jude Childrens Research
Hospital, Memphis, TN. Exercise has been shown to be potently neuroprotective, including in the MPTP model of
Parkinsons disease (PD). To determine the critical duration of exercise necessary for DA neuroprotection, sedentary
mice were compared to mice that ran for either 1, 2 or 3 months prior to treatment with saline or MPTP. Sedentary
mice, and mice allowed to run unrestricted for 1 or 2 months, lost significant numbers of SN DA neurons following
MPTP; however, 3 months of exercise provided complete protection. To determine the critical intensity of exercise,
mice ran for 3 months but were restricted to 1/3 or 2/3 of the daily distance of the full running group. Restricted
groups lost significant numbers of DA neurons due to MPTP toxicity; however, the 2/3 group demonstrated partial
protection. Analyses of DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA show that exercise also functionally protects
neurons from MPTP neurotoxicity. A possible mechanism for protection may be via BDNF. To test this, DA
neuronal loss due to acute MPTP administration in BDNF+/- and Wt mice was compared. Exercised BDNF+/- mice
lost a significant number of DA neurons in the SN such that they were not significantly different from sedentary
mice administered MPTP. Proteomic analysis of SN and STR tissues indicates that exercise induces changes in
proteins related to energy regulation, cellular metabolism, the cytoskeleton, and intracellular signaling events in Wt
and BDNF+/- mice; however, exercised BDNF+/- mice did not show increased expression of energy metabolism
proteins. Thus, exercised-induced DA neuroprotection is abolished in mice deficient in BDNF in experimental
parkinsonism. This suggests that both exercise and BDNF may represent useful targets for prevention of PD.
110.
DISTINCT NEURAL SUBSTRATES FOR REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT IN THE STRIATUM.
Kravitz, AV; Tye, LD; Kreitzer, AC. Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA.
Reinforcement and punishment are fundamental processes that shape animal learning. Reinforcement maintains or
increases, while punishment decreases, the future probability of specific behavior. While the striatum is implicated
in both reinforcement and punishment, the specific roles of the two populations of striatal projection neurons are not
well understood. We tested the hypothesis that D1-expressing direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs)
mediate reinforcement, while D2-expressing indirect pathway neurons (iMSNs) mediate punishment. We targeted
the expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to dMSNs or iMSNs in separate groups of mice, and trained them on
an operant task in which they could self-administer laser stimulation to activate each pathway. Within the first 30minute training session, nave mice that expressed ChR2 in dMSNs exhibited a significant bias towards the laserpaired trigger whereas mice that expressed ChR2 in iMSNs mice exhibited a significant bias away from the laserpaired trigger. This indicates that activation of direct pathway dMSNs is sufficient for reinforcement, while
activation of indirect pathway iMSNs is sufficient for punishment. Our results support our hypothesis, and indicate
that these neural populations could be targeted independently to address specific dysfunctions in reinforcement or
punishment associated with psychiatric disorders.
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111.
SUBSECOND MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE RELEASE PREDICTS THE AVOIDANCE OF PUNISHMENT Erik
B. Oleson, Ronny N. Gentry and Joseph F. Cheer Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology. University of
Maryland School of Medicine. Baltimore, MD 21201 USA. The mesolimbic dopamine system is generally
considered to be a reward pathway. In support of this theory – when animals are presented with conditioned cues
predicting reward availability, midbrain dopamine neurons fire in high frequency bursts. This pattern of neural
activity results in subsecond dopamine release events in terminal fields such as the nucleus accumbens, which are
thought to promote reward seeking. A number of studies, however, also implicate the mesolimbic dopamine system
in behavior requiring the avoidance of punishment. To assess the role of dopamine during the avoidance of
punishment, we measured accumbal dopamine concentrations in near real-time using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
while well-trained rats responded in an operant signaled shock avoidance task. In this procedure, a stimulus light
was presented as a warning signal while a response lever extended 2s prior to the delivery of recurring foot shocks
(0.5s shock every 2s). A lever response at any time within the session produced a 20s safety period signaled by a
tone. This design allowed us to assess dopamine signaling during warning signal presentation, safety periods and
two distinct behavioral responses (avoidance and escape). We found that dopamine release encodes warning signal
presentation and predicts when animals will successfully avoid punishment. Our data, demonstrating that dopamine
indiscriminately processes motivationally salient stimuli, supports a growing consensus that the mesolimbic
dopamine system is more than merely a reward pathway. Rather, subsecond dopamine signaling might facilitate
behavioral orientation in a manner that promotes behavioral adaptation and survival.
112.
STRUCTURAL NEUROANATOMY CORRELATES WITH FUNCTIONAL MOTOR-RELATED NETWORKS
IN STROKE PATIENTS. Sook-Lei Liew, Kathleen Garrison, Justin Haldar,Carolee Winstein,Hanna Damasio &
Lisa Aziz-Zadeh. University of Southern California. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults, often
resulting in lasting motor impairments that hinder ones ability to engage in meaningful activities. Recent
rehabilitation efforts have focused on ways to activate damaged motor regions through action observation, by
engaging the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural network comprised of premotor and parietal
motor-related regions that are active both during the execution of an action and the observation of the same or
similar actions. However, it is unclear how individual differences in the underlying structural anatomy of the poststroke brain may influence functional activity in these motor-related brain regions, and how these measures may
correlate with behavioral motor outcomes. We scanned 12 participants with chronic stroke resulting in moderate-tosevere upper limb hemiparesis and obtained high-resolution structural MRIs, diffusion-weighted imaging, functional
MRI while participants observed grasp actions, and behavioral scores from standardized motor assessments.
Relationships between this battery of measures demonstrate several promising findings: 1) functional plasticity of
the MNS when observing actions performed by the counterpart to the paretic limb correlate with structural measures
of lesion volume and 2) with general cortical atrophy, and 3) structural plasticity of motor-related white matter tracts
with functional activation patterns. Altogether these findings suggest specific measures of functional and structural
plasticity that hold promise as biomarkers for improved motor recovery and indicators of who might respond best to
different types of therapy. Such information provides a foundation for developing individualized treatments that
harness each patients specific profile of structural and functional plasticity post-stroke for maximal rehabilitation
benefits.
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Friday, June 8, 2012
9:00-10:00
Keynote: David M. Diamond, University of South Florida
A NOVEL PERSPECTIVE ON THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN FLASHBULB AND TRAUMATIC
MEMORIES. David M. Diamond, Research and Development Service, Tampa Veterans Hospital, Departments of
Psychology, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 USA. It is well-known
that the hippocampus is necessary for the formation of new memories. However, research on rodents and humans indicates
that in times of stress hippocampal functioning is impaired. This finding has been interpreted to indicate that there is an
absence of hippocampal involvement in the formation of traumatic memories. I will incorporate findings from rodent and
human studies to provide an alternative interpretation of the literature. I will suggest that traumatic experiences produce a
relatively brief and intense activation of amygdala-hippocampal circuitry, with a concomitant suppression of neocortical
functioning, which helps to explain the unique and fragmentary nature of traumatic memories. This perspective on how stress
affects the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex is potentially relevant toward understanding how traumatic experiences
generate long-lasting intrusive memories which are highly resistant to extinction.
10:30-12:30
Symposium: Use of Optogenetics in Behavioral Neuroscience. Chair: Peter Shiromani, Ralph H.
Johnson VA and the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston
SHINING LIGHT ON WAKEFULNESS AND AROUSAL USING OPTOGENETICS. Carter, M.E.; de Lecea, L. Stanford
University, Stanford, CA. The recent development of light-activated optogenetic probes allows for the identification and
manipulation of specific neural populations and their connections in freely moving animals with unprecedented spatial and
temporal precision. The relative low-cost and easy set-up of this technology has enabled many neuroscientists to add
optogenetics to their repertoire of tools to study the brain. This presentation will illustrate the universal utility and
methodology of applying optogenetics to questions in behavioral neuroscience by highlighting our recent research on the
neural basis of sleep and wakefulness. We recently used multiple optogenetic probes to study hypocretin (Hcrt)-expressing
neurons in the hypothalamus and noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the brainstem, both in isolation and in
combination. We found that both structures play a causal role in sleep-to-wake transitions and the maintenance of
wakefulness. Furthermore, we used a variety of optogenetic techniques to demonstrate that the LC is necessary and sufficient
for acute Hcrt-mediated promotion of wakefulness. These results demonstrate how optogenetics can be used both at the
neuronal and circuit level to address fundamental questions about the brain and behavior.
DISSECTING ADDICTION CIRCUITRY WITH OPTOGENETICS. Moorman D.E.; Vazey E.M.; Aston-Jones G.
Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425. The neural circuitry underlying
motivation for both natural and drug rewards is distributed across brain regions and diverse neuronal phenotypes.
Optogenetics allows manipulation of specific neuronal circuits involved in reward and drug seeking with exquisite spatial and
temporal precision. By using cell-type-specific promoters, specific classes of neurons can be probed, even in phenotypicallyheterogeneous neuronal regions. Here we will present our recent work investigating how optogenetic manipulation of
neurons in multiple brain regions influences reward- and drug-seeking. We will first describe results from
electrophysiological studies of addiction-related neural circuitry, demonstrating how data previously obtained using electrical
stimulation can be refined with optogenetics to unambiguously characterize neuronal relationships across brain regions (e.g.,
the projection from the prefrontal cortex to the ventral tegmental area). We will next focus on studies investigating the roles
of interconnected areas such as the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system and subregions of the prefrontal cortex in
regulating behavior during reward- and drug-seeking tasks. Additionally, we will emphasize the relative ease and low cost
with which optogenetics can be incorporated into most behavioral testing environment, making the use of this technique
accessible to all behavioral neuroscientists. Acknowledgements: Dr. Priyattam J. Shiromani and Dr. Luis de Lecea
generously contributed the hypocretin/orexin channelrhodopsin-2 construct. Funding provided by PHS grants R37-DA
06214, P50-DA015369, R01-MH092868, and R21-DA032005.
SEEING IS BREATHING. Feldman, J.L.,Dept of Neurobiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1763. I will describe two
projects that exploit optogenetics/advanced optics to study mechanisms underlying the generation of the rhythm of breathing.
1) We (and others) have established that the preBtzinger Complex is the critical kernel for normal breathing at rest, when
inspiration is active and expiration is passive. We hypothesized a second oscillator for breathing, called the retrotrapezoid
nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG), generated active expiration. We transfected RTN/pFRG neurons in adult
rats with channelrhodopsin. By activating these neurons we can rapidly transform a resting breathing pattern with passive
expiration into one with active expiration (Pagliardini S, Janczewski WA, Tan W, Dickson CT , Deisseroth K, Feldman JL
(2011) Active expiration induced by excitation of ventral medulla in adult anesthetized rats. J. Neurosci. 31(8):28952905.). 2)
A medullary slice from neonatal rodents containing the preBtzinger Complex can generate an inspiratory-related rhythm.
Using holographic photolysis of caged glutamate, we can target and excite 1-10 inspiratory neurons with considerable
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temporal precision. Stimulation of 3-9 neurons can trigger an inspiratory burst (Kam K, Worrell JW, Ventalon C, Emiliani V,
Feldman JL. Holographic photostimulation of 4-9 neurons triggers inspiratory burst generation in the neural circuit
controlling mammalian respiratory rhythm in vitro. Program No. 386.18. 2011 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Washington,
DC: Society for Neuroscience, 2011. Online). I will discuss this technique and the interpretation of these data.
SLEEP INDUCTION BY OPTOGENETIC INHIBITION OF HYPOCRETIN NEURONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR
INSOMNIA. Kilduff, T.S. Center for Neuroscience, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA. Hypocretin/orexin
(Hcrt) neurons have a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. To help determine how these neurons promote
wakefulness, we collaborated with the lab of Dr. Akihiro Yamanaka at the National Institute of Physiological Sciences
(Okazaki, Japan) who generated transgenic mice in which Hcrt neurons expressed the light-activated chloride pump,
halorhodopsin. Slice patch clamp recordings of Hcrt/halorhodopsin neurons demonstrated that photic illumination reduced
Hcrt neuron discharge. Acute silencing of Hcrt neurons in vivo induced synchronization of the electroencephalogram (EEG)
and reduction in amplitude of the electromyogram (EMG) that is characteristic of slow wave sleep (SWS). Although the
discharge of dorsal raphe (DR) serotonergic neurons was reduced during acute Hcrt neuron photoinhibition, DR neurons
exhibited normal discharge rates in mice lacking Hcrt neurons. Thus, although usually highly dependent on Hcrt neuronal
activity, serotonergic DR neuronal activity can be regulated appropriately in the chronic absence of Hcrt input. Together,
these results demonstrate that acute inhibition of Hcrt neurons results in EEG synchronization and reduction of EMG
amplitude characteristic of SWS and in reduced firing rate of neurons in an efferent projection site thought to be involved in
arousal state regulation. Since these effects were time-of-day dependent, activation of Hcrt neurons appears to be necessary
for wakefulness during the light period when homeostatic sleep drive is at the highest level (Supported by NIH
R01NS057464).
2:00-3:35
Symposium: BRAIN HEALTH: THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS. Chairs:
Corina O. Bondi and Michael J. Weiser
DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA) IS ESSENTIAL FOR NEURAL DEVELOPMENT: A BEHAVIORAL
PERSPECTIVE. Weiser, M.J.; Salem, N.; Dahms, I. DSM Nutritional Products LLC, Columbia, MD, 21045, USA.
Docosahexaenoic acid is a 22-carbon fatty acid containing six double bonds, a most unusual structure, found at high
concentrations in membrane aminophospholipids in the brain and retina. Dietary deprivation of omega-3 fatty acid sources in
the pregnant female leads to a deficiency of DHA in the nervous system of her offspring. This loss of brain DHA leads to
losses in brain function as best measured by behavioral means. For example, increases in escape latency in the Morris Water
maze occur which can be subsequently reversed when a single nutrient (alpha-linolenic acid) is again added to the rat diet.
This conclusively demonstrated that this loss in brain function is a result of the loss of this single compound in the brain.
Stress can exacerbate the behavioral deficits associated with brain DHA loss as observed in the elevated plus maze. A failure
to acquire a set learning paradigm was observed in an olfactory based, two odor discrimination task. Studies indicate that this
was not due to a sensory or motivational loss but an emotional or executive function change and a change in cognitive
capability is suggested.
OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS: LIMITING DIETARY NUTRIENTS WITH CRITICAL ROLES IN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.
Innis S.M. Dept Paediatrics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain omega 3 fatty acid essential in early development due to its role as a major
component of neural membranes. Omega-3 fatty acids are sparsely distributed in foods, and DHA is naturally present only in
animal tissues, with fish being the richest source. The shorter chain omega-3 alpha linolenic (ALA) is found in plants, but its
distribution is also limited. Current evidence suggests ALA conversion to DHA is insufficient to meet brain DHA needs with
typical western diets. The mothers DHA status in gestation and lactation determines the maternal-to-infant DHA transfer
across the placenta and in breast milk. Selective DHA transfer does not protect the infant from low maternal DHA.
Experimental studies show decreased DHA in the developing brain impairs neurogenesis, and alters neurotransmitters,
behavior and learning. Whether omega-3 fatty acid insufficiency constrains neural development in infants, however, is a
complex question due to the many variables impacting child development. We used a longitudinal intervention with 400
mg/d DHA or placebo from 16 wk gestation until delivery; in which case benefit of DHA can occur only if omega-3 fatty
acid deficiency is present. DHA supplementation increased maternal DHA status by 35-40%. Using a risk reduction
approach, infants in the placebo group were more likely to score in the lowest than highest quartile on the Bayley Scales III
language subscale. Our studies show omega-3 fatty acids are limiting in many diets, DHA status is low, and provide evidence
that poor fatty acid nutrition may limit childrens potential to reach their best developmental outcome. Funded by the
Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
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DIETARY DEFICIENCY IN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN RAT BEHAVIOR AND
BRAIN MARKERS OF MONOAMINERGIC INNERVATION. Bondi, C.O.; Tock, J.L.; Moghaddam, B. Dept. of
Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA. The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),
such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play an important role in normal brain structure and function. The current Western diet
is deficient in n-3 PUFAs, and several findings in humans support the hypothesis of functional links between PUFA status,
brain neurotransmission alterations and behavioral disorders. We investigated involvement of n-3 PUFAs in central nervous
system function by assessing effects of dietary PUFA deficiency in a variety of behavioral tasks in consecutive generations of
rats, as well as brain markers of monoaminergic innervation, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine
transporter 2 (VMAT2). Behavioral testing during various stages of development included anxiety-like behavior, locomotor
function, recognition memory and attentional set-shifting behavior in rats bred to a second generation on diets that were
either deficient (DEF) or adequate (ADQ) in PUFAs. While the first generation of DEF rats rendered transient changes in
behavior, the second generation offspring displayed increased anxiety-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, reduced recognition
memory and impaired attentional set-shifting performance. Brain analyses revealed dramatic reductions in n-3 and
compensatory increases in n-6 whole-brain fatty acid composition, as well as reduced VMAT2 and elevated TH protein
expression in dorsal striatum. This generational n-3 PUFA deprived rat model may be useful for revealing the contribution of
chronic dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency to behavioral deficits relevant to psychiatric illnesses.
4:30-6:30
Symposium: AGGRESSION, NEUROMODULATION, AND SOCIAL ADAPTATION: LESSONS
FROM MULTIPLE ANIMAL MODELS. Chairs: Gary R. Ten Eyck and Cliff H. Summers
SOCIAL ADAPTATION IN THE MOUSE. Blanchard, R.J.; Pearson, B.L. Dept. of Psychology. University of Hawaii,
Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Social behaviors in the mouse involve a number of specific behavioral patterns. These
include conspecific aggression and defense, parental and sexual behaviors and play fighting. In addition to these categories,
each of which is associated with particular motivational states and functional outcomes, there is a more general category of
social motivation not associated with particular functions. We are developing measures of such prosocial motives and the
behaviors associated with them. Our tests include seminatural situations (the visible burrow system); situations in which
direct contact with conspecifics cannot be avoided and social contact behaviors are analyzed (social proximity test); as well
as tests aimed as assessing social motivations (social place preference conditioning). These tests are providing insights in the
study of mouse models of autism.
THE NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SEX CHANGE IN CORAL REEF FISHES. Godwin,
J.; Slane, M.A. Dept of Biology and W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
NC 27695 USA. The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the
regulatory mechanisms generating behavioral variation from similar genetic templates. Coral reef fishes display an
extraordinary diversity of sexual expression including simultaneous hermaphroditism and functional, socially-controlled sex
change. These systems provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and
physiological variation. Our research using the Caribbean bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, demonstrates a fully
male sexual behavior phenotype can develop even in the absence of gonads, key influences of the neuropeptide arginine
vasotocin on sexual and aggressive behavior, and a controlling role for estrogen biosynthesis in regulating female-to-male
sex change. Current work is aimed at characterizing potential direct vasotocinergic and estrogenic influences on sexual
function and sex change through the kisspeptin system.
CHOICES IN SOCIAL ADAPTATION TO AGGRESSION: NEUROMODULATORY MECHANISMS IN DECISION
MAKING Cliff H. Summers1,2, Tangi R. Summers1,2, David H. Arendt1,2, Justin P. Smith1,2 and Russ E. Carpenter3;
1Department of Biology and 2Neuroscience Group, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of
South Dakota, Vermillion, SD USA 3Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA USA. A recently
developed model of social decision making from our lab has a broad evolutionary scope. A wide range of vertebrate species,
from Rainbow trout to rodents like mice, hamsters and rats utilize aggression to establish social hierarchy or territories, and
the resulting interactions are an established and intense source of stress for both competitors. The model is designed to make
use of this social stressor as a way to determine the neural mechanism involved during decision making under duress.
Aggression from a much larger conspecific constitutes an unconditioned stimulus (after an auditory conditioned stimulus).
This training includes an opportunity for the test animals to escape or remain submissively. The decision is simple but
decisive, and the results are clear. In most species tested (trout, mice and rats) the population is divided between submissive
animals and those that choose to escape. Specialized learning, neurochemical reactions, gene expression and behavior attend
either choice. Learned escape is a 7 step process that includes spatial, social, and instrumental learning, and results in a rapid
decline in latency to escape with each training day. Test animals that do not escape during training exhibit classically
conditioned gene expression, hormonal and neurotransmitter responses, and behavior. Learning escape and submission
involve changed expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrKB, and AMPA GluR1 subunit
mRNAs. Treatment with the CRF1 receptor antagonist during training induces non-escaping animals to begin escaping. We
86
suggest that these social decisions during stressful conditions require environmentally mediated regulation of gene
expression, activity dependent neuronal plasticity, modification of neural circuit signaling, and learning plus memory
formation to produce adaptive behavioral responses.
AGGRESSION, DEFENSE, AND PATERNAL CARE IN THE INVASIVE PUERTO RICAN COQUÍ FROG,
ELEUTHERODACTYLUS COQUI. Ten Eyck, G.R.; Calibuso, M.J. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of
Pharmacy, University of Hawaii, Hilo, HI, USA. A novel animal model has been developed for studies in developmental,
reproductive and social behaviors. The Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, is a frog that has two very
interesting evolutionarily derived characters, 1) paternal care - whereby paternal males brood and aggressively defend the
developing eggs/embryos and hatched froglets 3-5 days following hatching, and 2) direct development - the free swimming,
tadpole stage characterized by most frogs has been eliminated and frogs develop directly into the adult phenotype. Using this
model we carried out investigations on the changes in the brain that occur during paternity and the effects of stress on
paternal care. The stressor was a recording of a calling conspecific male, which is a natural stressor because other males (and
females) eat the developing eggs and embryos. We investigated changes in behavior during stressful periods, if and how
stress promotes offspring abandonment and the corresponding brain changes during paternity. Experiments were also carried
out on territorial males and what neurochemical systems are involved in activating behavior during this time. Comparisons
were made between aggressive behavior in territorial males and defensive behavior during paternal care. Investigations on
reproductive behaviors are significant since the Puerto Rican coquí was recently introduced on the Island of Hawaii and its
widespread distribution is a major environmental and economical concern.
4:30-6:30
Symposium: CONTEXTUAL CONTROL OVER FEAR BEHAVIORS: RECENT ADVANCES AND
MOLECULAR MECHANISMS. Chair: Gavan P. McNally, University of New South Wales, Sydney,
Australia
ELECTRICAL SYNAPTIC CONTROL OVER FEAR BEHAVIORS. Bissiere S. Department of Behavioural Neuroscience,
Florey Neuroscience Institutes, University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Changes in behaviour following emotionally
powerful experiences are mediated by longterm functional modifications in brain circuits. In particular, network activity
among the amygdala, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex play a crucial role in the generation, maintenance and
extinction of fear memories. In the last decade, key studies have demonstrated that such network activity can emerge from the
synchronized firing of specific GABAergic interneuronal populations within these regions. In the adult mammalian brain,
these interneurons are coupled via electrical synapses made of Cx36 proteins, typically referred to as gap junctions. As
opposed to chemical synapses, gap junctions directly connect the membranes of neurons allowing for fast neurotransmission
and for the bidirectional passage of ions, metabolites and second messengers. While our knowledge about electrical synapses
has shed new light about their role in adult brain function, their contribution to fear learning and memory processes is only
starting to be unravelled. Using a multidisciplinary approach in rats combining electrophysiology, imaging, molecular
biology and fear conditioning, we recently identified a novel role for electrical synapses in both hippocampal and amygdaladependent fear memories. These findings provide novel understanding about the functioning of the fear circuitry and may
point towards new therapeutic avenues for anxiety disorders.
