Spelling File

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Spelling File
CONTENTS
STRUCTURED APPROACHES
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Multi-Sensory Spelling Routines
SOS - Simultaneous Oral Spelling
Mnemonics
Specific Spelling Marking System
Syllabic Approach
Look/Say/Cover/Write/Check
Spelling Rules
Visualisation
Segmentation
2
Spelling
Rules
Visualisation
Look/
Cover/
Say/
Write/
Check
STRUCTURED
APPROACHES
Segmentation
Syllabic
Approach
Specific
Spelling
Marking
System
Multisensory
spelling
routines
S.O.S.Simultaneous
Oral Spelling
Mnemonics
Each of these is developed in more detail on the following pages
3
Multi-sensory Spelling Routines
1.
Teacher
says
sound
2.
Pupil
echoes
sound
4.
Pupil writes
letter(s) in
cursive script
3.
Pupil
names
letter(s)
A new card should be made as new letter is introduced.
Each card provides a written model of correct letter formation.
For multiple choices: the teacher says the sound on the card; the pupil echoes the
sound, names all choices learnt so far and then begins to write e.g. /k/ - c, k, ck,
/k/
c
k
ck
cat
kitten
sock
Resources - 'Beat Dyslexia' LDA
4
Simultaneous Oral Spelling - SOS
This is a useful approach for teaching older pupils high frequency words.
„ Teacher (or another) writes the word and says it
„ Pupil looks at word and repeats it
„ Pupil spells word using letter names
„ Pupil repeats word again
„ Pupil copies word, naming each letter as it is written
„ Pupil reads word again
„ Pupil covers word and writes it again saying each letter name
„ Pupil checks word is correct
„ Procedure repeated until correct on agreed number of days, e.g. 3 days
We have adapted this approach to use with phonetically regular words with pupil
saying the letter sounds. Personally we have found that using the sounds is
preferable to using letter names as most pupils in the early stages of learning to spell
only know letter sounds. Using letter names at this stage can confuse many pupils.
5
Mnemonics
Mnemonics are helpful for learning those odd, tricky words.
Do not use too frequently or they become another form of memory overload.
Often it is more successful if the first word of the mnemonic is the actual word being
learnt, accompanied by a visual cue.
EXAMPLES
now
Now Open Wings
said
Said Alun, 'I'm Daft'
because
Because Eagles Can Add Up So Easily
Resources
- 'Mnemonic Spelling System', Senter
- ‘Mnemonics for irregularly spelt basic words’, Egon/Taskmaster
- www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/docs/tricky_word_posters.doc
6
Specific Spelling Marking System
This is a 'Precision Teaching' system for daily practice to meet the needs of those
pupils who have poor retention skills for spelling. It is loosely based on 'Datapac'.
„ You will need:
„ 1 SNST/CT to set words to be learnt and to
„ monitor
„ 1 small vocabulary book to keep a record of set
„ words
„ 1 small vocabulary book for pupil to record
„ spellings
„ 1 person willing to commit him/herself to the
„ project to help pupil daily
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Stage 1
Choose a set of words where individual letters
add up to 20
Record these in one of the vocab. books.
Remember to date.
Pupil records the date in second vocab. book and
records dictated words. No revision beforehand,
no prompting, etc.
Mark each individual letter with a 9 when correct,
and . when incorrect. Talk to pupil about errors
but don't drag it out.
Give child two scores: one for correct letters and
9 7/.
one for incorrect letters e.g. 14/9
9 with no errors on
Repeat until pupil scores 20/9
three consecutive days
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Stage 2
This is the timed stage to see how many words
pupil can spell in 1 minute.
This facilitates the transfer of newly acquired
spelling skills to free writing.
Pupil records date and records the same words as
in stage 1 randomly dictated at speed.
Mark as before and aim for at least 40 letters per
minute.
9 with no
Repeat every day until pupil has 40+/9
errors on 3 consecutive days
Now set new words
N.B. Number of letters can be adapted and the 2
stages can take as little as 8-10 days, or as many
as 25+.
7
Syllabic Approach
Pupil first needs to know What is a syllable?
„ Beat in a word
„ Movement of the jaw downwards
„ Every syllable contains a vowel sound
What are the two basic types of syllables?
