SNAKES

Comments

Transcription

SNAKES
SNAKES
CITES
Identification
manual
Tentative tool for Thai
CITES officers
Compiled by
TANYA CHAN-ARD
NATIONAL SCIENCE MUSEUM
MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
CLASSIFICATION
• ORDER SQUAMATA
• SUBORDER SERPENTES
• CITES Listed
- Boas and relatives
- Colubrids
- Elapids
- Viperids
GENERAL CHARATERS of boas & relatives
- No fangs
- Some with vestigue hind limbs
- numerous dorsal scales
- Ventrals not enlarged
Identification aid to boas and
relatives
Head distinct and
elongate; body slender;
tail usually prehensile.
Generally tree living
species, good climbers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cagarea
Chondopython
Corallus
Epicrates
Exiliboa
Morelia
Python
Sanzilia
Ungaliophis
Identification aid to boas and
relatives
Head flat, broad, distinct;
thick bodied; tail usually
short. Generally bottom
living species.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acrantophis
Boa
Candoia
Eunectes
Liasis
Morelia
Lichanura
Python
Trachyboa
Tropidophis
Xenoboa
Identification aid to boas and
relatives
Head wedge- shaped, not
distinct; eyes small; body
cylindrical, heavy; tail
short. Generally
burrowing species.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aspiditis
Bolyeria
Calabaria
Charina
Eryx
Lichanura
Loxocemus
Identification aid to boas and
relatives
Often coiling- up when
disturbed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calabaria
Candoia
Charina
Corallus (caninus)
Chondropython (viridis)
Python regius
Tropidophis
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
green
• Morelia viridis
(Chondropython viridis)
(adults) (left)
• Corallus caninus (adults)
(below)
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Yellowish/ Reddish
•
•
•
•
Morelia viridis (juveniles)
Corallus caninus (juveniles)
Epicrates cenchria cenchria
Python curtus
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Yellowish/ Greenish/
Blackish
• Eunectes spp.
• Sanzinia madagascariensis
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Yellowish with distinct
markings
• Morelia timorensis
• Eunectes spp.
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Olive/ Yellowish, markings
more or less absent
• Morelia amethistina
• Morelia albertisii
• Morelia mackloti
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Brownish
Loxocemus bicolor
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calabarian reinhardtii
Charina bottae
Epicrates spp.
Eryx johnii
Lichanura trivirgata
Loxocemus bicolor
Morelia spp.
Liasis spp.
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Brownish with distinct
markings
Acrantophis madagascariensis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acrantophis spp.
Boa constrictor
Python anchietae
Python bivittatus
Python molurus
Python regius
Python reticulatus
Python sebae
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Brownish to blackish with
distinct markings
• Boa constrictor occidentalis
• Liasis childreni
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Blackish
• Exiliboa placata
• Trachyboa spp.
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Dark or black head
• Aspiditis melanocephalus
• Leiopython albertisii
• Python boeleni
Species having distinct and conspicuous
colors or pattern
Banded
• Liasis boa
• Morelia spilota variegata
CITES Listed
App. I
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Python molurus
Acrantophis spp.
Boa constrictor occidentalis
Epicrates inornatus
Epicrates monensis
Epicrates subflavus
Sanzinia madagascariensis
App. II
•
•
•
•
•
Loxocemidae spp.
Pythonidae spp.
Boidae spp.
Boyeriidae spp.
Tropidophiidae spp.
LOXOCEMIDAE
Neotropical sunbeam snake
1 species
Loxocemus bicolor
Mexico and C America
• Size: to 1.2 m
• Color: dark brown, sometimes
with cream- colored belly.
• Scales: ventrals somewhat
