summary findings - Department of Statistics Malaysia

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summary findings - Department of Statistics Malaysia
SUMMARY FINDINGS
1.
Introduction
This report relates to statistics compiled from the Annual Survey of Manufacturing Industries conducted in 2009
for reference year 2008. The performance key data in the manufacturing sector for 2008 are presented in this
report. A total of 16,961 manufacturing establishments were canvassed in this survey out of 35,055
establishments in the frame. Based on the survey results, a total of 32,535 active establishments were identified.
2.
Overall performance
The main growth indicators of the annual manufacturing sector for the period of 2007 and 2008 were shown in
Table 2a. Gross output in 2008 was RM817.7 billion, an increase of RM74.8 billion with an annual growth of
10.1 per cent. This was followed by intermediate input which recorded RM660.5 billion with an annual growth of
9.9 per cent. Value added also showed an increase of RM15.0 billion with an annual growth of 10.6 per cent.
However, employment recorded a decrease of 1.6 per cent. The value of assets in this sector registered an
annual growth of 10.3 per cent, or RM18.8 billion. The overall performance of the manufacturing sector in 2008
has contributed 25.6 per cent to Gross Domestic Product 1(GDP).
Table 2a : Gross output, intermediate input, value added, employment and value of assets, 2007 & 2008
Year 2007
Year 2008
Annual growth
(%)
Gross output (RM billion)
742.9
817.7
10.1
Intermediate input (RM billion)
600.8
660.5
9.9
Value added (RM billion)
142.1
157.1
10.6
1.80
1.77
(1.6)
182.6
201.5
10.3
Employment (million persons)
Value of assets (RM billion)
Number of persons engaged in manufacturing industries in 2008 were 1,771,331 persons, where 97.6 per cent
or 1,729,323 persons were paid full-time employees. Paid part-time employees and others which includes
unpaid family workers, working proprietors and active business partners were 42,008 persons or 2.4 per cent of
total employment as shown in Table 2b. Paid full-time employees by gender shows that male workers employed
was higher as compared to female workers which was 62.5 per cent and 37.5 per cent respectively.
Table 2b : Employment by category and gender, 2008
Category
Male
%
Female
%
1,729,323
1,080,530
62.5
648,793
37.5
Paid part-time employees
18,428
10,647
57.8
7,781
42.2
Others
23,580
15,328
65.0
8,252
35.0
1,771,331
1,106,505
62.5
664,826
37.5
Paid full-time employees
Total
1
Total
Referred to publication of National Accounts Gross Domestic Product (GDP), First Quarter 2010, Department of Statistics,
Malaysia.
17
SUMMARY FINDINGS
3. Performance of manufacturing groups
As indicated in Table 3a, the major contributor of the manufacturing groups to the gross output in 2008 was
Refined petroleum products; Production, processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, oils and
fats; and Electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components group. Collectively, these three groups
accounted for more than one-third or RM313.9 billion to the gross output.
Table 3a : Contribution to gross output by group, 2007 & 2008
Group
Code
Description
Gross output
% Share
RM billion)
2007
2008
2007
2008
232
Manufacture of refined petroleum products
89.1
122.0
12.0
14.9
151
Production, processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruits,
vegetables, oils and fats
75.4
107.7
10.1
13.2
321
Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and other electronic
components
87.8
84.2
11.8
10.3
241
Manufacture of basic chemicals
50.2
60.5
6.8
7.4
300
Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery
73.9
49.9
9.9
6.1
271
Manufacture of basic iron and metals
28.9
31.6
3.9
3.9
323
Manufacture of television and radio receivers, sound or video
recording or reproducing apparatus and associated goods
27.9
28.8
3.8
3.5
251
Manufacture of rubber products
22.6
26.0
3.0
3.2
252
Manufacture of plastics products
22.0
24.4
3.0
3.0
341
Manufacture of motor vehicles
16.2
18.4
2.2
2.2
Others
248.9
264.2
33.5
32.3
742.9
817.7
100.0
100.0
Total
The Refined petroleum products group contributed the largest share to the gross output which was 14.9 per cent
(RM122.0 billion) in 2008. This was followed by Production, processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruits,
vegetables, oils and fats group which recorded a share of 13.2 per cent (RM107.7 billion).
18
SUMMARY FINDINGS
In terms of contribution to total employment as shown in table 3b, The Electronic valves and tubes and other
electronic components group recorded the highest number of workers totaling 189,532 persons (10.7 per cent)
in 2008. The remaining five other groups namely Plastic products (124,974 persons); Furniture(101,218 persons); Production, processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, oils and fats ( 89,795 persons);
Rubber products ( 81,870 persons) and Products of wood, cork, straw and plaiting materials (81,221 persons).
These six groups accounted for 37.8 per cent of total employment in 2008 as compared to 35.7 per cent in
2007.
Table 3b : Contribution to total employment by group, 2007 & 2008
Group
Code
Description
Total employment
2007
2008
2007
2008
321
Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and other
electronic components
177,175
189,532
9.8
10.7
252
Manufacture of plastic products
130,434
124,974
7.2
7.1
361
Manufacture of furniture
104,484
101,218
5.8
5.7
151
Production, processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruits,
vegetables, oils and fats
65,337
89,795
3.6
5.1
251
Manufacture of rubber products
78,591
81,870
4.4
4.6
202
Manufacture of products of wood, cork, straw and plaiting
materials
88,868
81,221
4.9
4.6
154
Manufacture of other food products
72,136
74,443
4.0
4.2
289
Manufacture of other fabricated metal products; metal
working service activities
72,919
69,069
4.1
3.9
181
Manufacture of wearing apparel except fur apparel
79,253
68,362
4.4
3.9
300
Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery
105,439
64,499
5.9
3.6
Others
825,717
826,348
45.9
46.6
1,800,353
1,771,331
100.0
100.0
Total
4.
% Share
Employment
4.1 Employment size group
There were a total of 26,466 establishments which employed less than 50 employees, which accounted for 81.3
per cent, whereas the contribution to gross output and total employment was 9.2 per cent and 15.0 per cent
respectively as shown in Table 4.1a. On the contrary, only 2,296 large establishments with 150 workers and
above employed 66.8 per cent of total employment and contributed 75.4 per cent to gross output.
Table 4.1a : Number of establishments, gross output and total employment by employment size group, 2008
Employment
size group
No. of establishments
Number
% Share
Gross output
RM billion
% Share
Total employment
Number
% Share
Total
32,535
100.0
817.7
100.0
1,771,331
100.0
< 50
26,466
81.3
75.4
9.2
266,095
15.0
50 - 149
3,773
11.6
126.0
15.4
322,565
18.2
150 and above
2,296
7.1
616.3
75.4
1,182,671
66.8
19
SUMMARY FINDINGS
4.2 Qualification of employees
Table 4.2a shows the number of workers
in the manufacturing sector
by qualification. Workers with
SPM / SPMV or equivalent and below was the highest with 1,458,716 persons or 82.3 per cent of total persons
engaged in 2008. Workers with Diploma / STPM or equivalent, 202,009 persons (11.4 per cent) and University
degree and above, 110,606 persons (6.3 per cent). In general, majority of the workers in this sector posses
qualification of SPM / SPMV or equivalent and below .
Table 4.2a : Persons engaged by qualification, 2008
Qualification
Total
%
University degree and above
110,606
6.3
Diploma / STPM or equivalent
202,009
11.4
1,458,716
82.3
1,771,331
100.0
SPM / SPMV or equivalent and below
Total
Number of persons engaged by gender and qualification shows male employees represents 62.5 per cent of
total employment and the remaining 37.5 per cent were female employees. Table 4.2b depicts the existence of
gaps between male and female workers at every level of qualification especially for University degree holder and
above where male employees accounted for 64.9 per cent compared with 35.1 per cent for female employees.
Table 4.2b : Number of persons engaged by gender and qualification, 2008
Number of persons engaged by gender
Qualification
Total
Male
%
Female
%
University degree and above
110,606
71,751
64.9
38,855
35.1
Diploma / STPM or equivalent
202,009
129,403
64.1
72,606
35.9
1,458,716
905,351
62.1
553,365
37.9
1,771,331
1,106,505
62.5
664,826
37.5
SPM / SPMV or equivalent and below
Total
20
SUMMARY FINDINGS
4.3 Salaries & wages
Table 4.3a shows the distribution of salaries & wages of paid full-time employees by category of workers. There
were 1,192,722 persons (69.0 per cent) employed as Plant and machine operators and assemblers2 which
received salaries & wages amounted to RM17.2 billion (42.8 per cent). Whereby, the managers, professionals
and executives received salaries & wages amounting to RM11.9 billion (29.6 per cent) even though there were
only 145,796 persons (8.4 per cent) of total paid full-time employees.
Table 4.3a : Salaries & wages of paid full-time employees by category of workers, 2008
Paid full-time
employees
Salaries & wages
Category of workers
Number
%
(RM billion)
%
Average salaries &
wages received
per annum
(RM)
Managers, professionals and executives
145,796
8.4
11.9
29.6
81,420
Technicians and associate professionals
201,760
11.7
7.2
17.9
35,617
Clerical and related occupations
119,682
6.9
2.8
6.9
23,098
69,363
4.0
1.1
2.8
16,398
1,192,722
69.0
17.2
42.8
14,432
1,729,323
100.0
40.2
100.0
23,230
Elementary workers
Plant & machine operators and assemblers
Total
The average salaries & wages per annum for Managers, professionals and executives was RM81,420. This was
followed by Technicians and associate professionals (RM35,617); Clerical and related occupations (RM23,098);
Elementary workers (RM16,398) and Plant & machine operators and assemblers (RM14,432).
