EQUIPMENT SECTIO`N - Canadian Ski Museum

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EQUIPMENT SECTIO`N - Canadian Ski Museum
EQUIPMENT
SECTIO'N
H. Bruce Carnall, Equipment Editor
21 OTTER CRESCENT
TORONTO, 12, ONTARIO
The purpose of this EQUIPMENT SECTION is to present an annual summary of modern ski equipment for
readers of the Canadian Ski Year Book. Skiers are earnestly requested to send details of their own
opinions and discoveries; manufacturers are invited to submit particulars regarding their products.
In response to many requests, approximate prices of the various articles are now shown in the EQUIPMENT
SECTION. It is emphasized, however, that these prices are merely to suggest the approximate cost.
Especially under present conditions, prices are subject to considerable fluctuation.
The diagrams are now much better than they have been in former,issues and for this great improvement
we are indebted to Mr. Harry Waggett of Toronto. Most of the good diagrams were made by
Mr. Waggett.
For the above equipment figure, we are indebted to Mr. Albert Rakovsky in whose name the design is
registered.
H.B.C.
Skis
Through the courtesy of Mr. Albert Flemming
of T oron to, we have the following transla tion of
an article by H. Brandauer:
"DER ZUKUNFTSSKI"-THE SKI OF THE FUTURE
"The physical-chemical research on metalsespecially light metals- their alloys, and molecular structures at all temperatures, is making
remarkable progress. The ski of the future
must become an organic whole, once more, and
will therefore be constructed entirely of metal.
There will no longer be any need for edges, the
grea ter part of waxing, and even skins as the
metal ski will embody a simple, safe, climbing
arrangement that does not interfere with downhill running. Bindings will be simple and will
most likely have neither toe-irons nor toestraps. An attachment that can easily be fitted
to any boot will engage with a device fixed to
the ski. The connection between the two will
probably consist of a cable and spiral spring.
Already, this evolution has started.
"I will go even farther. In its development,
the ski of tomorrow will solve a problem that
has been confronting us for some time: the
folding ski. Gone will be the staring forest of
skis. One will carry them either in or on top
of the rucksack. For high-glacier tours in
summer, the mountain climber will carry a pair
of skis in addition to ice-axe and crampons. On
winter expeditions in the high mountains, when
travelling to foreign ski centres, in short everywhere necessary, a spare ski will be carried ip
the rucksack just as the motorist carries a spare
tire on the automobile. The dangers resulting
from a broken ski will then be done away with
entirely. We shall wait and see what happens."
The ski of the future may be composition or
metal bu t the ski of tomorrow, I believe, will
be laminated wood.
Laminated skis have only recently become
popular and even today some skiers regard
them with suspicion. It is true that some of
the early laminated skis came apart and were
generally unsatisfactory but most of the present
models can be highly recommended. One of
the main advantages of the laminated ski is
that it will not warp and lose shape as readily
as a solid ski. In a laminated ski, the upturn
and camber are formed and glued into shape
during manufacture; they should never flatten
out or change shape in any way. This is a
tremendous advantage. Laminated skis are
built from comparatively small pieces of wood
and, accordingly, the manufacturer has more
control over the finished product than is
possible with solid skis which are made from
one large billet. There is, of course, less wood
wasted in the manufacture of laminated skis.
Throughout the world, OESTBYE SPLITKEIN
skis are undoubtedly more popular than any
other laminated ski. SPLITKEIN skis are made
up of a light core protected on all sides by
hickory wood. The core is made of from three
to seven pieces of ash or pine laminated
together and the hickory covering consists of
fifteen or more laminated strips. The grain of
126
the various components is arranged so as to
eliminate all warping and splitting. For two
seasons I have used a pair of Norwegian
SPLITKEIN skis and they have given me complete satisfaction. SPLITKEIN skis are made in
various models for cross-country racing, touring, downhill, slalom, and jumping. For
general use, I would recommend the SLALOM
model with ash core.
SPLITKEIN skis are now made in several
countries. In Switzerland, they are made by
Adolf Attenhofer of Zurich. The ATTENHOFER SPLITKEIN DELUXE ski, unlike all other
SPLITKEIN skis, is finished with a dome-top
and it has a most pleasing appearance. A few
pairs of this model were imported into Canada
last season but further- importation is now
forbidden by patent restrictions.
Canadian skiers will welcome the news tha t
SPLITKEIN skis are now being made in Canada.
The Canada Cycle & Motor Company, Limited,
has commenced the manufacture of SPLITKEIN
skis under license from the Norwegian patent
holders and with the assistance of experienced
key workmen from the Norwegian SPLITKEIN
factory. C.C.M. products have a high reputation and SPLITKEIN skis are of equal repute.
Examination of the first samples turned out,
indicates that C.C.M. - SPLITKEIN skis will
maintain these high standards. I look forward to testing the Canadian-made C.C.M.SPLITKEIN skis.
Mr. Hamish Davidson of Vancouver, B.C.,
has been making lamina ted skis for eleven
years and he now manufactures at least nine
models. DAVIDSON skis are usually made to
order taking into consideration the individual's
height, weight, proficiency, and the terrain
where the skis will be used. In the West,
DAVIDSON skis have become popular but there
has been little distribution in the East_
Excepting for special snow conditions,
DAVIDSON skis were considered too flexible a
few years ago but models are now made to any
degree of stiffness. VORLAGE MODEL No.7 is
an unusually stiff and heavy. ski made especially
for downhill racing on hard snow.
Most DAViDSON models are flat-topped
rather than domed. Regarding this feature,
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
Mr. Davidson writes: "A flat-topped ski does
not twist from the harness forward as happens
when the skier does a turn and gets right up
onto an edge in a fast Christie-on hard snow.
In a ridge-top ski the strength is in the ridge
or centre and the ski may be twisted at the tip
without affecting the majn strength of it.
Whereas a flat-topped ski greatly resists this
twisting action. To demonstrate what I mean,
take a ridge top ski and hold it firmly in a vice
at the harness and twist the tip with the hands.
Then take a flat-top ski of approximately the
same flexibility and do likewise. The flattopped ski will be found to greatly resist the
twisting action."
MARIUS ERIKSEN solid skis have a wonderful
reputation throughout the world and MARIUS
ERIKSEN STREAMLINES laminated skis are now
being widely sold. These skis are expensive
but, I am told, exceptionally good. MARIUS
ERIKSEN skis are made in Norway.
The MARQUARDT-SILBER-SKI is an interesting experiment. It consists of a duraluminium
running-surface buil t in to a two-piece lamina ted
ski. The manufacturers state: "The ski point
is exceptionally flexible and strong." A metal
running-surface does not seem desirable and,
in any case, the actual edge is not really sharp.
One wonders if the metal will wear through at
the edge. The ALU-SKI is somewhat similar.
It consists of a metal running-surface, with
point, to which is attached a wooden · "ski"
without a point. The metal running-surface is
for durability and the wooden backing is to
supply the resilience required of a ski. I t is
understood that ALU-SKIS are manufactured in
France under the patent of M. Chauviere.
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
The HOMAG DUPLEX ski is manufactured by
Holzwarenfabrik Murgenthal A.-G. of Switzerland. It is claimed that Rudolf Rominger uses
this model. Both MARIUS ERIKSEN STREAM-
LINES and HOMAG DUPLEX laminated skis are
made entirely of hickory wood; lamina ted skis
are usually made with a hickory runningsurface and other woods are used for the
remainder of the ski.
Anderson & Thompson Inc. of Seattle,
U.S.A., manufacture the SUN VALLEY lamina ted
ski. This model has a distinguished appearance due to the four dark vertical laminations
which contrast with the remainder of the ski.
SUN VALLEY skis are guaranteed against
breakage for one year.
Canadian skis have improved tremendously
during the past few years and our best models
are now on a par with imported skis. Naturally, there will always be a market for special
imported models bu t Canadian skis are now so
satisfactory that the sale of imported skis will
undoubtedly decrease. Under present conditions, it is difficult and costly to import skis
from Europe. This gives our ski manufacturers an opportunity to convince Canadian
skiers that our domestic skis are first-class in
design, materials, workmanship, and finish.
Examine and then buy Canadian skis.
CHALET skis are now supplied with holes
already drilled for the binding. This is a great
convenience for dealers and skiers because it
Insures that the holes are properly drilled and
that the binding is properly placed on the ski.
CHALET skis are also supplied with LETTNERtype edges expertly fitted at the factory.
These edges extend to the bend of the ski and
it is recommended that they be further extended
127
to the point. I am told that the CHALET ridgetop maple ski is an outstanding value this
season.
NORTHERN skis are handmade in Sudbury,
Ontario, by experienced Scandinavian workmen. Mr. McCaw, representing NORTHERN
skis, explains that most manufacturers make
the ski and then form the bend and upturn but
that NORTHERN skis are bent when in billet
form and that the ski is then made from the
bent billet. At the upturn, the billet is threequarters of an inch thick when bent. He
writes: "From this method you will readily
understand that should a slight check appear
in the billet after it is bent, it can easily be cut
away and that in addition to that, once the ski
is worked after having been bent, we can make
a uniform toe and as the wood is now dried, we
know it is not going to flatten out again."