NEURONAL ENSEMBLES IN CA1 AND MPFC DIFFERENTIALLY REPRESENT RECENT AND REMOTE
CONTEXTUAL FEAR MEMORIES. Zelikowsky, M.; Fanselow, M.S. Caltech, Pasadena, CA. The ability to recognize
contexts and the significant events that occur within them is vital to the survival of any species. Contextual fear conditioning
provides an excellent model of this ability, as it requires an animal to form a contextual representation and associate that
representation with an aversive event. Activity within the brain regions implicated in contextual fear can be assessed using
catFISH (cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization), which provides a
visualization of the neuronal populations involved in two, temporally distinct events as indexed by Arc mRNA expression
(Guzowski et al., 1999). Classically, the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been implicated as a key structure in contextual
processing (Fanselow, 2000; 2010) and is thought to initially provide the detailed contextual representation underlying
contextual fear conditioning (Wiltgen et al., 2010). Meanwhile, recent findings suggest a possible role for the medial
prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in contextual fear, with an emphasis on the mPFC in the permanent storage of long-term memories
(Quinn et al., 2008; Frankland et al., 2004; Goshen et al. 2011). We investigated the behavior of neuronal ensembles in the
CA1 region of the DH, the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the mPFC (both infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) subregions)
following contextual fear conditioning and testing one or thirty days later (recent vs. remote memory test), in the same
context or in a novel context (generalization test). We found that recently acquired memories were context-specific and
recruited neuronal populations in CA1 and mPFC that showed a profile of Arc induciton consistent with a role for contextual
encoding. In contrast, when contextual fear memories transferred from a recent to remote state, Arc expression in CA1
persisted but failed to exhibit context-specificity, suggesting that the detailed contextual representation encoded in CA1
following recently acquired memories may fade with time.
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CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCE IN CONDITIONED FEAR IN JUVENILE RATS: FORGETTING VS. EXTINCTION.
Kim, J.H. Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Parkville, Australia. The most common way of studying learned fear in the
laboratory involves a Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which an initially neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented
with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Subsequent presentations of the CS elicit a variety of fear behaviors. These
fear responses can be spontaneously forgotten over time, at least due to changes in the context from where the memory is
acquired. Alternatively, fear is also reduced by repeatedly presenting the CS without the US. This procedure is referred to as
extinction. Extinction has attracted much attention over the past decade (for review, see Kim & Richardson, 2010), because
understanding how fear is diminished is critically important to the development of effective treatments for various anxiety
disorders. Similar to spontaneous forgetting, it is widely accepted that extinction memory is context-specific, at least in adult
rats. That is, any changes in temporal, physical, or internal context from where extinction training has occurred can bring
back the fear memory without any re-training (i.e., spontaneous recovery, renewal and reinstatement). However, I have
collected substantial behavioral and neurobiological evidence that show fundamental differences in the extinction processes
across development. Specifically, postnatal day (P) 17 rats (infant/juvenile), in contrast to P24 rats (pre-adolescent), fail to
show spontaneous recovery, renewal or reinstatement following extinction of learned fear, suggesting that extinction is
context-independent and is effectively erasure in P17 rats. These differences are accompanied by developmental differences
in the neural circuitry underlying extinction, as indicated by immunohistochemistry and localized infusion studies.
Interestingly, spontaneous forgetting in P17 rats appears to be sensitive to contextual influences, which suggests a double
dissociation between forgetting and extinction across development. These findings suggest novel ways to explore treatments
for anxiety disorders, and highlight that treatments should focus on the young population.
TRACES OF MEMORY: WHY RELEARNING FEAR FOLLOWING FORGETTING IS AN NMDAR-INDEPENDENT
PROCESS. Li, S; Langton, J.M.; Richardson, R. School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Australia.
NMDA receptors (NMDArs) are thought to be crucial for learning and memory. However, recent studies have shown that
under certain circumstances learning can occur without the involvement of NMDArs, such as during reacquisition and reextinction. That is, in contrast to initial acquisition and extinction, we have recently demonstrated that reacquisition and reextinction can occur without the involvement of NMDArs. In addition, this transition is context-dependent. We have
continued this line of investigation by examining whether reacquisition of fear following forgetting would be mediated by
NMDArs. Unlike adult animals that are able to retain fear memories for almost their entire lifespan, infant rats exhibit
substantial and spontaneous forgetting over several days. In this series of experiments, infant postnatal day (P) 17 rats were
trained to fear a white-noise which was paired with a footshock; these animals exhibited complete forgetting after 2 weeks, as
indicated by low levels of freezing to the white-noise. We then injected rats with either an NMDAr-antagonist (MK-801) or
saline and retrained them to fear the same white-noise. The question of interest was whether reacquisition would be impaired
by administration of MK-801. In the case that forgetting involves erasure of the memory trace, reacquisition (like initial
acquisition) should be NMDAr-dependent, but if the original fear memory trace persists, reacquisition should be NMDArindependent. Other factors that may influence NMDAr involvement in reacquisition such as stimulus-specificity (does it
matter what stimulus is used at reacquisition?), context (how does a change temporal context affect reacquisition?), and earlylife experiences (how does an aversive experience early in life affect reacquisition later in life?) are also discussed. The
presentation will highlight the importance of further research into the role of NMDArs in learning and memory.
8:00-10:00
112.
Poster Session 3: Disease Models
LOCAL OREXINERGIC ACTIVATION AND THE INFLUENCE ON THE FORCED SWIM TEST. Arendt D;
Oliver K; Summers C. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Affective disorders are too often the result from
stress overburdening behavioral and physiological coping mechanisms. Repeated laboratory and real world
examples demonstrate that animal populations are heterogeneous with respect to their susceptibility to the negative
effects of excessive stress. This study was designed to understand the underlying basis behind these variable stress
coping abilities. Evidence suggests that the orexin (hypocretin) system is involved in anxiety and depression. While
orexin projects to many of the brain regions associated with stress and depression, a number of studies on this
neuropeptide have conflicting results with respect to anxious or depressive behaviors. The reason for this
contradiction may be that most of these studies involve systemic effects rather than specific brain areas. Our
experiments correlate depressive behavior, as measured by the forced swim test (FST), with site-specific orexinergic
activation in mice. An often overlooked detail of the FST is that it is stressful. As such, it provides a means to
monitor both coping behavior, and the physiological effects of a stressor. We found a greater orexinergic activation
of the dorsomedial-perifornical hypothalamus in response to the FST despite there being a lack of relationship with
overall duration of immobility. Some of the variation in FST behavior can be explained by the level of the peptide in
regions where orexenergic neurons project. In the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus there was a
strong negative linear relationship between orexin A and the duration of immobility, lending some support to the
idea of orexin A in the hippocampus producing an antidepressant effect. The impact of orexin signaling in the
basolateral, medial and central nuclei of the amygdala on FST performance is more complex due to a U-shaped
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function, where animals exhibiting both high and low immobility exhibit increased orexin A expression. Orexin in
the thalamic paraventricular nucleus, an area densely innervated by orexin fibers in addition to being a convergence
site for stress circuitry, surprisingly did not correlate with immobility. Some of the questions left unanswered from
the site specific quantification of the orexin ligands may be better addressed once the gene expression of the two
receptors is examined more closely. Preliminary data show a weak correlation between the type two orexin receptor
transcript in the hippocampus and FST performance.
113.
NEUREGULIN 1 AND REPEATED RESTRAINT STRESS INTERACT TO PROMOTE DEFICITS IN
SENSORIMOTOR GATING AND GROWTH OF DENDRITIC SPINES IN ADOLESCENT MICE. Arnold, J.C
a,b,c.; Chohan T.W.a,b; Boucher A.A.b; Karl, T.c,d; Bennett M.R.b a Department of Pharmacology, Bosch
Institute, University of Sydney 2006, Australia;b Brain and Mind Research Institute, Camperdown 2050, Australia;
c Schizophrenia Research Institute, Darlinghurst 2010, Australia; d Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick
2031, Australia. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene that may predispose to sensorimotor
deficits and confer vulnerability to stress. Here we examined whether repeated stress in adolescence affects
sensorimotor gating function as measured by prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) in heterozygous Nrg1 mice (Nrg1
HET) compared to wild type (WT) mice. We also examined whether stress differentially affected dendritic spine
morphology in these mice. Adolescent mice were subjected to 14 daily, 30 min restraint sessions or left in their
homecages undisturbed. On days 1 and 14, immediately after stress exposure, animals were first tested in animal
models of anxiety (the elevated plus maze and then light-dark test) before being assessed for changes in PPI.
Adolescent Nrg1 HET mice were marginally more sensitive to acute stress than WT mice as measured in animal
models of anxiety, however both genotypes habituated to stress-induced modulation of anxiety-related behaviour by
the final day of testing. While acute restraint stress did not affect PPI in either genotype, Nrg1 HET mice repeatedly
exposed to restraint stress displayed PPI deficits that were not observed in non-stressed Nrg1 HET mice or stressed
WT mice. Repeated stress increased the growth of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex of WT mice, an effect
absent in Nrg1 HET mice. These results demonstrate that Nrg1 modulates neurobehavioural responses to repeated
stress at a vulnerable period of neurodevelopment.
114.
WHAT DRIVES A FISH TO DIVE? Motivation and defensive behavior in zebrafish R. Blaser and K.
Goldsteinholm, University of San Diego The diving response exhibited by zebrafish upon exposure to a novel
environment is one of the most common behavioral tests used with zebrafish. Although both the diving response and
scototaxis are used as a measure of anxiety, the defensive behavioral repertoire of zebrafish is quite complex and not
yet well understood. We report here the results of a series of experiments aimed at better understanding the
defensive behavior of zebrafish, using the black/white test and a depth preference test. Using a visual-cliff type
apparatus, we have determined that avoidance of the surface, and not approach to the substrate, motivates the diving
response. Similarly, behavior in the black/white test appears to be motivated by avoidance of the white chamber
rather than approach to the black chamber. In both tests, subjects exhibit immobility only in the preferred location
(deep or dark location) if the choice is available. However, confinement to deep/shallow conditions produces
different patterns of behavior than confinement to black/white conditions. Depth preference appears to be more
sensitive to stressors or stimuli external to the test, while black/white preference may measure primarily the
behavioral response to the test stimuli. Combined with previous experiments presenting the effects of drugs on
behavior in the tests, we argue that the tests measure dissociable mechanisms of behavior.
115.
DISTINCT NEUROBEHAVIOURAL PROFILE OF P2X7-/- MICE: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANIA, ANXIETY
AND AGGRESSION. Boucher, A.A.; Todd, S.; Bennett, M.; Kassiou, M.; Arnold, J.C. Brain and Mind Research
Institute and Department of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, Australia. The P2X7 receptor is implicated in
the pathogenesis of mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder and P2X7 knockout (P2X7-/-) mice
show resilience in animal model of depression. Here we aim to examine whether P2X7-/- mice display altered social
anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviour and aggression as measured in the social interaction, marble burying and
resident-intruder tests respectively. P2X7-/- and WT mice were tested in the social interaction test and marble
burying test at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age. A separate cohort of P2X7-/- and WT mice were then examined in the
resident-intruder test of aggression. The neural substrates underlying any differential aggressivity in P2X7-/- mice
was also investigated using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. P2X7-/- mice showed longer latency to social interaction
and decreased locomotor activity compared to WT mice at 4 weeks but not at 6 or 8 weeks, suggestive of impaired
novelty seeking in P2X7-/- mice. P2X7-/- mice showed decreased levels of marble burying over weeks of testing
which was most pronounced at 8 weeks of age. In the resident-intruder test P2X7-/- mice showed decreased time per
aggressive incident and were significantly less likely to show severely aggressive behavior compared to WT mice.
The medial orbitofrontal cortex showed greater c-Fos activation in P2X7-/- residents but not in WT mice.
Furthermore, severely aggressive P2X7-/- mice showed increased c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral septum
compared to WT mice. P2X7 receptor antagonists may therefore be potentially beneficial in the treatment of
89
multiple psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorders, those involving altered novelty seeking (e.g.
mania and addiction) and aggression.
116.
EFFECTS OF MATERNAL SEPARATION ON SOCIAL INTERACTION. Diehl, L.A.; Henriques, T.P.; Corra,
C.N.; Lucion, A.B; Dalmaz, C. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The tactile
stimulation from the mother during the first week of life appears to have an important role in establishing stable
behavioral phenotypes on the offspring. The study of social behavior is critical for understanding the
neurobiological basis for psychiatric disorders specifically affecting this behavior. Our objective was to analyze the
effects of maternal separation (MS) on social behaviors of adult rats. Male and female Wistar rats were submitted
(or not) to repeated MS (3h/day) during postnatal days 1-10. At 70 days of age, the animals were submitted to social
interaction test which lasted 20 min. The test apparatus consisted of 2 clear boxes (A and B) connected to a third
(neutral). With the connecting doors closed, two adult rats from the same experimental group (regarding sex, MS or
not) were placed into boxes A and B, one in each box. Each rat remained confined to its own box, without access to
the neutral box, for 24 h. The doors to compartments were opened allowing both rats the exploration of all three
compartments. It was observed: number and duration of attacks, boxing, biting; time spent in non-social behavior;
and time spent in active social interaction (sniffing, mounting or crawling under or over the other rat). Two-way
ANOVA test showed differences on social behaviors. Total sniffing: MS and sex effects, MS males had decreased
scores; non-social behaviors: MS had increased scores; lateral attack: MS and sex effects, MS males had increased
scores; frontal attack: MS and sex effects, MS males had decreased scores; boxing: MS and sex effects, MS and
females had decreased scores. Considering the development of rodents, stressful events that happen in the early
stages of life can affect neural systems and behavior. MS during the neonatal period may adversely affect the
establishment of social relationships in adult life.
117.
IMPAIRED CONTEXT DISCRIMINATION AND NMDA RECEPTOR EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION IN
THE DENTATE GYRUS OF A MOUSE MODEL OF FRAGILE X SYNDROME. Eadie, B.1,2; Cushman, J.3;
Majaess, N.2; Bostrom, C.2; Kannangara, T.2; Fanselow, M.3; Christie, B.2. 1.MD/PhD Program, University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 2.Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC,
Canada. 3.Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Fragile X syndrome (FXS)
is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. This X-linked disorder is caused by the transcriptional
repression of a single gene, Fmr1. The loss of Fmr1 transcription prevents the production of Fragile X mental
retardation protein (FMRP), which in turn disrupts the expression of a variety of key synaptic proteins. A clear link
between synaptic dysfunction and behavioral impairment has been elusive despite the fact that several animal
models of FXS have been generated. Here we report that Fmr1 knockout mice exhibit impaired bidirectional
NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent synaptic plasticity, NMDAR subunit expression and
NMDAR-mediated currents in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Interestingly, mice lacking the Fmr1
gene show impaired performance in a context discrimination task that normally requires functional NMDARs in the
DG. These data indicate that loss of FMRP results in significant NMDAR dysfunction in the DG and associated
impairments in behavior.
118.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO PROPIONIC ACID PRODUCES DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, HYPERSENSITIVITY TO ACOUSTIC STARTLE, AND SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT IN ADOLESCENT RATS Foley, KA;
MacFabe, DF; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K-P Dept Psychology, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Univ. of Western
Ontario, London CAN Gastrointestinal (GI) system influences may contribute to the development of autism
spectrum disorders (ASD) as a subset of patients exhibit GI symptoms, with abnormal bacterial flora present in the
GI tract. Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid and an enteric bacterial fermentation product. PPA infusion
(ICV) in adult rats produces behavioral (repetitive movements, impaired social interaction) and brain changes
(neuroinflammation, oxidative stress) similar to those seen in ASD patients. This study extends the PPA model to
developing rats. Long-Evans rats were injected once/day SC with PPA (500 mg/kg; G12-16), lipopolysaccharide
(LPS, 50 µ/kg; G15-16) or phosphate buffered saline vehicle. Pups were monitored for developmental milestones
and assessed in multiple behavioral paradigms in adolescence. Pups exposed to PPA or LPS prenatally displayed
developmental delay. Hypersensitivity to acoustic startle, in the absence of prepulse inhibition deficits, was found in
offspring and preliminary results suggest that female offspring of PPA-treated dams show significant social
impairment, avoiding conspecific animals in an open-field. These results provide further support for the hypothesis
that PPA and immune stimulation may be environmental factors contributing to the development of some forms of
ASD.
90
119.
CHEMOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF COCCINIA INDICA AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED
OXIDATIVE STRESS AND GENOTOXICITY IN BONE MARROW Hirani K*, Nitharwal R#, Karchuli MS#,
Patel H#, Ugale RR# *Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics, Miller
School of Medicine, USA. #Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, S.K.B.College of Pharmacy,
Kamptee, Nagpur 440024, India. Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent is used in the treatment of
cancer owing to its broad spectrum efficacy, its metabolites exhibits severe undesired toxicities in normal cells. The
present study was aimed to investigate the chemoprotective potential of Coccinia indica against CP induced
oxidative stress and genotoxocity in bone marrow. Animals were orally pre-treated with Coccinia indica extract
(200, 400 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. On 5th day these animals were injected with CP (50 mg/kg i.p) and
sacrificed after 24 hr. for the evaluation of oxidative stress, micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations.
We found that the CP induced increase in the serum biomarker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alkaline
aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced by Coccinia indica
extract. We also found that the CP significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase and
glutathione (GSH) levels in brain and it was significantly reversed by Coccinia indica extract (400 mg/kg). Further,
pre-treatment with Coccinia indica extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently reduced
micronuclei formation and incidence of aberrant cells. Thus, the present results indicate the chemoprotective
potential of Coccinia indica extract against CP induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in bone marrow.
120.
IPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDE EXPRESSION AND INDUCES A
STATE OF NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE THROUGH THE CYCLO-OXYGENASE-2 DEPENDENT
PRODUCTION OF PROSTAGLANDINS. Ganegala, H; Parkington, H; Hollis, J. Monash University, Melbourne,
Australia. Lipopolysaccharide alters hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and induces a state of negative energy
balance through the cyclo-oxygenase-2 dependent production of prostaglandins. Hasini Ganegala, Helena C.
Parkington, Jacob H. Hollis Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.
Inflammatory factors signal through hypothalamic neuropeptide systems to promote a state of negative energy
balance, i.e. reductions in food intake and increases in energy expenditure. The primary hypothalamic neuropeptide
systems that regulate energy balance include the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and neuropeptide Y (NPY)
neurons of the arcuate nucleus. The present study has investigated in mice the acute effects of peripheral
lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg bw) with and without selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, 50 mg/kg/d)
inhibition of prostaglandins on POMC, NPY and prostaglandin receptors 3 (EP3) and 4 (EP4) gene expression, as
well as a number of measures of energy balance (food intake, respiratory exchange ratio, body temperature). LPS
administration increased POMC and decreased NPY gene expression, increased the expression of EP3 and EP4,
reduced food intake, decreased respiratory exchange ratio, and increased body temperature. COX-2 inhibition
partially attenuated many of the effects of LPS, both in terms of POMC and NPY gene expression, as well as
measures of energy balance. In a second series of experiments, central (icv) administration of prostaglandin E2
(PGE2, 100 nmol) increased the expression of the immediate early gene Fos within POMC neurons and also had
much of the same effects on measures of energy balance as peripheral LPS administration. These studies will
provide insight into potential therapeutics to counter the anorexia and cachexia suffered in chronic diseases such as
cancer.
121.
EXTENDED EXPOSURE TO NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ENRICHED ENVIRONMENTS:
NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES IN MALE LONG EVANS RATS. 1Hyer, M.;
1Rzucidlo, A.; 2de Silva, I.; 3Bardi, M.; 1Lambert, K. Dept. of Psychology, 1Randolph-Macon College, Ashland
VA USA 23005; Dept. of Psychology, 2University of Richmond, VA USA; Dept. of Psychology, 3Marshall
University, Huntington WV USA. Prior research in our laboratory suggests that exposure to natural, as opposed to
artificial, stimuli in complex enriched environments differentially affects emotional responses. In the current study,
effects of longer durations of varied types of enrichment were explored. Long-Evans male rats were randomly
assigned to one of three environments [laboratory (L), artificial enriched (AE), or natural enriched (NE)] for sixteen
weeks (n=10). Either artificial or natural objects intended for manipulation/exploration, hiding, digging or climbing
comprised the enriched and naturalistic habitats. Subsequently, rats were exposed to four behavioral assessments; a
problem-solving digging task, predator odor exposure, novel object exploratory task, and a diving escape task. Fecal
samples were collected following habitat exposure for one month and analyzed for corticosterone (CORT) and
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Animals were perfused following the dive-escape task and brains were processed
for c-Fos, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity (ir). BDNF and
NPY ir were quantified in the dentate gyrus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, respectively. NE animals
exhibited a longer latency to dig in the predator odor task than AE animals (p=.04); additionally, NE rats exhibited
shorter freezing durations than the L and AE groups during the novel object task (p=.004). Focusing on brain data,
NE animals exhibited decreased levels of fos-ir in the basolateral amygdala than the other groups (p=.01) and more
fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens core than the L group (p=.05). No effects were observed in CORT or DHEA levels
91
or in other brain areas investigated. In sum, extended exposure to the NE habitats led to context specific fear
responses; additionally, fos data suggest that the NE animals experienced less fear and more motivation during the
water escape task. Thus, extended NE exposure may enhance emotional resilience in rodents.
122.
BEHAVIORAL DISCREPANCY BETWEEN GIT1-/- AND GIT1+/- MICE. Jiseok Lee. Dept. of Biological
Sciences. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305701, Republic of Korea. GIT1 is a multi-domain adaptor protein enriched in synapses. GIT1 is involved in diverse
processes including receptor trafficking and cytoskeletal regulation. We generated Git1 mutant mice to study the
function of GIT1 at behavior levels. We analyzed both Git1-/- and Git1+/-, and found that Git1-/- show increased
locomotor activity in open field test, which is alleviated by amphetamine treatment. In contrast, Git1+/- showed
locomotor activity comparable to wild-type, although the activity amount decreased near the end of open field
session. When treated with amphetamine, Git1+/- showed increased locomotor activity, which is similar to typical
response to psychostimulants in wild-type animals. Thus, Git1 mutant mice are one case of showing behavioral
discrepancy between homozygous and heterozygous mutants.
123.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF PHELLODENDRI CORTEX ON LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED MEMORY
IMPAIRMENT IN RATS Lee, B.; Sur, B.J.; Shim, I.; Lee, H.; Hahm, D.H. Acupuncture and Meridian Science
Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea. The
purpose of this study was to examine whether Phellodendri cortex extract (PCE) could improve learning and
memory impairments caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in the rat brain. The effect of PCE
on modulating pro-inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus and its underlying mechanism were investigated.