5.
Performance by state
5.1
Gross output and employment
Selangor was the top contributor to gross output and total employment in the manufacturing sector for 2008 with
25.4 per cent and 30.4 per cent respectively. This was followed by Johor and Pulau Pinang with a contribution to
gross output was 16.3 per cent and 15.5 per cent respectively as shown in Chart 5a and 5b. Beside that, these
three states contributed more than half of total employment in manufacturing sector as shown in Chart 5b.
Chart 5b : Employment by state, 2008
Chart 5a : Gross output by state, 2008
Other
states
26.7%
Other
states
25.2%
Selangor
25.4%
Melaka
7.6%
Kedah
5.4%
Johor
16.3%
Perak
7.1%
Sarawak
8.5%
Pulau
Pinang
13.0%
Pulau Pinang
15.5%
Value of gross output RM817.7 billion
2
Selangor
30.4%
Johor
18.9%
Total number of persons engaged 1,771,331 persons
Directly employed and employed through labour contractors
21
SUMMARY FINDINGS
5.2 Distribution of manufacturing subsectors with the highest gross output by states
Table 5a portrays the distribution of manufacturing subsectors with the highest contribution to gross output by
state. In 2008, Food and beverages was the highest in Johor (25.4 per cent); Kelantan (34.3 per cent); Pahang
(38.2 per cent), Perak (34.9 per cent), Perlis (38.3 per cent) and Sabah (81.4 per cent) to their state gross
output.
As for Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu and Sarawak, Coke & refined petroleum products contributed the
most with 62.0 per cent, 44.6 per cent, 44.0 per cent and 67.9 per cent respectively. Meanwhile for W.P. Kuala
Lumpur Chemical products was the highest contributor (28.7 per cent). Basic metals subsector recorded the
highest gross output of 42.1 per cent for W.P. Labuan, whereas for Radio, television & communication
apparatus were the leading contributor for Pulau Pinang (33.9 per cent) and Selangor (16.7 per cent). The same
scenario applies to Kedah whereby Rubber and plastic subsector contributed 21.3 per cent.
Table 5a : Distribution of manufacturing subsectors with the highest gross output by states, 2008
State
Subsector
Code
Gross Output
(RM million)
Per cent
(%)
Total gross output
132,938.7
100.0
15
Food & beverages products
33,768.8
25.4
32
Radio, television & communication apparatus
26,809.6
20.2
24
Chemical products
17,875.9
13.4
Total gross output
21,983.4
100.0
25
Rubber & plastic products
4,674.2
21.3
32
Radio, television & communication apparatus
3,692.4
16.8
15
Food & beverages products
2,621.8
11.9
31
Manufacture of electrical machinery
1,618.5
7.4
Total gross output
2,581.0
100.0
Johor
Kedah
Kelantan
Subsector based on highest gross output
15
Food & beverages products
884.2
34.3
25
Rubber & plastic products
859.0
33.3
Total gross output
62,242.7
100.0
Coke & refined petroleum products
38,618.1
62.0
Total gross output
47,082.5
100.0
23
Coke & refined petroleum products
21,005.5
44.6
25
Rubber & plastic products
4,549.4
9.7
Total gross output
28,608.5
100.0
15
Food & beverages products
10,934.0
38.2
24
Chemical products
10,293.1
36.0
Melaka
23
Negeri Sembilan
Pahang
22
SUMMARY FINDINGS
Table 5a : Distribution of manufacturing subsectors with the highest gross output by states, 2008 (cont’d)
State
Subsector
Code
Gross Output
(RM million)
Per cent
(%)
Total gross output
126,746.8
100.0
32
Radio, television & communication apparatus
43,007.6
33.9
30
Office, accounting & computing machinery
34,628.4
27.3
Total gross output
31,891.3
100.0
15
Food & beverages products
11,133.2
34.9
25
Rubber & plastic products
5,901.4
18.5
Total gross output
1,144.9
100
Pulau Pinang
Perak
Perlis
Subsector based on highest gross output
15
Food & beverages products
438.2
38.3
26
Other non-metallic mineral products
348.7
30.5
Total gross output
207,622.3
100.0
32
Radio, television & communication apparatus
34,764.4
16.7
15
Food & beverages products
30,896.5
14.9
27
Basic metals
20,523.9
9.9
34
Motor vehicles, trailers & semi trailers
17,887.0
8.6
Total gross output
30,837.5
100.0
23
Coke & refined petroleum products
13,558.0
44.0
24
Chemical products
12,400.3
40.2
Total gross output
36,720.3
100.0
Food & beverages products
29,884.2
81.4
Total gross output
69,655.0
100.0
Coke & refined petroleum products
47,301.2
67.9
Total gross output
16,029.0
100.0
24
Chemical products
4,600.9
28.7
15
Food & beverages products
2,630.1
16.4
22
Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded
media
1,768.2
11.0
Total gross output
1,625.8
100.0
Selangor
Terengganu
Sabah
15
Sarawak
23
W.P. Kuala
Lumpur
W.P. Labuan
27
Basic metals
684.5
42.1
24
Chemical products
625.2
38.5
23
SUMMARY FINDINGS
6.
Composition of gross output, intermediate input and value added
Total supply of manufactured goods in 2008 were RM1,022.6 billion. Out of that total, RM817.7 billion (80.0 per
cent ) of gross output was produced by local manufacturers and RM204.9 billion were imported goods (20.0 per
cent) as shown in Chart 6a.
Chart 6a : Total supply, gross output and imports, 2008
Gross output
RM817.7 billion
(80.0%)
Imports
RM204.9 billion
(20.0%)
Total supply of goods RM1,022.6 billion
A total of RM817.7 billion value of gross output was produced from intermediate input of RM660.5 billion (80.7
per cent). The value added generated was RM157.2 billion as shown in Table 6a.
Table 6a : Gross output, intermediate input and value added, 2008
Gross output
Intermediate input
Value added
Value (RM billion)
817.7
660.5
157.2
%
100.0
80.7
19.3
From a total of RM660.5 billion of intermediate input, 85.9 per cent (RM 567.4 billion) were direct raw materials ,
while only 14.1 per cent (RM93.1 billion) of the remaining intermediate input component were packing materials,
consumable stores, materials for repairs and maintenance, non-industrial services, research and development
and other related input as shown in Table 6b.
Table 6b : Composition of intermediate input, 2008
Value (RM billion)
%
Intermediate input
660.5
100.0
a. Direct raw materials
567.4
85.9
b. Others3
93.1
14.1
3
packing materials, consumable stores, materials for repairs and maintenance, non-industrial services, research and
development and other related input
24
SUMMARY FINDINGS
7.
Intermediate input consumed against gross output
Chart 7a shows the percentage of intermediate input consumed by selected subsectors to gross output . The top
three subsectors which accounted the highest percentage of intermediate input to gross output were Recycling
(88.5 per cent); Food products & beverages (88.1 per cent) and Basic metal products (87.5 per cent). The three
subsectors that registered the lowest percentage of intermediate input consumed to gross output were Wearing
apparel, Tanning and dressing of fur (74.0 per cent); Tanning and dressing of leather (69.4 per cent) and Publishing, printing & reproduction of recorded media (65.1 per cent).
Chart 7a : Percentage of intermediate input consumed to the gross output, 2008
Recycling 37
88.5%
Food products & Beverages 15
88.1%
Basic metal products 27
87.5%
Wearing apparel, tanning and dressing 18
of fur
74.0%
Tanning and dressing of leather 19
69.4%
Publising, printing & reproduction of 22
recorded media
8.
65.1%
Exports by manufacturing subsectors
The Office, accounting & computing machinery subsector which includes ICT products such as computers &
computer peripherals and other industrial electronic products of office equipment, dominated export with the
largest percentage of establishments by 47.8 per cent. This was followed by the Radio, television &
communication equipment (37.1 per cent); Coke & refined petroleum products (33.3 per cent); Rubber & plastic
products (23.1 per cent) and Chemical products (19.2 per cent) as shown in Table 8a.
Table 8a : Percentage of establishments involved in exports, 2008
Subsector
code
Establishments
involved in exports
(%)
Subsector
30
Office, accounting & computing machinery
47.8
32
Radio, television & communication equipment
37.1
23
Coke & refined petroleum products
33.3
25
Rubber & plastic products
23.1
24
Chemical products
19.2
31
Electrical machinery & apparatus n.e.c
18.9
34
Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
17.7
37
Recycling
16.2
20
Wood products, except furniture
15.1
19
Tanning / dressing of leather & footwear
14.4
25
SUMMARY FINDINGS
9.
Research and development expenditure by subsectors
Expenditure in Research and development (R&D) recorded a value of RM2.0 billion as shown in Table 9a. The
four subsectors which had the highest expenditure were Radio, television & communication equipment
(RM1,108.8 million); Office, accounting & computing machinery (RM292.9 million); Other transport equipment
(RM130.3 million) and Machinery & equipment n.e.c. (RM115.6 million). The total expenditure by these four subsectors was RM1.6 billion (82.2 per cent). For the remaining subsectors, the incurred expenditure was RM357
million (17.8 per cent).