„ Closed syllable - e.g. ban (vowel followed by consonant) as in
„ 'ban/dit'. The vowel is short (says its sound).
„ Open syllable - e.g. pi (vowel is the last letter of the syllable)
„ as in 'pi/lot'. The vowel is long (says its name).
NB This is important for the understanding of the doubling rule.
Spelling Routine
„ Pupil says word e.g. Manchester
„ Pupil draws a line for each syllable they hear in the word e.g.
„ Pupil writes first letter of each syllable e.g. M ch t
„ Pupil completes each syllable e.g. Man ches ter
„ Pupil writes whole word
8
Look/Say/Cover/Write/Check
Pupil chooses one or more of his preferred approaches at each stage
LOOK
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Not just a quick glance
Highlight the tricky bits
Focus on structure: prefixes, etc.
Trace word with finger or pencil
Draw around the whole shape
Close eyes and imagine word on wall
SAY
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Say word whilst looking at it
Tap out syllables
Use different voices
Say parts you don't normally hear, e.g. fri - ends
COVER
„ Visualise or hear word
WRITE
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CHECK
„ Uncover word and check CAREFULLY
Use different coloured pens
Fold over paper after each attempt
Use magic board
Use white board
Write in different sizes
Use computer to write in different fonts/colours/sizes
9
Some Spelling Rules
z ‘q’ is always followed by ‘u’
z no word ends in ‘v’ or ‘j’
z ‘c’ followed by ‘e’, ‘i’ or ‘y’ says ‘s’ as in ‘centre’, ‘city’, ‘cycle’
z ‘g’ followed by ‘e’, ‘i’ or ‘y’ often says ‘j’ as in ‘page’, ‘giant’, ‘gym’
z ‘wa’ usually says ‘wo’
z c, k, ck rule
z vowels a, e, i, o, u usually say their alphabet names/long sounds when they are the last
z sound in a syllable: ro - bot, tu - lip
z every syllable contains a vowel sound
10
This is
very
useful as
a method
of
teaching
weekly
spelling
patterns
(and a
welcome
change
from
lists)
When
child
asks
how to
spell
‘drain’
remind
him of
the
relevant
picture
he has
drawn
Useful
for
dealing
with
spelling
choices,
e.g. ai/
a-e
VISUALISATION
Child
makes
‘a-e’
picture.
Next
tackle
‘a-e’
Deal
with
e.g. ‘ai’
first
Put
pattern
as
heading
on paper
along
with key
word
(e.g.
train) as
memory
jogger
Child
makes
his own
picture
with as
many
common
‘ai’ words
as
possible
11
Visualisation
Pupil creates his own picture with as many objects as possible containing the phonic pattern.
This is a useful technique for weekly class/group spelling tests.
12
Segmentation
Pupil says the word and counts the number of sounds using their fingers.
Pupil touches each finger as they say each sound.
Teacher provides a phoneme frame with the appropriate number of boxes, e.g.
Pupil either writes a letter(s) or puts a magnetic letter(s) in each square to represent the sound they hear, e.g.
sh o p
t ea m
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CONTENTS
CLASS WORK SUPPORT
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Spelling support area in class
Lists of topic words colour coded
High frequency word sheets
Various dictionaries - ACE Dictionary
Electronic Spellcheckers
Long vowel choice sheets
Charts showing rules and mnemonics
THRASS Chart
Magic Lines
Spelling tests
14
Magic
Lines
Spelling
Tests
Visualisation
THRASS
Chart
Charts
showing
rules and
mnemonics
Long
vowel
choice
sheet
CLASSWORK
SUPPORT
Electronic
spellcheckers
Various
dictionaries
ACE
Dictionary
Spelling
support
area in
class
Lists of
topic
words
colourcoded
High
frequency
word
sheets
Most teachers will already be familiar with most of these, therefore, further information is given for only 3 of them
15
Magic Lines
When pupils are doing free writing, their concentration
is more on what they want to say. When they come to a
difficult or unknown spelling they can be encouraged
to:
„ draw a Magic Line for the unknown word
„ put down the initial sound
„ find correct spellings when they complete work
N.B. The teacher might have to limit the number of Magic Lines.