Injection of LPS into the lateral ventricle caused acute regional inflammation and subsequent deficits in spatial
learning ability in the rats. Daily administration of PCE (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 days markedly improved
the LPS-induced learning and memory disabilities in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests. It
also significantly improved other LPS-induced sickness behavioral symptoms, such as locomotor impairment and
body weight loss. PCE administration significantly decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators
such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hippocampus, as
assessed by RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Together, these findings suggest that PCE significantly
attenuated LPS-induced spatial cognitive impairment through inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory
mediators in the rat brains. These results suggested that PCE extract may be effective in preventing or slowing the
development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimers disease, by improving cognitive and memory function
due to its anti-inflammation activity in the brain (This research was supported by by the National Research
Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST)(2010-0003678)).
124.
WHAT ARE WE ASSESSING IN JUVENILE PLAY BEHAVIOR? Lewter, L.; Hohmann, C.F. Department of
Biology, Morgan State University, Baltimore MD. Play behavior has been used to test for sociability in juvenile
rodents models for depression and schizophrenia. Our lab has used play behavior in a neonatal serotonin depletion
model for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as in a mouse model for neonatal stress effects. For the ASD
model, three litters of AMC (n=15), vehicle injected (Veh) (n=12), and 5,7-DHT lesioned mice (n=10) that were
tested in a Play Behavior Task adapted from Moy et al. Two weanlings, the test mouse and stranger mouse, are
monitored for social interactions that include investigative and affiliative behavior, play soliciting (including pinning
and wrestling) and non-social interactions such as exploratory and repetitive behaviors. We found decreased play
behavior in 5,7-DHT lesioned mice, compared to both AMC and Veh, as well as decreased affiliative behavior
compared to AMC. For the neonatal stress model, three litters of AMC (n=17) and four litters of stressed (STR)
(n=14) and litter mate control (LMC) mice (n=12) were behaviorally tested in the same task. Here, we found
decreased affiliative behavior in both STR and LMC mice, compared to AMC but an increase in play behavior.
Thus, in the autism model, affiliative and play behavior trended into the same direction, while these two behaviors
segregated in the neonatal stress model. This raises the question if affiliative and play behavior measure two
substantially different types of social behavior. We are currently re-analyzing the different components of play
behavior to see if pre-aggressive behaviors, such as pinning, may be more prevalent in the neonatal stress model.
Supported by: SO6GM51771, U54MH066417 & 5R25GM058904.
125.
GIT1 KNOCK-OUT MICE DISPLAY IMPAIRED HABITUATION AND ANXIOLYTIC BEHAVIORS. Mah,
W.; Won, H.; Kim. E. Department of Biological Sciences. KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea. G protein-coupled
receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein and signaling adaptor, which is
highly enriched at neuronal synapses and plays critical roles in synapse formation and maintenance. Recently a
novel association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and GIT1 gene has been revealed. In
addition, GIT1 knock-out mutant mice (Git1−/−) show ADHD-like phenotype, which is ameliorated by treatment of
psychostimulants, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. Although the basic behavioral phenotypes were
92
characterized in previous study, further characterization is needed to fully understand the phenotypes of GIT1
knockout mice. Here, I show the impaired habituation and anxiolytic behavior in elevated plus maze of Git1-/- mice.
These data suggest Git1-/- mice also have problems in cognition and anxiety emotions.
126.
THE EFFECT OF EMBRYONIC ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ON SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND
NEUROCHEMISTRY IN TWO DIFFERENT ZEBRAFISH STRAINS. Mahabir, S.; Chatterjee, D.; Buske, C.;
Gerlai, R. Dept. of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, CA. The biological
mechanisms of social behaviour of vertebrates are complex and not well understood. Low concentrations of alcohol
employed for a short period of time during early development of zebrafish caused no observable anatomical
abnormalities, however, the exposed fish showed impaired social behaviour (i.e. reduced shoaling) at their adult age.
Here we analyze the effect of embryonic alcohol exposure on the ontogenesis of shoaling (group forming) in two
zebrafish strains, TU and AB. We expose the zebrafish to ethanol 24 hour post- fertilization for 2 hours using five
concentrations, 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00% (EtOH vol/vol %). We test shoaling behaviour of each group at
7, 23, 39, 55, 71 and 87 days post fertilization (dpf), a longitudinal analysis. We also analyze the levels of
neurochemicals dopamine, DOPAC (the metabolite of dopamine), serotonin and 5HIAA (the metabolite of
serotonin) from whole brain extracts of the treated fish at four time points: 15, 40, 70 and 102 dpf. We are currently
completing the analyses but preliminary results have already revealed an intriguing strain effect: AB fish show a
significantly more robust age-dependent increase compared to TU fish. Embryonic alcohol exposure induced
changes in shoaling are also expected based upon two independent studies already published. We suggest that
zebrafish may be successfully utilized to investigate the genetic underpinning of shoaling and we hope that once
completed our analyses will reveal differences in alcohol responses between the strains and facilitate the
identification of genes underlying naturally occurring variation in social behaviour and abnormal social behaviour
associated with alcohol consumption as it happens in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Spectrum Disorder cases.
127.
ABNORMAL NEURONAL ACTIVATION IN RESPONSE TO NOVELTY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION IN
BTBR T+tf/J MICE. Meyza, K.Z.; Pearson, B.L.; Pobbe, R.L.H.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J. Pacific
Biosciences Research Center and Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822
USA. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are behaviorally characterized as impairments in social interaction and
communication accompanied with repetitive behaviors. Since the genetics of the disorder is complex with as many
as 100 contributing genes, the best way to find out what neuronal circuits are involved in formation of autistic
phenotype, is to use animal models of ASD. Among them, the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were shown to have the
strongest face validity. We have compared the c-Fos protein expression in 23 brain areas of BTBR and highly social
c57BL/6J (B6) mice after exposure to a novel arena or social interaction. We found that several nuclei, including
cortical and central amygdala, CA3 field of the hippocampus, paraventricular and dorsomedial nucleus of the
hypothalamus, ventral premammilary nucleus and the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal grey react
differently to these two types of stimuli in BTBR and B6 mice. The neuronal activation patterns observed in BTBR
mice suggest that their social behavior impairments are related to stronger stress responsiveness of the HPA axis and
that they find social interactions aversive and fear-evoking.
128.
ELEVATED BRAIN HEPARAN SULFATES IN THE NEUROGENIC LATERAL VENTRICLE WALL OF
MECP2 MUTANT MICE. Pearson, B.L.; Corley, M.J.; Blanchard, D.C., Blanchard R.J. Dept. of Psychology and
Pacific Biosciences Research Center. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Methyl CpGbinding protein 2 (MECP2) is an autism candidate gene and underlies most cases of Rett syndrome. Throughout
development, MECP2 is expressed in an activity-dependent manner in neurons and regulates transcription of a
variety genes implicated in psychiatric diseases. MeCP2 protein alters the expression of a variety of
sulfotransferases and other extracellular matrix heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan-regulating enzymes which,
through growth factor sequestering and signaling, regulate neurogenesis, brain development and neuroplasticity. To
determine if MeCP2 mutation affects the abundance of HS, dual channel immunohistochemistry and confocal
microscopy were performed for HS and laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein, in the lateral ventricle
subependymal zone of adult male MeCP2 wild-type and truncated (MeCP2-308/Y) mutant mice. No genotype
differences were noted in the number of HS- and laminin-immunoreactive puncta (fractones) in the subventricular
zone. Likewise, no significant genotype effect was found for the average laminin immunoreactivity per fractone.
However, there was a significant genotype difference in the mean level of HS-immunoreactivity; mutant (Y/-) mice
displayed an elevation. Similarly, the ratio of HS to laminin was significantly increased in the mutants. Interestingly,
these effects appeared to be isolated to bregma +1 but not in more posterior regions of the lateral ventricle, where
mutant and wild-type siblings displayed comparable levels. This anatomical specificity might be relevant in light of
noted disturbances in the forebrain and striatum in autism and Rett syndrome. These results converge on recent
findings of HS disturbances in two other rodent models of autism and suggest that extracellular matrix regulatory
93
systems might underlie or contribute to altered neurodevelopmental trajectories in pervasive developmental
disorders.
129.
OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR AND MECP2(308/Y) KNOCKOUT MOUSE STRAINS DISPLAY ALTERED
EXPRESSION OF AUTISM-RELATED SOCIAL BEHAVIORS. Pobbe, R.L.; Pearson, B.L.; Blanchard, D.C.;
Blanchard, R.J.; Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA; Department
of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. The development of tasks measuring behaviors
specific to the three major symptom categories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) makes it possible to differentiate
mouse models in terms of changes in these specific categories. Prior studies indicate that BTBR T+tf/J mice, the
strain that has been evaluated most extensively, show autism-relevant changes in all three symptom categories;
reciprocal social interactions; communication; and repetitive, ritualized behaviors. The present study was conducted
to further analyze the expression of social behaviors of oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) and Mecp2(308/Y) wild-type (WT)
and knockout (KO) mice, in comparison to the extensively described behavioral changes of BTBR mice, in a battery
of tests specifically designed to provide information on behaviors that may show functional parallels to the core
symptoms of ASD. Oxtr KO mice show robust decreases in reciprocal social interactions, and reduced levels of
communication, but no changes in repetitive, ritualized behaviors; whereas Mecp2(308/Y) KO mice show a slight
but consistent enhancement of social behavior and communication, and no changes in repetitive, ritualized
behaviors. This data base strongly indicates that mouse models can sort the diagnostic symptoms of ASD, and
suggests that biological and physiological analyses of these strains may be capable of providing differential
information on the brain systems involved in particular symptoms of this group of disorders.
130.
DEPRESSION & ANXIETY DIFFERENTIALLY PREDICT HPA REACTIVITY TO COUPLE CONFLICT.
Powers, S.; Laurent, H.; Gunlicks-Stoessel, M.; Balaban, S.; Bent, E. Center for Research on Families, Dept. of
Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program. University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003 USA; Univ. of
Wyoming (Laurent); Univ. of Minnesota (Gunlicks-Stoessel). There is ample empirical evidence that stress in
humans close relationships predicts increased depression and anxiety. Psychoneuroendocrine research has firmly
established the association of depression and anxiety with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
(HPA) axis. This study tested the extent to which patterns of HPA reactivity and recovery under conditions of
conflict in close relationships were differentially predicted by older adolescents depression and anxiety. We
examined adolescent dating couples salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory discussion of a heated and unresolved
relationship conflict. One hundred and ninety-nine opposite-sex couples, 18 21 years old, provided seven salivary
samples in anticipation of the conflict, during the conflict, and throughout an hour-long recovery period. Symptoms
and clinical diagnoses were assessed through questionnaires and structured diagnostic interviews. Hierarchical linear
modeling was used to model the entire trajectory of the HPA response as predicted by symptoms or diagnoses.
Womens depression predicted attenuated cortisol levels during discussion, with a flatter response curve a pattern
consistent with earlier and more chronic course of depression by young adulthood and higher likelihood of comorbid
trauma symptoms. In contrast, mens depression and womens anxiety predicted higher, hyper-activated cortisol
levels. Discussion will focus on the relevance of links between social stress and HPA functioning in human
adolescent couples for animal models of depression and anxiety.
131.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO BACTERIAL LPS LEADS TO LONG-LASTING PHYSIOLOGICAL
CONSEQUENCES IN MALE OFFSPRING. Solati, J.; Asiaei, M. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science,
Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Growing evidence suggests that early life events are critical
determinants for disorders later in life. According to a comprehensive number of epidemiological/animal studies,
exposure to lipopolysaccharide, causes alteration in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal
functioning and the hormonal system which may contribute to behavioral and neurological injuries. In this study we
investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide administration on physiological parameters in pregnant dams and their
male offspring aged 9 weeks. In gestational Day 10, pregnant mice were injected intrapritoneally with Salmonella
enterica lipopolysaccharide to model prenatal exposure to infection. The following results were obtained for
offspring from dams stressed during pregnancy: (a) reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze; (b)
reduced food and water intake; (c) reduced body weight from birth up to postnatal Day 40. The observed data
provide experimental evidence showing that prenatal stress can have complex and long-lasting
physiological/behavioral consequences in offspring.
132.
TAIL-PINCH-INDUCED EATING IS ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONALITY AND ACTIVATION OF
HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS. Someya N1; Narikiyo K2; Masuda A3; Hata T1,4;
Tsuneyoshi D1; Aou S1. 1Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu; 2The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku;
3RIKEN, Wako; 4Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. It is known that mild stress induced by a tail-pinch facilitates
eating in rats. However, the relationship between stress-induced eating and individual physiological and
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psychological characteristics has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated whether tail-pinch-induced eating is
associated with anxiety-like behavior and/or activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using male
Sprague-Dawley rats (n=43). At 7 weeks of age, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze
(EPM). At 8 weeks of age, tail-pinch-induced eating was observed in an experimental field as follows: After a 30min habituation period, the tail-pinch was applied for 5 min, followed by a 30-min recovery period. Then blood was
obtained from 19 of 43 rats. During the habituation and recovery periods, rats were allowed to access food ad
libitum. During the recovery period, we observed sizeable inter-individual variability in the amount of food intake.
Thus, we divided the rats into high-responder (HR) and low-responder (LR) groups (n=18 and n=25, respectively).
The amount of food intake was significantly greater in HR than LR during the recovery but not during the
habituation period. The percentage of time spent in the open arms in the EPM was significantly greater in LR than
HR. In addition, plasma concentration of corticosterone was tended to be higher in LR (n=13) than HR (n=6). These
results suggest that the rats showing higher anxiety consumed more food after mild stress without concomitant
activation of HPA.
133.
MATERNAL SEPARATION AND POSTNATAL OXYTOCIN ADMINISTRATION ALTER SOCIAL
RECOGNITION MEMORY IN ADOLESCENT FEMALE MICE. Thomas, N.R., Cornwell, C.A. Depts. of
Psychology. SUNY-Cayuga Community College, Auburn, NY 13021 and Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY
13244. Maternal separation of infant rodents results in long term changes in physiology and behavior, but data
regarding its effects on later social interactions are sparse. This study determined whether separating female infant
mice from their mother, but not siblings, for 3 hours daily, on postnatal days (PND) 1-14, influences social
recognition memory in adolescence (Experiment 1), and whether injecting the social neurohormone, oxytocin (1
mg/kg), on PND 1-14, influences adolescent social memory or social odor preferences in control and maternally
separated (MS) female mice (Experiments 2 and 3). Short- and long-term social recognition, defined as decreased
investigation of a previously encountered adolescent female, were tested on PND 49 and 50 using the habituationdishabituation design. Odor preferences were examined on PND 48 in a two-choice test (social nest bedding vs.
fresh shavings). In Experiment 1, compared to control mice, MS females showed diminished social recognition over
a 10 min interval and no recognition over a 24 hr interval that separated exposures to a consistent female stimulus
animal. MS females also showed impaired discrimination between a previously encountered and novel mouse during
dishabituation trials. Postnatal oxytocin injections did not alter either social recognition or social odor preferences in
control females in Experiment 2, but improved these measures in MS females in Experiment 3. MS-induced
disruption of the ability of adolescent female mice to recognize and discriminate social cues may be linked to its
effects on oxytocin system development.
134.
VICARIOUS SOCIAL DEFEAT INDUCES DEPRESSION- AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR AND
DYSREGULATES GENE EXPRESSION WITHIN THE VTA. 1Warren B.L., 1Alcantara L.F., 1Wright K.N.,
2Vialou V., 1Iiguez S.D., 2Nestler E.J., 1Bolaos-Guzman C.A. 1Department of Psychology, Program in
Neuroscience, Florida State University. 2Fishberg Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine. It
is well known that exposure to severe stress increases the risk for developing mood disorders. However, less is
known about the complex interactions between witnessing and experiencing traumatic events. This study assesses
the effects of a novel social stressor that is insulated from the effects of physical stress. Briefly, an adult male
C57BL/6J mouse was socially defeated (PS) by a larger more aggressive CD1-mouse, while a second male
C57BL/6J mouse witnessed this interaction from an adjacent compartment (ES). Ten days of exposure to ES
induced long-lasting deficits in a battery of behavioral assays designed to assess changes in mood. Specifically, ES
exposure increases sensitivity to anxiety- and stress-eliciting situations both 24 h and 1 month after witnessing
physical stress. Increases in levels of serum corticosterone, a steroid hormone signaling stress response,
accompanied these behavioral deficits. Additionally, we used high throughput sequencing to measure changes in
VTA transcription. Interestingly, we found that a number of transcripts were dysregulated following exposure to ES.
Taken together, these data indicate that witnessing traumatic events is a potent stressor in adult male mice capable of
inducing long-lasting neurobiological perturbations.
135.
KAOLIN-INDUCED VENTRICULOMEGALY AT WEANING PRODUCES LONG-TERM LEARNING AND
MEMORY DEFICITS IN RATS. Williams, M.T.; Lindquist, D.M.; McAllister, J.P. II; Mangano F.T.; Yuan, W.;
Vorhees, C. V. Cincinnati Childrens Research Foundation and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine,
Cincinnati, OH. Primary Childrens Medical Center and University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Kaolin injection in
the cisterna magna of rats produces a permanent barrier to CSF outflow and results in ventriculomegaly and
increased intracranial pressure. If left untreated, long-term behavioral changes can occur. Previous research with
kaolin induced ventriculomegaly (KIV) shows that neonatal administration has mixed effects on Morris water maze
(MWM) performance and motoric performance, perhaps because the severity of the ventriculomegaly was not
accounted for in those studies. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were injected with kaolin or saline on
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postnatal day (P)21. Evans ratios at the end of testing (P49-P50) were used to subdivide the kaolin injected animals
into 4 groups. Locomotor ability and MWM were tested starting on P28 and again on P42. Kaolin injected rats
weighed less than controls throughout testing. Differences in locomotor ability were not apparent until P42. In the
MWM on P28 (122 cm diameter tank), all KIV groups had longer path lengths than controls, but comparable swim
speeds. With the exception of the lowest Evans ratio kaolin group (0.4-0.5), probe trial performance was worse in
the KIV groups relative to controls. On P42 in the MWM (240 cm diameter tank) only the highest Evans ratio kaolin
group (0.7-0.82) showed deficits in the MWM compared with control animals. These high Evans ratio animals
demonstrated no learning in the test relative to all other groups and were the only group to show no probe trial
preference for the platforms location. The swim speeds during the MWM test were comparable among the groups,
suggesting that motor deficits were not responsible for the learning deficits observed. These data suggest that
ventriculomegaly during the initial stages affects learning and memory regardless of severity, and more severe
enlargement leads to longer term learning and memory deficits.
136.
FACILITATION OF PANIC-RELATED DEFENSIVE BEHAVIORS AFTER CORTICOTROPHIN-RELEASING
FACTOR (CRF) INJECTION IN THE RAT DORSOLATERAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY. Zangrossi, H.;
Sergio, T.O. School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The neuropeptide CRF has been
consistently implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety. Recent clinical evidence suggests that polymorphisms in
CRF-1 receptor gene may be associated with panic. The dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) in the midbrain
contains high concentration of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors, and has been considered a key region controlling
behavioral and autonomic reactions associated with panic. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of
DPAG CRF-1 and CRF-2 receptors in the mediation of the escape reaction evoked by either the electrical
stimulation of this midbrain area or the elevated T-maze. Based on pharmacological evidence, these responses have
been related in terms of psychopathology to panic attack. Male Wistar rats were implanted with a guide-cannula or a
chemitrode (a guide cannula plus an electrode) aimed at the DPAG. One-week later, they were intra-DPAG injected
with ovine CRF (non-selective CRF1/2 receptor agonist), the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin or the
preferential CRF2 agonist urocortin, Tests in the DPAG stimulation model or elevated T-maze were performed 10
min later. The results showed that microinjection of CRF facilitated escape expression in both animal models,
indicating a panicogenic-like effect. Intra-DPAG injection of antalarmin or urocortin 2 was without effect. When
antalarmin was administered before CRF, it fully blocked the panicogenic effect caused by the neuropeptide.
Therefore, facilitation of CRF1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the DPAG potentiates the expression of
panic-related defensive responses and this mechanism may be of importance in the pathophysiology of panic
disorder. Financial support: FAEPA and CNPq (Brazil).
137.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DEFECTS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER AND NEUROTROPHIN
RECEPTORS CAUSED BY EG5 MOTOR PROTEIN INHIBITION LEADING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
IN ALZHEIMER`S DISEASE. Csilla Ari1,2, Sergiy I. Borysov1,2,3,7, Timothy D. Boyd1,2 , Jiashin Wu5, Jaya
Padmanabhan1,2, and Huntington Potter1,2,3,6,7 1 USF Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute; 2 Department of Molecular
Medicine, College of Medicine; 3 Eric Pfeiffer Suncoast Alzheimer’s Center; 4 School of Aging Studies, College of
Behavioral and Community Sciences; 5 Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, College of
Medicine; 6 Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa FL, 33613, USA; 7
Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive MRC-PSY Tampa, FL 33612. Our objective was to test whether Aβ
or mutant PS/APP-induced microtubule dysfunction reduces cell surface localization and function of
neurotransmitter and neurotrophin receptors (including p75 or NMDA), therefore leading to cognitive deficits in
neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work had shown that APP over-expression or Aβ treatment disrupts the
cellular MT network and causes mis-localization of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR). Furthermore Aβ
was found to directly bind to and inhibit certain microtubule-dependent kinesin motors, including Eg5, which are
necessary for mitotic spindle structure and function and are also present in mature neurons. Polymorphisms linked to
Eg5/KIF11 are shown to increase AD risk. Cultures were generated of cortical+hippocampal neurons from brains of
E18 mice and of H4/H4APP cells. Immunolabelled cell surface receptors were quantified by laser scanning confocal
microscope. Inhibition of Eg5 by Aβ or the specific Eg5 inhibitor, monastrol reduced transport of the NMDA and
NGF/NTR (p75) receptors to the cell surface. Monastrol or Ab treatment of PC12 cells reduced their sensitivity to
NGF stimulation. Furthermore, like Aβ, monastrol inhibited long term potentiation, a cellular model of NMDAdependent learning and memory, and Eg5 activity was almost completely absent from brains of APP/PS mice, which
also show LTP deficits. Results of behavioral studies of mice at 2 months and 7 months of age treated with
monastrol or vehicle only will be compared to transgenic PS/APP mice. Impairment in working memory trials will
also be discussed based on assessment by radial arm water maze test. These data imply that cognitive deficits in
Alzheimer’s disease and Downs syndrome may derive in part from inhibition of neuronal Eg5 by Aβ, resulting in
impairment of neuronal function through neurotransmitter and neurotrophin receptor mislocalization.
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138.
BCL9 AND C9ORF5 ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: METAANALYSIS OF TWO GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES. Chun Xu; Nagesh Aragam; Erika Cynthia
Villla; Yolanda Posada; ChunXiang Mao; Cynthia Camarillo; Yu Mao; Michael A Escamilla; Ke-Sheng Wang.