There were 1,931 establishments (6.0 per cent) out of 32,535 which actively involved in R&D. Food products &
beverages subsector had the highest number involved in R&D which was 387 establishments (20.0 per cent).
This was followed by Rubber and plastic products, 237 (12.3 per cent); Chemical products, 194 (10.0 per cent)
and Radio, television & communication equipment 131 establishments (6.8 per cent).
Table 9a : Research and development (R&D) expenditure by subsectors, 2008
Subsector
code
Subsector
Expenditure on
research & development
(R&D)
(RM million)
32
Radio, television & communication
equipment
30
Total
establishments
%
Establishment
involved in R&D
Numbers
%
1,108.8
55.3
517
131
6.8
Office, accounting & computing
machinery
292.9
14.6
67
29
1.5
35
Other transport equipment
130.3
6.5
285
24
1.2
29
Machinery & equipment n.e.c.
115.6
5.8
1,386
96
5.0
25
Rubber & plastic products
75.4
3.8
2,197
237
12.3
15
Food products & beverages
72.1
3.6
4,848
387
20.0
24
Chemical products
38.9
1.9
1,019
194
10.0
31
Electrical machinery & apparatus n.e.c.
32.3
1.6
513
83
4.3
26
Other non-metallic mineral products
30.7
1.5
1,389
70
3.6
34
Motor vehicles, trailers & semi trailers
30.4
1.5
376
63
3.3
Others
Total
77.1
3.9
19,938
617
32.0
2,004.5
100.0
32,535
1,931
100.0
26
SUMMARY FINDINGS
The total intermediate input consumed by establishments in manufacturing sector in 2008 was RM660.5 billion.
There was only 0.55 per cent of total intermediate input consumed by R&D, Advertisement & Promotion and
Information Technology. Comparatively percentage spent on R&D recorded the highest, at 0.30 per cent followed by Advertisement & Promotion (0.18 per cent) and Information Technology (0.06 per cent) to intermediate
input as shown in Table 9b. In terms of R&D expenditure by subsector, Other transport equipment (1.19 per
cent) and Radio, television & communication equipment (1.09 per cent) were the two subsectors which recorded
the highest percentage of expenditure in R&D.
Table 9b : Percentages of expenses on research & development (R&D), advertisement & promotion and
information technology to intermediate input of selected subsectors, 2008
Subsector
code
R&D
Information
technology
(%)
Total
(%)
Advertisement
& promotion
(%)
Subsector
(%)
35
Other transport equipment
1.19
0.29
0.04
1.52
19
Tanning / dressing of leather & footwear
0.04
1.38
0.04
1.47
32
Radio, television & communication equipment
1.09
0.07
0.10
1.26
29
Machinery & equipment n.e.c.
0.70
0.43
0.08
1.20
22
Publishing, printing & reproduction of
recorded media
0.09
0.82
0.17
1.07
30
Office, accounting & computing machinery
0.68
0.01
0.03
0.73
34
Motor vehicles, trailers & semi trailers
0.14
0.44
0.11
0.70
36
Furniture; Manufacturing n.e.c.
0.10
0.52
0.04
0.67
24
Chemical products
0.07
0.34
0.11
0.52
16
Tobacco products
0.16
0.02
0.34
0.52
Others
1.07
1.56
0.60
3.20
0.30
0.18
0.06
0.55
27
SUMMARY FINDINGS
10.
Profile of SMEs in manufacturing sector
10.1 Number of SMEs
Chart 10.1a shows the total number of SMEs establishments in the manufacturing sector. In 2008, there were
30,709 SMEs, which represented 94.4 per cent of the total establishments in manufacturing sector while the
remaining were large establishments with total of 1,826 establishments. The Textiles & clothing’s subsector recorded the highest in terms of number of establishment (19.3 per cent), followed by Food products & beverages
(15.1 per cent) and Fabricated metal products (10.5 per cent)
Chart 10.1a : Number of SMEs in the manufacturing sector, 2008
Textiles & clothing’s
5,926 establishments
(19.3%)
Others
16,947 establishments
(55.1%)
30,709
establishments
Food and beverages
4,623 establishments
(15.1%)
Fabricated metal
3,213 establishments
(10.5%)
As for the SMEs in the manufacturing sector, the highest concentration of establishments were recorded in
Selangor 5,989 establishments (19.5 per cent ). This was followed by Johor (14.2 per cent) and Perak (11.4 per
cent). These three states cumulatively accounted for 45.0 per cent to the number of establishments of SMEs in
manufacturing sector as depicted in Chart 10.1b.
Chart 10.1b : SMEs by state, 2008
State
106 (0.3%)
226 (0.7%)
W.P.Labuan
Perlis
1,030 (3.4%)
1,154 (3.8%)
Pahang
Melaka
1,163 (3.8%)
1,270 (4.1%)
N.Sembilan
Sabah
1,335 (4.3% )
Terengganu
1,347 (4.4%)
1,659 (5.4%)
Kelantan
Sarawak
2,046 (6.7%)
2,086 (6.8%)
Kedah
P.Pinang
3,468 (11.3%)
3,482 (11.4%)
W.P.Kuala Lumpur
Perak
4,348 (14.2%)
Johor
5,989 (19.5%)
Selangor
0
500
1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500
Number of establishments
28
SUMMARY FINDINGS
10.2 SMEs output and value added
In 2008, output of SMEs recorded RM209.7 billion or 25.6 per cent of the total output in manufacturing sector. It
was increase of RM29.1 billion or 16.0 per cent compared to the total output in 2007 as shown in Chart 10.2a.
The value added of SMEs recorded in 2008 was RM47.7 billion or 30.4 per cent of total value added in
manufacturing sector.
Chart 10.2a : Contribution of SMEs to the total manufacturing output, 2007 - 2008
220
35
Gross output
200
30
180
160
120
20
100
15
80
10
60
40
Per cent (%)
140
RM billion
SMEs
contribution
25
5
20
0
0
2007
Year
2008
10.3 Employment in SMEs
The total number of employees engaged by SMEs establishments were 688,201 workers or 38.9 per cent of
total employment in manufacturing sector (1,771,331 workers). The Food products & beverages subsector had
the highest numbers of employees engaged in SMEs which was 108,926 workers or 15.8 per cent. This was
followed by Rubber & plastic products with 80,876 workers or 11.8 per cent and
Furniture & Other
Manufacturing n.e.c with 72,950 workers or 10.6 per cent. In terms of salaries & wages paid, the subsector
which received the highest salaries and wages was Food products & beverages (RM1.8 billion). This was
followed by Rubber & plastic products RM1.5 billion and Fabricated metals products, RM1.2 billion as shown in
Chart 10.3a.
120,000
Employment
2,500
100,000
Salaries &
wages
2,000
80,000
1,500
60,000
1,000
40,000
500
20,000
0
0
1
2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3
4
Subsector
Food products & beverages
Rubber & plastic products
Furniture & other manufacturing n.e.c
Fabricated metals
Wood products, except furniture
29
5
Salaries & wages
(RM million)
Number of workers
Chart 10.3a : Employment and salaries & wages of SMEs, 2008
SUMMARY FINDINGS
Employment in SMEs comprised of self-employed (working proprietors, active business partners and unpaid
family workers) as well as paid full-time employees and paid part-time employees. Contribution of paid full-time
employees to the total employment was the largest which recorded 94.3 per cent (649,396 persons). Working
proprietors, active business partners and unpaid family workers represented 3.4 per cent (23,108 persons),
while paid part-time employees was 2.3 per cent (15,697 persons) as shown in Chart 10.2b. Of the total number
of paid full-time employees in SMEs, production / operative workers directly employed were the largest group
with 58.6 per cent (380,498 persons).
Chart 10.2b : SMEs employment by category of workers, 2008
73,948
(11.4%)
50,705
(7.8%)
54,982
(8.5%)
15,697
(2.3%)
55,420
(8.5%)
649,396
(94.3%)
23,108
(3.4%)
380,498
(58.6%)
33,844
(5.2%)
SMEs paid full-time employees : 649,396 persons
SMEs total employment : 688,201 persons
Managerial & professional
Working proprietors active business partners &
unpaid family workers
Technical & supervisory
Paid part-time employees
Clerical & related occupation
Paid full-time employees
General workers
Production / operative workers directly employed
Production / operative workers directly employed
through labour contractors
10.4 Legal status of SMEs
In the manufacturing sector, legal status of SMEs were mainly Individual proprietorship, Private limited company
and Partnership. Individual proprietorship represented 45.9 per cent of total SMEs establishments, while Private
limited company and Partnership represented 42.2 per cent and 11.4 per cent respectively as shown in Chart
10.4a.
Chart 10.4a : Legal status of SMEs in manufacturing sector, 2008
42.2%
0.5%
11.4%
4545.9%
Private limited company
Individual proprietorship
Partnership
Others
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NOTA TEKNIKAL
1. Pendahuluan
1.1
Banci pertama sektor pembuatan telah dijalankan bagi tahun rujukan 1959. Bancibanci yang berikutnya ialah bagi tahun rujukan 1963, 1968, 1973, 1981, 1993,
2000 dan 2005. Sementara itu, bagi tempoh antara banci, penyiasatan telah
dilaksanakan secara tahunan kecuali pada tahun rujukan 1980 dan 1998.
