www.baatskolen.no

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www.baatskolen.no
Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Båtførerkurset
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Velkommen til Båtførerkurset - 4.kveld
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea
COLREGS
• Applies to any vessel used at sea and directly
connected waters
• Assigns a joint responsibility for safety to the
owner, master and crew of a vessel
• "2(a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate
any vessel, or the owner, master or crew
thereof, from the consequences of any
neglect to comply with these Rules or of the
neglect of any precaution which may be
required by the ordinary practice of seamen,
or by the special circumstances of the case."
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Safe speed
Safe speed is not constant:
• Visibility: fog, rain, snow, darkness
• Traffic density
• The boat's manoeuvrability
• Draft
• Wind, current, waves
• Proximity to reefs and other dangers
• ... speed limits, where these exist
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Action to avoid collision
• Any action taken to avoid a collision shall be
obvious, adequate and in good time
• Such an action can be:
Change of course
Change of speed
or a combination
• The vessel not required to give way should
generally maintain course and speed
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Horn/light signals
•One short blast:
”I'm turning to starboard”
•Two short blasts:
”I'm turning to port”
•Three short blasts:
”I'm backing up”
•Five or more short blasts:
”I'm concerned you are not
taking sufficient action to
avoid a collision”
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
In narrow channels
Keep well to starboard
© www.baatskolen.no
Smaller vessels
capable of using
shallower waters
should leave the
deeper waters to
large vessels
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Be considerate in narrow channels
Cross at a right angle to
minimize interference
© www.baatskolen.no
Keep good distance
when rounding to
port, give a meeting
boat room to pass
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
More signals
Arriving in narrow
passages
Overtaking
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Traffic separation areas
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Traffic separation in the chart
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Definitions
”Power-driven vessel”:
• Dinghy with outboard
• Supertanker
• Speedboat
• Sailboat currently
being propelled by
engine (with or without
sails)
© www.baatskolen.no
”Sailing vessel”:
• Sailing dinghy
• ”Statsraad Lehmkuhl”
• Sailboard
• Sailboat not being
propelled by engine
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Some general rules for giving way
(with exceptions)
• Power-driven vessels give way to sailing
vessels
• Both power-driven and sailing vessels should
give way to vessels engaged in fishing
(commercial, not recreational with a rod), NUC (not under
command), RAM (restricted ability to maneuver)
and CBD (constrained by draft)
• Leisure boats should give way to "useful" boats
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Overtaking vessel to keep clear of the
overtaken vessel
• Even when a sailing vessel is overtaking a powerdriven vessel
• Overtaking defined as > 22,5º abaft beam
• If in doubt, you are overtaking
• Overtaking (and giving way) until well clear
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
The overtaking vessel is in control
• The overtaking vessel has the
full responsibility
• The overtaking vessel is to
judge whether overtaking is
possible
• The overtaking vessel chooses
side
• Conclusion: It is all up to the
overtaking vessel
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Power-driven vessels meeting
head-on
• Both turn to starboard
• Early and obvious!
• Remember Norwegian rule of leisure boats giving way
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Power-driven vessels crossing
• When two power-driven
vessels meet on
crossing courses the
vessel which has the
other on it's starboard
side shall give way
• Could you be
overtaking?
• ...and again the
Norwegian rule of
leisure boats
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Giving way - doing it wrong
• Early – obvious - adequate?
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Sailboats crossing
- wind from the same side
• When two
sailboats meet
so that there is
danger of
collision, the
windward boat
should give way
to the leeward
boat
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Sailboats crossing
- wind from different sides
• When two sailboats meet so there is danger of collision
and they have wind from different sides, the boat with
wind from it's port side should give way
• Wind is from the opposite side of the mainsail (not as
obvious as one might think!)
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
What about the stand-on vessel?
• Maintain course and
speed
• This makes it easier
for the boat required
to give way to do so
in a good way
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
What if the boat required to give way
doesn't?