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX. Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating
psychiatric condition affecting slightly more than 1% of the population worldwide. While positive symptoms are
ameliorated with pharmacologic treatment, negative symptoms appear to be more resistant to treatment.
Schizophrenia has also been shown to be a multifactorial disorder with a high degree of hereditability (80%) based
on family and twin studies. More than 1000 susceptibility genes have been suggested, but definitive biomarkers
remain elusive. Increasing lines of evidence suggest intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes are associated with
causes of the disease and less genetically complex than the broader disease spectrum. Therefore, our overall
objective was to try to identify genetic variants that are associated with the presence of negative symptoms in
schizophrenia by analyzing two genome-wide association (GWA) data sets: The GAIN sample from the Molecular
Genetics of Schizophrenia including 1172 European-American patients with schizophrenia and 1379 matched
healthy controls, while the nonGAIN sample represents 1090 European-American patients with schizophrenia and
1316 matched healthy controls. Method: Amongst the 2262 patients with schizophrenia, 835 met the DSM-IV-TR
criteria for negative symptoms. Logistic regression analyses of negative symptoms of schizophrenia were performed
for both samples using PLINK. Results: We identified six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in three
genes/loci strongly associated with the presence of negative symptoms in schizophrenia (p < 6.22 10-6), which
included three SNPs in BCL9 gene (rs583583 showed the strongest association at p = 6.00 10-7, OR = 1.28), two
SNPs in C9orf5 (p< 1.32 10-6) and one SNP in ST3Gal1 gene (p = 2.46 10-5). Interestingly, two of three diseaseassociated BCL9-SNPs are located at species-conserved regions which suggest functional importance in gene
regulation. This gene is thought to be involved in neuroplasticity, cell survival, and neurogenesis. Conclusion: Our
current results provide pilot evidence to support the use of negative symptoms as an intermediate phenotype to
dissect the complex genetics of schizophrenia. This is the first report to observe an association of BCL9, C9orf5 and
ST3Gal1 genes with negative symptoms in schizophrenia and highlights the potential use of these SNPs as specific
genetic markers for negative symptoms. However, additional studies are warranted to examine the underlying
mechanisms of these disease-associated SNPs in the three genes.
139.
SEIZURE 6-LIKE GENE ASSOCIATED WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER I Chun Xua,*, Jerry Mullersmanb, Liang
Wangc, Brenda Bin Sud, ChunXiang Maoe, Yolanda Posada, Yu Mao, Michael A Escamillaa, Ke-Sheng Wangc* a
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine Departments of Psychiatry and
Neurology and The Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, El Paso, Texas bDepartment of Pathology (JEM), James
H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA c Department of
Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN
37614, USA d College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, the
People’s Republic of China e Univeristy of Toronto. Objective: Although genetic factors have been implicated in the
etiology of bipolar disorder (BD), no specific gene has been conclusively identified. Given the evidence from the
previous reports on the gene gender interaction and BD-associated genes/loci on human chromosome 22q11-13, a
candidate gene association approach was applied to study the involvement of the genes/loci located on 22q11-13 in
the susceptibility to BD as well as exam sex-specific genetic association with BD. Method: All genotype data on
22q11-13 from 691 BD cases and 1081 matched controls using the Affymetrix Genome-wide human SNP Array 6.0
from European American population were selected from the publicly available data of Whole Genome Association
Study of Bipolar Disorder Study Accession: phs000017.v3.p1. PLINK and HAPLOVIEW were used to conduct
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype analyses. Results: Significant differences in the distribution of
the alleles for 16 SNPs of SEZ6L gene were observed between the female bipolar patients and healthy controls.
Conclusions: The results obtained in the European American population, for the first time, suggest the SEZ6L
genetic variants associated with the female BD patients and provide additional compelling evidence of genetic
variation on 22q11-13 that influences BD risk. The present findings highlight the interaction between gene-gender
as an important factor modifying BD susceptibility.
140.
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS IN AGENESIS OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM: WORKING MEMORY AND
SUSTAINED ATTENTION IN BTBR MICE. Gregg, M.; Sample, H.; Neal, H.; Branson, N.; Martin, L.A. Dept. of
Graduate Psychology. Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA 91702 USA. Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)
is a disorder characterized by the congenital partial or complete absence of the corpus callosum. The BTBR T+tf/J
(BTBR) inbred mouse strain has consistently been observed to have a complete absence of the corpus callosum as
well as a variable reduction in the size of the hippocampal commissure. While much research has recently focused
on the social deficits of the BTBR strain, research on its cognitive behavior has been limited. Based upon
cumulative evidence from human patients, AgCC is thought to cause a generalized deficit in complex behavior
while simple behaviors remain intact. In this research, we test the hypothesis that simple executive functions remain
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intact in AgCC but deficits emerge as complexity increases. To this end, we compared working memory and
attention between the BTBR strain and the C57BL/6J strain, a common inbred strain that is widely used as a control
for research on the BTBR mouse. Working memory was assessed with the delayed matching-to-position task and
attention was measured with the sustained attention task. Both of these tasks involve operant conditioning and
require discrimination between learned associations. It was hypothesized that BTBR mice would perform similar to
B6 controls in simple versions of these tasks, but would demonstrate a deficit in performance as task difficulties
increased. Early results have shown that approximately 40% of the BTBR mice fail to make learned associations
between lever-pressing and the food reward. Histological analysis is underway in order to determine if generalized
learning deficits are related to reductions in the hippocampal commissure.
141.
QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL MOTIVATION IN BTBR AND C57BL/6J MICE THROUGH
NOVEL OPERANT CONDITIONING PARADIGMS. Wood, C.; Sample, H.; Neal, H.; Gregg, M.; Branson, N.;
Martin, L.A. Dept. of Graduate Psychology. Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA 91702 USA. Research on mouse
models will benefit from the development of novel assays of complex social behavior including social motivation.
The goal of this research is to develop and validate new quantitative measures of social motivation for mouse
models of autism and other disorders involving social deficits. To this end, two operant conditioning paradigms that
allow a test mouse to control access to another mouse have been employed. In the first paradigm, the test mice were
trained to press a lever for a social reward in the form of access to an unfamiliar stimulus mouse for 15 sec. The
social reward was set on a progressive ratio schedule with a step size of three. The number of lever presses achieved
in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the second paradigm,
motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. The mice were conditioned to associate one lever
consistently with a food reward and another consistently with the same social reward described in the previous
paradigm. Research has been carried out with the C57BL/6J mouse, a prosocial inbred mouse strain, and on the
BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse, an inbred mouse strain with previously documented social deficits. In addition to
these novel quantitative measures of social motivation, traditional assessments of social behavior were conducted
through the use of the ANYMAZE video tracking system, including a version of the 3-chamber task. Preliminary
results indicate a trend for the BTBR mice to have a reduced breakpoint compared to the C57BL/6J mice.
142.
MATERNAL PROBIOTIC INTERVENTION PROTECTS AGAINST NEUROENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE
DYSFUNCTIONS AND DISRUPTION OF GUT MICROFLORA BALANCE PROVOKED BY NEONATAL
AND SUBSEQUENT ADULT STRESS IN WISTAR RATS. Barouei, J.; Hodgson, D.M. Laboratory of
Neuroimmunology, the University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia. This study aimed to examine whether
maternal probiotic intervention can act to alleviate HPA axis, immune and colonic dysfunctions induced by early life
and subsequent adult stress in Wistar rats. Female breeders had free access to a drinking water supply with or
without probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 added from 10 days before
conception until weaning day (PND 22). Pups were subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NS) from PND 2 to
14 or left undisturbed. In adulthood, animals were exposed to restraint stress (RS) for 30 min per day (PND83-85)
followed by 30 min isolation at PND 86, or were set aside as controls. Immediately blood samples were collected to
assess plasma corticosterone and IgA levels. Faecal pellets were also analysed for the composition of gut microflora.
Exposure to RS or NS+RS significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels and counts of fecal Bacteroides, and
declined counts of bifidobacteria compared with the controls (p ≤ 0.05). Maternal probiotic intake normalised
corticosterone levels in males but not females and returned the numbers of both bacterial groups to the control
levels. Significant decreases in plasma IgA levels were observed in NS and NS+RS females born to vehicle-treated
mothers compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in probiotic subset, significant increases were noted in both
males and females in these treatment conditions relative to their respective vehicle controls. Our findings suggest
that maternal probiotic intake can protect against HPA axis and immune system dysfunctions and disrupted gut
microflora provoked by early and/or later life stress. Underlying mechanisms however need to be further
investigated.
143.
NEONATAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ALTERS NOCICEPTION Zouikr I.1, Tadros M.A.2,
Callister R.J.2, Nakamura T.1, Beagley K.3 , Clifton V.4 and Hodgson D.M.1. 1.Laboratory of Neuroimmunology,
2.School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Australia. 3.Institute of Health Biomedical
Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Australia. 4. School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health,
University of Adelaide, Australia. Neonatal exposure to the bacterial mimetic, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces
long term psychobiological and neurobiological changes such as altered immune, endocrine and behavioural
responses. Early exposure to LPS is known to alter pro-inflammatory cytokines which play a critical role in the
modulation of pain. The aim of the current study was to determine the long-term impact of LPS neonatal exposure
on nociception using the formalin test. Wistar rats were subjected to either LPS (salmonella enteriditis, 0.05mg/kg,
ip) or saline (equivolume) on postnatal days (PND) 3 and 5. At PND13 and PND22, rats underwent a subcutaneous
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injection of 0.8% and 1.1% formalin (respectively) into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. Subsequent behavioural
assessment involved counting flinching and licking the injected paw for one hour post-injection. After behavioural
testing, transverse spinal cord slices (300m thick) were prepared for whole-cell patch-clamp recording (KCH3SO4based internal) from superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons. At PND13, rats subjected to LPS (n=16) displayed
significantly more flinching responses compared to saline treated animals (n=13) at 5 min (p = .009) and 15 min (p
= .03). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from SDH neurons revealed no differences in input resistance,
capacitance or resting membrane potential between the two groups (n=18 and 17). The patterns of action potential
discharge observed in response to sustained current injection did not differ between groups. At PND22, LPS-treated
animals (n=6) displayed significantly higher licking responses at 5 min (p = .023) compared to saline-treated
animals (n=7). Neonatal LPS exposure results in elevated behavioural responses to formalin at PND13 and PND22.
This response is not accompanied by changes in selected intrinsic properties of SDH neurons at PND13. Ongoing
analysis will determine the neural and immune mechanisms underlying the observed behavioural differences.
144.
COMMUNICATION AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS OF MICE EXPOSED TO MATERNAL IMMUNE
ACTIVATION Defensor, E.B.; Jensen, A.L.; Miske, M.M.; Yamamoto, L.H.L.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J.
Pacific Biosciences Research Center and Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822
USA. Deficits in communication and the display of stereotyped and repetitive behaviors serve as two of the three
diagnostic symptoms for autism. A strong genetic component for the disorder is indicated by the 4:1 male to female
prevalence and the approximately 70% concordance rate for monozygotic twins. However, given that the
concordance rate for autism in monozygotic twins is less than 100%, it is implied that there are also non-genetic
causal mechanisms for the disorder. Clinical data from over 10,000 cases suggests that prenatal viral infection is a
risk factor for autism. The current study assessed communication as well as stereotyped and repeated behaviors of
mouse offspring exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA). Pregnant mouse dams were administered either 20
mg/kg of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), to mimic viral infection and immune activation, or phosphatebuffered saline (PBS), used as a vehicle control. Behavioral testing of male and female offspring began at PND 70.
To test for communication, scent marking behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) were measured. To test for
stereotyped and repeated behaviors, a microanalysis of grooming behavior was performed. Results from the scent
marking test showed that there were no differences between poly I:C and PBS males; however, poly I:C females
deposited a lower percentage of total scent marks near a live stimulus mouse. USVs measured in social proximity
showed that there was no difference in number of USVs emitted between the male PBS and male poly I:C groups;
however, poly I:C females emitted less USVs than PBS females. Analysis of grooming patterns showed that poly
I:C males displayed a strict pattern of rostral to caudal grooming transitions. In addition, Poly I:C females groomed
for longer durations than PBS females. Taken together, these results suggest that MIA produces sex-dependent
changes in communication and stereotyped behaviors.
145.
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF MICE EXPOSED TO MATERNAL IMMUNE ACTIVATION. Jensen, A.L.; Defensor,
E.B.; Yamamoto, L.H.L.; Miske, M.M.; Blanchard, D.C.; Blanchard, R.J. Pacific Biosciences Research Center and
Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Deficits in reciprocal social
interactions serve as a core symptom of autism. Despite a strong genetic component, other non-genetic causal
mechanisms have been proposed for the disorder. Prenatal viral infection, in particular, has been proposed as an
underlying mechanism for the manifestation of autistic symptoms. The current study assessed the social behaviors of
mouse offspring exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA). Pregnant dams were administered either 20 mg/kg
of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA which mimics viral infection, or
phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) used as a vehicle control. Offspring were weaned at postnatal day (PND 21) and
housed with same-sex littermates. Behavioral testing of male and female offspring began at PND 70. Mice were
assessed in a 3-chamber test for social approach, in a social proximity test and in a semi-natural visible burrow
system (VBS). In the 3-chamber test males in the poly I:C group failed to display a preference for the chamber
containing a live mouse when compared to the empty chamber; whereas, the male PBS group did display a
preference for the social side. The opposite effect occurred in females: the poly I:C group showed a preference for
the social side; whereas, the PBS group did not. In the VBS, the poly I:C group showed moderate sex-dependent
decreases in interactive behaviors, when compared to the PBS group. The poly I:C and PBS groups did not show
differences in behaviors measured in the social proximity test for males or for females. Taken together, these data
suggest that prenatal MIA differentially alters social behaviors in males and females.
146.
DETERMINATION OF ANXIETY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN C57BL/6 N AND J MICE TO INVESTIGATE
EMOTIONAL PERSEVERATION. Landrau1, S.; Rodríguez1, C.; Vilarchao1, J.; Sáez1, E.; Santos2, I.; López1,
O.; Budet1, A.; Hernández1, G.; Peña De Ortíz2, S.; Méndez-Merced1, A.T. 1Universidad del Este, Escuela de
Ciencias y Tecnología, Carolina, PR, USA 00984; 2Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Río
Piedras, PR, USA 00931. We are interested in studying the behavioral and gene expression differences within brain
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regions potentially related to emotional perseveration in two C57BL/6 mouse substrains. Emotional perseveration is
defined as the resistance to extinguish a previously learned fear. In the Pavlovian tone fear conditioning paradigm,
C57BL/6 J mice are able to extinguish previously acquired fears more efficiently than C57BL/6 N mice; i.e., N mice
are poor fear extinguishers, compared to J mice. Such impairment constitutes a form of emotional perseveration, or
continued execution of fear related behaviors, similar to what can be displayed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
(PTSD) patients. However, it is not known whether these two subtrains differ in terms of innate anxiety, which have
been proposed as a possible indicator of PTSD susceptibility in humans. To address potential differences in innate
anxiety between N (poor fear extinguishers) and J (good fear extinguishers) mice, we ran experiments using the
Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Light/Dark Transition (LDT) paradigms. We also measured corticosterone blood
levels of naïve and post-EPM tested N and J mice by correlated enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Correlated EIA, Assay
Designs). We hypothesized that if innate anxiety is significantly higher in N mice in relation to J animals, they will
have higher concentrations of bloodstream stress hormones, explore less and spend more time in the enclosed dark
safe areas of the paradigms. Our EPM tests trials showed that N mice spend significantly more time in the open arms
and have a greater number of open arm entries compared to J mice. Furthermore, J mice spend significantly more
time in the hub (EPM center), groomed more and had a greater number of partial and complete entries to the closed
arms compared to N mice (n=14). The LDT tests showed that both substrains had comparable number of entries and
amount of time spend in either, light or dark chambers. Nevertheless, J mice had significantly more partial entries to
the dark LDT side than N animals (n=16). No significant difference was found in corticosterone concentrations
when compared either naïve or post-EPM tested N and J mice. Therefore, N impairment to extinguish previously
learned fear in relation to J mice is not related to higher levels of pre-existing anxiety in relation to J mice. Our data
suggests that N mice are curious, engaging in exploratory and risky behaviors, when compared to J mice.
Furthermore, J mice displayed a cautious behavior, keeping close to or within the secure enclosed and/or dark areas
of the paradigms, which parallel to the animal’s burrow, when compared to N mice. Supported by: NIMH
1SC1MH086072, MHDBSBRN-NIH IP20MD003355, and URGREAT-MBRS-RISE 2R25GM066250-05A
147.
GENETIC BASES OF DIFFERENCES RELATED TO EMOTIONAL PERSEVERATION IN MOUSE
SUBSTRAINS. Sáez1, E.; Budet1, A.; Landrau1, S.; Hernández1, G; Peña de Ortíz2, S.; Méndez-Merced1, A.T.
1Universidad del Este, Escuela de Ciencias y Tecnología, Carolina,PR, USA 00984; 2Universidad de Puerto Rico,
Departamento de Biología, Río Piedras, PR, USA 00931. We are interested in studying the cellular and molecular
neurobiological bases for individual differences related to emotional perseveration. Emotional perseveration is
defined as the resistance to extinguish a previously learned fear. We use two C57BL/6 mouse substrains, J versus N,
as animal models. In the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, a behavioral procedure used to study the brain
mechanisms underlying the acquisition and storage of information about danger induced fear, J mice are able to
extinguish previously acquired fears more efficiently than N mice. Such impairment constitutes a form of emotional
perseveration. Since fear extinction is considered as a new learning we want to address gene expression substrain
differences within brain regions associated to extinction of conditioned fear. We hypothesize that N (poor
extinguishers) and J (good extinguishers) mice display significant differences in the modulation of genes related to
learning and memory processes during fear extinction. For the present study we performed quantitative Real Time
Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR; TaqMan Master Mix and Gene Expression Assay, Applied Biosystems) for
CREB, Nurr-1 and c-Fos genes within the amygdala and hippocampus brain regions. We ran four replicates of
pooled (n=2) samples from naïve and 30 min to one hour post-extinction trained N and J mice. Quantifications of
both target (CREB, Nurr1, c-Fos) and reference (β-actin) genes were done with the standard curve and comparative
threshold, delta CT, methods (1.4 Sequence Detection 7300, Applied Biosystems). Statistical analyses were
performed using Prism version 4.0 (Graph Pad Software. Inc.). One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple
comparisons test were used to assess the differences in mean and standard error between particular group pairs. A p
value of <0.05 is accepted as statistically significant. Our results showed that the relative levels of c-Fos mRNA
within the amygdala of post-extinction trained N and J mice were significantly up-regulated when compared to
naïve animals (N mice p value < 0.05; J mice p value < 0.001). In the hippocampus, the relative c-Fos and Nurr-1
mRNA levels were found to be significantly up-regulated in N post-extinction trained animals only (NFos p value <
0.05; NNurr p value < 0.001). In this investigation we have collected data supporting the notion that the two
substrains of C57BL/6 mice, N and J, display differences in the modulation of genes related to tone/context fear
extinction learning. Supported by: NIMH 1SC1MH086072, MHDBSBRN-NIH IP20MD003355, and URGREATMBRS-RISE 2R25GM066250-05A
148.
PREDATOR EXPOSURE INDUCES INHIBITED EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOR AND INCREASED
AVOIDANCE OF TRAUMA-ASSOCIATED CUES. M Toth1, M Gross2, R Adamec3, and VB Risbrough1,2
1Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, USA; 2Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for
Stress and Mental Health; 3Department of Psychology Memorial University, St Johns, Canada Posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder precipitated by extreme traumatic experiences, showing persistant
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recurrence of the trauma memory, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and hyperarousal. Exposure of rodents to feline
predator stress was shown to induce enduring generalized anxiety, increased startle and reduced exploration. Here
we conducted a study to determine if exposure to feline predator stress can also model avoidance of trauma-related
cues. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a feline predator for 10 min or handled. Twenty-one days later we examined
their response to an open field arena containing a cylinder with soiled cat litter or clean bedding. Handled controls
spent a significantly greater amount of time investigating the cylinder filled with soiled cat litter compared to a
cylinder with clean bedding. In contrast, mice exposed to feline predator stress showed the opposite pattern of
effects, exhibiting significantly reduced exploration of the predator-scented cylinder. Time spent exploring the
cylinder with clean bedding was not different across handled control and stressed mice, suggesting changes in
overall exploration was not a confounding factor. In addition, predator stressed mice exhibited reduced center
exploration of the open field compared to handled controls. These data suggest that predator stress induces
prolonged increases in generalized anxiety-like behavior as well increases in avoidance of trauma-related cues.
149.
BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HDC-KO MICE, A MODEL OF A GENETIC FORM
OF TOURETTE SYNDROME Authors: *Baldan Ramsey, L. C. 1; Crowley, M. J. 1; Hughes, Z. A. 2; Gorczyca, R.
2; Ohtsu, H. 3; De Araujo I. 1,4; State, M. 1; Mayes, L. C. 1; Pittenger, C. 1 1Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; 2Pfizer,
Inc., New London, CT; 3Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan; 4Pierce Institute, New Haven, CT. Tourette Syndrome (TS)
is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by stereotyped motor and vocal tics. In a genetic study of a family
with a high density of TS cases, the State laboratory identified a potentially causal mutation in the gene encoding the
rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of histamine: histidine decarboxylase (HDC). We examined HDC knockout
mice as an animal model of this rare Mendelian form of TS. We tested behavioral stereotypy in HDC knockout
(KO) mice, heterozygotes (HET), and wild-type (WT) littermate controls after administration of amphetamine
(AMPHET). 8.5 mg/kg AMPHET produced stereotypical behaviors in the KO, but very few in HET or WT mice
during the day period. These findings were replicated during the dark (active) period, when histamine levels in WT
mice are higher. The increased in stereotypies potentiated by AMPHET in the HDC-KO mice were attenuated in a
dose-dependent manner by haloperidol. We found both HDC-KO and HET to have deficits in prepulse inhibition
(PPI) during the day and night periods. The family with the mutation in the HDC gene also showed impairment in
PPI. These phenotypes mirror aspects of TS and support the face and predictive validity of the animal model for this
family. The model possesses inherent construct validity, since the KO recapitulates the functional disruption found
in this TS family. Histamine inhibits midbrain dopamine neurons. We hypothesized that reduction in histamine in
these animals would increase extracellular levels of dopamine in the striatum. The HDC-KO mice showed
dysregulation in dopamine in the dark period, relative to the WT controls, as measured by in vivo microdialysis.
HDC-KO mice also presented very low levels of histamine in the striatum. These experiments establish an exciting
new model for future studies on the pathophysiology of TS.
150.