1.2
Perangkaan utama yang disusun ialah nilai output kasar, input perantaraan,
nilai ditambah, jumlah pekerja, gaji & upah dan nilai harta.
2. Objektif
Objektif utama penyiasatan ini adalah untuk mengumpul maklumat tentang pertumbuhan,
sumbangan, komposisi dan taburan sektor pembuatan bagi membantu kerajaan dalam
perancangan pembangunan dan penggubalan dasar. Data yang diperoleh dari
penyiasatan juga memberi maklumat penanda aras dan digunakan dalam penyusunan
akaun negara, jadual input-output serta kajian tertentu. Maklumat tersebut juga
digunakan oleh penggubal dasar, ahli ekonomi, perancang dan ahli akademik bagi tujuan
unjuran dan analisis ekonomi.
3. Kuasa
perundangan
Penyiasatan
ini
dilaksanakan
di
bawah
peruntukan
Akta
Perangkaan
1965
(Disemak - 1989). Seksyen 5 di bawah Akta ini menghendaki mana-mana pertubuhan
yang beroperasi di Malaysia untuk memberikan maklumat sebenar atau anggaran
terbaik kepada Jabatan. Mengikut Akta ini, kandungan soal selidik yang diterima
adalah sulit dan hanya angka agregat diterbitkan.
4. Skop
4.1
dan liputan
Penyiasatan ini meliputi pertubuhan berdaftar yang terlibat dalam aktiviti
pembuatan
sebagai
aktiviti
utamanya.
Sumber
maklumat
utama
rangka
pertubuhan diperoleh daripada Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia (SSM).
4.2
Selain daripada SSM, maklumat rangka penyiasatan juga dikemas kini
daripada sumber seperti Lembaga Kemajuan Perindustrian Malaysia (MIDA),
Jabatan Perhutanan, Kementerian Pertanian dan Industri Asas Tani, Lembaga
Penyelidikan Getah Malaysia (RRIM), Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan
(FELDA), pelbagai persatuan perniagaan dan perdagangan, iklan surat khabar
dan laman web. Rangka dikemas kini setiap tahun untuk mengambil kira
pertubuhan baru dan sebarang perubahan yang berlaku kepada pertubuhan
seperti tutup, tidak beroperasi, perubahan jenis aktiviti, lokasi kilang atau alamat
pos.
4.3
Liputan penyiasatan terdiri daripada 197 industri di peringkat 5-digit dan
61 kumpulan di peringkat 3-digit yang dikelaskan mengikut Klasifikasi Standard
Perindustrian Malaysia (MSIC), 20001. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat tujuh
industri tidak dapat dikelaskan sebagai aktiviti utama disebabkan tiada pertubuhan
¹ Klasifikasi Standard Perindustrian Malaysia (MSIC), 2000 digunakan dari tahun rujukan 2000, menggantikan Klasifikasi
Perindustrian Malaysia (MIC), 1972 (dipinda 1979). Sila lihat Lampiran 1 bagi perbandingan di antara kedua-kedua
klasifikasi.
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NOTA TEKNIKAL
yang mewakili industri berkenaan ataupun aktiviti ini dilaporkan sebagai aktiviti
sekunder. Senarai tujuh industri tersebut adalah :
i.
Industri 15209 : Pembuatan produk tenusu lain
ii.
Industri 15321 : Pembuatan kanji
iii.
Industri 15329 : Pembuatan produk kanji lain
iv.
Industri 18200 : Pembersihan dan pewarnaan bulu haiwan; pembuatan
artikel daripada bulu
v.
Industri 23100 : Pembuatan produk kok ketuhar
vi.
Industri 23300 : Prosesan bahan api nuklear
vii. Industri 35200 : Pembuatan lokomotif keretapi dan trem dan rolling stock
Senarai lengkap 197 industri yang dikelaskan dalam sektor pembuatan
ditunjukkan seperti di Lampiran 1.
5. Metodologi
dan respons
Penyiasatan ini dijalankan melalui mel. Responden diberi tempoh satu bulan
untuk melengkapkan dan mengembalikan borang soal selidik tersebut kepada Jabatan
ini. Selepas tempoh tersebut, kerja luar dijalankan untuk mempercepatkan respons
dari pertubuhan selebihnya.
6. Unit pelapor
Unit pelapor bagi penyiasatan ini ialah pertubuhan. Sesebuah pertubuhan ditakrifkan
sebagai “satu unit ekonomi yang bergiat di bawah satu hak milik atau penguasaan
tunggal, iaitu di bawah satu entiti yang sah. Ia menjalankan satu jenis aktiviti ekonomi
utama di satu tempat / lokasi fizikal”. Setiap pertubuhan diberikan klasifikasi industri
berdasarkan aktiviti utamanya. Bagi pertubuhan yang menjalankan pelbagai aktiviti, unit
yang bergiat dalam aktiviti yang berasingan dalam satu lokasi yang sama terdiri daripada
entiti pertubuhan yang berbeza. Oleh itu, setiap cawangan daripada organisasi yang
mempunyai pelbagai cawangan di lokasi yang berbeza dari segi konsep dianggap
sebagai pertubuhan yang berlainan. Pertubuhan berkenaan diminta memberikan penyata
yang berasingan bagi setiap kegiatannya dari segi nilai. Walau bagaimanapun, dari segi
praktisnya akaun biasanya disediakan secara berpusat kerana kesukaran untuk
memperoleh data yang berasingan bagi setiap unit atau cawangan. Entiti atau enterpris
ini akan dianggap sebagai satu unit pelapor dan dibenarkan mengemukakan soal selidik
yang menggabungkan semua unit atau cawangannya.
7. Tahun
Tahun penyiasatan merujuk kepada tahun pelaksanaan penyiasatan.
penyiasatan
8. Tempoh
rujukan
Tempoh rujukan bagi penyiasatan ini adalah tahun takwim 2008. Pertubuhan yang
mempunyai
tahun
perakaunan
yang
berbeza
daripada
tahun
takwim
diminta
menyediakan laporan mengikut tahun perakaunan atau kewangan yang meliputi
sebahagian besar daripada tempoh rujukan.
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NOTA TEKNIKAL
9. Jenis aktiviti
perniagaan
Jenis aktiviti perniagaan merujuk kepada aktiviti utama dan sekunder. Aktiviti
utama merujuk kepada aktiviti yang mana pertubuhan menggunakan sebahagian besar
daripada
sumbernya
atau
yang
ia
memperoleh
sebahagian
besar
daripada
pendapatannya. Aktiviti sekunder didefinisikan sebagai aktiviti sampingan kepada aktiviti
utama. Klasifikasi industri bagi pertubuhan adalah mengikut aktiviti utamanya
berdasarkan kepada Klasifikasi Standard Perindustrian Malaysia (MSIC), 2000.
MSIC 2000 adalah selaras dengan Klasifikasi Standard Perindustrian Antarabangsa bagi
Semua Aktiviti Ekonomi (ISIC), semakan ke-3 Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu.
10. Konsep dan
definisi
Konsep
dan
definisi yang digunakan berasaskan kepada syor Pejabat Perangkaan
Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu2. Konsep berkenaan mengikut amalan yang sudah
diterima pakai, akan memudahkan perbandingan data di peringkat antarabangsa
dilaksanakan.
10.1
Takrif pembuatan
Takrif pembuatan yang digunakan dalam penyiasatan ini adalah selaras dengan
“Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2000”, (m.s D–1)
"Pembuatan adalah ditakrifkan sebagai perubahan fizikal atau kimia ke atas bahan
atau komponen menjadi produk baru sama ada kerja itu dilakukan oleh jentera
yang dijalankan oleh kuasa atau yang dijalankan dengan tangan, sama ada
dijalankan dalam kilang atau di rumah pekerja, dan sama ada barang keluaran
dijual secara borong atau runcit."
10.2
Taraf sah
Bagi tujuan penyiasatan ini, taraf sah sesebuah pertubuhan ditakrifkan seperti
berikut :
i.
Hak milik perseorangan : Ia merujuk kepada perniagaan yang dimiliki dan
dijalankan oleh orang perseorangan semata-mata untuk mendapatkan
keuntungan sendiri. Pemilik mempunyai hak mutlak atas segala urusan
pertubuhannya.
ii.
Perkongsian : Ia merujuk kepada sekumpulan individu yang telah bersetuju
mengikat kontrak dan menjalankan perniagaan dengan matlamat untuk
memperoleh keuntungan. Perniagaan tersebut diuruskan oleh kesemua
mereka atau salah seorang daripada
semua
mereka
yang
bertindak
mewakili
pihak. Perkongsian perniagaan ini hendaklah mengandungi ahli
sekurang-kurangnya dua orang dan tidak melebihi had maksimum dua puluh
orang.
² International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics, United Nations’ Statistical Office, Statistical Papers, Series M
No. 48, Rev. 3, United Nations, New York, 1990.
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NOTA TEKNIKAL
iii.
Syarikat sendirian berhad : Ia merupakan sebuah perbadanan swasta yang
ditubuhkan untuk menjalankan perniagaan dengan matlamat untuk mencari
keuntungan. Saham dipegang secara tertutup oleh pemegang-pemegang
saham yang mempunyai kawalan terhadap operasi syarikat. Ia didaftarkan
dengan tanggungan berhad.