enlarged.
• Body form: moderately stout,
with small head and slightly
upturned rostral scale; skull stout.
BOIDAE
Boas
28 species in 8 genera
N and S America; E Indies, Madagascar,
New Guinea, some Pacific Is.
•
•
•
•
Acrantophis dumerilii
Size: 0.5 – 4 m.
Color: usually brown or gray with
darker markings; emerald tree boa
green with lighter markings.
Scales: many rows of small dorsal
scales, ventral scutes somewhat
enlarged.
Body form: usually moderately stout,
but Haitian vine boa has long, slender
neck, head distinct, tail moderately
long.
PYTHONIDAE
Pythons
> 25 species in 4 genera
Old world tropical and subtropical
• Size: 1- > 10 m.
• Color: uniform brown or bright
green to boldly patterned with
blotches or diamonds.
• Scales: numerous dorsal
scales, somewhat enlarged
ventral scutes.
• Body form: cylindrical, with
short tail and vestigue of hind
limbs.
BOLYERIIDAE
Mascarine boas
2 species in 2 genera
Round Is.
Bolyeria multicarinata
• Size: 0.8- 1.4 m
• Color: brown or gray, with
irregular vague markings
• Body form: moderately
slender or stout; head
somewhat distinct; tail
moderately long.
TROPIDOPHIIDAE
Dwarf boas
21 species in 4 genera
S & C America, W Indies, Malaysia
•
•
•
•
Tropidophis melanurus
Size: 30 cm to 1 m
Color: usually brown or gray with
irregular, vague markings; some
species brightly spotted or ringed.
Scales: numerous dorsal scales,
ventrals somewhat enlarge.
Body form: moderately slender, head
somewhat enlarged.
COLUBRIDAE
Colubrids
Almost 1,700 species in 290 genera
Worldwide.
•
•
•
•
Size: 13 cm to 3.5 m.
Color: many are brown, gray, or
black; some are red, yellow, or green,
with spots, blotches, or stripes.
Scales: head scutes usually enlarged,
dorsal scales keeled or smooth;
ventrals typically enlarged.
Body form: ranges from extremely
slender to stout; head enlarged or
indistinct, usually with a tapering
body; pupils horizontal or vertical
elliptical, usually round.
CITES Listed
App. II
•
•
•
•
Clelia clelia
Cyclagras gigas
Elachistodon westermanni
Ptyas musosa
App. III (India)
• Atretion schistosum
• Xenochrophis piscator
• Cerberus rynchops
(Homalopsinae, now raised into a
family)
•
Elachistrodon westermanni
•
Xenochrophis piscator
ELAPIDAE
Cobras and their allies
> 270 species in 62 genera
N & S America, Asia, E & S Africa,
Australia.
•
•
•
•
Size: 38 cm to 5.6 m.
Color: most gray, brown or black,
often with collars or cross- bands;
some bright green; coral snakes
ringed with red, yellow, and black.
Scales: head scales large, dorsals
usually smooth, ventrals enlarged.
Body form: head usually slightly
distinct, body cylindrical and slender
in most, but death adders are stocky;
sea snakes and sea kraits are
compressed to oar- shaped, all with
small fangs on maxilla, usually only
slightly moveable, vemom usually
neurotoxic.
CITES Listed
App. II
• Hoplocephalus bungaroides
• Naja atra
• Naja kaouthia
• Naja mandalayensis
• Naja naja
• Naja oxiana
• Naja philippinensis
• Naja sagittifera
• Naja samarensis
• Naja siamensis
• Naja sputatrix
• Naja sumatrana
• Ophiophagus hannah
App. III (Honduras)
• Micrurus diastema
• Micrurus nigrocinctus
•
Ophiophagus hannah
Naja kaouthia
Naja naja
Micrurus nigrocinctus
Naja oxiana
Naja siamensis
Naja sputatrix
VIPERIDAE
Vipers and pit- vipers
> 230 species in 28 genera
Worldwide.
•
•
•
Size: 25 cm. to 3.7 m.
Color: from bright green with red
markings to solid brown, or black;
most with pattern of dark blotches
on lighter.
Body form: moderately slender to
very stout, with distinct head and
fairly shorter tail; pupils usually
elliptical; single pair of hollow fangs
on very short maxilla can be rotated
to bring fangs forwards to bite;
venom usually tissue- destructive.
CITES Listed
App. I
App. II
• Vipera ursinii
•Vipera wagneri
App. III (Honduras)
•Crotalus durissus
•App. III (India)
•Daboia russelii