TOP DOWN CONTROL OF SEROTONERGIC SYSTEMS IN DEPRESSIVE-LIKE BEHAVIORS. Challis, C;
Boulden, J; Beck, S.G.; Berton, O. Department of Psychiatry. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
USA. Imaging studies reveal prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) and
experimental use of deep brain stimulation in this region has yielded promising therapeutic results. Further studies
demonstrate an intact serotonin (5-HT) system is required for this effect, particularly that of the Dorsal Raphe
Nucleus (DRN), which contains the largest number of 5-HT neurons. However, the DRN is neuronally
heterogeneous and its circuitry relevant to MDD has not been fully characterized. Reports suggest that PFC-DRN
pathways converge on GABA neurons in the DRN, and we believe these GABA neurons play a key role in
mediating antidepressant response and stress resiliency. In this work we use viral-mediated fluorescent tracers,
whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology and optogenetic techniques in population-specific Cre- driver mice to
explore the function of local DRN circuitry, as well as projections from the PFC, in the social defeat model of
depression. We found that PFC glutamatergic projections preferentially synapse on DRN GABA neurons and that
these GABA neurons show a significant increase in neural activity compared to 5-HT neurons following bouts of
defeat. There were also location-specific electrophysiological changes in 5-HT and GABA neurons throughout the
extent of the DRN in mice that underwent defeat. Additionally, we generated burst firing and silenced tonic firing of
DRN GABA neurons in mice that were injected with a conditional (Cre-dependent) Channelrhodopsin or
Archaerhodopsin respectively. We are currently performing behavioral tests with these techniques in social defeat
conditions. The observed changes in DRN GABAergic neurons suggests that this cellular population may play an
important role in mediating 5- HT activity in mood disorders and that manipulation of these neurons may have
therapeutic implications.
151.
KLP-1 RESCUES PREPULSE INHIBITION DISRUPTIONS AND SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL INDUCED BY
NMDA CHANNEL BLOCKERS: A POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC. Chiou, L.-C.1; Lee, H.-J.1; Chen, H.-L.1 ;
Chou, R.-F.1; Mouri, A.3; Huang, W.-J.2; and Nabeshima, T.3 1Grad. Inst. Pharmacology, Coll. Med., Natl Taiwan
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Univ.; 2Grad. Inst. Pharmacognosy, Taipei Med. Univ., Taipei, TAIWAN; 3Grad. Sch. Pharmaceutical Sci., Meijo
Univ., Nagoya, JAPAN. Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette
syndrome (TS), was responsive to the ground leaf juice of a local herb, Clerodendrum inerme (CI). Her tics subsided
1 hour after taking CI. No hemo-, renal- or hepatic toxicity was found after 2 years follow-up. Here, we examined
CI effects on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion and sensorimotor gating deficits. The latter is also
observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle
response (PPI) in animal models induced by methamphetamine (MA) and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine, MK801 and phencyclidine (PCP)), based on hyper-dopaminergic and hypo-glutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. The
ethanol extract of CI (10-300 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited MA (2 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion and PPI
disruptions induced by MA, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), but not spontaneous locomotor
activity, rotarod performance and grip force. From CI ethanol extract, we found a purified compound, termed KLP-1
(10 mg/kg), was effective in rescuing PPI disruptions induced by MA, ketamine, MK-801 and PCP (10 mg/kg).
KLP-1 also reinstated MA-disrupted PPI in mice knocked out of the risk gene of schizophrenia, neuregulin-1. These
results suggest that CI ethanol extract and KLP-1 can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating
deficits, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI in TS and schizophrenia. Interestingly, KLP-1 also significantly
improved social withdrawal-like behaviors in mice chronically treated with PCP, which mimic negative symptoms
of schizophrenic patients. This finding reinforces the potential benefit of KLP-1 in schizophrenia treatment since
negative syndromes are poorly treated by currently available antipsychotics.
152.
RESTRAINT STRESS RELIEVES DEPRESSION-LIKE BEHAVIOR AND INDUCES ADULT
NEUROGENESIS VIA OREXIN 2 RECEPTORS IN MICE. Chiu, S.-Y.1, Teng, S.-F.2, Chang, L.-Y1 and Chiou,
L.-C.1, 2 1Graduate Institute and 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University,
Taipei, TAIWAN. The orexin system consists of orexin A and B and orexin 1 (OX1) and 2 (OX2) receptors, has
been reported to be associated with depression in both human and animal studies. Acute restraint stress can activate
hypothalamic orexin neurons. Here, we examined if the orexin system activated by restraint stress plays a role in
relieving a depressive behavior, immobility in the forced swimming test (FST), and adult neurogenesis in mice.
Adult neurogenesis was measured by the number of cells double-immunolabeled by doublecortin (a neuronal
marker) and BrdU (a cell proliferation marker) in the subgranular zone of the dente gyrus (DG). Mice subjecting to
restraint stress for 30 min showed significantly shorter immobility time in the FST than un-restrained mice. Orexin
A (1 nmol/0.5 ml/mouse, i.c.v.) reproduced the effect of restraint stress, i.e. reducing FST immobility time.
Pretreatment with the OX2 (Compound 29, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but not OXR1 (SB-334867, 15 mg/kg, i.p.), antagonist
for 15 min significantly reversed the immobility time shortening in mice induced by restraint stress and i.c.v. orexin
A. Both antagonists alone had no effect in the FST. Acute restraint stress for 30 min also increased the number of
Brdu/doublecortin double-immunorective cells in the DG subgranular zone. This restraint stress-induced
neurogenesis was prevented by Compound 29 (30 m/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that acute restraint stress results
in activation of hypothalamic orexin neurons to release orexins which lead to an antidepressant-like effect and adult
neurogenesis mediated through OX2 receptors.
153.
GIT1+/- MICE DISPLAY DIFFERENT CELLULAR PHENOTYPES IN BRAIN FROM GIT1-/- MICE WHICH
ARE AN ADHD MOUSE MODEL. Chung, C. Dept. of Biological Sciences. Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea. Inhibitory neuronal transmission is crucial for regulating firing rate and
timing of excitatory neurons. Impairment of inhibitory neurons has been postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of
neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolor disorder, and so on. Recently, association of GIT1
with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suggested by human single nucleotide polymorphism
(SNP) analysis and Git1 knockout (Git1-/-) mice study. In particular, substantial reduction in presynaptic input at
Git1-/- inhibitory synapses was detected. The association of GIT1 heterozygosity in the human rs550818 SNP with
enhanced ADHD susceptibility predicts that Git1 heterozygous (Git1+/-) mice might show ADHD-like phenotypes
like Git1-/- mice. Thus, we investigated whether presynaptic input was reduced in Git1+/- mice with
immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, Git1+/- mice did not show any detectable reduction in inhibitory presynaptic
input. This result indicates that Git1+/- mice display different cellular phenotypes in brain from Git1-/- mice which
are a novel ADHD mouse model.
154.
IMPLICATION OF THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NPAS4 IN COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL FUNCTIONS.
Coutellier L., Beraki S., Saw N.L., Shamloo M. Behavioral and Functional Neuroscience Laboratory, Stanford
University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. A deregulation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance has
been associated with a variety of human neurological disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Most scientific
studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of excitatory synapses. However, less
is known about the activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory synapses and its reference to nervous system
disorders. Here we are studying the transcription factor Npas4, which has been shown to regulate the formation and
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maintenance of inhibitory neurons. We first found that Npas4 is highly expressed in the brain and more specifically
in the cortex and limbic system. Then, using a Npas4 knockout (KO) mouse line, we demonstrated the importance of
Npas4 in social and cognitive functions: Npas4-KO animals showed social avoidance toward an unfamiliar
conspecific and aggressivity toward their WT littermates. They also displayed impaired pre-pulse inhibition,
indicative of sensorimotor gating deficits. Finally, we observed that mice lacking Npas4 have hippocampaldependent memory impairments as tested in the novel object recognition test and a place-reversal learning task.
Altogether, these results demonstrate the importance of the inhibitory pathways in the expression of social behavior
and cognitive functions. Studying further the transcription factor Npas4 might help obtaining a better understanding
of neurological diseases characterized by an imbalance between inhibition and excitation such as autism or
schizophrenia.
155.
NEONATAL EXPOSURE TO ANTIDEPRESSANT RESULTED IN ADULT DECREASE OF NEUROLIGIN 1
IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX IN RATS. Feng, P.; Zhang, J.; Akladious, A.; Hu, Y. Div. Pul, Critical Care
and Sleep Med, Dept Medicine, Case Western Reserve University/Cleveland VA Med, Cleveland, OH. Neuroligins
(NLGNs) are synaptic adhesion proteins (SAPs) that play a role in regulating synaptic excitability and the formation
of synapses. Alterations of NLGNs are associated with learning and cognitive behavior and the pathology of autism.
A whole-genome association study of depression showed a linkage between depression and NLGN1 gene
expression on chromosome 3 (Lewis et al., 2010). It has been consistently demonstrated that neonatal exposure to an
antidepressant, clomipramine (CLI), produces adult behavioral despair and depression pathology. Our question is
whether neonatal exposure to CLI will also produce adult changes of behavior and SAPs in brain regions associated
with the regulation of mood and cognitive functions. Male Long Evans Hooted rats were administered with either
CLI or saline for two weeks started from 8 days of age. For treatment details, please see Feng et al., 2008. At 4
month of age, rats were tested for immobility and social interaction. The rats were then sacrificed under CO2
anesthesia, and brain tissue was dissected and processed for RNA extraction using the Trizol method. First-strand
cDNA synthesis was generated from total RNA using random primers that contained M-MLV reverse transcriptase.
NLGN1 and NLGN2 expression levels in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, frontal cortex, and parietal cortex
were identified by relative quantitative RT-PCR performed by multiplexing corresponding primers. The relative
values of NLGNs were calculated by dividing the signal obtained for NLGN by that of 18S. The expression level of
NLGN1 but not NLGN2 significantly decreased (-53%, p = 0.008) in the prefrontal cortex in CLI rats compared
with controls. However, the expression levels of both NLGN1 and NLGN2 significantly increased in the frontal
cortex (NLGN1: p = 0.03; NLGN2: p = 0.01) and parietal cortex (NLGN1: p = 0.08; NLGN2: p = 0.06) in CLI rats
compared with controls. The expression levels of NLGN1 and NLGN2 were not altered in the hippocampus.
Because NLGN1 and NLGN2 have opposite effects in regulating synaptic excitability, simultaneous increases in
NLGN1 and NLGN2 in the frontal cortex and parietal cortex suggest that the changes in these two regions are not
specific. Thus, we conclude that NLGN1 alterations in the prefrontal cortex are involved in the pathology of
depression.
156.
CANNABINOIDS: CANNABINOIDS: A RISK FACTOR FOR A NEUREGULIN 1 MOUSE MODEL OF
SCHIZOPHRENIA? Karl T.1, Long L.1, Boucher A.2, McGregor I.2, Huang X.-F.3 and Arnold J.2 1Neuroscience
Research Australia, Randwick, Australia 2University of Sydney, Australia 3University of Wollongong, Australia.
Heavy cannabis consumption, particularly during adolescence, appears associated with an increased risk of
developing schizophrenia (SZ) in susceptible individuals. However, cannabis is a mixture of cannabinoids, including
the psychotomimetic cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the potentially
antipsychotic-like cannabidiol (CBD). To clarify the role of cannabinoids in the development of SZ, we investigated
the effects of chronic CB1 stimulation (i.e. THC and CP 55,940 treatment) in adolescent/ adult mice mutant for the
SZ candidate gene neuregulin 1 (i.e. Nrg1 HET). We also characterized the impact of adult CBD exposure in these
mice.Adolescent male Nrg1 HET mice and their wild type-like (WT) littermates received vehicle or THC (10 mg/kg
i.p.; 21 days), whereas adult cohorts were treated with vehicle, CP 55,940 (0.4 mg/kg; 15 days) or CBD (1, 50, 100
mg/kg; 21 days). Mice (N = 10/cohort) were tested for SZ-related behaviours and accompanying changes to
neuronal activity (i.e. Fos expression) or expression of SZ-relevant receptors.Adolescent mice were equally sensitive
to the locomotor suppressant effects of THC. Neither treatment nor genotype had any impact on prepulse inhibition.
THC impaired cognition and suppressed social interaction in WT mice. However, Nrg1 mutants developed
behavioural tolerance to chronic CB1 stimulation more readily than WTs. Exposure to CBD attenuated the
hyperlocomotor activity and prepulse inhibition deficit observed in vehicle-treated Nrg1 HETs. Behavioural changes
were linked to altered neuronal activity and receptor expression. Nrg1 mutants appear less sensitive to effects of
adolescent CB1 stimulation but more susceptible than WT mice in adulthood. Importantly, chronic CBD rescued
partially some of the behavioural abnormalities of Nrg1 mice.
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157.
OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR KNOCKDOWN PRAIRIE VOLES DISPLAY SOCIAL DEFICITS AND PROVIDE
NOVEL MODELS FOR THE SCREENING OF PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS. Alaine C. Keebaugh1, Catherine
E. Barrett1, Jasmine J. Jenkins1,2 and Larry J. Young1 1Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Yerkes
National Primate Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta,
GA, USA. 2Behavioral Research Advancements in Neuroscience (BRAIN) Fellow, Center for Behavioral
Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Studies have implicated oxytocin and its receptor
(OXTR) in the modulation of social behaviors, and disruptions in this system have been linked to diseases of social
deficits such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, Oxtr knockout mice have been shown to model multiple
components of the ASD phenotype and highlight the importance of detailed behavioral phenotyping with relevance
to social cognition. We extend these studies by site-specifically manipulating Oxtr in the prairie vole, a social
rodent with an unusual repertoire of social behaviors. Here, we use viral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to
knockdown expression of Oxtr within the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of prepubertal female prairie
voles. This localized gene knockdown blocked the formation of a pair bond, and resulted in reduced spontaneous
nurturing behavior and maternal care. Currently we are extending our behavioral phenotyping to explore the role of
accumbal OXTR signaling in the occurrence ASD related behaviors such as stereotypy and communication. We are
complementing these studies by testing the ability of pharmacotherapuetics to rescue pair bond formation. These
results underscore the potential of using viral-mediated RNAi for the rapid production and testing of genetic disease
models in this species and for identifying pharmacotherapeutics for diseases of social deficits such as ASD.
158.
SLEEPING IN CLASS: ARE STUDENT SCHEDULES PHYSIOLOGICALLY INHIBITING LEARNING?
Baynard, M.; McEachron, D.L. School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University,
Philadelphia, PA USA. Sleep is a biological imperative for normal cognitive functioning. Irregular schedules, sleep
loss and lighting levels are known to effect human cognitive performance and emotional stability. While research
has demonstrated that most Americans are habitually sleep restricted to less that 8 hours a night, little is known
about the sleep patterns of college students, who experience high cognitive demands. This study uses actigraphy and
ambient light exposure to determine the habitual sleep/wake patterns of college students. Initial investigations
revealed that students bedtimes vary widely with little consistency across consecutive days. A majority of students
were found to be sleep restricted to less than 7 hours of sleep a night on weekdays, with a significant number of
waking bouts exceeding 24 hours. While students slept significantly longer on weekends than during weekdays,
overall they averaged less than 8 hours of sleep a night on weekends during the study. Considerable variance among
individuals was observed in this regard. While sleep efficiency did not significantly differ when comparing
weekdays to weekends, the average time spent awake after the onset of sleep was significantly increased during the
weekends. Students did not appear to find nap opportunities during their daily schedules to compensate for sleep
loss or misplaced bedtimes, as actigraphy revealed no significant shorter sleep bouts during subjective days. Day
time light exposure was shown to vary significantly by time, with trend toward increasing light exposure as the day
progresses. The highest average lux per subject was observed from 12:00 - 14:00, well later than the average class
start time, Students earliest waking hours, from 06:00 - 09:00, analysis revealed significantly reduced light levels,
equivalent to the sleeping environment, despite student’s schedules and activity measurements correlating this time
period as active class time. Ongoing work using wrist actigraphy correlated with daily sleep diaries, and cognitive
performance during a college term will explore the inter-individual differences between students sleep amounts,
bedtimes and circadian placement and the effects on learning and neurobehavioral output.
159.
ACTIVATION OF Β1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AS A POTENTIAL MEMORY ENHANCEMENT
STRATEGY IN NEURO COGNITIVE DISORDERS. Saw N.L., Coutellier L., Shamloo, M. Behavioral and
Functional Neuroscience Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease (AD) are characterized by severe cognitive deficits. Yet, the
underlying mechanisms and causes of these symptoms remain elusive and reliable therapeutic strategies are still
missing. My laboratory goal is to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the cognitive impairments
observed in AD using experimental models of AD. We hypothesize that a disturbance in noradrenergic signaling
could be responsible for these cognitive impairments. To test this hypothesis, we studied the Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+
mouse line model of AD. Similarly to patient affected by AD, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry reveals
that the Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mouse line is characterized by a neurodegeneration of the locus coeruleus, primary
source of noradrenergic innervations to various cortical areas. Furthermore this line displays social recognition
deficit and working memory deficits when compared to their wild-type littermates as tested in the 3-chamber social
test and the Y-maze test. We found that a single injection of the 1- adrenoreceptor (1-ADR) partial agonist
xamoterol can fully rescue the cognitive and social deficit observed in this model. In conclusion, the disturbances in
the neurotransmission regulated by the 1ADR might be responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in
AD and 1ADR could be a potential therapeutic target for AD.
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160.
HYPOCRETIN GENE TRANSFER IN MICE MODELS OF NARCOLEPSY Roda Konadhode, Dheeraj Pelluru,
Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Meng Liu, and PJ. Shiromani. Ralph H. Johnson VA and Medical University of South
Carolina, Charleston, SC 29401 Narcolepsy is now considered a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the
loss of neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin, also known as orexin. As with other diseases where CNS
neurons die it is necessary to explore new strategies to transfer genes to restore function. At the 2008 and 2010
IBNS meetings we presented evidence that hypocretin gene transfer can ameliorate symptoms of narcolepsy in bona
fide mice models of the disease. We now report that adeno-associated virus-mediated hypocretin gene delivery into
the zona incerta, an elongated region in the subthalamus, effectively blocks cataplexy. Hypocretin gene delivery into
the striatum, whose neurons regulate motor coordination, has no such effect indicating site-specificity of the effects.
Cataplexy or sleep-wake levels are not changed when the hypocretin was molecularly targeted to be coexpressed in
the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons in the zona incerta or lateral hypothalamus. In transgenic mice
given the hypocretin gene detectable levels of hypocretin-1 are evident in the cerebrospinal fluid indicating release
of the peptide from the surrogate neurons. The zona incerta neurons receive input from the amygdala and in turn
project to the locus coeruleus indicating that the zona incerta is part of a circuit that stabilizes motor tone. Indeed,
deep brain stimulation of the zona incerta controls tremors in Parkinsons disease. Our results indicate that these
neurons might also be recruited to block the muscle paralysis in narcolepsy. This study demonstrates recruitment of
surrogate neurons outside the hypothalamus to block cataplexy, one symptom of narcolepsy. Our long-term strategic
intent is to selectively activate phenotype specific cells to block narcoleptic behavior in a site-specific manner.
Supported by NIH and VA Research Service.
161.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF GLUCOSYLCERAMIDE IN LPS-INDUCED RAW 264.7 CELLS Park,
J.1,2; Yeom, M.1; Kim, S.1,2; Kim, M.1; Han, J.J.3;Yin, C.S.1; Park, H.J.1,2; Lee, H.1,2; Hahm, D.H.1,2*
1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul,
130-701, Republic of Korea. 2The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine, College of Oriental
Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Republic of Korea. 3Glonet BU, Doosan Corporation, Suwon
443-270, Korea. Sphingolipids constitute a highly diverse and complex class of molecules and exhibit important
physiological functions. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) has been reported to improve the skin barrier function in
dermatitis or aging mice models, but the effects and the mechanism of GlcCer in inflammation have not been fully
characterized. The objective of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory effect of GlcCer and inverstigate its
mechanisms in a LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. GlcCer reduced the LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNF- ). In addition,
GlcCer inhibited LPS-induced expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) protein, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). Furthermore, GlcCer significantly attenuated the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 to the
nucleus by LPS. These results suggest that GlcCer may play significant anti-inflammatory properties on LPS-treated
RAW 264.7 cells through the down-regulation of NF-kB/p65 mediated signaling pathway (This work was supported
by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R112005-014)).
162.
INVOLVEMENTS OF CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR, BUT NOT GLUCOCORTICOID IN THE
RESTRAINT-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE. Mei, Y.Y.; Li, J.S. Dept. of Psychology.
National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan, ROC. The conditioned place preference (CPP) is a widely used
paradigm to examine reinforcing effects of drugs. Interestingly, a previous study showed that acute stress produced
by restraint could also induce CPP. Although the modulating effects of stress on divers forms of learning are well
known, the finding that a stressor can play a direct part in the reinforcement mechanism is quite a novelty. Little is
known about the neural mechanisms. In the present study, Wistar rats were given agonist or antagonist of two
critical stress hormones before the conditionings, and the influences on restraint-induced CPP were observed.
Results show that peripheral applications of corticosterone (3mg/kg, 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg, s.c.) fail to induce CPP.
The highest dose even induces conditioned place aversion. Furthermore, a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone
(10mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 100mg/kg, s.c.) fails to block the restraint-induced CPP. However, intracerebroventricular
(ICV) injection of a selective corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) antagonist antalarmin completely
blocks the restraint-induced CPP. Furthermore, ICV application of the same drug without coupling with restraint
reveals conditioned place aversion. In conclusion, activation of CRFR1 in CNS is necessary to form the restraintinduced CPP. Peripheral corticosterone, on the contrary, is not involved.
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163.
DIFFERENCES IN FEEDBACK-BASED LEARNING AND PREFRONTAL DOPAMINE UTILIZATION ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN THE DRD4 GENE Groman S.M., Feiler K., Seu E., Woods J.A., and
Jentsch J.D. Dept. of Psychology, UCLA The dopamine (DA) D4 receptor (DRD4) gene contains polymorphisms in
human and non-human animals, and variation in the number of exon III tandem repeats has been linked to risk for
attention deficit/hyperactive disorder and addictions. However, little is known about the functional consequence(s)
of this polymorphism on brain chemistry and putative behavioral endophenotypes. To address this, the current study
examined the behavioral and biochemical impact of this functional polymorphism in vervet monkeys that carried
either a rare (or common) variant similar in structure to that found in humans. Fourteen male monkeys (N=7
monkeys that carried at least one of the rare alleles (DRD4.5), N=7 monkeys that were homozygous for the common
allele (DRD4.6)) were trained to acquire, retain and reverse 3-choice discrimination problems. After completing the
behavioral assessment, levels of DA and related metabolites in brain homogenates were measured ex vivo with highpressure liquid chromatography. Carriers of the DRD4.5 allele required more trials to acquire a stimulus-outcome
association than those homozygous for the DRD4.6 allele. An analysis of response patterns revealed that these
differences were due DRD4.5 carriers having lower sensitivity to positive feedback. Ex vivo measurements found
elevated levels of DA utilization in prefrontal regions of DRD4.5 allele carriers. These data provide evidence of the
functional impact the DRD4 VNTR has on behavioral and biochemical processes thought to underlie risk for
psychiatric disorders and provide a framework for interpreting the phenotypic abnormalities that associate with this
polymorphism.
164.