NORTHERN birch skis sell from $4.95 to $7.95
and the hickory skis range from $9.75 to $16.00.
Edges are applied at the factory if desired.
Mr. Fritz Loosli, who has been connected
with the design and manufacture of PETERBOROUGH skis, writes: "In the PETERBOROUGH
Downhill and Slalom models, the footplate is
brought forward to facilitate Vorlage and a
better distribution of weight to the front part
of the ski. The bend has been altered to
increase the length of the running-surface.
Great care is given to the steaming process of
the tip to avoid getting a side rocking at the
bend which often occurs in flat grain skis. We
are trying to finish the bottom at the upturn
with a slight hollow at the centre rather than
a bump, giving better grip to the edge at this
point while turning. The ski is thicker (5/ 16)
at the tip to minimize vibration and for better
control." P ETERBOROUGH skis have already
caused much favourable comment during the
short time they have been on display this
season.
In taking care of the skis, even many of the
most meticulous persons completely overlook
one important precaution. Why is it advocated
that the points should always be down when
skis are stuck in a snowbank or left upright?
It is because moisture quickly soaks into the
end-grain of wood and causes rot. With the
heel left up, water does not run down the ski,
soak into the end, and cause rot. Therefore,
unless the precaution results in a smashed
point, it is considered better to stand the skis
heels up. However, there is a better and less
dangerous method of preventing rot in the
heels of your skis. Moisture is effectively
kept out by closing the pores of the wood and
the simplest way to do this is to remove the
finish from the ends and stand them, for a
few hours, in sufficient varnish to cover the
end-grain. Then, wipe off the skis and allow
the varnish to dry thoroughly, End-grain is
also exposed where the point is shaped. It is
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Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
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sometimes not necessary to take these precautions with new skis as the manufacturer has
already done so.
The manufacturers of the well - known
CHALET skis ad vise that they have developed
and now use a special prepara tion to wa terproof
the ends of their skis. This preparation is said
to effectively seal the pores of the wood and
prevent rot.
ABC skis, manufactured in Kungalv, Sweden,
became popular last season and have since been
greatly improved in both design and appearance. The hickory models are supplied with
full-length VIVAX steel edges, full-length fibre
edges, and combinations of VIVAX and fibre.
VIVAX edges are of the narrow LETTNER type.
ABC hickory skis sell at $14.00 and an additional $4.50 is charged for edges fitted at the
factory. ABC Swedish birch skis are fitted
with edges of fibre or hickory wood and, at
$14.50, should prove popular for touring. All
ABC skis have good flexibility, modern design
with dome tops, and seem unusually sturdy.
The most reasonable prices make ABC skis a
. good buy.
For last season, a limited supply of the
world-famous HOVDE skis was imported from
Norway by The T. Eaton Company, Limited,
and it is understood that they have imported a
larger supply for this season. HOVDE skis have
won great favour with discriminating competitors but their distribution has been limited
by the comparatively small output of the
factory. In design, workmanship, and materials, HOVDE skis are really first-class. HOVDE
downhill and slalom models have one unique
feature. There is a rather large cutting near
c
d
the middle of the footplate. This curved
cutting is intended to insure that the middle
part of the ski is flexible.
SKIBO is a new product of Vernisol S.A.
manufacturers of the well-known Swiss TEMPEROL 3, Le Vernis Vert. SKIBO is a special
preparation to refinish skis that have become
scra tched through use. It is merely painted on
the ski where necessary and allowed to dry. In
addition to improving the appearance of the
ski, SKIBO waterproofs the wood and this is of
course more important.
Exactly where should the binding be placed
on the ski? This ~uestion usually meets with a
blank look or with 'On the footplate of course."
Many bindings are placed "at" the point of
balance, many are set as far forward on the
footplate as possible, and many are just put
on the footplate. There are, however, several
methods of placing the binding correctly:(1) La Revue du Ski published an article by
M. Georges Reussner suggesting the following
method:Let L be the exact length of the ski measured
along a vertical line from the point to the floor
when the ski is upright;
Let X be the distance from the heel of the ski
to the centre line of the toe-iron.
X= .465 L
For example, a 225 cm ski is found to be
exactly 220 cm. long. Using the formula:X = (.465 x 220) = 102 cm.
The centre line of the toe-iron should, therefore,
be placed exactly 102 cm. from the heel of the
ski.
(2) Herr Adolf Attenhofer, manufacturer of
the world-famous ATTENHOFER skis, suggests
this method:Let L be the length of the ski as in (1);
Let S be the proficiency of the skier:Novice skiers. . . . . . . . . .. 0
Intermediate skiers. . . .. 2
Advanced skiers ...... " 3
Expert skiers . ........ " 4
Let Y be the distance from the heel of the ski
to the centre of the toe-strap.
Y=90%(L+2) +S
Taking the same example:Y=90%(220+2) + 3= 102 cm.
It is noteworthy that these formulae give
identical measurements for X and Y when the
"Advanced skiers" figure is takenforS. In most
bindings, there is about 1.5 cm. between X and
Y. Therefore, according to the ATTENHOFER
method the REUSSNER method is correct for a
skier of the "Expert" class. M. Reussner
points out that Allais places his bindings
exactly according to the REUSSNER method
despite the fact that he uses another method.
Personally, I have used another more complicated method but find that the bindings on
my skis are placed exactly as recommended by
Herr Attenhofer.
Edges
Despite the multitude of other designs on the
market, LETTNER-type edges continue to be the
most popular. There ,are more LETTNER-type
in use than all other edges put together. This
amazing popularity of the original edge is undoubtedly due to the low cost that results from
the comparative simplicity of manufacturing
and fitting LETTNER edges. It is surprising,
however, that so few skiers have adopted or
even tried any of the many improvements tha t
have 'been made on the LETTNER design.
LETTNER edges consist of flat metal strips
approximately 1/16" x 5/16" supplied in short
lengths. The edge is mounted on the ski by
129
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
cutting a simple rabbet at each edge of the
running-surface and screwing the metal strips
in place. It is believed that the LETTNER
patents have now expired and, in any case,
many edges of identical design are now being
sold under different names. These and original LETTNER edges can be grouped as
" LETTNER-type."
LETTNER-type edges are supplied in steel,
brass, bronze, duraluminium, and various
compositions. Although brass and bronze are
considered faster on some types of snow, steel
edges are by far the most popular. Duraluminium is not recommended.
There are definite disadvantages to the
LETTNER-type edge :- (1) Sinking the short
screws is such a lengthy and tedious job that
comparatively few sets are applied properly;
(2) As the ski bends, there is a shearing action
on the screws. This loosens them and tends to
break off the heads which may have been
fractured by the screw-driver;
(3) At the
many places where ends of strips meet, it is
necessary to have two screws very close together. This weakens the wood and tends to
make local splits; '(4) When the screw at the
forward end of a strip falls out or is broken off,
the metal juts· out, the edge is torn off, and a
dangerous fall often results ; (5) The many
screw-heads and joins on the running-surface
make the ski run more slowly; (6) The ski is
stiffened more when most other edges are used.
Price is not the sole consideration when purchasing LETTNER-type edges, one must also
consider the quality of materials and workmanship. Many LETTNER-type edges are crudely '
made of unsuitable metal. ' When choosing a
set of edges, make certain that the screw-holes
and countersinks are clean and witheut burrs;
make certain that the actual edge is square and
sharp. When purchasing edged skis, look for
the following points:-(l) There must not be
any humps in the metal between screws ; (2)
The screws should be reasonably straight and
the heads should not project above the surface
of the metal; (3) The metal edge must not
project beyond the edge of the ski; (4) The
plane of the edge should be just slightly below
tha t 6f the running-surface.
None of the many LETTNER-type edges that
I have examined are as well finished as those
manufactured under the SPEARHEAD trademark by T. Elliott of Winchester, Massachusetts. SPEARHEAD edges are supplied in uniform lO-inch strips both stainless and hard coldrolled steel. Excellent screws with recessed
heads are provided. It is noteworthy that
these screws are supplied in two lengths. At
the thin ends of the ski, U -inch screws are used
and 3/8-inch screws are used where the wood is
thicker. Screws with recessed heads should not
break as readily as slotted screws. I t is hoped
that skiers fully appreciate the uniformity and
high quality of SPEARHEAD edges.
• t
In Europe a,nd in Western Canada, JACK
ETTINGER'S SPECIAL STEEL EDGES have become popular. They have not been generally
sold in Eastern Canada. JACK ETTINGER'S
edge is of the LETTNER type but it is approximately 3/32nds of an inch narrower and 12
thousand ths of an inch thicker than the usual
LETTNER-type edge. Screws that are too near
the edge of the ski tend to split the wood and,
accordingly, the ETTINGER screw holes and
countersinks are set to one side of the edge so
that the screws are set in as far as possible.
JACK ETTINGER'S SPECIAL STEEL EDGES are
made in Switzerland by R. Ettinger, whose
Canadian agent is J. Morrison Sporting Goods,
Banff, Alberta. The actual edge is sharp, the
steel is good, the workmanship is good, and the
screws are excellent. JACK ETTINGER'S edges
give satisfaction but cost considerably more
than other LETTNER-type edges. These narrower-and therefore faster-edges are used by
many competitors.