Sesebuah syarikat sendirian berhad mempunyai Memorandum dan Artikel
Persatuan sendiri, yang antara lain :
(a) mengehadkan hak untuk memindahkan sahamnya;
(b) mengehadkan bilangan pemegang sahamnya di antara dua hingga lima
puluh orang (tidak termasuk pekerja syarikat itu dan bekas pekerja yang
masih menjadi ahli);
(c) melarang sebarang pelawaan kepada orang ramai untuk membeli apaapa saham atau debentur syarikat itu; dan
(d) melarang sebarang pelawaan kepada orang ramai supaya menyimpan
wang di syarikat itu bagi sesuatu tempoh yang ditetapkan atau boleh
bayar apabila dituntut, dengan atau tanpa faedah.
iv.
Syarikat awam berhad : Syarikat awam berhad juga merupakan sebuah
perbadanan swasta yang ditubuhkan, dengan tanggungan terhad, oleh
sekurang-kurangnya dua orang untuk menjalankan perniagaan dengan tujuan
untuk mencari keuntungan. Saham syarikat awam berhad ini dipegang secara
terbuka dan bagi sesebuah syarikat yang disenaraikan di bursa saham,
sahamnya boleh bertukar milik secara bebas. Syarikat tersebut dianggap
sebagai sebuah entiti yang sah dan ditubuhkan mengikut Memorandum dan
Artikel Persatuan.
v.
Koperasi : Ia merujuk kepada sesebuah persatuan sukarela yang bilangan
ahlinya tidak terhad dan didaftarkan di bawah Akta Koperasi 1993. Kumpulan
wang yang ada adalah milik bersama untuk memenuhi keperluan ahli-ahlinya.
vi.
Perbadanan awam : Ia merupakan sebuah perbadanan yang ditubuhkan di
bawah Akta Khas Parlimen atau Dewan Perundangan Negeri.
vii. Lain-lain : Ia merujuk kepada semua pertubuhan lain yang tidak tergolong di
bawah mana-mana kategori yang tersebut di atas.
10.3
Hak milik
Hak milik sesebuah pertubuhan dikelaskan mengikut taraf pemastautin pemilik/
pemilik-pemilik modal berbayar yang terbesar (melebihi 50 peratus) dan bukannya
mengikut taraf kerakyatan mereka. Dalam kes di mana setiap pihak (residen
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NOTA TEKNIKAL
Malaysia atau bukan residen Malaysia) memegang jumlah saham yang sama
banyak dalam perniagaan berkenaan, pertubuhan itu dikelaskan di bawah ‘hak
milik bersama’.
Residen Malaysia ialah individu, enterpris atau organisasi lain yang lazimnya
terletak di Malaysia untuk jangka masa sekurang-kurangnya satu tahun.
Cawangan dan anak syarikat asing yang didaftarkan dan diperbadankan di
Malaysia adalah dianggap sebagai residen Malaysia.
Bukan residen Malaysia ialah individu, enterpris atau organisasi lain yang lazimnya
terletak di negara lain selain Malaysia. Cawangan dan anak syarikat milik residen
Malaysia di luar negara dianggap sebagai bukan residen.
10.4
Jumlah pekerja
Jumlah pekerja meliputi orang yang diambil bekerja pada bulan Disember atau
pada tempoh pembayaran gaji terakhir bagi tahun rujukan. Bilangan orang yang
bekerja dikategorikan seperti berikut :
i.
Pemilik yang bekerja dan rakan niaga yang aktif
Kategori ini merujuk kepada semua pemilik perseorangan dan rakan niaga,
sambilan atau sepenuh masa, yang bekerja dengan aktif dalam sesebuah
pertubuhan itu. Justeru, ia tidak termasuk rakan niaga yang tidak aktif.
ii.
Pekerja keluarga tidak bergaji
Ia ditakrifkan sebagai semua ahli isi rumah kepada pemilik pertubuhan yang
melaksanakan kerja tertentu (sepenuh masa atau sambilan) dan bekerja
sekurang-kurangnya satu pertiga daripada waktu bekerja biasa yang
diamalkan oleh pertubuhan berkenaan tanpa mendapat bayaran secara tetap,
sama ada dalam bentuk wang tunai atau harta benda bagi kerja yang
dilakukan. Biasanya pekerja berkenaan mendapat makanan, tempat tinggal
dan bantuan lain sebagai sebahagian daripada ahli isi rumah pemilik tersebut
dan terus mendapatnya sama ada ia bekerja atau tidak di dalam pertubuhan
itu.
iii.
Pekerja bergaji sepenuh masa
Ia ditakrifkan sebagai semua pekerja bergaji yang bekerja sekurangkurangnya 6 jam sehari dan sekurang-kurangnya 20 hari sebulan.
iv.
Pekerja bergaji sambilan
Ia ditakrifkan sebagai semua pekerja bergaji yang bekerja kurang daripada
6 jam sehari dan / atau kurang daripada 20 hari sebulan.
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10.5
Gaji & upah dibayar
Ia merujuk kepada pembayaran tunai kepada pekerja sepanjang tahun rujukan
termasuk gaji, upah, bonus, komisen, bayaran lebih masa, bayaran pampasan dan
elaun-elaun lain sebelum ditolak sumbangan pekerja kepada Kumpulan Wang
Simpanan Pekerja (KWSP), Skim Keselamatan Sosial atau lain-lain sumbangan.
Tidak termasuk elaun kepada pemilik yang bekerja, rakan niaga yang aktif dan
pekerja keluarga tidak bergaji.
10.6
Nilai harta
Harta meliputi semua barang, baru atau terpakai, aset ketara dan aset tidak ketara
yang mempunyai hayat produktif lebih daripada setahun (seperti tanah, bangunan,
jentera dan alat kelengkapan, termasuk kelengkapan pengangkutan). Nilai yang
dilaporkan adalah nilai seperti pada penghujung tahun rujukan dan ia mengikut
buku akaun unit yang melaporkan. Ia termasuk perolehan baru sepanjang tahun
berkenaan tetapi tidak termasuk harta yang dilupuskan pada tahun tersebut. Ianya
adalah nilai bersih setelah ditolak susut nilai.
10.7
Nilai output kasar
Nilai output kasar dikirakan daripada item-item berikut :
Nilai jualan produk pembuatan pada harga asas
+
tambah
Nilai barang yang dijual dalam keadaan yang sama seperti
dibeli
-
tolak
Kos barang yang dijual dalam keadaan yang sama seperti
dibeli
+
tambah
Perbelanjaan modal ke atas binaan sendiri
+
tambah
Pendapatan daripada perkhidmatan perindustrian yang diberi
kepada orang lain
+
tambah
Pendapatan daripada kerja perindustrian lain (misalnya,
pembinaan, kuari, dll.)
+
tambah
Penerimaan bayaran daripada skrap, tenaga elektrik, produk
sisa, dll. yang dijual kepada orang lain
+
tambah
Penerimaan komisen dan brokeraj
+
tambah
Semua nilai output lain (seperti penerimaan perkhidmatan
bukan perindustrian, misalnya bayaran pengurusan, sewa
harta, dll.)
+
tambah
Stok akhir barang siap (pembuatan sendiri)
-
tolak
Stok awal barang siap (pembuatan sendiri)
+
tambah
Stok akhir barang dalam proses
-
tolak
Stok awal barang dalam proses
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10.8
Nilai jualan produk pembuatan
Nilai jualan bagi produk pembuatan yang dilaporkan dalam penerbitan ini merujuk
kepada nilai produk yang dijual dalam tahun rujukan tanpa mengambil kira bila
produk tersebut dikeluarkan. Di samping itu, nilai jualan ini merujuk kepada jualan
produk sendiri sahaja.
10.9
Input perantaraan
Input perantaraan dinilai pada harga pembeli semasa yang dikirakan daripada item
-item berikut :
Nilai bahan mentah dan bekalan yang digunakan
+
tambah
Kos kerja perindustrian yang dibuat oleh orang lain
+
tambah
Kos bahan dan bekas pembungkus yang digunakan
+
tambah
Tenaga elektrik dan air yang dibeli
+
tambah
Nilai bahan pembakar, pelincir dan gas yang digunakan
+
tambah
Kos
bahan
yang
digunakan
bagi
pembaikan
dan
penyelenggaraan harta tetap (termasuk pembayaran kepada
pihak lain ke atas kerja ini)
+
tambah
Perbelanjaan penyelidikan dan pembangunan
+
tambah
Pembayaran terhadap perkhidmatan bukan perindustrian
(termasuk
bayaran
bagi
pengangkutan
keluar
barang,
perjalanan, pengurusan, perundangan, teknologi maklumat,
pengiklanan, bank, pos, telekomunikasi, dll.)
+
tambah
Semua kos input lain (termasuk kos latihan dan nilai pakaian
percuma yang disediakan kepada pekerja)
10.10 Nilai bahan yang digunakan
Nilai bahan yang digunakan ialah kos bahan semasa diserahkan kepada
pertubuhan, termasuk bayaran pengangkutan, insurans, bayaran pembungkusan
yang dikenakan dan semua cukai, duti dan levi yang dibayar ke atas bahan
berkenaan. Ia tidak termasuk diskaun, rebat yang dibenarkan kepada pembeli dan
pulangan seperti nilai bahan pembungkusan yang dipulangkan kepada pengedar.