SPATIAL LEARNING DEFICITS IN MOUSE MODELS OF CONGENITAL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES. Yu,
M.; Liu, Y.; Bampoe, K.; Hu, H. Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University,
NY, 13210 USA. Congenital muscular dystrophies with brain malformations are a group of diseases that exhibit
overmigration of neurons in the cerebral cortex. They are caused by mutations in genes that are involved in protein
O-mannosyl glycosylation such as POMT2 (encoding protein O-mannosyltransferase 2), POMGnT1 (protein Omannose N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1), and LARGE (like-glycosyltransferase), which results in
hypoglycosylation of \-dystroglycan, an extracellular matrix receptor. Hypoglycosylation of \-dystroglycan results in
abolished interactions of \-dystroglycan with extracellular matrix molecules such as laminin and pikachurin. Mouse
models of these congenital muscular dystrophies recapitulate neuronal migration defects and exhibit abnormal
neuronal lamination in the hippocampus. To determine whether they exhibit learning and memory deficits,
POMGnT1 knockout and brain specific POMT2 knockout mice were evaluated on Barnes maze. Latency to find the
target hole was increased in both knockout mice over their respective littermate controls. When tested on an elevated
plus maze, the knockout mice spent similar length of times in open and closed arms indicating they did not exhibit
anxiety-like behavior. These results suggest that mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophies exhibit spatial
learning deficits.
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Saturday, June 9, 2012
9:00-10:00
Bench-to-Bedside Lecture: David L. McKinzie, Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, USA
FROM BENCH TO CLINIC: DEVELOPMENT OF METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE-2/3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS FOR
THE TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA. McKinzie, D.L. Lilly Discovery Research. Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN
46285 USA. A growing and consistent literature indicates dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the
pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent preclinical and clinical studies provide strong evidence that metabotropic
glutamate-2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonists have potential as a novel, non-dopaminergic approach to treat schizophrenia. In
this presentation, the drug development history of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists will be overviewed. Early preclinical data
indicated an ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to block hyperglutamatergic states in models of psychosis and anxiety. The
culmination of this work led to clinical proof-of-concept studies in psychiatric disorders. LY2140023 monohydrate, a
prodrug of the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY404039, is currently in Phase III clinical development for the treatment of
schizophrenia. The scientific rationale for this mechanism of action as an antipsychotic medication, drug development
challenges, and current clinical findings will be discussed.
10:30-12:30
Symposium: THE PROMISE AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS OF TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH.
Chair: Eva Ihle, University of California, San Francisco, USA
RESEARCH IN TRANSLATION: TOWARD CLARITY IN COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BASIC AND CLINICAL
SCIENCES. Ihle, E.C., Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco. San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
This presentation will attempt to put forward a balanced discussion about T1 (the transfer of basic-science knowledge to
clinical application) translational research. Much attention has been focused on it, many researchers assert involvement in it,
and many scientists struggle with constructing valid models for studies in humans or formulating hypotheses for studies in
animal models with direct clinical application. At a time when new chapters in translational research are being promulgated it
is important to appreciate the benefits of interdisciplinary approaches to discovery, as well as the limitations. This talk will
present a brief commentary on the experiences of a physician-scientist who has worked both with small animal model
systems to investigate different components of social behaviors, and with a clinic population of individuals with
neurodevelopmental disorders who are recruited for genetics and neuroimaging studies. Among the conclusions reached from
these experiences are: 1) Research in neurodevelopmental disorders is complicated by limitations in the specificity of
criterion symptoms; 2) Biases in assessment of clinical populations can lead to a lack of clarity in features that are studied in
the lab; and 3) Integrating the disciplines of psychiatry and neuroscience into a unified construct will contribute to a more
complex, yet developed, understanding of the pathology underlying disorders that impair social interactions. Ultimately,
psychiatric care will be advanced through basic research investigating the biomarkers and neural substrates that subserve
social behaviors, but only when the language spoken by each discipline is interpretable by both.
TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH: FINDING THE "SWEET SPOT." Blanchard, D.C. Pacific Biosciences Research Center,
University of Hawaii, Manoa, 1993 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. A focus on the degree to which behavioral
and medical research should be directly aimed at understanding and alleviating human diseases has been steadily evolving
over the past half century. For behavioral neuroscience, the present strong emphasis on this aspect of research reflects both
the current political and economic climate, and, a genuine recognition that such research does have substantial potential for
translation to human problems. The latter is a testimony to the many advancements in this area, providing both goals and
models stemming from successful translational work. However, the assumption that a direct emphasis on solutions for
complex and poorly understood neurobehavioral abnormalities is not only feasible but also efficient can also trump the basic
research needed for an understanding of these conditions. Finding the sweet spot in which basic work can be applied to an
understanding of disorder-relevant behavioral and biological conditions is a core component of research. I will discuss this in
the context of improved symptom-modeling for animal models of autism.
MIND THE GAP: A REPORT CARD ON TRANSLATIONAL TREATMENT ATTEMPTS IN AUTISM AND
NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS. McCracken, J.T. Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los
Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA. This presentation provides a status report on initial clinical results of promising
translational treatment approaches for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Three representative examples are
presented: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), and idiopathic autism (ASD). The success of identifying
disrupted molecular pathways in model systems for these conditions has heightened enthusiasm for the identification of
targeted, disease-modifying treatments for a broad range of conditions. These model systems have shown responsiveness to
efforts to rescue the disorder phenotypes. But with respect to interventions for early-onset developmental disorders, the odds
of successfully translating from preclinical to clinical systems are unclear at present. This presentation will review, from the
perspective of a clinician-scientist, concerns about: 1) the interpretation of results from preclinical models, especially the
challenges in determining the suitability of the model to capture core domains of the human disorder, and, 2) the conclusions
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from initial targeted treatment trials in humans, given the complexity of the human phenotypes. The experience to date for
targeted treatments in FXS, NF1, and ASD will be presented. This far, results suggest there are many challenges to identify
treatments that will have true disorder-modifying impact. However, it is unclear whether these initial trials should be
considered negative or failed trials. In keeping with the increasing specificity with which preclinical models are examined,
translational treatment trials may also need to declare more limited endpoints, and identify more discrete biomarkers of
treatment effects. Such considerations suggest several important research design issues for clinical trials. These include
identification of more proximal clinical endpoints such as better and more specific cognitive endpoints, concerns about the
effects of development on treatment outcomes, study duration, and need to determine adequate treatment effects on targeted
pathways.
WHAT ARE THESE THINGS CALLED WORKING MEMORY: TRANSLATIONAL PITFALLS IN DEVELOPING
PROCOGNITIVE TREATMENTS. Jared W. Young. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La
Jolla, CA, 92093-0804. Numerous psychiatric disorders present with cognitive dysfunction that correlates with poor
functional outcome, hence procognitive treatments need to be developed. Working memory (WM) deficits are observed in
the majority of psychiatric disorders. Thus, drugs require development that will improve WM in these patients. As a part of
the drug discovery process, novel compounds are routinely tested in animal models. Despite claims however, attention is not
always focused on ensuring that the cognitive domain affected in humans is the one being assessed in animals. Never has this
been clearer than in the domain of WM where despite evidence, reviews, and opinion pieces, little attention from preclinical
studies is placed on how WM is assessed in clinical populations. Despite this discrepancy, researchers still expect drug
treatments devised in animal paradigms to be efficacious in human trials. Here we will present data on dopamine D2-family
agonist induced improvement in WM span in mice that is consistent with humans, in contrast with the failure of D1-family
receptor activation to improve WM span, despite it improving delay-dependent memory. The future for such research into
treatments for WM dysfunction in patients will be discussed.
2:00-4:00
Symposium: NEW ANIMAL MODELS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Chairs: Francisco Gonzalez-Lima and Eimeira Padilla
REDUCED DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER FUNCTION: A MODEL OF MANIA WITH CROSS-SPECIES
TRANSLATIONAL VALIDITY. Jared W. Young, Jordy van Enkhuizen, and Mark A. Geyer, plus TRIPEC. Department of
Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0804.
Manic state symptoms include overactivity, hypersexuality, irritability, and reduced need for sleep, with cognitive deficits
recently linked to functional outcome. Current treatments of mania have arisen through serendipity or from other disorders
with none approved for cognitive dysfunction. There is an urgent need to develop targeted therapeutics. Part of the drug
discovery process is the assessment of therapeutics in animal models. Given the genetic linkage between DAT and mania, we
have developed pharmacological and genetic animal models of mania based on reduced dopamine transporter (DAT)
function. Reduced DAT function in mice results in altered exploration, hedonic-like behavior, risk-taking, and impaired
attention consistent with patients with mania. Moreover, valproate remediates some of these behaviors while not affecting
others, providing evidence for predictive validity of the model. Thus, advances in therapeutic treatment may depend on such
models that: 1) utilizes genetic information for etiological validity; 2) demonstrates some pharmacological predictive
validity; 3) recreates various aspects of mania in a test-battery; and 4) utilizes cross-species tests in which patients with BD
exhibit such a specific pattern of abnormalities that are distinct from other psychiatric disorders.
MUTANT POLG1 TRANSGENIC MICE AS A MODEL OF BIPOLAR DISORDER. Kubota-Sakashita, M.; Kasahara, T.;
Kato, T. Lab for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is mood disorder characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Based on the clinical
findings in BD patients, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction in brain was involved in the pathophysiology of BD.
To generate an animal model of BD, we focused on a hereditary mitochondrial disease, because it was sometimes comorbid
with BD. The disease can be caused by mutations of mtDNA polymerase (polymerase γ; POLG1), which induce mtDNA
mutations leading to the deletions. In the transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed mutant Polg1 in a neuron-specific manner, we
observed BD-like behavioral abnormalities. The Tg mice exhibited fluctuation in wheel-running activity and supressed by
treatment of a mood stabilizer, lithium. The Tg mice showed hypoactivity lasting a couple of weeks and recovered
spontaneously. This was associated with alteration of body temperature and increase of sucrose preference. The hypoactivity
resembled depressive episode in BD patients. To identify mechanisms underlying the BD-like behavioral change, we
evaluated two data sets of DNA microarray analysis. From the comparison between BD patients and control subjects, and the
comparison between the Tg and wild-type mice, the expression level of Ppif that encodes cyclophilin D (CypD), a component
of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), was down-regulated in both groups. This is of interest because PTP
plays a role in Ca2+ homeostasis. Inhibitor of CypD ameliorated behavioral activity in Tg mice, suggesting therapeutic role of
a CypD inhibitor. To develop the new treatment for BD, the Tg mice would be a useful tool as an animal model of BD.
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FORCED DESYNCHRONIZATION AS A BEHAVIORAL MODEL OF BIPOLAR DISORDER Koike BDV; Ribeiro JM;
Gonalves, BSB; Araujo JF Physiology Department; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Based on evidences that
circadian alterations on behavior are related to bipolar affective disorder we studied rats under forced desynchronization
protocol to assess mania-like and depression-like behavior. Wistar rats submitted to a 22h (11:11) light-dark (LD) cycle show
locomotor rhythm dissociation (forced desynchronization). In this protocol, animals present two rhythmic components of
circadian motor activity: one synchronized by the LD cycle (T22h) and another in free running (T>24h). Animals were tested
at coincidence activity phase (T22C) when the objective night is overlapped with biological night and at non-coincidence
activity phase (T22NC) when the objective night is overlapped with biological day. The control group was under a 24h
(12:12) LD cycle. The T22C rats have a locomotor activity increased when compared with controls, characterizing a
hyperlocomotor behavior. We assessed the affective state of the animals through behavioral tests: open field (OF), elevated
plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) during T22C or T22NC. We found that rats at T22NC had an increased
anxiety in OF and LCE tests compared with T22C and control group. The latency for immobility in the FST was longer for
rats at T22C than for rats at T22NC. In the EEG analysis we observed an increase in SWS and decrease in REM sleep, both
in T22C and T22NC compared with controls, but there were no differences in total amount between them. T22 groups
presented different architectural sleep, with phase inversion in the T22NC. These results suggest that rats in T22C have a
manic-like behavior and rats in T22NC have a depression-like behavior. Furthermore, our data indicate an apparent
validation of forced desynchronization protocol as an animal model to bipolar disorder.
BIPOLAR-DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN HOLTZMAN RATS. Padilla, E.; Shumake, J.; Auchter, A.; Barrett, D.;
Gonzalez-Lima, F. Departments of Psychology and Pharmacology, The University of Texas at Austin. Bipolar II disorder is
characterized by novelty hyper-reactivity (hypomania) and depressive episodes. Learned helplessness is a model of
depression in which pre-exposure to inescapable electric shock prevents learning a subsequent escape response. Holtzman
rats are a commercially available strain that is highly susceptible to learned helplessness (Padilla et al. 2009). It is unknown
which characteristics at baseline can predict helpless behavior after exposure to inescapable stress. We determined behavioral
predictors of helplessness using the novel and familiar open-field tests, sucrose consumption, and passive harm-avoidance
tasks before learned helplessness training and testing. Increased activity in a novel environment, but not general activity or
habituation, predicted susceptibility to learned helplessness. Novelty reactivity was the best predictor of helplessness
susceptibility. However, differences in other measures were not observed. A possible explanation is that Holtzman rats are
exhibiting a bipolar phenotype, since novelty seeking is more characteristic of bipolar depression (Janowsky et al., 1999).
Furthermore, elevated harm avoidance is characteristic of unipolar depression (Janowsky et al., 1999). In conclusion, a
subpopulation of Holtzman rats showed a bipolar-like pattern in that they experience excessive behavioral activation in
response to novelty followed by excessive behavioral inhibition in response to uncontrollable stress.
4:30-6:30
Symposium: THE ROLE OF NEUROINFLAMMATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM
SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD). Chairs: Christine F. Hohmann and Judy Van de Water
NEUROINFLAMMATION AND NEUROIMMUNE ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH ASD. Van de Water, J.
and Ashwood, P. Departments of Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology, University of California and UC Davis
M.I.N.D. Institute, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 USA. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in
social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. A potential role for immune
dysfunction has been suggested in ASD. Significantly altered cytokine profiles in children with ASD have been reported and
these findings suggest that ongoing inflammatory responses may be linked to disturbances in behavior. The characterization
of immunological parameters in ASD has important implications for diagnosis, the designing and monitoring of therapeutic
treatments of ASD, and may help to identify mechanisms that are important in the etiology of ASD in a subgroup of subjects.
The biological impact of increased cytokines in ASD children and their association with more impaired behaviors is
intriguing and warrants further consideration.
VALIDATING IMMUNE FINDINGS IN ANIMAL MODELS OF AUTISM. Ashwood, P.; Van de Water, J.. Department of
Medical Microbiology and Immunology; Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of
California Davis, CA, USA. Autism is a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs in childhood.
Autism is characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and the presence of
restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. There is strong evidence that point to immunological dysfunction in children
with autism. Aberrant immune activity during critical periods of neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of
neurological dysfunction and behavioral changes characteristic of autism. Recently, animal models of maternal immune
activation (MIA) and the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain are reported to have face validity for behavioral symptoms and
neuropathology found in autism. However, little is known with regard to immune status in the BTBR mice or in offspring
generated from MIA. To determine whether the same immune dysfunctions observed in humans are also exhibited in the
MIA and BTBR models we investigated dynamic cellular immune responses in these models. We show increased responses
following immune challenge characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, findings reminiscent of those observed
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in children with autism. Further studies to determine the role of immune dysfunction and its affect on behaviors and
neuropathology in the BTBR and MIA models will help shed light on potential pathogenic mechanisms with importance to
neurodevelopmental disorders including autism.
SEROTONIN AS POSSIBLE MODULATOR OF NEUROINFLAMMATION IN THE FOREBRAIN: STUDIES IN A
MOUSE MODEL FOR ASD. Hohmann, C.F.; *Blue, M.E. Department of Biology, Morgan State University and the *Hugo
W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA. Abnormal serotonin homeostasis has frequently
been implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. Our labs have developed a mouse model to test the role of the
neurotransmitter serotonin in creating autism like changes in brain development and behavior. We have previously shown,
that mice with neonatal forebrain depletions of serotonin display decreased social interest and increased anxiety, as adults.
Here we provide evidence, that social deficits in these mice appear in infancy and persist though adolescence. We also show
that, as in autism, the cortical volume in serotonin-depleted mice is transiently increased and the cortical cytoarchitecture
displays signs of delayed maturation and altered plasticity. Alongside such early morphological changes, we have observed
significant alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serotonin-depleted cortex, which suggest a
developmental delay in cytokine production. These data support the hypothesis that decreased serotonin, during critical
stages of brain development, can modulate cytokine responses in the brain and therewith may alter brain development and
behavior. Future studies will need to characterize the trajectory neuroinflammatory brain mechanisms, following serotonergic
depletion. Supported by SO6GM51771 & U54MH066417.
PROGRAMMING INNATE IMMUNITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.
Bilbo, S.D. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. A wide variety of host
(genetic), biological (e.g., infections), and environmental factors (e.g., pollutants & toxins) have been implicated in autism,
yet its etiology remains unknown. The immune system is well characterized for its critical role in host defense. Far beyond
this limited role however, there is mounting evidence for the vital role the immune system plays within the brain, in both
normal, homeostatic processes (e.g., sleep, metabolism, memory), as well as in pathology, when the dysregulation of immune
molecules may occur. This recognition is especially critical during brain development. Microglia and astrocytes, the primary
immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are involved in every major aspect of brain development and function, including
neurogenesis, synaptic formation and pruning. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor [TNF]α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6
are produced by glia within the developing and adult CNS, and are implicated in synaptic scaling, long-term potentiation, and
neurogenesis. Importantly, cytokines are involved in both injury and repair, and the conditions underlying these distinct
outcomes are under intense investigation and debate. Evidence from both animal and human studies implicates the immune
system in a number of disorders with known or suspected developmental origins, including autism. This talk will focus on the
evidence that infection during the perinatal period of life acts as a vulnerability factor for later-life alterations in cytokine
production, and marked changes in cognitive and affective behaviors throughout the remainder of the lifespan, with a focus
on the hypothesis that long-term changes in brain glial cell function may underlie such vulnerability.
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Sunday, June 10, 2012
9:00-11:00
Symposium: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF ADDICTION: NEUROCHEMICAL
AND BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS TO LONG TERM DRUG EXPOSURE. Chairs: Christian P.
Müller and Tomasz Schneider
PRENATAL NICOTINE EXPOSURE AND ADHD: CURRENT CONTROVERSIES AND ANIMAL MODELS. Tomasz
Schneider; Dep. of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK. Although
there seems to be overwhelming evidence for a deleterious effect of in utero exposure to tobacco smoking on behaviour and
cognition later in life and on increased risk for childhood onset psychiatric disorders, it is difficult to separate these effects
from other confounding environmental and genetic factors. For example, it has been recently suggested that common genetic
vulnerability factors may exist for both maternal smoking and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that
may explain the increased rate of ADHD among children of smokers. This talk will focus primarily on cognitive deficits
found in rats prenatally exposed to nicotine and will discuss animal results in light of human epidemiological studies
suggesting that the previously observed association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and ADHD might represent an
inherited effect.
SHIFT OF DRUG CUE-INDUCED PHASIC DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM LIMBIC TO SENSORIMOTOR STRIATUM
DURING THE PROGRESSION OF DRUG TAKING. Willuhn, I.; Everitt, B.J.; Phillips, P.E. Dept. of Psychiatry &
Behavioral Sciences, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Dept. of Exp. Psychology, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge,
UK. Drug addiction is characterized by the loss of control over drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial
striatum (VMS) is implicated in the control of acute drug use, whereas the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to become
increasingly involved during chronic abuse. Using a rat model of drug addiction, we show how phasic dopamine release in
the VMS induced by drug-associated stimuli decreased with repeated drug intake over the course of weeks, whereas signaling
in the DLS increased over time. Efficient action selection of cocaine self-administration behavior developed in parallel with
DLS signaling and was reversed to an early performance level by blockade of dopamine receptors in the DLS. Furthermore,
cue-induced phasic dopamine release in the DLS failed to develop after lesions of the VMS and was blunted in rats that were
given extended access to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum in response to drug
cues is region specific, developing in the VMS then DLS sequentially. This shift of dopamine signaling from limbic to
sensorimotor regions of the striatum requires intact VMS circuitry. Together, these data suggest that the recruitment of
sensorimotor striatal circuitry for dopamine-mediated encoding of drug cues facilitates the prioritization of drug taking over
other behaviors. Depletion of phasic dopamine signaling in the DLS after extended access may promote escalation of drug
intake and, thus, may contribute to the loss of control over drug abuse observed in addicts.
A HISTORY OF EXTENDED ACCESS TO COCAINE PRODUCES ANOMALIES IN CORTICO-ACCUMBENS
GLUTAMATE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDICTION THERAPY. Szumlinski, K.K. Dept. Psychological and Brain
Sciences. University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9660, USA. Anomalies in excitatory
transmission within prefrontal cortex (PFC) are theorized to contribute to poor inhibitory control over behavior, behavioral
inflexibility, as well as drug craving, in addiction. As Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are critical for
drug reinforcement/reward, as well as drug-related learning, we examined for changes in the expression of mGluR1/5 within
PFC subregions produced during protracted withdrawal from an extensive history of cocaine self-administration and then
tested the functional relevance of observed changes for cocaine craving and extinction learning using behavioral
pharmacological approaches. Immunoblotting was conducted on ventral PFC (vPFC) and dorsal PFC (dPFC) tissue derived
from rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) during 10 daily 6-hr sessions that were subjected to a 2-hr test
for cue-reinforced behavior, in the absence of any further cocaine/saline delivery, at either 3 or 30 days withdrawal. Control
animals received daily 1-hr or 6-hr training to lever-press for saline, and were sacrificed also following cue testing. Followup behavioral studies examined the effects of intra-PFC infusions of mGluR1/5 antagonists or an mGluR1/5 agonist on cuereinforced behavior and on the extinction of behavior with subsequent testing. Animals with a history of cocaine selfadministration exhibited time-dependent: increases in cocaine craving and impairments in extinction learning. These
behavioral phenomena were related to a time-dependent reduction in vPFC Group 1 mGluR expression. Mimicking this
cocaine effect via intra-vPFC infusion of antagonists at 3 days withdrawal produced no acute effect on cue-reinforced
behavior in either saline or cocaine self-administering animals, but impaired extinction learning manifested upon subsequent
testing only in animals with cocaine experience. Stimulating mGluR1/5 via intra-vPFC infusions of an mGluR1/5 agonist at
30 days withdrawal also produced no acute effects on cocaine craving, but facilitated extinction learning as manifested on a
subsequent test for craving in cocaine-experienced animals only. The present report provides in vivo validation of an
important role for vPFC Group1 mGluRs in learning to suppress cocaine-seeking behavior during cocaine abstinence by
showing that the site-directed pharmacological manipulation of both mGluR1 and mGluR5 function within the vPFC bidirectionally affects extinction learning in animals with an extensive history of cocaine self-administration. Taken altogether,
these results support the hypothesis that a time-dependent reduction in vPFC Group I mGluR function is a neural adaptation
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produced during withdrawal from an extensive history of cocaine self-administration that impairs the capacity of an addicted
individual to learn new stimulus-response contingences during protracted drug abstinence. If relevant to humans, such
findings implicate a progressive decrease in vPFC mGluR1/5 function during drug abstinence as a molecular cordon to
recovery, which may be best overcome using receptor agonist treatment strategies.
CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT KINASES IN THE ACQUISITION AND EXPRESSION OF ADDICTION RELATED
BEHAVIOUR IN MAN AND MICE. Müller, C.P. Psychiatric University Clinic, Friedrich-Alexander-University of
Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91054, Germany. Systematic use as well as addiction of psychoactive substances requires the
establishment of multiple memory systems. It was shown that addiction and normal memories share a number of anatomical,
morphological and molecular substrates. At glutamate receptive neurons, Ca2+/Calmodulin dependent kinases (CaMKs) are
important substrates for the intracellular Ca2+ activation. They are involved in the regulation of the functional plasticity of
the synapse. In particular CaMKs with an autophosphorylation molecular memory control receptor phosphorylation,
transcription and LTP/LTD and are crucial for normal learning and memory. Here we discuss latest evidence for the
involvement of various CaMKs in addiction related behaviours. Pharmacological as well as recent genetic approaches in
animal models as well as in human samples show a crucial role for CaMKs in the establishment and expression of addiction
related behaviours for various abused drugs. These findings suggest CaMKs as potential targets for prevention and/or
treatment of drug addiction
11:30-1:30
Symposium: EXAMINING A LEARNING DIATHESIS MODEL FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Chairs: Xilu Jiao and Kevin C.H. Pang
LEARNING DIATHESIS AS A MODEL FOR THE ETIOLOGY OF ANXIETY DISORDERS. Servatius, R.J. Stress &
Motivated Behavior Institute, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ & Department of Veterans Affairs, NJHCS, East Orange,
New Jersey. Among anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by a particular experience extreme
physical or psychological harm. In fact, the diagnosis of PTSD is unique among psychiatric disorders in that it is the only
condition in which diagnostic criteria contain the presence of a presumptive etiology (i.e., a traumatic event), in addition to
the more typical symptom constellation. As a result, much emphasis has been placed upon the primary role of trauma
exposure itself in defining PTSD. However, closer examination of the relevant human and animal literature questions this
basic assumption. Conceptually, the firm focus on traumatic exposure as primary to our understanding of PTSD is
contradicted by the epidemiology of the disorder. The case will be presented that the fundamental process by which PTSD,
and all anxiety disorders, develop is avoidance. Avoidance is acquired. Thus, an understanding the development, expression
and persistence of avoidance should be the focus of models and discussion of etiology. It is the subtleties of avoidance not
what is avoided, per se that defines PTSD. Supported by the SMBI.
ANIMAL MODELS OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY: INFLUENCE OF RISK FACTORS ON AVOIDANCE
LEARNING. Kevin Pang, Stress & Motivated Behavior Institute, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ and Department of
Veterans Affairs, NJHCS, East Orange, NJ. Behaviorally inhibited temperament, smaller hippocampus, BDNF
polymorphism and female sex are some identified risk factors for developing anxiety disorders. Using animal models, we
seek to understand how these risk factors contribute to enhanced and persistent avoidance learning. We found that an animal
model of behavioral inhibition, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, acquires lever-press avoidance faster, to a greater extent and
more persistently than outbred Sprague Dawley rats. A similar pattern emerges for classical conditioning of the eyeblink
response, suggesting facilitated associative learning in behaviorally inhibited individuals. Sex differences in avoidance
learning are seen in Sprague Dawley but not WKY rats; females Sprague Dawley rats learn avoidance faster than male
Sprague Dawley rats. We will describe possible mechanisms underlying the enhanced avoidance learning in WKY rats and
females. Supported by the VA BLR&D, NIH and SMBI.
NEUROBIOLOGY OF FASTER ACQUISITION AND PERSEVERATION IN ANIMALS. X. Jiao, SMBI &
Neurobehavioral Research Laboratory, DVA-NJHCS, EO, NJ Although there is support for inhibited temperament as a risk
factor, the translation of risk to actualized anxiety disorder is unclear. On the other hand, acquisition, expression and retention
of avoidance may be the final common pathway to anxiety disorders. Examination of neural activation in anxiety related
regions during avoidance acquisition and extinction provides important information to study the mechanism underlying
avoidance and extinction behavior. Neuronal activation in prefrontal cortical regions and subcortical areas are associated with
various aspects of anxiety and related diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Specifically, cortical-subcortical
connection and inhibitory innervations within the micro circuitry of amygdala plays a pivotal role in avoidance and
extinction. Our current work supports the hypothesis that similar brain structures involved in anxiety disorder are related to
avoidance behavior. Supported by VA BLR&D, NIH and SMBI.
112
COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF AVOIDANCE LEARNING: MECHANISMS OF BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION. Myers,
C.E. Department of Veterans Affairs, NJ Health Care System, East Orange, NJ 07018; Dept. of Neurology and
Neurosciences, NJ Medical School-UMDNJ, Newark, NJ. Pathological avoidance is a core symptom of post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders. Studies with inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a model of behavioral inhibition
(BI), shows facilitated acquisition and delayed extinction of avoidance compared to outbred rats. Computational models of
avoidance learning provide a testbed for understanding how learning mechanisms that differ between strains, and between
individuals, could give rise to the observed behaviors. Here, we present a simple Q-learning model of leverpress avoidance.
Parametric manipulations in the model, including manipulation of the inverse temperature parameter that governs the tradeoff
between the tendency to explore new behaviors vs. exploit previously-successful behaviors, produce BI that captures many of
the features of avoidance acquisition and extinction in WKY rats. Individual differences in avoidance learning among
humans might similarly reflect variability in BI; consistent with this idea, emerging empirical data show altered avoidance
learning in humans with high BI, as well as in veterans with PTSD-related avoidance symptoms. Supported by NSF/NIH
Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience (CRCNS) Program and NIAAA (R01 AA018737).
BEHAVIORAL AND NEURAL MARKERS OF ANXIETY VULNERABILITY IN HUMANS. McAuley, J.D. Dept. of
Psychology and Neuroscience Program. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Inhibited temperament, typified
by withdrawal in the face of novel social and nonsocial challenges, is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders.
Previous work has shown that individuals with higher scores on the adult and retrospective measures of behavioral inhibition
(AMBI/RMBI) show faster acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response than individuals with lower scores.
This talk will report the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that investigated (1) the functional
and neuroanatomical correlates of behaviorally inhibited temperament, and (2) the relationship between behavioral inhibition,
associated learning and the processing of social and non-social stimuli. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first
phase, 150 participants (18-26 years of age) completed a battery of surveys that included the AMBI/RBMI measures of
behavioral inhibition before undergoing delay-type eyeblink conditioning. In the second phase, a sample of participants from
phase one returned to complete two days of testing. On day one, 48 neutral faces and 48 scenes were familiarized through a
procedure involving six presentations of each stimulus. On day two, participants made old/new recognition judgments about
familiarized and novel face and scene stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Of primary interest was the relationship between selfreport measures of behavioral inhibition, acquisition rates in eyeblink conditioning and the temporal dynamics of the blood
oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in response to processing familiarized and novel face and scene stimuli. Differential
cerebellar activity was observed in the processing of familiar and novel faces, but not scenes. Moreover, acquisition rates in
eyeblink conditioning, which is known to be cerebellar dependent, reliably predicted BOLD % signal change in response to
viewing faces, but not scenes. Potential neuroanatomical correlates of behavioral inhibited temperament will also be
considered.
113
AUTHOR INDEX (all authors)
Abadilla, R............................................................... 12,49
Abrao, R.O............................................................... 14,56
Acosta, J.I. ............................................................... 10,39
Adamec, R. ............................................................ 27,100
Adkins, D................................................................. 21,78
Akladious, A. ......................................................... 28,103
Albrechet-Souza, L. ................................................. 10,40
Alcantara, L.F. .................................................... 17,26,95
Allen, S. ................................................................... 16,63
Amos-Kroohs, R.M. ........................................... 17,20,75
Anderson, R.I........................................................... 19,69
Andrade, J.S............................................................. 14,56
Antle, M.C. .............................................................. 16,62
Aou, S. ..................................................................... 26,94
Apetz, N................................................................... 19,72
Aragam, N. .............................................................. 27,97
Araujo, J.F. ............................................................ 29,109
Arendt, D. H. ................................................. 24,25,86,88
Ari, C. .................................................. 12,18,26,47,66,96
Arnold, E.R.............................................................. 19,71
Arnold, J. ............................................................... 28,103
Arnold, J.C............................................................... 25,89
Arnold, P.................................................................. 18,66
Ash, B.L................................................................... 19,70
Ashwood, P............................................................ 30,109
Asiaei, M. ................................................................ 26,94
Aston-Jones, G......................................................... 23,84
Auchter, A. ............................................................ 29,109
Aziz-Zadeh, L. ......................................................... 22,83
Bah, A...................................................................... 13,54
Bailey, D.J. .............................................................. 12,50
Balaban, S................................................................ 26,94
Baldan Ramsey, L.C. ............................................. 27,101
Balthazart, J. ............................................................ 20,74
Bamman, M.T..................................................... 20,76,77
Bampoe, K. ............................................................ 28,106
Baptista, D. .............................................................. 18,65
Bardi, M........................... 10,11,12,14,25,43,46,50,56,91
Barha, C.K. .............................................................. 15,59
Barnes, J................................................................... 18,64
Barouei, J. ................................................................ 27,98
Barrett, C. ......................................................... 17,28,104
Barrett, C.E. ........................................................ 17,21,80
Barrett, D. .............................................................. 29,109
Barros, M. ................................................................ 18,67
Baynard, M. ........................................................... 28,104
Beagley, K. .............................................................. 27,98
Bebensee, A. ............................................................ 11,45
Beck, S.G.......................................................... 17,27,101
Belfort, G.M. ................................................. 14,17,57,61
Bellocchio, L. .......................................................... 18,64
Bennett M.R............................................................. 25,89
Bennett, M. .............................................................. 25,89
Benno, R. .............................................................. 8,30,34
Bent, E. .................................................................... 26,94
Beraki, S. ............................................................... 28,102
Berger-Sweeney, J. .................................................... 8,35
Beringer, K. ............................................................... 9,37
Berten, S. ................................................................. 19,71
Berton, O. ......................................................... 17,27,101
Biesan, O. ................................................................ 13,54
Bigney, E. ................................................................ 21,78
Bilbo, S.D. ............................................................. 30,110
Bimonte-Nelson, H.A. ............................................ 10,39
Biro, L. ............................................................... 14,17,56
Bissiere, S. ............................................................... 24,87
Blanchard, D.C. .....................8,26,27,29,35,93,94,99,107
Blanchard, R. ................................7,24,26,27,86,93,94,99
Blanco-Centurion, C.............................................. 28,105
Blaser, R. ................................................................. 25,89
Blue, M.E............................................................... 30,110
Bobrovskaya, L........................................................ 16,62
Bolaos-Guzman, C.A.......................................... 17,26,95
Bonci, A................................................................... 20,73
Bondarenko, E. ........................................................ 16,62
Bondi, C.O............................................................... 23,86
Borysov, S.I. ............................................................ 26,96
Bossert J.M. ............................................................... 9,39
Bostrom, C............................................................... 25,90
Boucher A.A................................................ 25,28,89,103
Boughner, E............................................................. 13,53
Boulden, J. ........................................................ 17,27,101
Bowen, M.T.............................................. 12,17,19,50,72
Boye, S.M................................................................ 10,40
Brandao, M.L................................................. 10,20,40,75
Branson, N.......................................................... 27,97,98
Braun, A.A.......................................................... 17,20,75
Broadbear, J.H. ................................................ 9,19,37,70
Brown, M............................................. 10,11,14,43,46,56
Brownlow, M........................................................... 18,66
Brudzynski, S.M. ..................................................... 12,51
Brummelte, S................................................. 12,15,51,58
Budet, A............................................................ 27,99,100
Buisman-Pijlman, F.T.A............................................ 9,38
Buske, C. ................................................................. 26,93
Cachat, J. ................................................................. 16,61
Cagni, P. .................................................................. 18,67
Calibuso, M.J........................................................... 24,87
Callaghan, P.D......................................................... 19,72
Callister, R.J. ........................................................... 27,98
Camarillo, C. ........................................................... 27,97
Caminer, A. ............................................................. 19,72
Can, A...................................................................... 21,80
Canto-de-Souza, A................................................... 18,65
Canto-de-Souza, L. .................................................. 11,46
Carobrez, A.P. ......................................................... 11,43
Caron, M.G.............................................................. 22,82
Carpenter, R.E. ........................................................ 24,86
Carr, A.E.................................................................. 20,73
Carstens, E............................................................... 12,51
Carter, M.E. ............................................................. 23,84
Carvalho, M.C. .............................................. 10,20,40,75
114
Caulfield, M.D. ........................................................ 13,52
Cavigelli, S. A. ................................................ 7,16,32,63
Cervantes, M.C. ....................................................... 13,52
Cespedes, I.C. .......................................................... 14,56
Challis, C. ......................................................... 17,27,101
Chandler, K. N......................................................... 18,65
Chang, L.-Y. .......................................................... 28,102
Charlier, T.D............................................................ 20,74
Chatterjee, D. ........................................................... 26,93
Cheer, J.F....................................................... 15,22,60,83
Cheer, J.F................................................................. 22,83
Chen, H.-L. ............................................................ 28,101
Cheng, J.P. ............................................................... 18,67
Cheng, J.-T. ............................................................. 22,81
Chiou, L.-C. .................................................... 28,101,102
Chiu, S.-Y. ............................................................. 28,102
Chohan T.W............................................................. 25,89
Choleris E. ........................................... 12,13,17,49,52,53
Chou, R.-F. ............................................................ 28,101
Chow, C. .................................................................. 15,59
Christie, B................................................................ 25,90
Chung, C................................................................ 28,102
Cipriano, A.C........................................................... 16,63
Clark, M.M. ............................................................. 12,49
Clark, V.R................................................................ 16,62
Clemens, K. ............................................................. 19,72
Clifford, P.S............................................................. 18,65
Clifton, V. ................................................................ 27,98
Clipperton Allen, A. ........................................... 13,52,53
Collins, C. ................................................................ 16,61
Collins, S. ................................................................ 18,64
Comaschi, A.C.................................................... 18,66,67
Corley, M....................................................... 13,26,53,93
Cornish, J. ................................................................ 19,72
Cornwell, C.A.......................................................... 26,95
Corrêa, C.N.............................................................. 25,90
Coutellier, L.................................................... 28,102,104
Cox, E.T..................................................................... 9,37
Crowley, M.J. ........................................................ 27,101
Crozier, T.M. ........................................................... 12,51
Crusio, W.E. ............................................................ 18,64
Cruz-Benites, A. ...................................................... 20,77
Cummins, E. ............................................................ 13,53
Cushman, J............................................................... 25,90
D’Agostino, D. ........................................................ 18,66
da Silva, R.B............................................................ 14,56
Dahms, I................................................................... 23,85
Dalmaz, C. ............................................................... 25,90
Damasio, H. ............................................................. 22,83
Davis, A. .................................................................. 16,61
De Araujo, I. .......................................................... 27,101
de Lecea, L. ............................................................. 23,84
de Silva, I....................................................... 14,25,56,91
Dean, J.B.................................................................. 18,66
Deehan, G. ............................................................... 21,79
Deehan, G.A. Jr. ...................................................... 19,69
Defensor, E.B........................................................... 27,99
DeMis, J................................................................... 21,78
Deshmukh, A.A. ...................................................... 19,71
Deuse, L................................................................... 18,64
Deykun, K................................................................ 20,75
Diamond, D.M................................................. 8,23,34,84
Diehl, L.A................................................................ 25,90
Dietrich, A. .............................................................. 13,54
Ding, Z-M................................................................ 19,69
DiSorbo, A............................................................... 13,54
Djouma, E................................................................ 19,70
Donner, N.C........................................................ 17,21,81
Dornan, J.C.............................................................. 10,41
Dorsey, K................................................................. 18,64
Dougherty, D. .......................................................... 21,81
Drgonova, J.............................................................. 19,71
Drugan, R.C........................................................ 17,21,81
Duarte-Guterman, P................................................. 12,51
Duchesne, V. ........................................................... 10,40
Dunkley, P. .............................................................. 16,62
Dyck, R.H................................................................ 16,62
Eadie, B. .................................................................. 25,90
Eichenbaum, H .......................................................... 9,39
Eilam, D................................................................... 16,64
El Sansoy, R. ........................................................... 10,41
Elkman, L. ............................................................... 19,70
El-Ounsi, M. ............................................................ 16,61
El-Setouhy, M.......................................................... 10,41
Engeland, C.G. .......................................................... 8,34
Engleman, E.A......................................................... 19,69
Engler, E.B. ............................................................. 10,39
Ervin, K. .................................................................. 13,53
Escamilla, M.A. ....................................................... 27,97
Espinoza, S. ............................................................. 22,82
Ettenberg, A................................................. 20,31,76,112
Everitt, B.J. ............................................................ 31,111
Fanselow, M.S. .................................... 14,24,25,57,87,90
Feiler, K....................................................... 15,28,59,106
Feldman, J.L. ........................................................... 23,84
Feng, P................................................................... 28,103
Fenn, A. ..................................................................... 8,33
Fernandez-Soto, C. .................................................. 12,48
Ferreira-Nuño, A. .......................................... 12,20,48,77
Fitzmaurice, H.L............................................ 14,16,57,61
Flaxey, I................................................................... 13,52
Fletcher, M.L. .......................................................... 11,44
Foley, K.A. .............................................................. 25,90
Ford, K.A................................................................. 20,76
Forster G.L. ................................................... 13,19,55,68
Foucault, J.N............................................................ 13,52
Frankfurt, M. ........................................................... 15,59
Friesen, J.................................................................. 13,53
Fropf, R. ........................................................ 14,16,57,61
Fulham, W.R. .......................................................... 15,59
Fuller, A.E. .............................................................. 16,62
Gaikwad, S. ............................................................. 16,61
Gainetdinov, R.R. .................................................... 22,82
Galea, L.A.M............................................ 12,15,51,58,59
Gallagher, N. ........................................................... 13,53
Ganegala, H. ............................................................ 25,91
Gannon, R................................................................ 10,40
Garcia, M.C. ............................................................ 14,56
115
Garcia-Mijares, M.................................................... 12,49
Garrison, K. ............................................................. 22,83
Gentry, R.N.................................................... 15,22,60,83
Gerecke, K.M................................................. 16,22,63,82
Gerlai, R.............................................................. 17,26,93
Geyer, M............................................ 15,19,29,60,71,108
Gilbertson, M.W. ..................................................... 11,44
Gluck, M.A. ................................................... 11,16,45,61
Glueck, E. ................................................................ 18,64
Godbout, J.P. ............................................................. 8,33
Godwin, J................................................................. 24,86
Goenagga, J. ............................................................ 18,65
Goldsteinholm, K..................................................... 25,89
Gomes, K.S.............................................................. 16,63
Gonalves, B.S.B..................................................... 29,109
Gonzalez-Lima, F. .......................................... 29,108,109
Good, A.N................................................................ 13,55
Goodchild, C.S......................................................... 19,70
Gorczyca, R. .......................................................... 27,101
Gordon, M.N............................................................ 18,66
Gorzalka, B.............................................................. 19,69
Gould, T.D............................................................... 21,80
Grace, C.E........................................................... 17,20,75
Graham, D.L. ...................................................... 17,20,75
Grant, J..................................................................... 13,53
Green, J.................................................................... 16,61
Gregg, M............................................................. 27,97,98
Gresack, J.E. ............................................................ 21,77
Grimm, J.W. ............................................................ 18,64
Groman, S.M. .............................................. 15,28,59,106
Gross, M. ..................................................... 21,27,77,100
Gunlicks-Stoessel, M. .............................................. 26,94
Haber, Z.M. ............................................................. 20,76
Hahm, D.H.......................... 18,19,21,25,28,68,79,92,105
Halberstadt, A.L....................................................... 19,71
Haldar, J................................................................... 22,83
Hall, F.S................................................................... 19,71
Haller, J............................................................... 14,17,56
Han, J.J. ................................................................. 28,105
Hari Dass, S.A. ........................................................ 13,55
Harms, L. ................................................................. 15,59
Harvey, B................................................................. 13,54
Hata, T. .................................................................... 26,94
Hauser, S.R. ................................................... 19,21,69,79
Hautman, E. ............................................................. 11,45
Held, H..................................................................... 18,66
Heldt, S.A. ............................................................... 11,44
Henriques, T.P. ........................................................ 25,90
Hepper, P.G. ............................................................ 10,41
Hernández, G .................................................... 27,99,100
Heyser, C.J............................................................... 19,71
Hicks, C. ........................................................ 19,21,72,79
Hill-Kapturczak, N. ................................................. 21,81
Hinds, A................................................................... 10,41
Hirani, K. ................................................................. 25,91
Hodgson, D.M. .................................... 15,16,27,59,62,98
Hohmann, C.F........................................... 8,25,30,92,110
Hollis, J.................................................................... 25,91
Horie, S.................................................................... 13,54
Horta Jr, J.A.C. ........................................................ 12,49
Hoshino, K............................................................... 12,49
Hoxha, N.................................................................. 13,54
Hoxha, Z. ................................................................. 13,54
Hruba, L................................................................... 20,75
Hu, H. .................................................................... 28,106
Hu, Y. .................................................................... 28,103
Huang, W.-J........................................................... 28,101
Huang, X.-F. .......................................................... 28,103
Hughes, Z.A........................................................... 27,101
Hunt, G.E................................................................. 19,72
Hyer, M.......................................10,11,14,25,43,46,56,91
Ihle, E. ................................................................... 29,107
Iiguez, S.D. ......................................................... 17,26,95
Innis, S.M. ............................................................... 23,85
Iodi Carstens, M. ..................................................... 12,51
Ishikura, T...................................................... 10,11,42,47
Ismail, A.A. ............................................................. 10,41
Jacklin, D.L. ............................................................ 10,42
Jameison-Drake, A. ................................................... 9,37
Janowski, V. ............................................................ 10,42
Jarrett, T.M. ............................................................... 9,37
Javors, M. ................................................................ 21,81
Jenkins, J........................................................... 17,28,104
Jensen, A.L. ............................................................. 27,99
Jentsch, D. ............................................................... 23,86
Jentsch, J.................................................................... 9,36
Jentsch, J.D........................................ 13,15,28,52,59,106
Jesus, A.G.L. ........................................................... 18,67
Jiao, X.................................................................... 31,112
Jiao, Y...................................................................... 22,82
Jiseok, L................................................................... 25,92
Johns, J.M.................................................................. 9,37
Johnson, E................................................................ 10,42
Jones, B.C................................................................ 16,63
Jorgensen, W. .......................................................... 19,72
Kalueff, A.V. ........................................................... 16,61
Kannangara, T. ........................................................ 25,90
Karanges, E.............................................................. 19,72
Karl, T. .............................................. 16,25,28,62,89,103
Kasahara, T............................................................ 29,108
Kassiou, M..................................................... 19,25,72,89
Kato, T................................................................... 29,108
Katoh, A. ................................................................. 10,42
Kaufman, C.......................................... 10,11,14,43,46,56
Kavaliers, M. ................................................. 13,25,55,90
Keebaugh, A. .................................................... 17,28,104