Following the JACK ETTINGER lead, many
other manufacturers now also supply narrow
LETTNER-type edges. This is the most simple
and probably the most widely-adopted improvement in LETTNER-type edges. Excepting for racing, however, the standard width of
LETTNER-type edges is probably preferable.
Sharp edges are essential for precise control
but metal edges undoubtedly make the ski run
more slowly. Competitors} therefore, have
tried to find some sharp edge that will not slow
the ski. Compositions have not proven successful and, therefore, the compromise of
narrow metal edges has found favour. Many
narrow metal edges have been designed and
several have been described in this Section.
•
•
MAR/VS' ERICKSEN
-
The Norwegian MARIUS ERIKSEN edge is one
of the best narrow edges. MARIUS ERIKSEN
edges are screwed to the sides of the ski and
apparently there are three models. The first
consists of 3Y2/1 steel or duraluminium strips,
each overlapping the one behind to form .a
continuous edge. The second is a one-piece
flat strip of brass with semi-circular cuttings
every two inches to insure flexibility. The
third is identical to the second except that oval
cuttings take the place of the semi-circular ones.
Ste.e l edges of the first model are the most
popular. AU MARIUS ERIKSEN edges may be
applied in any desired length but it is unusual
to run them to the point because the wood is
so thin at the bend .
130
The great disadvantage of narrow metal
edges is that the wood soon wears away from
the metal and leaves the edge projecting from
the ski. As a result, the edge catches easily
when ski-ing and, in addition, it is easily torn
from the ski by rocks and other obstructions.
To overcome this great disadvantage, a combination of MARIUS ERIKSEN and composition
has become popular. Composition neither
wears quickly nor slows the ski. The MARIUS
ERIKSEN edge is screwed to the sides of the ski
and the composition is applied to the runningsurface. In effect, two sets of edges are applied
to one pair of skis. Naturally, this composite
edge is expensive and rather difficult to apply
properly. ATTENHOFER LAMINATED DELuXE
(SPLITKEIN) skis fitted with a combination of
MARIUS ERIKSEN and BLAU edges sold in
Canada for $40.00 per pair last season.
As the MARIUS ERIKSEN edge is durable,
sharp, and does not stiffen the ski, and as the
composition prevents the wood from wearing
away from the metal, the combined MARIUS
ERIKSEN and composition edge is most satisfactory . The cost, however, is excessive.
Last season, I was able to devise a simple
combination of MARIUS ERIKSEN and composition. This composite edge is egually as good
as the usual combinottion but it IS considerably
less expensive, because it is more easily applied .
My composite edge has been thoroughly tested
and found entirely satisfactory. It consists of
a protecting strip of composition parallel to and
held by the same screws as the MARJUS
ERIKSEN edge. To mount this composite edge,
a single rabbet is cut in the ski to accommodate
both the composition and the metal. The
composition (I used 9/64" DILECTO phenol
fibre) is glued in place, holes are drilled through
the composition and into the wood, and then
the MARIUs ERIKSEN edge is screwed on. The
screws pass through the metal, through the
composition, and yet the entire thread is
securely held by the wood. There , is no
sacrifice of strength. To finish off the composite edge, the composition is ground down to
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
the level of the metal. When completed, this
combination is almost >iff wide and that is
sufficient to prevent wear.
Unlike nearly every other edge, this combination can be successfully applied to used
skis with badly-worn edges.
This composite edge is sharp, strong, and
fast. For the rac'ng skier, I know of no better
edge. The opinions of those who- use it will be
welcomed.
One practical advantage of the MARIUS
ERIKSEN edge is that the screws are rather
long and do not require' the same painstaking
care in sinking as the short screws used in
LETTNER-type and most other edges. This is
an important consideration when edges are
applied commercially.
For the upturn of the ski, I know of no edge
that equals the STAEHLI GS. This Swiss edge
is supplied, both in brass and steel, in two-inch
sections. Each section has an acute bevel and
tongue at the end where there is a countersunk
hole for the screw and at the other end there is
a parallel acute bevel and gr:oove. Each strip
is securely held by the overlapping tongue-andgroove bevel at the front and by one screw at
the back. All screws are two inches apart and
one screw holds each two-inch section. As
there are no lateral attachments between these
short sections, the ski is not stiffened and it is
for this reason that STAEHLI GS edges are
especially recommended for the upturn. Last
season I used STAEHLI GS steel edges with
complete sa tisfaction.
It is rather expensive to use STAEHLI GS
edges over the whole length of the ski and,
accordingly, the manufacturers have now produced the less expensive STAEHLI GS COMBINATION. This edge consists of two-inch GS
sections over the upturn and six-inch GS
sections for the remainder of the ski. Each
six-inch GS section is held by three screws
Metal edges are applied in sections because
one long strip stiffens the ski. One great disadvantage ofLETTNER-type edges is that where
sections meet, the two screws are only about
one-half inch apart. This tends to cause local
splits in the wood. The great advantage of the
STAEHLI GS design is that no two screws
are closer together than two inches. The
STAEHLI GS design is perhaps the greatest
practical improvement that has been made in
LETTNER-type edges.
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1919
When artificial edges are extended to the
actual heel of a ski, they invariably break away
in due course and for this reason most edges
end about three inches from the heel. With
use, the ski wood wears away at the heel and
the metal edge soon juts out. To prevent this
wear, Mr. Albert Rakovsky of Montreal has
produced the OLYMPIA HEEL-EDGE. This
brass edge is roughly triangular in shape and it
is countersunk and screwed to the heel of the
ski as a prolongation of the metal edge. Those
who prefer a rounded edge a t the heel to
facilitate turning, can round off the brass
OLYMPIA edge and yet protect the ski wood.
So far as I know, this is the only successful
method of preventing wear at the heel of the
ski and last season I used OLYMPIA HEELEDGES with complete satisfaction.
The Swiss BLUE EDGE or BLAU KA NTE has
become popular with those skiers who prefer
composition to metal. While composition does
not slow the ski, it is neither as sharp nor as
durable as metal. BLUE EDGES are often used
for the upturn of the ski and in combination
with MARIUS ERIKSEN metal edges. To apply
the BLUE EDGE, a rabbet is cut in the running
surface of the ski and three saw cuts are then
made lengthwis~ on the ski in the wider part of
the rabbet. It is my understanding that the
BLUE EDGE is then applied in paste form filling
up the saw cuts and the rabbet, that it hardens,
and that it is then ground down to the same
·p lane as the running-surface. Those who use
BLUE EDGES are warned that the material is
soluble in the solvents used in most ski lacquers
and that great care must be taken when
lacquering skis edged with BLUE composition.
Sharp metal edges and feet-together technigue combine to chop up the top surface of our
skIS and this is especially evident at the upturn
where the wood is very thin. New skis as well
as old are often split at the edge of the upturn
when one slices across the other. This is the
main reason why many skiers prefer composition to metal at the uptum. Despite the
great damage done to one ski by the sharp
metal edge of the other, no method of protection
has yet been marketed so far as I know. For
some time I have been experimenting with
various methods of protecting the upper surface of the ski at the upturn and last season a
successful SKI PROTECTOR resulted.
This SKI PROTECTOR is a simple thing.
Strips of composition, suitable rubber, metal,
or even hard wood, are secured to the upper
surface of the ski so tha t the sharp metal edge
strikes against this inexpensive and easily
replaced SKI PROTECTOR rather than cutting
into the ski. SKI PROTECTORS can of course be
used on any part of the ski tha t requires
protection. Many skiers will find it worthwhile
to protect the after part of the ski which is
often badly cut when the skis are crossed.
To test this SKI PROTECTOR, last season I had
strips of DILECTO phenol fibre cut to the shape
of the ski point. These strips are 19/1 long,
3/8/1 wide, and 1/ 16/1 thick. Theywere rounded
on the upper edges, drilled and countersunk
every two inches, and screwed to the upturn
just slightly in from the edge of the ski. No
rabbet was cut as this would weaken the ski.
When applied, two coats of ski lacquer were
given as additional protection. These SKI
PROTECTORS were given considerable use and,
from the cuts and scrapes in the fibre, it is
evident that they have prevented much
damage to the ski wood.
Since fitting this, the original set, it has
occurred to me that it would be preferable to
attach both the metal edges on the running
surface and the SKI PROTECTORS on the upper
surface by one set of small bolts rather than by
two sets of wood screws.
This SKI PROTECTOR will not help your skiing bu tit will save your skis and should help
your pocketbook. I hope to learn the opinions
of those skiers who test these SKI PROTECTORS.
./
A number of skiers have written to ask what
edge or combination of edges I use on my own
skis. In testing the various edges that have
been described on these pages. I have used
many different kinds. It is difficult to say
which is the best because many factors must
be taken into consideration. Last season,
however. I used a pair of edged skis that gave
complete satisfaction and, despite considerable
use, they seem as good as new. The 200 cm.
skis were fitted as follows :- STAEHLI GS steel
edges starting 3Y2/1 from the point and running
over the bend for 16Y2/1; my own MARIUS
ERIKSEN and fibre composite edge. as described above, running to within 2-9/ 16/1 of the
end; RAKOVSKY OLYMPIA brass HEEL EDGES
to the end; SKI PROTECTORS. as described
above. fitted to protect the upturn. This
combination of edges gave such complete satisfaction that I cannot recommend it too highly.