• If the boat required to
give way doesn't, the
stand-to boat must
react
• Turning to starboard
may bring the boats on
parallel courses
• Do NOT turn to port!
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Horn signals in reduced visibility
"I'm moving"
© www.baatskolen.no
”I'm not moving”
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Horn signals when towing in reduced
visibility
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Running lights
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
The most common lights
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Sidelights
• Each cover one side - port and starboard
• From directly ahead to 22,5º abaft the beam
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Masthead and sternlight
• White
• Different height over
the deck
• Masthead light is 225º,
complete overlap with
sidelights, sternlight
covers the remaining
135º (sum of 360º)
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
A few more
• 360º white as
anchorlight
• Combined
lights for
smaller boats
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Power-driven 20 - 50 meter
Range:
• Masthead = 5 M
• Side and stern = 2 M
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Power-driven < 20 meter
•
•
•
•
Range (< 12 meter):
Masthead = 3 M ( 2 )
Side = 2 M ( 1 )
Stern = 2 M ( 2 )
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Sailing vessels > 7 meter
• Notice the absence of masthead light when not
using engine for propulsion
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Sailing vessels
often use
combined lights
• ”Tricolor” replaces side
and sternlight
• Can use additional red
and green 360º lights
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Very small boat (< 7m / 7 knots)
• Single white 360º
• Use with great care,
and keep away from
other boats
• Sidelights are allowed
and recommended!
• Find the error...
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Vessel > 50 m has two masthead lights
• 2 masthead
(225º) when
underway
• Light abaft higher
than light ahead
• 2 anchor (360º)
lights when
anchored
• Light ahead
higher than light
abaft
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Fishing vessels have their own lights
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Towing
•Tug with <200 m tow has double masthead light
•Tug with >200 m tow has triple masthead light
•Tug also has an orange («amber») light next to the
usual sternlight, same 135º
•Find two errors...
•Never go between an orange light and a «sailboat»!
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Special lights
”Not under command”
(NUC)
"Restricted ability to maneuver”
(RAM)
These in addition to other lights applicable to the
boat/situation
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
More special lights
Diver in the water, keep clear
Diving boats will generally stay in
place, just keep your distance
and it will be ok
© www.baatskolen.no
Ship constrained by draft, will
not give way, keep clear
This drawing includes normal
lights for power-driven vessel
> 50 meter
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Even more lights
White over red – pilot ahead
Will also carry normal lights
for power-driven vessel
© www.baatskolen.no
Police, customs and navy
may cut the lights
completely, but doing so
means always being the
give-way vessel
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Even more...
• Don't understand the lights? Keep clear
• Three green lights in a triangle is mine
clearing, keep very well clear!
• Don't go between several boats showing
strange lights
• Orange flash on "small" boat is submarine
Keep clear, they are very hard and bigger
than you think
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Day symbols
•To be shown where well visible
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Day symbol for motoring sailboat
• A sailboat that has
sails up, but is also
using the engine for
propulsion should
display a point-down
cone to indicate that it
is to be regarded as a
power-driven vessel
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Flags
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Noen av de viktigste signalflaggene
A: diver, stay away
© www.baatskolen.no
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• Requires a certificate
• Easily obtained, 8
hour course
• Channel 16 –
MAYDAY
• Unlike a cell phone
not dependent on
being in range of a
network
Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
VHF/SRC
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Various safety
• A modern VHF with DSC/GMDSS can be connected
to a GPS, and an emergency signal can be sent by a
single press of a button
• Dead man's switch stops the engine if the helmsman
falls overboard, keeps him from being left behind.
• Collisions at high speed or sinking in fierce storms
get the media attention, but most boaters die quietly
in fair weather, falling into the sea when they least
expected it
• The "standard" victim is an adult man with a slightly
elevated blood alcohol level and an open zipper...
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
International emergency signals
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
International emergency signals 2
© www.baatskolen.no
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Båtførerkurset, kveld2, 22.06.09
Baatskolen ”Poseidon”®
Til slutt - det viktigste av alt:
© www.baatskolen.no
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