Kendig, M.D....................................................... 12,17,50
Kent, S. .................................................... 7,8,15,32,43,58
Keren, H. ................................................................. 16,64
Kerstetter, K.A......................................................... 20,73
Ketchesin, K. ........................................................... 13,54
Kevin, R.................................................... 12,17,21,50,79
Khuc, T. N. .............................................................. 20,73
Kikuchi, Y. .............................................................. 12,48
Kilduff, T.S.............................................................. 23,85
Kim, E. .................................................................... 20,76
Kim, J.H................................................................... 24,88
Kim, M. ................................................................. 28,105
116
Kim, S.................................................................... 28,105
Kim. E...................................................................... 26,92
Kingham, J............................................................... 16,62
Kippin, T.E. ............................................................. 20,73
Kiryanova, V. .......................................................... 16,62
Kiyokawa, Y. ........................................................... 16,61
Kline, A.E. ............................................................... 18,67
Koerber, J................................................................. 18,64
Koike, B.D.V. ........................................................ 29,109
Kolobova, A............................................................. 16,63
Kolosov, A............................................................... 19,70
Konadhode, R. ....................................................... 28,105
Kondoh, T................................................................ 10,43
Kravitz, A.V. ................................................. 16,22,60,82
Kreitzer, A.C.................................................. 16,22,60,82
Kroon, J.A.V............................................................ 11,43
Kubala, K.H........................................................ 17,21,81
Kubota-Sakashita, M. ............................................ 29,108
Kwiatkowski, D. ...................................................... 13,53
Kwon, S. .................................................................. 21,79
Kyzar, E. .................................................................. 16,61
Lambert, K......7,10,11,12,14,15,25,32,43,46,50,56,59,91
Lamoureux, L. ......................................................... 20,77
Landon, C.S. ............................................................ 18,66
Landrau, S......................................................... 27,99,100
Langton, J.M............................................................ 24,88
Laurent, H................................................................ 26,94
Lawrence, A.J. ......................................................... 19,70
Le Maire, V.............................................................. 18,64
Lee, B.............................................. 18,19,21,25,68,79,92
Lee, H. ................................ 18,19,21,25,28,68,79,92,105
Lee, H.-J. ............................................................... 28,101
Lee, J.I. .................................................................... 20,73
Lee, T.-Y.T. ............................................................. 19,69
Leibowitz, S.F............................................................ 8,33
Leif Benner, L.......................................................... 18,66
Leri, F. ..................................................................... 13,53
Lewter, L. ................................................................ 25,92
Li, J.S..................................................................... 28,105
Li, J.-S...................................................................... 22,81
Li, S. ........................................................................ 20,73
Li, S. ........................................................................ 24,88
Liberzon, I. ................................................................... 31
Lieblich, S.E. ........................................................... 12,51
Lieblich, S.L. ........................................................... 15,59
Liew, S-L. ................................................................ 22,83
Lin, Y............................................................. 14,16,57,61
Lindquist, D.M......................................................... 26,95
Liu, M. ................................................................... 28,105
Liu, Y..................................................................... 28,106
Liuine, V.................................................................. 15,59
Logge, W. ................................................................ 16,62
Lommatzsch, C.L..................................................... 20,74
Long, L. ................................................................. 28,103
López, O. ................................................................. 27,99
Lovick, T.A.............................................................. 20,75
Lowry, C.A. ........................................................ 17,21,81
Lu, L. ....................................................................... 16,63
Luchsinger, J............................................................ 13,54
Lucion, A.B. ............................................................ 25,90
Lungwitz, E.A. ........................................................ 13,54
Lynch, C. ................................................................. 10,41
MacFabe, D.F. ......................................................... 25,90
Madsen, E. ............................................................... 10,42
Mah, W. ......................................................... 20,26,76,92
Mahabir, S. .............................................................. 26,93
Maier, S.F. .......................................................... 17,21,81
Majaess, N. .............................................................. 25,90
Mak, P. ...................................................................... 9,37
Manago’, F. ............................................................. 22,82
Mangano, F.T. ......................................................... 26,95
Mangiarini, L........................................................... 21,77
Mansuy, I.M. ........................................................... 21,77
Mao, C.X. ................................................................ 27,97
Mao, Y..................................................................... 27,97
Marchant, N. J. ........................................................ 20,73
Marinelli, M........................................................ 20,76,77
Marsicano, G. .......................................................... 18,64
Martin, L.A......................................................... 27,97,98
Masuda, A................................................................ 26,94
Mathias, C................................................................ 21,81
Matsunaga, T. .......................................................... 11,43
Matsuura, T.............................................................. 11,47
Mattioli, R................................................................ 11,46
Mayes, L.C. ........................................................... 27,101
McAllister, J.P. ........................................................ 26,95
McAuley, J.D............................................... 13,31,52,113
McBride, W. ............................................................ 21,79
McBride, W.J........................................................... 19,69
McClure, J.R............................................................ 21,78
McCracken, J. T..................................................... 29,107
McCutcheon, J.M. ................................................... 20,76
McEachron, D.L. ................................................... 28,104
McGregor, I.S....9,12,15,17,19,21,28,39,50,58,72,79,103
McKenzie, C.............................................................. 8,34
McKim, D.................................................................. 8,34
McKinney, R.M............................................. 14,16,57,61
McKinzie, D.L....................................................... 29,107
McMillen, B. A........................................................ 20,74
McMurray, M.S. ........................................................ 9,37
McNally, G.P................................................. 20,24,73,87
Mei, Y.Y................................................................ 28,105
Melo, L.L................................................................. 14,56
Méndez-Merced, A.T. ...................................... 27,99,100
Merlo-Pich, E. ......................................................... 21,77
Meyza, K.Z.............................................................. 26,93
Michie, P.T. ............................................................. 15,59
Mickley, G.A. .......................................................... 13,54
Mijares, M.G. .......................................................... 12,49
Millan, M.J. ............................................................. 10,40
Minney, V................................................................ 21,80
Miske, M.M. ............................................................ 27,99
Modi, M................................................................... 21,80
Modi, M.;...................................................................... 17
Moghaddam, B. ....................................................... 23,86
Monfils, M............................................................... 21,78
Mong, J.A. ............................................................... 12,49
Moorman, D.E. ........................................................ 23,84
117
Morales, M................................................................. 9,39
Morales-Otal, A. ............................................ 12,20,48,77
Morgan, D................................................................ 18,66
Mori, Y. ................................................................... 16,61
Mormede, P. ............................................................ 16,63
Mort, J...................................................................... 16,64
Motbey, C.P............................................................. 19,72
Mouri, A. ............................................................... 28,101
Moustafa, A. ....................................................... 11,44,45
Müller, C.P. ........................................................... 31,112
Mullersman, J. ......................................................... 27,97
Myers, C. E................................... 11,16,31,44,45,61,113
Nabeshima, T......................................................... 28,101
Nakamura, S. ........................................................... 13,54
Nakamura, T. ................................................. 15,27,59,98
Nalivaiko, E. ............................................................ 16,62
Narikiyo, K. ............................................................. 26,94
Nascimento, J.O.G................................................... 14,56
Neal, H................................................................ 27,97,98
Nediu-Mihalache, C................................................. 13,52
Neisewander, J.L. .................................................... 18,65
Nestler, E.J.......................................................... 17,26,95
Netto, G.C.M. .......................................................... 18,67
Neve, R.L....................................................... 14,16,57,61
Nitharwal, R............................................................. 25,91
Noriuchi, M. ............................................................ 12,48
North, K. .................................................................. 18,64
Novais, D.B. ............................................................ 12,49
Novick, A.M. ........................................................... 13,55
Nunes-de-Souza, R. ................................................. 16,63
Nunes-de-Souza, R.L............................................... 18,65
Ohkubo, J....................................................... 10,11,42,47
Ohnishi, H................................................................ 11,47
Ohtsu, H................................................................. 27,101
Oishi, K.................................................................... 13,54
Olayo-Lortia, J............................................... 12,20,48,77
Oleson, E.B.................................................... 15,22,60,83
Olivato, S. ................................................................ 12,49
Oliver, K. ....................................................... 19,25,68,88
Onaka, T. ................................................................. 10,42
Ong, L.K. ................................................................. 16,62
Orr, S. P. .................................................................. 11,44
Ossenkopp, K.-P. ........................................... 13,25,55,90
Ostovich, J. .............................................................. 11,45
Otto, T............................................................ 14,16,57,61
Ouyang, M. .............................................................. 11,47
Pacenta, A.................................................................. 8,33
Padilla, E...................................................... 21,29,78,109
Padmanabhan, J. ...................................................... 26,96
Pagala, V.................................................................. 22,82
Pagani, J.H................................................................. 9,38
Pang, K. ................................................................. 31,112
Pang, K.C.H............................................................. 16,61
Pani, A. .................................................................... 22,82
Papaleo, F. ....................................................... 9,11,36,45
Park, H.J. ............................................................... 28,105
Park, J. ......................................................... 18,28,68,105
Park, J.H. ................................................................. 19,68
Parkington, H........................................................... 25,91
Patel, H. ................................................................... 25,91
Pavesi, E. ................................................................. 11,44
Pawluski, J..................................................... 15,20,58,74
Pearson, B.L. ............................................ 24,26,86,93,94
Peartree, N.A. .......................................................... 18,65
Pecchioli, N. ................................................................. 17
Peccioli, N. .............................................................. 12,49
Pelluru, D............................................................... 28,105
Peña De Ortíz, S. .............................................. 27,99,100
Perona, M.T.G. ........................................................ 19,71
Pezzato, F.A............................................................. 12,49
Pham, M. ................................................................. 16,61
Phan, A. .................................................... 12,13,17,49,53
Phelps, T.I................................................................ 18,67
Phillips, P.E. .......................................................... 31,111
Piantadosi, S.C......................................................... 21,80
Pieri, M.C. .......................................................... 18,66,67
Pietropaolo, S. ......................................................... 18,64
Pilla, R. .................................................................... 18,66
Pittenger, C. ........................................................... 27,101
Pobbe, R.L. .............................................................. 26,94
Pobbe, R.L.H. .......................................................... 26,93
Pometlova, M. ......................................................... 20,75
Posada, Y................................................................. 27,97
Potter, H................................................................... 26,96
Potvin, A.................................................................. 10,42
Powell, N. .................................................................. 8,33
Powers, S. ................................................................ 26,94
Premont, R.T. .......................................................... 22,82
Prodan, S.................................................................. 13,54
Pyter, L.M.................................................................. 8,34
Ragan, C.M................................................................ 7,32
Ramamoorthi, K. ........................................... 14,16,57,61
Ramos, L.............................................. 13,19,21,54,72,79
Rangel, A................................................................. 10,42
Ranscht, B................................................................ 19,71
Rayen, I.................................................................... 20,74
Reinbold, E. ............................................................. 19,68
Remus, J. ................................................................. 13,54
Rendon, T. ................................................................. 8,34
Ribeiro, J.M. .......................................................... 29,109
Ricceri, L. .................................................................. 8,35
Ricchetti, A.............................................................. 13,53
Richardson, H.N. ..................................................... 21,78
Richardson, R. ......................................................... 24,88
Risbrough, V.B. ........................................... 21,27,77,100
Roberts, V................................................................ 12,49
Robinson, D.L. .......................................................... 9,37
Rodd, Z. ......................................................... 21,19,69,79
Rodríguez, C............................................................ 27,99
Rodriguez, J.A. ........................................................ 18,65
Rogers, M. ............................................................... 13,54
Rohlman, D.S. ......................................................... 10,41
Roland, J.J. .............................................................. 16,61
Roth, A. ................................................................... 16,61
Roussel, V................................................................ 13,53
Rush, S.T. ................................................................ 13,52
Rzucidlo, A.................................10,11,14,25,43,46,56,91
Sáez, E. ............................................................. 27,99,100
118
Salahpour, A. ........................................................... 22,82
Saldanha, C.J. .......................................................... 12,50
Salem, N. ................................................................. 23,85
Sample, H. .......................................................... 27,97,98
Sanghani, S. ............................................................. 13,54
Sanstrum, B.J. .......................................................... 11,44
Santos, I. .................................................................. 27,99
Santos, J.M. ............................................................. 20,75
Sarnyai, Z................................................................... 9,39
Saw, N.L. ........................................................ 28,102,104
Sayonh, M.J. ............................................................ 20,74
Scattoni, M.L. ............................................................ 9,36
Schaefer, T.L. ..................................................... 17,20,75
Schaevitz, L. .............................................................. 8,35
Schall, U. ................................................................. 15,59
Schanz, N. ................................................................. 8,34
Scheggia, D.............................................................. 11,45
Schmidt, L. .............................................................. 10,41
Schneider, T........................................................... 31,111
Scholl, J. .................................................................. 19,68
Schutova, B.............................................................. 20,75
Seguin, L............................................................. 12,17,49
Seo, D. ..................................................................... 21,78
Sergio, T.O .............................................................. 26,96
Servatius, R. J. .................... 11,13,16,31,44,45,52,61,112
Seu, E........................................................... 15,28,59,106
Shaham, Y. .................................................... 10,20,39,73
Shamloo, M. ................................................... 28,102,104
Sheridan, J. ................................................................ 8,33
Sheynin, J................................................................. 11,45
Shikari, S. ................................................................ 11,45
Shim, I. ........................................... 18,19,21,25,68,79,92
Shippenberg, T......................................................... 21,80
Shiromani, P. ............................................... 23,28,84,105
Shumake, J............................................................. 29,109
Silkstone, M............................................................. 12,51
Silveira, D.T.L. ........................................................ 12,49
Singh, K. .................................................................. 25,91
Skelton, M.R............................................. 11,17,20,45,75
Slamberova, R. ........................................................ 20,75
Slane, M.A............................................................... 24,86
Smeyne, R................................................................ 22,82
Smith, A.S........................................................... 11,17,46
Smith, J.P................................................................. 24,86
Smith, V.M. ............................................................. 16,62
Solati, J. ................................................................... 26,94
Someya, N. .............................................................. 26,94
Sominsky, L............................................................. 16,62
Soros, P............................................................... 14,17,56
Sotnikova, T.D......................................................... 22,82
Spadari-Bratfisch, R.C............................................. 14,56
Spear, L.P. ............................................................... 19,69
Spradley, J. .............................................................. 12,51
State, M.................................................................. 27,101
Steinbusch, H.W.M.................................................. 20,74
Stewart, A.M............................................................ 16,61
Su, B.B..................................................................... 27,97
Su, Z.-I..................................................................... 20,76
Summers, C.H................................................ 24,25,86,88
Summers, T.R.......................................................... 24,86
Sur, B.J. ......................................................... 21,25,79,92
Suschkov, S. ....................................................... 12,17,49
Suzuki, H. ................................................................ 10,42
Szechtman, H........................................................... 10,41
Szumlinski, K.K. ................................................... 31,111
Tadros, M.A............................................................. 27,98
Takahashi, L. ........................................................... 13,53
Takahashi, L.K. ....................................................... 24,87
Takahashi, Y............................................................ 16,61
Takeuchi, Y. ............................................................ 16,61
Talboom, J.S............................................................ 10,39
Tarrag-Castellanos, R. ............................................. 12,48
Taukulis, H. ............................................................. 21,78
Ten Eyck, G.R. ........................................................ 24,87
Teng, S.-F. ............................................................. 28,102
Thomas, N.R............................................................ 26,95
Thomas, S.A. ........................................................... 11,47
Tian, P. .................................................................... 21,81
Toalston, J................................................................ 21,79
Tock, J.L.................................................................. 23,86
Todd, J. .................................................................... 15,59
Todd, S. ................................................................... 25,89
Togal, V.L. .............................................................. 20,73
Tops, M. .................................................................... 9,38
Toth, M. ............................................. 14,17,21,56,77,100
Totton, R.T. ............................................................. 11,44
Truitt, W. ................................................................. 21,79
Truitt, W.A. ............................................................. 13,54
Tschirhart, M. ...................................... 10,11,14,43,46,56
Tsegay, S. ................................................................ 19,70
Tsuneyoshi, D.......................................................... 26,94
Tulogdi, A........................................................... 14,17,56
Tye, L.D......................................................... 16,22,60,82
Ueta, Y........................................................... 10,11,42,47
Ugale, R.R. .............................................................. 25,91
Uhl, G.R................................................................... 19,71
Van Ameringen, M. ................................................. 10,41
Van de Water, J. .................................................... 30,109
Van den Buuse, M. .................................................... 9,37
van Enkhuizen, J.......................................... 15,29,60,108
Vazey, E.M.............................................................. 23,84
Velazquez-Moctezuma, J......................................... 20,77
Vialou, V. ........................................................... 17,26,95
Viana, M.B. ............................................................. 14,56
Vicentini, E.............................................................. 21,77
Vilarchao, J.............................................................. 27,99
Villla, E.C................................................................ 27,97
Vishnevetsky, D. ..................................................... 19,71
Vorhees, C.V. ................................. 11,17,20,26,45,75,95
Vyas, A. ................................................................... 13,55
Walker, C.H............................................................... 9,37
Walker, F.R. .............................................................. 8,33
Wang H.L. ................................................................. 9,39
Wang, K-S. .............................................................. 27,97
Wang, L. .................................................................. 27,97
Wang, Y................................................................... 21,80
Wang, Z. ..................................................... 9,11,17,38,46
Warren, B.L. ....................................................... 17,26,95
119
Watt, M.................................................................... 19,68
Watt, M.J. ................................................................ 13,55
Weber, R.................................................................. 18,64
Webster, H.K. .......................................................... 13,52
Weickert, C.S.................................................................. 9
Weinberger, D.......................................................... 11,45
Weiser, M.J.............................................................. 23,85
Weiss, O................................................................... 16,64
Wellman, P.J............................................................ 18,65
Wells, D.L................................................................ 10,41
Wenzel, J.M............................................................. 20,76
Whillock, C. L. ........................................................ 18,65
Willemsen, M. ......................................................... 10,42
Williams, H.L. ......................................................... 20,74
Williams, M.T................................. 11,17,20,26,45,75,95
Williams, R.W. ........................................................ 16,63
Williams, S.J............................................................ 19,70
Williams, S.K. ........................................................... 9,37
Willuhn, I............................................................... 31,111
Wilson, G.N............................................................. 13,54
Winstein, C. ............................................................. 22,83
Winters, B................................................. 10,12,17,42,49
Wohleb, E. ................................................................. 8,33
Won, H..................................................................... 20,76
Won, H..................................................................... 26,92
Wong, W.C. ........................................................ 20,76,77
Wood, C................................................................... 27,98
Woods, J.A. ................................................. 15,28,59,106
Woody, E................................................................. 10,41
Wright, K.N. ....................................................... 17,26,95
Wu, J........................................................................ 26,96
Xu, C. ...................................................................... 27,97
Yamamoto, L.H.L.................................................... 27,99
Yang, L. ..................................................................... 8,34
Yeom, M................................................................ 28,105
Yin, C.S. ............................................ 18,21,28,68,79,105
Yoshimura, M................................................ 10,11,42,47
Young, J.W........................................ 15,19,29,60,71,108
Young, K.A. .............................................................. 9,38
Young, L........................................................... 17,28,104
Young, L.J. ......................................................... 17,21,80
Young, M.B. ............................................................ 11,47
Young, W.S. .............................................................. 9,38
Yu, M..................................................................... 28,106
Yuan, W................................................................... 26,95
Zangrossi, H. ........................................................... 26,96
Zapata, A. ................................................................ 21,80
Zelikowsky, M............................................... 14,24,57,87
Zhang, J. ................................................................ 28,103
Zhu, D.C. ................................................................. 13,52
Zicherman, J. ........................................................... 13,53
Zouikr, I................................................................... 27,98
Zukowska, Z. ........................................................... 16,61
120
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Keauhou II
Symposium-Jiao & Pang
(11:30am-1:30pm)
Keauhou II
1200 1200
1230 1230
100
1300
130
1330
200
1400
230
1430
300
1500
330
1530
400
1600
430
1630
500
1700
530
1730
600
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630
1830
700
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730
1930
800
2000
830
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930
2130
Coffee/Snack Break
(11:00am-11:30am)
Mid-Day Break
(12:30pm-2:00pm)
on your own
Student Social
(1:00pm-3:00pm)
Meet in Room 1329
Council Strategic Planning Meeting
Open to IBNS Members
(2:00pm-6:00pm)
Hualalai Room
(next to Kai Restaurant)
Symposium-Berger-Sweeney
(2:00pm-4:00pm)
Bayview Rooms
Oral Session 2
Stress and the Environment
(2:00pm-4:00pm)
Keauhou II - Conv. Ctr.
Snack Break - Exhibits
(4:00pm-4:30pm)
Snack Break - Exhibits
(4:00pm-4:30pm)
Symposium-Buisman-Pijlman &
Broadbear
(4:30pm-7:00pm)
Keauhou II
Optional Council Dinner
(6:30pm-10:00pm)
Sam Choy's Kai Lanai
Welcome Reception
Educational Talk
Bayview Grounds
Manta Ray viewing
(8:00pm-10:00pm)
Suites 1329 & 1425
Oral Session 1
Psychiatry and Cognition
(2:00pm-4:00pm)
Keauhou BALLROOM
Symposium-Papaleo
(2:00-4:00)
Keauhou II
Registration
(4:00pm-6:00pm)
Pool Terrace
Symposium-Lambert
(6:00pm-8:00pm)
Keauhou II
Mid-Day Break
Meet the Profs
(12:30pm-2:00pm)
Convention Center Lawn
Evening Break
(7:00pm-8:00pm)
on your own
Poster Session 1
Brain & Behavior
(8:00pm-10:00pm)
Keauhou I
Student Slide Blitz
(4:30pm-6:30pm)
Keauhou II
Mid-Day Break
Grant Workshop
(12:30pm-2:00pm)
Keauhou II
Mid-Day Break
Meet the Profs
(12:30pm-2:00pm)
Convention Center Lawn
Symposium-Bondi & Weiser
(2:00pm-4:00pm)
Keauhou II
Symposium-Gonzales-Lima &
Padilla
(2:00pm-4:00pm)
Keauhou II
Snack Break - Exhibits
(4:00pm-4:30pm)
Snack Break - Exhibits
(4:00pm-4:30pm)
Symposium-Ten Eyck & Summers
(4:30pm-6:30pm)
Bayview Rooms
Symposium-McNally
(4:30pm-6:30pm)
Keauhou II
Evening Break
(6:30pm-8:00pm)
on your own
Evening Break
(6:30pm-8:00pm)
on your own
Poster Session 2
Pharmacology
(8:00pm-10:00pm)
Keauhou I
Poster Session 3
Disease Models
(8:00pm-10:00pm)
Keauhou I
Symposium-Hohmann
& Van de Water
(4:30pm-6:30pm)
Keauhou II
Business Meeting
(6:30pm-7:00pm) Keauhou II
(7:00-8:00) Luau dinner
(7:30) Live Music starts
(8:00-9:00) Cultural Show
Hawaii Lawn
Dance with live band
featuring LT Smooth
(9:00-Midnight)
Keauhou I