With such good protection against wear, the
skis should last indefinitely- or until they
match strength with a tree or rock.
Bindings
In the October, 1938 issue of Ski Noles ~
Queries, The Ski Club of Great Britain
announced: "The Council is very perturbed
by the increasing number of ski-ing accidents,
and thinks tha t the modern rigid bindings are
to a great extent the cause of these accidents.
These modern bindings have vastly improved
control of the skis, but it is practically impossible to free the foot from them in the event
of a bad fall. I t is felt tha t the in ven tion of a
132
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
binding which would give complete control to
the skis, and would at the same time free the
foot in an emergency, would be an inestimable
benefit to the ski-ing world. In order to encourage the invention of such a binding, a prize
of £25 is being offered." In the Equipment
Section of The British Ski YearBook for 1939,
we find the following report which was submitted by the Accidents Committee to the
Council on June 21st, 1939:"In all, seven designs were submitted for
competition. A certain number of these appeared to the Committee to be too much in the
theoretical stage of development to merit
practical trial on the snow.
"Of those selected for practical trial, three
are, in the opinion of the Committee, of special
merit, viz.:"(1) The 'Schwarze-Hager' binding, submitted by Herr P. Schwarze.
"(2) Wing-Commander C. W. Hill's binding.
"(3) Colonel H. T. Tudsbery's binding.
"Of these, the 'Schwarze-Hager' appears to
the Committee to be the best and ,most complete. It includes a combination for safety
involving both toe and heel; and reports
received about it under practical test have
been, on the whole, the most satisfactory.
"The Committee accordingly recommend
that the prize be awarded to this design.
"Wing-Commander Hill's binding appears to
the Committee to be the next best, and not far
behind the 'Schwarze-Hager.' The safety
device, in this case too, worked well under trial.
It has the merit of simplicity and should be
cheap to produce. The device does not, however, provide any toe release, which in the
opinion of the Committee may constitute some
disadvantage.
"Colonel Tudsbery's binding allows for sideways falls, but the Committee consider that, in
its present state of development, its correct
adjustment involves some difficulty. While
the theoretical principle upon which this binding is designed would appear sound, the Committee are unable to say whether in its present
state of development it can be relied upon as a
safety device.
"Whilst further advance in the direction of
the invention of safety bindings is not precluded, the Committee are of the opinion that
risk of accident would be diminished by the
use of either of the first two types mentioned
above. Also, in reports submitted to the
Committee, stress is laid on the confidence
imparted to beginners by the adoption of a
suitable safety device.
"The thanks of the Committee are due to all
those ladies .and gentlemen who assisted in the
practical tests, especially to Mr. G . D. Greenland and his friends at Andermatt, for extensive
trials and well written reports."
The "Schwarze-Hager" binding is illustrated
below.
The inventor of this binding, Herr P.
Schwarze, of Tellstrasse 22, St. Gallen, Switzerland, writes as follows :" The first illustration shows how the boot fits
,--\
~
Fig.
,dI
-- - --- --)
into the toe irons. The side faces of the toe
irons are recessed, and the boot is provided
with two small projections which fit into these
recesses. The illustration shows how these
projections are fitted to the front part of the
boot ; they are small and do not interfere with
the use of the boot. The toe of the boot is slid
into the toe irons in the approximate direction
of the arrow. When the heel is lowered the
projections fit firmly into the jaws, but the toe
is released should the heel be wrenched upwards in a fall. The toe irons are normal
apart from these two recesses, and can be
adjusted in the usual manner.
" The second illustration shows how diagonal
tension on the heel is obtained in the usual way,
and, in conjunction with the special toe irons,
this provides absolute control. Just in front
of the heel spring there is a sliding ring; this
ring is attached to a short cable, the other end
of which is fastened to the back part of the ski.
It is adjusted in such a way that it allows the
heel to be raised to any position which might
occur in ordinary ski-ing. But in the event of
the heel being wrenched upwards in a forward
fall, this rear cable tears the heel spring off the
boot. Simultaneously the toe of the ' boot is
released, owing to the ingenious method in
which the projections fit into the recesses ;
there is no possibility of the boots becoming
jammed in the toe irons.
"A further important advantage of this binding is that, in the event of a cable or a spring
breaking while on tour, it still remains serviceable; the toe irons hold the boot in place even
without the heel spring and make careful skiing possible. The binding is strong, easy to fix
or remove, and it will cost little if any more
than other efficient bindings. The control of
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
the ski is unique, while, at the same time, the
toot will certainly be released in a bad fall. One
can therefore be sure that the binding will
considerably reduce the number of ski-ing
accidents."
Early last season, Lillywhites Limited of
London, England, produced and patented a
safety device th.at is somewhat similar to the
SCHWARZE-HAGER binding but which may be
fitted to any binding that has a spring around
the heel. LILLYWHITES SAFETY ADAPTER consists of a clamp attached to the heel spring, an
adjustable strap, and an elastic band similar to
those now used to fasten skis together for
carrymg.
The principle of this safety device is to
release the foot from the binding by pulling off
the heelspring when the heel of the boot reaches
a predetermined height. One decides how
high the heel of the boot can be raised with
safety, adjusts the strap accordingly, and
LILLYWHITES SAFETY ADAPTER pulls off the
heelspring, releasing the foot, when this height
is reached. As the majority of dangerous falls
are forward, the advantages of this safety
device are obvious. In reply to my enquiry,
Lillywhites Limited writes: "Several tests were
made with this Adapter last season and it foupd
favour with many skiers, particularly of the
elderly or more cautious type who for a long
time have been looking for something of this
na ture. If all falls were of a forward na ture
this, or a similar type of adapter, would be
invaluable, but naturally the mechanism will
not function in any other type of fall so it is
hard to say in what percentage of general falls
this Adapter would be effective. The racing
and younger element of ski-ing did not take to
it as they decry any safety devices, and for the
sake of a little extra rigidity are prepared to
risk quite a lot in the way of accidents."
Mr. Theodore Elliott of Winchester, Massachusetts, has written at length about his own
theories on binding safety and it is unfortunate
that we have not sufficient space to publish his
observations in full. We can, however, give
the salien t poin ts :There are two main types of heel-attachments: those giving horizontal pull and those
lJJ
giving diagonal pull. The function of the heelattachments at horizontal pull "is purely to
force the boot firmly into the toe-irons. When
in this position, no binding, regardless of type,
should ever be used for any downhill use,
whether it be downhill running, slalom or jumping, for in this position, no matter how high the
heel is raised from the ski, even though the
skier can kneel forward on the skis, there is no
tendency to release" the foot and this is
dangerous in the case of a twisting fall. At
diagonal pull, the heel-attachments have two
functions: they keep the boot firmly in the toeirons and, at the same time, force the heel of
the boot to the ski. "This diagonal downpull
will peel the spring from the heel and affords a
real means of releasing the boot from the toeirons in a spill." It will be seen, therefore,
that for downhill ski-ing it is safer to use
diagonal-pull than horizontal-pull. The latter,
however, is less tiring for climbing and for
running on the level. That is whv many
bindings can be adjusted for both diagonal
and horizontal pull.
There are two main types of falls in ski-ing:
forward and twisting. "In a straight forward
spill, there are four possibilities of the foot
being released: (1) Pulling off the heel of the
boot (a very remote chance); (2) Stretching
the heelspring sufficiently to allow the heel to
rise up off the ski" (almost equally remote);
"(3) Stretching the spring sufficiently to allow
the Bildstein type handle to fly open; and (4)
Peeling the heelspring off the heel of the boot.
All these possibilities assume that diagonal-pull
is being used and tha t horizon tal-pull on any type
of binding permits a free heel. A correctly designed Bildstein type of handle will release if sufficiently stretched. The sad thing about this is
that most springs are so heavy and stiff that
such stretching is impossible with the strains
imposed by such spills. Releasing by peeling
the spring off the heel is the most likely possibility and is greatly assisted by the rubber
heels now being used, but is made more difficult
by the new diagonal-pull heelspring groove" on
some boots. "With a cable binding of either
Bildstein or other type, if the hooks for
diagonal-pull are placed far enough aft, they
exert such an angular force on the heel that
peeling is made much easier. At the same
time, the downward acting force is greater in
proportion and the forward degree is lessened,
which is. al! advll:ntaRe."
.
In tWIstmg spIlls the force throws the skIer
sideways to the ski instead of forward, with
the result that the strain on the heelspring or
heelstrap is -very small in proportion to the
total force acting. Consequently, the toe
irons are taking practically all the load and
since all -bindings force the boot securely into
the toe-irons, it is apparent that in a twist, all
bindings are on an egual basis. The solu tion
could come in desigmng a toe-iron that would
134
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
let go at a predetermined stress but are there
any skiers who would buv such a toe-iron?"
The D.R. SAFETY BINDING manufactured by
Reussner Beckert of Megeve, France, has toeirons of this type. The ease with which the
toe-irons can be forced open is regulated by a
screw so that before a race, for instance, it is
possible to tighten the binding so that it will
only open under severe strain.