10.11 Nilai ditambah
Nilai ditambah ialah tambahan kepada nilai komoditi dan perkhidmatan yang
disumbangkan oleh sesebuah pertubuhan pembuatan. Nilai ditambah diperoleh
daripada perbezaan antara nilai output kasar dengan input perantaraan.
10.12 Pertubuhan terlibat dalam eksport
Merujuk kepada pertubuhan yang melaporkan peratus eksport berdasarkan nilai
jualan.
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10.13 Penyelidikan dan pembangunan
Merujuk kepada satu kajian sistematik pada proses, teknik, penggunaan dan
produk baru termasuklah penyelidikan penemuan baru secara komersial.
10.14 Perbelanjaan modal
Merujuk kepada nilai belian dan akaun harta tetap bagi pembinaan sendiri
sepanjang tahun rujukan. Selain itu, pengubahan dan penambahbaikan ke atas
harta sedia ada yang dapat melanjutkan masa sesuatu ekonomi atau
meningkatkan sesuatu produktiviti juga termasuk dalam definisi ini.
10.15 Pembentukan modal tetap kasar
Pembentukan modal tetap kasar diukur menggunakan jumlah nilai pemerolehan
pengeluar, tolak pelupusan, daripada harta tetap semasa tempoh perakaunan, di
campur penambahan ke atas nilai harta bukan pengeluaran (misalnya aset tanah
atau penambahbaikan besar ke atas kuantiti, kualiti atau produktiviti tanah) yang
direalisasikan oleh aktiviti produktif unit institusi.
11. Konsep dan
Konsep dan definisi PKS bagi sektor pembuatan yang digunakan berasaskan kepada
definisi PKS
keputusan yang dibuat oleh Majlis Pembangunan PKS Kebangsaan. Definisi PKS adalah
berdasarkan kriteria pekerja sepenuh masa atau hasil jualan tahunan. Sesuatu
pertubuhan diklasifikasikan sebagai PKS jika ia memenuhi salah satu kriteria tersebut.
Berikut adalah definisi PKS bagi sektor pembuatan mengikut kedua-dua kriteria :
Saiz
pertubuhan
Berdasarkan pekerja sepenuh masa
Berdasarkan hasil jualan tahunan
Mikro
Kurang daripada 5 orang pekerja
Kurang daripada RM250,000
Kecil
Antara 5 & 50 orang pekerja
Antara RM250,000 & kurang daripada RM10
juta
Sederhana
Antara 51 & 150 orang pekerja
Antara RM10 juta & RM25 juta
12. Pembundaran
Jumlah bagi komponen mungkin berbeza dengan jumlah besar di dalam jadual
penerbitan disebabkan oleh pembundaran angka.
40
NOTA TEKNIKAL
13. Simbol dan
Simbol dan huruf ringkas berikut telah digunakan di dalam keseluruhan penerbitan :
huruf ringkas
t.t.t.l.
tidak terkelas di tempat lain
RM
Ringgit Malaysia
W.P.
Wilayah Persekutuan
PKS
Perusahaan Kecil & Sederhana
p
sebahagian
Bil.
bilangan
-
tidak diperoleh
>
lebih daripada
<
kurang daripada
( )
nilai negatif
41
TECHNICAL NOTE
1. Introduction
1.1
The first census of the manufacturing sector was conducted for reference year
1959. Thereafter, censuses were conducted for reference years 1963, 1968, 1973,
1981, 1993, 2000 and 2005. Meanwhile, during the intercensal years, surveys
were canvassed annually, except for reference years 1980 and 1998.
1.2
The principal statistics compiled were value of gross output, intermediate input,
value added, employment, salaries & wages and value of assets.
2. Objective
The main objective of the survey is to collect information pertaining to growth,
contribution, composition and distribution of the manufacturing sector to assist the
government in development planning and formulating policies. Data obtained from the
survey also provides benchmark information and are used for the compilation of national
accounts, input-output tables as well as specific studies. The results are used by policy
makers, economists, planners and academicians in economic projections and analyses.
3. Legal
authority
The survey was conducted under the provisions of the Statistics Act, 1965
(Revised - 1989). Section 5 of this Act requires all establishments operating in Malaysia
to provide actual information or best estimates to the Department. The Act stipulates that
the contents of the individual returns are confidential and only aggregated figures are
published.
4. Scope
4.1
and coverage
The survey covered all registered establishments engaged in manufacturing
activities as main activities. The main source of information for the frame is the
Companies Commission of Malaysia (CCM).
4.2
Apart from the CCM, information on the manufacturing frame was also updated
from other sources such as the Malaysia Industrial Development Authority (MIDA),
Forestry Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, Rubber
Research Institute of Malaysia (RRIM), Federal Land Development Authority
Association (FELDA), various businesses and trade associations, newspaper
advertisements and websites. The frame is updated annually to take into account
new establishments and to record any changes in the status of the establishments
such as closed down, not in operation, change in activities and location or postal
addresses.
4.3
The coverage of the survey included 197 industries at 5-digit level and 61 groups
at 3-digit level classified under the Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification
(MSIC), 20001. However it is, there were seven industries that could not be
classified as a principal activity due to no establishments represent these
industries or these activities were reported as secondary activity.
1
The Malaysia Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC), 2000 was used from reference year 2000, replacing the Malaysia
Industrial Classification (MIC), 1972 (revised 1979). Please refer to Appendix 1 for the corresponding codes between the
two classifications.
42
TECHNICAL NOTE
The list of seven industries were :
i.
Industry 15209 : Manufacture of other dairy products
ii.
Industry 15321 : Manufacture of starch
iii.
Industry 15329 : Manufacture of other starch products
iv.
Industry 18200 : Dressing and dyeing of fur: manufacture of articles of fur
v.
Industry 23100 : Manufacture of coke oven products
vi.
Industry 23300 : Processing of nuclear fuel
vii. Industry 35200 : Manufacture of railway and tramway locomotives and
rolling stock
A full list of 197 industries classified in manufacturing sector is shown in
Appendix 1.
5. Methodology
and response
The survey was conducted through mail enquiry. Respondents were given one
month to complete and return the questionnaires to the Department. After that period,
field
enumeration
was
undertaken
to
expedite
response
from
the
remaining
establishments.
6. Reporting unit
The reporting unit used in the survey was the establishment. An establishment is
defined as “an economic unit engaged in one activity, under a single legal entity and
operating in a single physical location”. Each establishment was assigned an industry
classification based on its principal activity. In the case of a multi-activity entity, units
engaged in separate activities in the same location constituted distinct establishments.
Thus, each branch of a multi-branch organization at a different location was conceptually
treated as a different establishment. The establishment was requested to give separate
returns for each activity in terms of value. However, if in practice, the accounts were
centrally kept such that it was not possible to obtain separate data for each individual unit
or branch, the entity or enterprise was treated as a single reporting unit and allowed to
submit a consolidated questionnaire covering all the units or branches.
7. Survey year
Survey year refers to the year in which a survey was conducted.
8. Reference
The reference period of the survey was the calendar year 2008. Establishments
period
whose accounting year differed from the calendar year were requested to report
according to the accounting or financial year covering the major part of the reference
period.
9. Type of
The type of business activity refers to both principal and secondary activities.
business
The principal activity refers to the activity to which the establishment devoted most of its
activity
resources or to which it derived most of its income. Secondary activities are defined as
those incidental or ancillary to the principal activity. The classification of the industry of
the establishment is based on its principal activity and is in accordance with the Malaysia
43
TECHNICAL NOTE
Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC), 2000. The MSIC 2000 conforms to the
International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev. 3,
United Nations.
10. Concepts
and definitions
Concepts and definitions
used
are based on the
recommendations of the
United Nations' Statistical Office2. These concepts adhere to accepted practices,
thereby facilitating international comparability of data.
10.1
Definition of manufacturing
The definition of manufacturing used in this survey follows that of the “Malaysia
Standard Industrial Classification (MSIC) 2000”, (pg. D-1)
“Manufacturing is defined as the physical or chemical transformation of materials or
components into new products, whether the work is performed by power-driven
machines or by hand, whether it is done in a factory or in the worker’s home, and
whether the products are sold at wholesale or retail.”
10.2
Legal status
For the purpose of this survey, the legal status of an establishment has been
defined as follows :
i.
Individual proprietorship : This refers to a business, owned and operated by
one person for his own profit. The owner has the exclusive right to control the
operation of the establishment.
ii.
Partnership : This refers to a group of individuals who agree to contract and
to carry on a business with the objective of making a profit. All shareholders
or any one could manage the business for all parties. A business partnership
must comprise at least two members and should not exceed a maximum of
twenty members.
iii.
Private limited company : This is a private corporation established to
undertake a business with the objective of making a profit. The shares are
closely held by the shareholders of the corporation who have control over its
operation. It is registered with limited liability.
A private limited company has its Memorandum and Articles of Association,
which among others :
(a)
restricts the right to transfer its shares;
(b)
limits the number of its shareholders between two and fifty (not
X
² International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics, United Nations’ Statistical Office, Statistical Papers, Series M
No.48, Rev. 3, United Nations, New York, 1990.