16
Spelling tests
(from Reason and Boote - 'Helping children with reading and spelling')
Some problems with traditional testing:
„ pupils get all spellings correct on Friday but then
„ forget them
„ many pupils who get all the words correct know
„ them already
„ pupils who are really struggling with spelling
„ don't improve
„ much teacher time is spent dictating and marking
„ tests
Different approach to try:
„ Whole class is taught various approaches to
„ learning spellings e.g. Mnemonics, Look/Cover/
„ Say/Write/Check.
„ Pupils are given appropriate spellings (the better
„ spellers can choose their own)
„ Monday to Friday: each day pupils work in pairs
„ on individual spellings discussing best approach
„ for each word
„ Friday: partner dictates list and records score in
„ individual spelling books
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Teacher occasionally selects a pupil to test.
'Spelling Mastermind' can be used. The teacher is
Magnus Magnusson (for those old enough to „
remember him, otherwise John Humphrys) and
the children are the contestants.
Volunteers are asked to be tested on their 'chosen
subject'. Usually one pupil chosen from each
group. Pupil hands over list. Teacher dictates list
and pupil writes words on board. 'At the end of
this test you have scored 6 out of 8; you passed
on one item and one was not correct - a round of
applause for Miss Smith.' Teacher writes correct
version of spelling. Later pupils take turns to act
as Magnus Magnusson.
17
McNally & Murray 1st 100 Words
a
b
c
d
a
about
all
an
a nd
a re
as
at
back
be
been
before
big
but
by
call
came
can
come
could
did
do
down
n
o
p
q
new
no
not
now
of
off
old
on
one
only
or
other
our
out
over
e
f
g
h
i
j
first
for
from
get
go
had
has
have
he
her
here
him
his
I
if
in
into
is
it
just
r
s
t
u
v
w
right
said
see
she
so
some
that
the
their
them
then
there
they
this
to
two
up
want
was
we
well
went
were
what
when
where
which
who
will
with
k
x
l
m
like
little
look
made
make
me
more
much
must
my
y
z
you
your
18
McNally & Murray 2nd 100 Words
a
b
after
again
always
am
another
any
ask
away
b ad
because
best
bird
black
blue
boy
bring
n
o
p
never
next
once
open
own
play
put
c
d
e
f
g
h
day
dog
don‛t
eat
every
fast
father
fell
find
five
fly
found
four
gave
girl
give
going
good
got
green
ha nd
head
help
home
house
how
q
r
s
t
u
ran
read
red
room
round
run
sat
saw
say
school
should
sing
sit
soon
stop
take
tell
than
these
thing
think
three
time
tree
two
under
us
i
j
k
l
m
j u mp
k ee p
know
last
let
lift
live
long
man
many
may
men
mother
Mr.
v
w
x
y
z
very
walk
white
wish
woman
work
would
why
year
yes
19
McNally & Murray 200 Words
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
a
about
after
again
al l
always
am
an
and
a no t h e r
any
are
as
ask
at
away
ba ck
bad
be
beca use
been
before
best
big
bird
black
blue
boy
br i ng
but
by
call
came
can
come
could
day
did
do
dog
don‛t
down
eat
ev ery
fast
fat her
fell
f in d
first
five
fly
for
found
four
from
gave
get
girl
give
go
going
good
got
green
had
hand
has
ha v e
he
head
help
her
here
him
his
ho me
ho use
how
how
I
if
in
into
is
it
jump
just
keep
k n ow
last
le t
li ft
like
little
live
long
look
made
make
man
many
may
me
men
more
mother
Mr.
much
must
my
20
n
o
p
new
nev e r
nex t
no
n ot
no w
of
off
old
on
o n ce
o ne
only
op en
or
o ther
our
o ut
over
own
play
put
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
ran
read
red
right
r oom
ro un d
run
said
sat
saw
say
s c ho o l
see
she
s h o ul d
sin g
sit
so
some
soon
stop
take
tell
t h an
that
the
their
them
then
there
th ese
they
thing
th i nk
this
three
time
tree
to
two
under
up
us
very
walk
want
was
we
we ll
went
were
w ha t
when
where
which
white
wh o
will
wish
with
woman
work
would
wh y
x
y
z
year
yes
you
your
21

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