"With the trend towards a more rigid
connection of the boot to the ski (there is a
legendary chap who is supposed to have
screwed his boots to his skis) there also seems
to be a trend toward not caring whether a
binding will release or not and to learn to fall
with your skis. This may sound difficult, but
in practice, if you can concentrate on this
point in the fraction of a second that seems like
minutes while you are falling, it will help
considerably."
Among Mr. Elliott's valuable suggestions,
there is one that warrants our most careful
consideration. He suggests that the tension of
our cables should be reduced and that our
hooks for diagonal-pull should be set farther
back and higher on the ski than is usual. This
will give increased or equal downpull, less
buckling strain on the sole of the ski boot, less
friction on the sides of the ski, and make it
much easier for the heelspring to peel off the
boot.
Of the three safety measures described above,
Mr. Elliott's seem the most useful and the most
practical because most of us now use- or can use
bindings of the KANDAHAR type. It is noteworthy that each of these three safety measures
deals wi th peeling the spring from the heel of
the boot. Ski-ing is really not a dangerous
sport, but, nevertheless, accidents can be
reduced by simple safety measures and it seems
to me that a little less tension on the cables of
our bindings would help considerably.
Modern VORLAGE ski technique requires that
the skier must lean well forward over the points
of his skis when running and swinging. This
is only possible when the heels are securely
held to the skis. Diagonal-pull keeps the heel
down on the ski and is obtained by moving
back and lowering the pivot-points of the heelattachment. The farther the hooks are moved
back and the greater the tension of the cable,
the greater the diagonal-pull. Several things
have resulted directly from excessive diagonalpull and excessive cable tension:-(l) The boots
are bound so closely and tightly to the ski that
much of the elasticity between ski and skier
is lost; (2) There is excessive strain on both
bindings and boots. This causes many toeirons to slip out of adjustment, cables to
break, and boots to buckle under the instep.
Failures of this sort are dangerous when running
at high speed; (3) In a forward fall, there is
great danger of injuring the feet and ankles
unless the heelsprings pull off the boots before
the pressure causes damage; (4) The feet are
tired, rubbed, and sometimes injured by movement within the rigidly-held boots unless the
fit is exceptionally good. These are important
considerations that effect our comfort and
safety when ski-ing. However, for adequate
forward lean, we must use downpull. The
problem is to hold the heels down securely
without excessive strain.
The SUPERDIAGONAL offers an excellent solution to our problem. The SUPERDIAGONAL
consists of a black vulcanized rubber band
fitted around the boot and fastened to the ski
behind the boot by a most ingenious and practical clamp tightener. It will be seen that this
elastic band also gives diagonal~pull and that
the tension is towards the heel of the ski while
the diagonal-pull of the binding is towards the
point., Using the diagonal-pull of the SUPER-
DIAGONAL in one direction in conjunction with
the diagonal-pull of the cable binding in the
other direction, it is evident that the heels of
the boots will be held firmly to the skis and that
the tension of the cable can be decreased
without decreasing the heel-pressure. One
great advantage of the SUPERDIAGONAL, therefore, is that by using diagonal-pull in two
directions, neither need be excessive. Because
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
the SUPERDIAGONAL is elastic and because the pressure
of the cable binding has been
decreased it will also be seen
tha t the heel can be raised
from the ski despite strong
heel-pressure.
Using the
SUPERDIAGONAL in conjunction with a cable binding at
reduced tension, therefore, offers the following
advantages over using a cable bi.nding at
excessive tension: - (1) Although there is
adequate heel-pressure for good VORLAGE,
the boots are not held as rigidly to the
skis and, consequently, there is greater
flexibility between ski and skier; (2) There is
no excessive strain on either bindings or boots
and, therefore, both should be more satisfactory
and durable; (3) In a forward fall, heelsprings
are more likely to pull off the boot before the
pressure causes damage and the progressive
tension of the SUPERDIAGONAL is not likely to
injure the foot but often assists in releasing the
boot from the toe-irons; (4) As the elastic band
holds the foot down into the boot and gives
some lateral support, injury and discomfort
arising from the foot mo~ing within the boot are
reduced to a minimum.
Never having found AMSTUTZ SPRINGS satisfactory or desirable, the SUPERDIAGONAL did
not impress me favourablv when I first
examined it. However, the principle seemed
sound and a test was therefore made. I was
amazed to find that the SUPERDIAGONAL gave
me a more secure feeling in both running and
turning and that it seemed to improve my
control. Those few who were able to test the
in~o:,ation last season seem to agree with this
opmlOn.
A few observations on the use of the SUPERDIAGONAL may prove helpful. Great care must
be taken when fitting it to the boots and skis.
The directions show exactly where the rubber
band must lie on the boot. If the band is too
high or too low, it will not function properly.
The special metal clamp must not be fitted
too far from the heel because the tension will
then be excessive. The rubber band must be
protected from sharp corners which may cut
the rubber and result in a tear. The rubber
band is fitted to the special metal clamp by a
metal arm. If it is found that this arm projects beyond the width of the ski, it should be
bent in. The tension of the rubber band may
be altered by bending this arm or by moving
the clamp. Some skiers find that their boots
need not be laced as tightly when using the
SUPERDIAGONAL. When walking, the rubber
band may be left on the boot. After running
downhill, it will be found convenient and helpful to release the pressure on the SUPERDIAGONAL by raising the lever of the clamp.
The metal arm will remain on the clamp, however, and tension can again be applied without
135
Chalet Super Cable Binding
trouble. I believe that you will find the
SUPERDIAGONAL helpful in downhill running.
It is now made in Canada and sells at $1.95 per
set.
Having tested it last season, Harvey E.
Dodds Limited now introduces the CHALET
SUPER CABLE BINDING which has two special
features:(1 ) Adjustment of the front tension-lever is
made by a turnbuckle or bottlescrew. This
hexagonal turnbuckle terminates in a tightening-lever at one end and a curved cable-holder
• at the other. The lever is of the usual type
and the holder is curved to reduce strain on the
cable. It would be advantageous to increase
the curve . To alter the tension of the cable,
one merely turns the hexagonal bottlescrew;
this adjustment is of course exceptionally fine.
(2) Adjustment of the diagonal tension is
made without releasing the cable tension and
without removing the cable from the hooks.
This is accomplished by a special hook assembly. The actual hooks move along a track for
a distance of three inches and are held in place
by small springs. To regulate the diagonalpull, one me rely presses the hooks down and
moves them to the desired tension. This hook
assembly should be screwed to the ski as high
as possible so that it will not catch in the snow
(or rocks) when the ski is strongly edged in
turning.
CHALET SUPER CABLE BINDINGS should
prove strong, durable, and satisfactory. They
sell at about $3.00 per set.
The Allcock, Laight & Westwood Co., Ltd.,
of Toronto, manufactures an extensive line of
GEZE and SKIRITE bindings. GEZE bindings are
manufactured under license from the European
patent holders. In these GEZE bindings, two
different toe-irons are used. There is the
SILVER KING micrometer-adjustment model
and the GEZE-FIX model with teeth-adjustment.
SILVER KING toe-irons are imported from
Europe but other GEZE AND SKIRITE binding
parts are made in Canada. SKIRITE toe-irons
. are similar to the GEZE toe-irons but the latter
are preferable ; both have a reasonably fine
adjustment.
In the KANDAHAR-type of binding, AL&W
manufacture the following models:- (l) SILVER
KING cable binding with front tension-lever
at $8.00; (2) SILVER KING cable binding with
BILDSTEIN-type spring heel-clamp at $8.00;
(3) GEZE cable binding with front tension-
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
136
lever at $4.95; (4) GEZE cable binding with
BILDSTEIN-type spring heel-clamp at $4.95;
(5) SKIRITE cable binding with front tensionlever at $3.50. While the SKIRITE cable binding is undoubtedly the "best buy," the GEZE
cable binding seems worth the difference in
price. Whether the front tension-lever or the
BILDSTEIN-type is chosen seems a matter of
personal taste although some skiers believe that
the BILDSTEIN-type is safer. The SKIRITE
binding has no provision for horizontal-pull.
AL&W hooks are an improvement on the
original KANDAHAR hooks because they hold
the cable just as securely without causing it
to bend so abruptly. AL&W BILDSTEIN-type
spring heel-clamps are also improved: the
actual spring is formed in such a manner that it
automatically sits on the boot in the proper way
to keep the clamp closed.
In touring bindings, AL&W manufacture at
least nine models ranging in price from $1.75 to
In the BILDSTEIN SUPER-SPORT binding the
above method of altering the amount of
diagonal-pull has been used for some time. The
change is made without reducing the tension on
the cable and without removing the cable from
the hooks. However, this arrangement is useless when horizontal-pull is used because there
is no provision for holding the pivoted hook and
it would fall down and catch.
Geze Binding
Skirite Binding
$6.50. Each of these bindings should prove
satisfactory and it is noteworthy that
BILDSTEIN-type spring heel-clamps are now
supplied with bindings at the same price as
ordinary heel-clamps. All these bindings are
illustrated and described in the AL&W 28-page
ski catalogue obtainable from the manufacturers
without charge.
Harvey E. Dodds, Limited, deserves our
sincere thanks for producing the CHALET
JUNIOR BINDING. This children's binding has
adjustable toe-irons, toe-straps, and adjustable
heel-attachments with the usual heel-clamp.