44
TECHNICAL NOTE
including employees of the company and ex-employees who are
currently members);
(c)
prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any share or
debenture of the company; and
(d)
prohibits any invitation to the public to deposit money with the
company for fixed periods or payable at call with or without interest.
iv. Public limited company : A public limited company is also a private
corporation established, with limited liability, by a minimum of two persons to
operate the business with the objective of making a profit. The shares in a
public limited company are openly held, and in the case of a company listed
on the stock exchange, the shares are freely transferable. The company is
regarded as a legal entity and is constituted by the Memorandum and Articles
of Association.
v.
Co-operative : This refers to a voluntary association with an unrestricted
number of members and registered under the Co-operative Act 1993. Funds
are collectively owned to meet the needs of members.
vi. Public corporation : This refers to an undertaking set up under a Special Act
of Parliament or by the State Legislature.
vii. Others : It refers to all other establishments, which do not fall under any of the
categories mentioned above.
10.3
Ownership
The ownership of an establishment is classified by the residential status of the
owner(s) of the majority (more than 50 per cent) of the paid-up capital and not by
their citizenship status. In cases where each party (Malaysian residents and
non
-Malaysian residents) held equal shares in the business, the establishment is classified under 'joint-ownership'.
A Malaysian resident is any individual, enterprise or other organization ordinarily
domiciled in Malaysia for a period of at least one year. Malaysian registered
branches and incorporated subsidiaries of foreign enterprises are regarded as
Malaysian residents.
A non-Malaysian resident is any individual, enterprise or other organization
ordinarily domiciled in a country other than Malaysia. Foreign branches and / or
subsidiaries of Malaysian companies are regarded as non-residents.
45
TECHNICAL NOTE
10.4
Number of persons engaged
Employment covers all persons engaged during December or the last pay period
of the reference year. The number of persons engaged was classified under the
following categories :
i.
Working proprietors and active business partners
This category refers to all individual proprietors and partners, part-time or fulltime, who are actively engaged in the work of the establishment. It therefore
excludes silent and inactive partners.
ii.
Unpaid family workers
This is defined as all persons (full-time or part-time) of the household of any of
the owners’ of the establishment who perform a specified job and work for a
minimum of one third of the normal working time of the establishment, but do
not receive regular payment either in cash or in kind for the work done. Such
workers generally receive food, shelter and other support as part of the
household of an owner but these provisions would continue whether they work
in the establishment or not.
iii.
Paid full-time employees
This is defined as all paid workers who work for at least 6 hours a day and for
at least 20 days a month.
iv. Paid part-time employees
This is defined to include all paid workers who work for less than 6 hours a
day and/or less than 20 days a month.
10.5
Salaries & wages paid
This refers to gross emoluments paid to employees during the reference year,
inclusive of salaries, wages, bonuses, commission, overtime pay, dismissal pay
and allowances before deduction of employees’ contribution to Employees'
Provident Fund (EPF), Social Security Schemes or any other deductions.
Allowances to working proprietors, working partners and unpaid family workers are
not included.
10.6
Value of assets
Assets cover all goods, new or used, tangible or intangible, which have a normal
economic life span of more than one year (e.g. land, building, machinery and
equipment, including transport equipment). The value reported is as at the end
of the reference year and is according to the books of accounts of the reporting
unit. It includes additions during the year and excludes assets disposed off
during the year. It is net of depreciation.
46
TECHNICAL NOTE
10.7
Value of gross output
Value of gross output is calculated from the following items :
Value of sales of manufactured products at basic price
+
plus
Value of goods sold in the same condition as purchased
-
minus
Cost of goods sold in the same condition as purchased
+
plus
Capital expenditure on own construction
+
plus
Income from industrial services rendered to others
+
plus
Income from other industrial work done (e.g. construction,
quarry, etc.)
+
plus
Receipt from scrap, electricity, waste product, etc. sold to
others
+
plus
Receipt from commission and brokerage earned
+
plus
All other output (such as receipt from non-industrial services,
e.g. management fees received, income from rental of
property, etc.)
10.8
+
plus
Closing stocks of finished goods (own manufactured)
-
minus
Opening stocks of finished goods (own manufactured)
+
plus
Closing stocks of goods-in-process
-
minus
Opening stocks of goods-in-process
Value of sales of manufactured products
Value of sales of manufactured products reported in this publication refers to the
sales of products made during the reference year irrespective of when the
products are produced. The value of sales shown in this publication refers to the
sale of own products manufactured by establishments.
10.9 Intermediate input
Intermediate input is at current purchaser’s price which calculated from the following items :
Value of raw materials and supplies consumed
+
plus
Cost of industrial work done by others
+
plus
Cost of packing materials and containers consumed
+
plus
Electricity and water purchased
+
plus
Value of fuel, lubricants and gas consumed
+
plus
Cost of materials used for repairs and maintenance of assets
(including payments to others for this work)
47
TECHNICAL NOTE
+
plus
Research and development expenditure
+
plus
Payments for non-industrial services (including payments for
carriage outwards of goods, traveling, management fees,
information technology, advertising, bank charges, post,
telecommunication, etc.)
+
plus
All other input costs (including training and value of free
wearing apparel provided for workers)
10.10 Value of materials consumed
Value of materials consumed is the cost of the materials delivered at the
establishment and is inclusive of transport, cost of insurance, value of packaging
materials charged for, and all taxes, duties and levies paid on the goods. It
excludes discounts or rebates allowed to the purchaser and returns such as the
value of packing materials returned to suppliers.
10.11 Value added
Value added is the increment to the value of commodities and services
contributed by the manufacturing establishment. Value added is derived as the
difference between value of gross output and intermediate input.
10.12 Establishments involved in exports
Refers to manufacturing establishment who reported percentage of exports based
on sales value.
10.13 Research and development
Refers to the systematic study of new processes, techniques, applications
and products including the investigation of the commercial feasibility of such new
discoveries.
10.14 Capital expenditure
Refers to the value of purchases and own-account construction of fixed assets
during the reference year. Major additions, alterations and improvements to
existing assets that extend their normal economic life or raise productivity are also
included in this definition.
10.15 Gross fixed capital formation
Gross fixed capital formation is measured by the total value of a producer’s
acquisitions, less disposals, of fixed assets during the accounting period, plus
certain additions to the value of non-produced assets (such as subsoil assets or
major improvements in the quantity, quality or productivity of land) realised by the
productive activity of institutional units.
48
TECHNICAL NOTE
11. Concepts and
Concepts and definition of SMEs for manufacturing sector are based on the
definitions of
decision made by the National SME Development Council. Definitions of SMEs are
SMEs
based on criteria of full-time employees or annual sales turnover. An establishment will
be classified as an SME if it meets either one of the criteria. Below is definition of
SMEs for manufacturing sector according to these criteria :
Establishment size
Based on full-time employees
Based on annual sales turnover
Micro
Less than 5 employees
Less than RM250,000
Small
Between 5 & 50 employees
Between RM250,000 & less than RM10 million
Medium
Between 51 & 150 employees
Between RM10 million & RM25 million
12. Rounding
The sum of components may not add up to the total in the tables presented in this
publication due to rounding.
13. Symbols and
notations
The following symbols and notations have been used throughout the publication :
n.e.c.
not elsewhere classified
RM
Ringgit Malaysia
W.P.
Federal Territory
SMEs
Small & Medium Enterprises
p
part
No.
number
-
not available
>
more than
<
less than
( )
negative value
49
NOTA REKA BENTUK PENSAMPELAN
1. Skop dan
1.1
liputan
Penyiasatan ini meliputi pertubuhan yang menjalankan aktiviti pembuatan
sebagai aktiviti utama. Bagi tahun rujukan 2008, anggaran bagi nilai
pemboleh ubah utama sektor pembuatan telah direka untuk memenuhi
sasaran ralat piawai relatif (RPR) seperti berikut :
1.1.1
Industri 5-digit di peringkat wilayah iaitu Semenanjung Malaysia,
Sabah dan Sarawak dengan masing-masing sebanyak 5 peratus;
dan
1.1.2
Kumpulan 3-digit di peringkat negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia
sebanyak 10 peratus.
1.2
Secara keseluruhannya, terdapat 192 industri di peringkat industri 5-digit
yang mengandungi 35,055 pertubuhan yang aktif bagi tujuan pemilihan
sampel (rujuk Jadual 1). Bilangan industri bagi Semenanjung Malaysia
berjumlah 191 industri dengan 31,579 pertubuhan. Bagi Sabah, jumlah
industri terlibat sebanyak 117 industri dengan 1,620 pertubuhan, manakala
bagi Sarawak pula 117 industri yang merangkumi 1,856 pertubuhan.
2. Reka bentuk
pensampelan
3. Stratifikasi
Penyiasatan
ini
menggunakan
reka
bentuk
pensampelan
bersistematik
berstrata satu peringkat. Unit pensampelan yang digunakan ialah pertubuhan.
3.1
Pemboleh ubah yang digunakan dalam stratifikasi ialah nilai output kasar.
3.2
Bagi Semenanjung Malaysia, Sabah dan Sarawak, setiap industri
5-digit dibahagikan kepada dua strata iaitu strata 1 dan strata 2.