The binding is made to fit all ski boots from
size one to five and sells at about $1.00 per set.
The CHALET JUNIOR BINDING should have a
beneficial effect on the fu ture of Canadian
ski-ing.
.
For cross-country racing and for touring in
flattish terrain, Bror With's ROTTEFELLA is the
preferred binding. The ROTTEFELLA binding
is universally used, and over 250,000 sets have
been sold. This is an amazing quantity and
does not include the many imitations sold
throughout the world. The ROTTEFELLA binding consists of non-adjustable toe-irons that
prevent lateral movement of the boot, an
ingenious clamp that holds the boot down in
the toe-irons, and short spikes that fit into holes
drilled in the sole of the boot and prevent the
boot from coming out of the toe-irons. In
effect, the toe of the boot is caught in a trap;
the word ROTTEFELLA means rat trap.
ROTTEFELLA bindings are supplied in two
sizes:-BRED for wide boots and SMAL for
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939'
137
For Men of Action!
GRENFELL SKI JACKET
with LASTEX Shoulder Insets
Whether you like to "take the jumps" or just amble
over the trails, this practical new idea by Deacon
Sportswear gives you a thrilling new shoulder freedom
that makes you "feel like a million". See the complete
array of Deacon Ski togs now on display at your sports
shop or department store . . . the last word in
comfort ... authentic international styles . . . precise
craftsmanship.
~"~~~_~."M~',"_'''''"'~'.'''''~' ''~'.'''~_''''~'''~ 0V
STYLE No. 900-Men',s full zipper double-breasted
Grenfell Ski Jacket with Laslex Shoulder insets.
Combinations of Navy (only) Lastex with White, Cream,
Putty, Biscuit and Fawn Grenfell Cloth.
STYLE No.
1285/1Clipper"
streamlined
downhill
or
jumping
slacks
in "
"Grey
Rocks"
woollen
proofed
Gabardine.
-
~_ ~'-A4 ~
8
~
I ~
8 ELL
E V , L LE,
CANADA
.::======================================================
narrow boots. The price is about $3.25 per set.
Wi th & Wessel A/S, manufacturers of the
ROTTEFELLA binding inform me that they have
recently perfected a new model and that it will
be on sale in Norway during 1940. This new
model is similar to the present one but the.
clamp is movable in a longitudinal direction to
allow a more forward position of the boot when
desired. Full details of this new ROTTEFELLA
binding are not yet available.
To prevent the boot from slipping out of the
toe-irons, ROTTEFELLA and similar bindings
depend upon metal spikes that fit into holes
drilled in the sole of the boot. These holes
become enlarged with use and the boot
becomes correspondingly loose in the toe-irons.
A/S Kolbjorn Knutsen & Co. of Oslo, Norway,
supply BONNA and KNUPPEN sole protectors for
use with bindings of the ROTTEFELLA type.
These sole protectors are small metal cups that
are driven into holes drilled in the sole of the
boot and the metal spikes of the binding fit into
the protector cups. BONA sole protectors are
made of brass and KNUPPEN are made of steeL
Both prevent the holes in the sole from
enlarging and, consequently, prolong the life of
the boot and help prevent the binding from
working loose. They sell at about 65c. per set.
Boots
Both in design and purpose, ski boots are so
unlike other footwear that many persons do not
wear them correctly. A few details of my own
practice may prove helpfuL Normally, I
would recommend one pair of lightweight
absorbent socks and one pair of heavier waterrepeUant socks. Those whose feet perspire
freely may find it advantageous to use footpowder. In putting on ski boots, the laces are
first removed or loosened and then the boot is
drawn over the socks and the heel is moved up
and down in the boot several times to straighten
out the socks. After this, it is best to walk a
few steps and stand in the boots to help settle
the feet . When one does not intend to ski
immediately, it is best to lace the boots loosely
in the normal manner so as not to hinder blood
circulation. However, when one is ready for
downhill running or touring, the boot tongue
should be settled comfortably to the sides and
the lacing started at the bottom. It is best to
force the foot back in the boot by keeping the
heel on the floor and raising the toes a few
inches. Tight lacing gives maximum support
and better ski controL For best results, cross
the lace and pull it out from the boot parallel to
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
138
the floor. This lessens strain on the hooks or
eyelets and makes it easier to lace tightly.
When the lacing- which must not be allowed to
slip-reaches the bend at the ankle, make a half
knot. If the boot has hooks, pass the lace around
the hooks immediately below the half knot
once more before continuing. This half knot will
hold the lacing tightly and the remainder of the
boot can then be laced up loosely in the normal
manner and secured in the front. Boots laced
in this manner will give maximum support to
the feet without interfering with "forward
knee." Cloth laces give best satisfaction.
Many boots have instep and other straps.
Experience will show just how tightly these
straps may be worn without making the feet
uncomfortable. A boot that fits well and is
laced tightly will interfere with the blood circulation and it is worthwhile to loosen the boots
when one is not likely to be ski-ing downhill for
a reasonable length of time. It is especially
recommended that boots be fairly loose when
making long climbs.
When the courses are long, most downhill and
slalom racers climb with loose boots and tighten
them as much as they can before racing. Many
will find that they can lace more tightly when
the above suggestions are followed. Lacing is
best done with the bare hands and becomes an
annoying necessity on a windswept elevation.
While necessity has yet to mother an invention
that will quickly and satisfactorily tighten boots
without relacing, there is a new development
that may help considerablv. Last season,
boots appeared with a wide instep flap secured
by strong elastic lacing. Boots with this
feature may be worn loose and then tightened
satisfactorilv by the elastic lace. This lace is
like a rubber band and can be fitted without
removing the mitts. Supplementary instep
lacing of this type should prove most practical
and may soon be followed by a simple clamp
arrangement in conjunction with elastic lacing.
From time to time, the Tasman Ski Club of
New Zealand issues a mimeographed BULLETIN
and it is from a recent issue that this extract is
taken:-"For those who have trouble keeping
snow out of their boot tops and who dislike
wearing puttees or woollen socks on account of
the snow they collect, the following is a simple
and cheap method to make an absolutely snowproof joint between boot and trouser leg. A
piece of thin rope (ordinary sash cord is good)
is sewn into a piece of leather which is in turn
sewn round the top of the boot about half an
inch from the top. If the bottom of the
trouser leg is tied or strapped round below tbis
no snow can possibly get in and also the
trousers won't work up above the tops of the
boots. I have tried this out for two seasons
and have found it absolutely satisfactory. If
the trousers are waterproof, it is possible to
wade small streams without any water getting
. "
In.
This suggestion from New Zealand is similar
to the English patented KIMPTONS SNOWGUARDS that have been advertised extensively
in the publications of The Ski Club of Great
Britain. In my opinion, however, this method
would not be entirely satisfactory with the
newer low-cu t ski boots.
Correct fit is the prime consideration in ski
boots. In my opinion, new ski boots should fit
rather tightly over one pair of lightweight and
one pair of medium socks. Some skiers prefer
more socks than this and some wear only one pair
of medium socks. With use, ski boots will stretch
and, to some extent, conform to the shape of the
feet. The following suggestions may prove
helpful in selecting a pair tha tn ts well and
supports the feet properly:(1) Remove the laces completely and, wearing the exact socks that you intend to use,
stand in the loose boots. They should seem
just slightly too narrow.
(2) Lace the boots tightly as suggested in
trus SECTION. The big toe should be close to
but not touch the end of the boot and it should
be possible to wiggle all the toes with the
exception of the small one. The foot should
feel tightly bound back of the small toe and
should feel well supported at the inner side of
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1194 UNIVERSITY STREET, MONTREAL
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
the instep. The heel must be held snugly so as
to prevent movement of the foot within the
boot. There should be a large gap between the
hooks or eyelets of the lacing.
(3) With your body vertical, force your knees
as far forward as you can. It is probable that
the new boots will be stiff and press on the front
of your ankle but you will be able to tell
whether or not the boot is the right height for
you . Boots that are too high make it difficult
to keep the knees forwa rd when running and
turning.
It is well worth while to select y.our ski boots
carefully and to make certain that they fit
properly. In the store they may seem too
stiff and slightly too narrow but the leather will
soften and stretch with use. If the model that
takes your fancy does not fit you properly, it is
much better to try another model or another
make because even the best boot is useless to
you if it does not fit well. There are now many
manufacturers and many models of ski boots.
Select a pair tha t fits you well.
During the pas t two years we have seen a
great reduction in the price of ski equipment
but there has been little reduction in the price of
ski boots. This is because of the high cost of
suitable material a nd experienced workmen.
Good ski boots are handmade and will never be
cheap. However, it is well to remember that
boots are the most important part of the equipment and that price reductions in other ski
equipment enable us to pay more for our boots.
Buy the best you can because foot comfort is
ski comfort and control is impossible with illfitting poorly-designed ski boots.
Murren, Switzerland, is the home of the
world-famous Kandahar Ski Club and it is also
where Herr Fritz von Allmen makes the worldfamous KANDAHAR ski boots. KANDAHAR ski
boots have won world-favour because they support the foot in such a manner that control of
the ski is facilitated while strains on the foot are
minimized. It is believed that Herr Fritz von
Allmen was the first to extend the lacing to the
toe of the ski boot and that he invented what I
shall call the KANDAHAR tongue arrangemeilt:
In this method of closing the boot, there isa
sponge-rubber padded triangular tongue fasten-
139
ed to the boot only at the toe. Between the
lacing hooks there is chamfered leather which
overlaps. This combination of tongue and
overlapping upper-leather effectively keeps out
the snow-water and has the following advantages over the usual bellows tongue:(1) There is no bunching of the tongue
leather.
(2) As the tongue is padded with sponge
rubber at the sides only, there is little pressure
from the lacing on the sensitive cords that run
down the instep of the foot.
(3) With forward-knee, the front of the ankle
bears against smooth leather rather than
against tongue and upper leather. This season
KANDAHAR ski boots have supplementary
elastic lacing. The boot is worn fairly tight
for general use and the elastic lacing is used to
tighten the boot for downhill running when
every bit of control is needed. It is indicated
that the elastic lacing should only be used for
short periods because it makes the boot so tight
that the circulation is stopped. KANDAHAR
boots are fitted with special British corrugated
rubber soles protected against wear by a piece
of lea ther at the toe. In design, workmanship,
and materials, KANDAHAR boots are excellent.
There are two qualities: KANDAHAR 4 STARS at
about $30.00 and KANDAHAR 3 STARS at about
$24.00. Both models are made to measure at
no additional cost but, of course, orders must
be placed at least two months before delivery in
normal times. Herr Fritz von Allmen's
KANDAHAR ski boots are highly recommended.
In the search for greater control through
increased diagonal pull, many boots have had
an additional groove built in above the usual
groove for the heel attachments. One aspect
seems to have been generally' overlooked. His
practically impossible for the heelspring to peel
off the heel even in a bad forward fall when this
special diagonal groove is used. It is only by
having the heelspring peel off the heel that the
foot can be released from the binding. It
would therefore seem preferable to move back
the pivot points of the cables and increase the
diagonal-pull in this manner rather than to
raise the heelspring on the boot. The KANDAHAR boot has one groove cut especially for
diagonal-pull and the heelspring should peel
from this position in a bad forward fall. This
is probably the best compromise.
Canadian - made HANNES SCHNEIDER ski
boots have improved greatly each year and now
equal those imported. HANNES SCHNEIDER
No. 741 is a new model similar to the KANDAHAR. The tongue arrangement is the same,
the lacing is identical except that there is no
supplementary elastic lacing, and there is a
similar but simplified wrap-around anklesupport. The Canadian rubber SKI heel is
used but the sole is leather and stamped with
Hannes Schneider's mark of approval. Black
140
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
Scotch grain ZUG leather is used in the uppers
and the materials used in the remainder of the
boot are equally first-class. The suppliers
write: "The boot is lasted with a slight forward
lean that places the skier in a proper position
immediately he has donned the boot. The
inner layer of sponge leather around the ankles
and in the tongue insures comfort and snug fit.
The boot will retail for $19.50." Another
model is made with supplementary lacing over
the instep and a rubber sole. Both models
have an additional groove in the heel for
diagonal-pull and this groove is designed better
than most.
DAOUST ski boots are made by the longestablished Montreal manufacturers of athletic
footwear-Daoust, Lalonde & Cie., Limih~e.
DAOUST No. 742 is a new model that is somewhat similar to the KANDAHAR. No. 742 is
laced by eyelets instead of hooks and there are
special flaps with hooks for supplementary
elastic lacing. The rubber sole is similar to the
KANDAHAR and the double-grooved heel is
similar to the HANNES SCHNEIDER No. 74l.
The DAOUST No. 742 also has a wrap-around
ankle-support and it seems preferable to the
other two. In this model, pebbled grain
black ZUG leather is used for the uppers and
there is a tongue of the usual padded type . Mr.
Daoust writes : "These lines are made of imported Zug Scotch Grain made in Scotland;
this leather is the most water resisting that is
possible to make. The construction is all hand
sewn making this boot more waterproof, as no
water can get through the seams with this
special hand sewing." DAOUST No. 742 sells
at about $22.50 per pair.
BOTH HANNES SCHNEIDER No. ,741 and
DAOUST No. 742 are highly recommended. In
design, materials, and workmanship, these
models are equal to most imported ski boots
and superior to many of equal price.
SPINI VORLAGE ski boots have a special
system of wedges built in, to automatically give
forward lean ' when ski-ing. This model raises
the heel more than one-half inch higher than
boots of the usual design but, of course, the
toes are at normal elevation and the sole of the
boot remains in contact with the binding. Regarding this new design, Niny von Arx-Zogg,
famous member of the Swiss Ladies team,
writes: "Your SPINI FORWARD POSITION ski
boots are a real boon to lady skiers. Since I
started to wear them, my own feet no longer
ache, even after hours of strenuous ski-ing.
The boots fit like gloves and provide the foot,
and especially the ankle, with a sure and
pleasant hold. In my long experience as a ski
instructress I have noticed on many occasions
that my pupils with their ordinary ski boots
and low heels were not able to acquire a correct
forward position: this is a natural consequence
of women being used to wearing shoes with
high heels. As a result, they are obliged to lift
their heels in order to obtain a correct forward
position, and this is bound to lead to a forced,
unsure attitude. SPINI FORWARD POSITION ski
boots maintain the feet in the position to which
women are accustomed."
Not having used SPINI VORLAGE ski boots, it
is difficult to judge the merits of this special
design of Herr G . Spini of St. Moritz. However, the elevation of the heel is apparent as
soon as you put on the boot and it seems logical
that women would find it helpful. SPINI
VORLAGE boots have a KANDAHAR tongue
arrangement and lace close to the toe. The
lacing hold the foot exceptionally well but, in
the model examined, the uppers seem unnecessarily high. SPINI VORLAGE boots are
manufactured in Switzerland by Fabrique de
chaussures Low S.A. and were submitted by the
Robert Simpson Company, Limited of Toronto.
The material and workmanship are excellent
and the selling price is about $22.50.
Last season, VORLAGE or SLALOM BLOCKS
were invented by Mr. Gordon T. Wishart,
President of the Toronto Ski Club. VORLAGE
BLOCKS are triangular wedges of wood that
raise the after part of the ski boot and yet keep
it in solid contact with the binding. The
triangular wedges may be fixed either to the
boot or to the footplate of the binding. VORLAGE BLOCKS, like SPINI VORLAGE boots, are
intended to facilitate forward lean. Mr.
Wishart suggests that he believes these wedges
SKI-TESTED
AL&W EQUIPMENT
IMPORTED AND CANADIAN SKIS AND ACCESSORIES
SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF CABLE BINDINGS, THERE~HAS BEEN
ONLY ONE REAL IMPROVEMENT IN SKI EQUIPMENT
••
The SUPERDIAGONAL is not intended to replace other ski bindings but,
on the contrary, it is most useful in
conjunction with cable bindings and
other models having diagonal-pull. The
, SUPERDIAGONAL gives diagonalpull in the opposite direction to the
usual binding and greatly increases
heel-pressure and ski control. Increase your Vorlage and increase your control with the
SUPERDIAGONAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
$1.95
PER SET
1939-1940 Models
TAPERED STEEL SKI STICKS
All Metal Rings - English Lea ther
STANDARD QUALITY . . $4.95
to $7.50
TRUETEMPER .. . . •.... ... $9.50
TAPERED LAMINATED CANE POLES . ... . ... . . .. . $5.95 per Pair
KANDAHAR Style CABLE BINDINGS
SILVER KING MICHROMETER MODEL .••••. . . ..• . .••..• . $8.00
Other
MODELS .. . . . . $3.95-$4.95
per P a ir
per Pair
'..;
•
.
~.~<
•
Send for Largest Complete Ski Cat,alogue '
THE ALLCOCK, LAIGHT & WESTWOOD CO., LTD.
MANUFACTURERS
\
220a BAY STREET
TORONTO
142
are helpful in learning to lean forward bu t that
they are no longer necessary once this is
accomplished.
The T. Eaton Company, Limited has sent a
sample BALLY ski boot for examina tion. BALLY
ski boots have a high re]:mtation in Switzerland,
where they are manufactured, and appear to be
well constructed . The BALLY AROSA model is
made of brown Scotch grain leather and has
" Stormproof" lacing somewhat similar to the
KANDAHAR boot. This is a modern ski boot in
every particular and sells at about $20.00. The
AROSA model is built up inside to facilitate
VORLAGE and the top is designed so that it will
not cut into the ankle.
From Montreal comes the CARINTHIA ski
boot. The boot laces close to the toe and has
a tongue arrangement that is new to me. First,
there is a felt-lined sponge-rubber tongue
secured at the toe and loose at the sides. Over
this there are two thin flaps secured to the sides
of the boot like a bellows tongue and overlapping in the centre. This practical tongue
arrangement is held in place by the eyelet
lacing. The heel of this boot is lined with
lamb's wool and there is two inches of lacing
at the top so that the boot may be adjusted for
heel comfort. This sample shows that firstclass materials and workmanship go into
CARINTHIA ski boots. I am particularily impressed by the sturdiness of this hand-made
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
boot. For warmth and comfort, it would seem
better, however, to have a more boxlike toe. and
I presume that CARINTHIA ski boots are made
both ways.