3.3
Strata pertama terdiri daripada bilangan pertubuhan yang kurang dari 30
dan pertubuhan baru1 dalam industri berkenaan. Dalam pada itu,
pertubuhan yang secara kumulatifnya menyumbang 75 peratus kepada nilai
output kasar dan ke atas dalam industri berkenaan juga dikelaskan dalam
strata pertama. Pertubuhan dalam strata satu ini diliputi sepenuhnya.
3.4
Pertubuhan selebihnya dikelaskan dalam strata kedua yang dibahagikan
kepada dua substrata iaitu; substrata 2 dan substrata 3. Substrata 2 dan
substrata 3 mengandungi pertubuhan secara kumulatifnya menyumbang
25 peratus nilai output kasar bagi industri berkenaan. Pemilihan pertubuhan
di dalam strata kedua ini tertakluk kepada pensampelan.
1
Pertubuhan baru merupakan pertubuhan yang baru wujud di dalam rangka pembuatan dalam tahun rujukan.
53
NOTA REKA BENTUK PENSAMPELAN
4. Penentuan saiz dan
4.1
pengagihan sampel
Bilangan pertubuhan di dalam rangka dan sampel bagi strata pertama dan
strata kedua adalah seperti ditunjukkan di Jadual 1.
Jadual 1 : Bilangan pertubuhan di dalam rangka dan sampel mengikut kategori
Bilangan pertubuhan
Kategori
a.
Rangka
Sampel
1,907
1,907
2,678
2,678
665
665
29,805
11,711
35,055
16,961
Strata pertama :
Pertubuhan diliputi sepenuhnya bagi :
i. Industri yang mempunyai kurang daripada 30 pertubuhan
ii. pertubuhan yang secara kumulatifnya menyumbang
sebanyak 75 peratus dan ke atas kepada nilai output kasar
iii. Pertubuhan baru
b.
Strata kedua
Industri yang disampel
(Pertubuhan yang berada di strata kedua)
Jumlah
4.2
Penentuan saiz sampel bagi strata kedua (yang mengandungi substrata 2
dan substrata 3) dikira berdasarkan formula berikut :
n=
(∑ N i Si ) 2
d2
2
N 2 + ∑ N i Si
z
2
i = 2,3
54
NOTA REKA BENTUK PENSAMPELAN
di mana,
n
=
Saiz sampel
Ni
=
Saiz populasi strata i
Si2
=
Varians strata i
d2
=
( RPR * Y^ / z ) 2
=
Jumlah populasi bagi semua strata
Y
=
Nilai output kasar yang dianggarkan
RPR
=
Sasaran ralat piawai relatif
z
=
Nilai selang keyakinan yang di tentukan
N
^
.
ialah
95 peratus
(Nota : Pemboleh ubah yang digunakan untuk pengiraan ini ialah nilai output kasar)
4.3
Saiz sampel bagi setiap kumpulan / industri diagihkan kepada substrata
kumpulan / industri berkenaan dengan menggunakan teknik pengagihan
Neyman, iaitu :
ni =
N i Si
Xn
N
S
∑ i i
i = 2,3
di mana
ni
adalah bilangan sampel industri yang diagihkan kepada
strata i.
5. Pemilihan
5.1
Sampel
Bagi Sabah (termasuk Labuan) dan Sarawak, sampel pertubuhan dipilih
berdasarkan industri 5-digit. Sementara bagi Semenanjung Malaysia,
pemilihan sampel adalah berdasarkan kombinasi kumpulan 3-digit mengikut
negeri dan 5-digit mengikut industri.
6. Penganggaran
6.1
Maklumat yang diperlukan untuk penganggaran adalah seperti berikut :
•
Nombor rujukan pertubuhan (16 digit)
.
•
Kumpulan / industri
I
•
Strata penyiasatan
Z
•
Strata negeri
S
55
NOTA REKA BENTUK PENSAMPELAN
•
Strata wilayah
R
•
Saiz populasi bagi unit strata IZS
NIZS
•
Saiz sampel bagi unit strata IZS
nIZS
•
Saiz populasi sebenar bagi unit
’
N IZS
strata IZS
7. Pengiraan
7.1
•
Bilangan pertubuhan yang respons dalam strata IZS
n ’IZS
•
Data penyiasatan (unit ke-i dalam strata IZS)
yi,IZS
Wajaran penyiasatan bagi unit i bagi strata IZS di wilayah R ialah :
Wajaran
Wi , IZS ∈R =
7.2
N IZS ∈R
n IZS ∈R
Wajaran penyiasatan yang diubah suai bagi unit ke-i bagi strata
IZS
di
wilayah R adalah seperti berikut :
W
7.3
'
i , IZS∈R
N ' IZS∈R
= '
n IZS∈R
Wajaran yang digunakan bagi menganggarkan nilai populasi sebenar
ditentukan setelah mengambil kira kes-kes tidak respons.
56
NOTES ON SAMPLING DESIGN
1. Scope
1.1
and coverage
The survey covered establishments engaged primarily in manufacturing
activities. For reference year 2008, estimates for the key variables of
the manufacturing sector were designed to meet the targeted relative
standard error (RSE) as follows :
1.1.1
5-digit industry at region level, that is, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah
and Sarawak, with 5 per cent respectively; and
1.1.2
1.2
3-digit group at state level in Peninsular Malaysia with 10 per cent.
In overall, they were 192 industries at 5-digit industry level which comprised
of 35,055 active establishments for the purposed of sample selection (refer
Table 1). The number of industries for Peninsular Malaysia were 191
industries with 31,579 establishments. As for Sabah, total industries
involved were 117 industries with 1,620 establishments, meanwhile for
Sarawak there were 117 industries which covered 1,856 establishments .
2.
3.
Sample
This survey adopted single-stage stratified systematic sampling design. The
design
sampling unit used is the establishment.
Stratification
3.1
The stratification variable used is value of gross output.
3.2
For Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak, each 5-digit industry was
divided into two stratum which were first stratum and second stratum.
3.3.
The first stratum comprised of industry with less than 30 and new1
establishments in that industry. On the other hand, establishments which
cumulatively contributed 75 per cent and above to the value of gross output
in the representative industry is also classified under first stratum.
Establishments in the first stratum were completely enumerated.
3.4
The remaining establishments were classified into second stratum which
was divided to two substratum namely; substratum 2 and substratum 3. The
substratum 2 and substratum 3 comprised of establishments which
cumulatively contributed 25 per cent to the value of gross output to the
respective industry. The selection of establishments in second stratum were
subject to sample.
1
New establishments were refers to newly establishments existed in the frame for the reference year.
57
NOTES ON SAMPLING DESIGN
4.
Size determination 4.1
The number of establishments in the frame and sample for the first stratum
and allocation of
and second stratum are summarized as shown in Table 1.
sample
Table 1 : Number of establishments in the frame and sample by category
No. of establishments
Category
a.
Frame
Sample
1,907
1,907
2,678
2,678
665
665
29,805
11,711
35,055
16,961
First stratum :
Full coverage industries
i. Industries with less than 30 establishments
ii. Establishments which cumulatively contributed 75 per cent
and above to the value of gross output
iii. New establishments
b.
Second stratum
Sampled industries
(Establishments in the second stratum)
Total
4.2
The determination of sample size for the second stratum (which comprised
substrata 2 and substrata 3) has been calculated based on the formula as
below :
n=
(∑ N i Si ) 2
d2
2
N 2 + ∑ N i Si
z
2
i = 2,3
58
NOTES ON SAMPLING DESIGN
where,
.
n
=
Sampel size
Ni
=
Population size of stratum i
Si2
=
Variance of stratum i
d2
=
( RSE * Y^ / z ) 2
N
=
Total population of all stratum
Y^
=
Estimated value of gross output
RSE
=
Targeted relative standard error
z
=
Value
of
the
targeted
confidence
interval
was
95 per cent
(Note : Variable used for the calculation is the value of gross output)
4.3
The sample size for each group / industry is allocated to the substratum of
the group / industry using the Neyman’s allocation technique, which is :
ni =
N i Si
Xn
N
S
∑ i i
i = 2,3
where
ni is the number of sampled establishments allocated to the stratum
i.
5. Sample
5.1
selection
For Sabah ( include Labuan) and Sarawak, the sample of establishments
was based on 5-digit industry, Meanwhile, for Peninsular Malaysia the
sample selection was based on combination of 3-digit group at state level
and 5-digit by industry .
6. Estimation
6.1
The information required for estimation are as follows :
.
•
Reference number of establishments (16 digits)
•
Group / Industry
I
•
Survey stratum
Z
•
State stratum
S
59
NOTES ON SAMPLING DESIGN
7. Calculation
7.1
•
Region stratum
R
•
Population size of unit stratum IZS
NIZS
•
Sample size of unit stratum IZS
nIZS
•
Actual population size of unit stratum IZS
’
N IZS
•
Number of response establishments in stratum IZS
n ’IZS
•
Survey data (unit-i in stratum IZS)
yi,IZS
The survey weight for unit-i for stratum IZS in the region R is :
Weight
W i , IZS ∈R =
7.2
N IZS ∈R
n IZS ∈R
The adjusted survey weight for the unit-i for stratum
IZS in the region R is
as follows :
W
6.4
'
i , IZS ∈R
N ' IZS∈R
= '
n IZS∈R
The weights adopted for the estimation of population value were adjusted
after taking into account the non-response cases.
60

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