The DAOUST BANFF model is a practical
model for the practical skier. This low-cut
boot is sturdy and should prove most durable.
Three DAOUST BANFF models are made: No. 92
is Malaga calf, No. 94 is black Scotch grain
ZUG leather, and No. 96 is natural wax calf.
The last two are handsewn and sell at about
$17.50. DAOUST BANFF models should prove
popular both in construction and price.
The DAOUST SWISS model is an inexpensive
boot that merits consideration. This model
laces close to the toe, has a leather lining, steel
shank, adequate sole, and rubber SKI heel. The
top of the boot is padded with sponge rubber
and there is an instep strap. DAOUST SWISS
boots are made in two models: No. 27 is
brown ARDA leather and No. 63 is brown retan
leather. The former sells at about $7.00.
There is another model-DAousT No. 86- at
about $11.50 that _should prove satisfactory
and popular.
Mr. Albert Rakovsky has sent for examination a unique French ski boot marked SCHUSS
FABRICATION LEPHOQUE. This boot is made
of soft pebbled leather and laces unusually close
to the toe. The tongue is made of sealskin
with the tawny fur left on and there is spongerubber padding all around the ankle. The
sole is stiff and hard. Where necessary, the
soft boot is supported by stiff outer leather and'
this stiff leather forms flaps for supplementary
elastic lacing. At the back, there is two inches
of lacing to adjust the boot for heel comfort. I
am told that the SCHUSS boot holds the foot
comfortably and firmly and that it should give
good con trol.
There are four models of the new AL&W ski
boots now being marketed for the first time.
The AL&W KANDAHAR-TYPE, at $14.00, has a
one-piece upper with sturdy sole and doublegrooved heel. The sole has an excellent builtin wedge and the heel is protected from the
cable binding by a suitable outside counter.
Canadian Ski Year Book, 1939
143
The tongue and boot-top are padded with
sponge rubber and there is a full leather lining.
The STANDARD (No. 32900), at $12.50, is
similar but it has an ordinary ski-boot heel.
The SLALOM model, at $12.50, has Blucher
eyelet lacing, instep strap, and sewn upper.
Otherwise, it is similar to the KANDAHAR-type
boot. The SWISS model, at $9.95, is a . sturdy
boot of good design with leather lining and
Blucher eyelet lacing. Each model is of
European design and sells at a reduction of
about $1.00 per pair in ladies' sizes.
panel of the car. Skis and sticks are placed in
the hooks and secured by a leather thong. It
is stated that the TWE SKI-CARRIER will fit any
car, carry four pairs of skis and sticks, and not
interfere with the operation of car windows.
Sponge-rubber padding protects the car from
damage. TWE SKI-CARRIERS are manufactured by the Von Ski Company of Mon treal and
it is pointed out that this inexpensive carrier
is being supplied to taxi companies in a number
of cities.
Ski- Carriers
For the protection of ski-mountaineers and
for the comfort of ski spectators, Gretsch &
Company has produced a new grip for ski
sticks. This hollow metal grip is filled wi th a
special charcoal that is easily ignited, burns for
fiye or six hours, and thereby keeps the hands
warm. The manufacturers write: "This is a
novelty which causes everywhere a sensation."
One can imagine 1 As our next important
innovation, we can reasonably expect that skiboot soles will be electrically heated and this
~ay ~ave some effect on our courage and dash
In racmg.
In ski sticks, the snow-rings cause most of
the trouble. They seem to wear out or break
within an unreasonably short time. The
Allcock, Laight & Westwood Co., Limited,
now manufactures two new models. The
actual ring is made of light metal and the
straps are fixed in such a way that they should
not stretch, break, or wear readily. It is
hoped that these A. L. & W. rings will prove
more durable than the ones we have had in the
past. They look as if they should.
It seems that rather short metal sticks are
rapidly becoming standard equipment. In my
opinion, round shafts are better than fluted
shafts in ski sticks.
The AUTO SKI CARRIER, manufactured by
the Dominion Snath Company, Limited, is a
well-made ski-rack that holds six pairs of skis
and is attached to the rear bumper of the automobile. It is designed to fit all models. The
manufacturers state: "No strains or stresses
are imposed on the body of your car." The
skis are placed in the rack and secured by a
bar;
no ropes are necessary. The AUTO
SKI-CARRIER sells at about $10.00.
One of the most popular ski carriers is the
fuNDI-RACK mentioned in the last issue. The
fuNDI-RACK fits on the top of the car and
will hold as many pairs of skis as you can tie on.
It is designed to hold five pairs of skis and five
pairs of sticks; it costs about $5.00.
The TWE SKI-CARRIER is a novel device tor
carrying skis on the side of an automobile. It
consists of a pair of hook-like metal supports
that are slid between the glass and the outside
Sticks
Clothing
Ski - mountaineering expeditions usually
choose goats' hair socks because they keep the
feet warm, help to keep the water out, and
wear exceptionally well. Most skiers, however, find goats' hair socks too rough and
coarse. A mixture of goats' hair and sheep
wool is chosen by those who demand sa tisfaction and service. ABC-Factories of Kungalv,
Sweden, now manufacture a special ABC
GOAT-AND-SHEEP WOOL SOCK designed especially for ski-ing. It is a heavy durable sock that
will give great satisfaction and sells for about
$1.50 per pair.
Tirol and Norwegian designs in knitted
goods have become popular with skiers everywhere. Now we have Swedish peasant designs
by BERNER. These interesting Swedish-made
garments feature novel knits with embroidered
figures and flowers. While the designs are
similar to those from Norway, there are certain
differences. I am told that mere man cannot
144
Canadian Ski Year Book} 1939
appreciate the workmanship of these BERNER
garments.
Deacon Sportwear Company of Belleville
now introduces GRENFELL CLOTH ski jackets
with special LASTEX insets that insure shoulder
and arm freedom.
Skiers will appreciate the new DEACON No
DRAFT SHIRT. This model is made in various
flannel materials. The No DRAFT feature consists of a fly-front and wind cuffs in the sleeves.
In addition to keeping out drafts, the special
front prevents those between-the-button gaps
that spoil the appearance of many flannel shirts.
VORLAGE trousers are now chosen by many
skiers. It is essential that this design be made
up in a lightweight material that will hang well.
Proofed gabardine is recommended. Last
season, several skiers recommended GREY
ROCKS gabardine to me and I personally found
it most satisfactory. VORLAGE trousers must
be worn with suspenders for the freedom that
is essential in ski-ing.
First Aid
A first aid kit takes up little room in your
,rucksack and will prove invaluable in the event
of an injury. Even minor injuries such as
small cuts and abrasions should be treated to
prevent infection. Adequate but inexpensive
first-aid kits are now supplied by several manufacturers. A comprehensive line is manufactured by Bauer & Black Limited of Toronto.
Details of contents and sizes of some of the more
suitable kits are given for your guidance.
B.&B. AUTOMOBILE MEDICINE KIT:- Metal
tray with iodine vial, dental floss, scissors, 3
empty vials; gauze bandage, gauze, Burn-ALay, adhesive tape, absorbent cotton, aromatic
spirits of ammonia, Handi-tape, First Aid
Handbook. 7Yz/l x 431/1 X 2/1; $2.00.
B.&B. OFFICIAL BOY SCOUT KIT:- Adhesive
tape, mercurochrome, Vivo tubes (ammonia
inhalent), Handi-tape, gauze, gauze bandages,
Burn-A-Lay, Poison Ivy ointment (very handy
when ski-ing), absorbent cotton, First Aid
Handbook. 5/1 x 3%/1 X 131/1; $1.00.
B.&B. COMPACT FIRST AID KIT:-Adhesive
tape, iodine, Handi-tape, gauze, gauze bandage, Burn - A - Lay, First Aid Handbook.
5/1 x 3%/1 X 2/1; 75c.
B.&B. POCKET FIRST AID KIT:- Absorbent
cotton, gauze bandages, adhesive tape,
Handi - tape, iodine, First Aid Booklet.
331/1 x 274"/1 X 174"/1; 25c.
For the rucksack, the AUTOMOBILE MEDICINE
KIT seems most suitable. It is, in reality, a
small medicine chest. The POCKET FIRST AID
KIT should find a place in many belt bags and
in many jackets because it contains minimum
quantities of the five basic first-aid materials.
EASIER UPHILL, FASTER DOWNHILL
-with . WONDER WAX
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
Wonder
II
Base Wax-Tacky but not sticky, for general ski.ing • •
Speed Lacquer- Base and speed wax for competitive ski.ing.
Red Wax-For climbing and running when the snow is not wet.
Klister- For climbing and running when the snow is wet. •
KUster Wax-KIister in handy new form-(solid) • • • •
Schuss Wax-Downhill speed only, under all snow conditions.
Dubbin- For the exacting requirements of ski boots. • • •
Glacier Cream-For tanning without burning. • • • • •
65c.
80c.
40c.
45c .
35c.
35c.
35c.
65c.
WHY WAX?," describing the theory and practice of
modern ski waxing, sent on request.
If your dealer is unable to supply you, write:
CARNALL & WIESSNER
MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS
25 King St. W.
Toronto 2, Onto

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