MAJLIS SUKAN NEGARA MALAYSIA
MAJLIS SUKAN NEGARA MALAYSIA
UNIT SKIM PERSIJILAN KEJURULATIHAN KEBANGSAAN
EDISI 2012 UNIT PENDIDIKAN SAINS KEJURULATIHAN CAWANGAN KEJURULATIHAN MAJLIS SUKAN NEGARA MALAYSIA
1) MAKLUMAT AM KURSUS SAINS SUKAN TAHAP III
2) UNIT 1 FALSAFAH SUKAN
3) UNIT 2 SUKAN DI MALAYSIA
4) UNIT 3 ANATOMI DAN FISIOLOGI SUKAN
5) UNIT 4 ASAS BIOMEKANIK
6) UNIT 5 LATIHAN DAN PERSEDIAAN FIZIKAL
7) UNIT 6 PEMAKANAN SUKAN
8) UNIT 7 KOMPETENSI KEJURULATIHAN
9) UNIT 8 PSIKOLOGI SUKAN
10) UNIT 9 TINGKA LAKU MOTOR
11) UNIT 10 KECEDERAAN DAN PERUBATAN SUKAN
SKIM PERSIJILAN KEJURULATIHAN KEBANGSAAN (SPKK)
KURSUS SAINS SUKAN TAHAP III
Kursus Sains Sukan merupakan salah satu komponen di bawah Skim Persijilan
Kejurulatihan Kebangsaan (SPKK). SPKK adalah satu program pembangunan
kejurulatihan yang seragam dan berterusan dan antara lain ialah untuk
meningkatkan pengetahuan jurulatih dalam ilmu kejurulatihan khususnya aspek
sains sukan ke arah memajukan lagi prestasi atlet demi kecemerlangan sukan
2. PENDAFTARAN DAN PEMBAYARAN KURSUS TAHAP III
Setiap peserta yang telah mendaftar bagi kursus dikehendaki membayar yuran
sebanyak RM 250.00 ( peserta baru ) dan RM 50.00 ( mengulang). Sekiranya
peserta tidak menjelaskan yuran maka tidak boleh menduduki peperiksaan.
3. KANDUNGAN KURSUS
Kursus Sains Sukan Tahap III meliputi masa selama 42 jam serta mengandungi
topik - topik seperti berikut ;-
Sukan Di Malaysia
Anatomi & Fisiologi
Latihan dan Persediaan Fizikal
Tingka Laku Motor
4. PERLAKSANAAN KURSUS
a. Kelas akan berjalan selama tujuh (7 ) hari.
b. Sesi persediaan seminar akan diberikan selama 5 hari. Setiap kumpulan
yang telah diagihkan bebas untuk menjalankan perbincangan.
c. Sesi seminar dan peperiksaan melibatkan 1 hari menjadikan jumlah
keseluruhan 7 hari
d. Tenaga pengajar adalah terdiri daripada instruktur yang dilantik oleh
Lembaga Kejurulatihan Kebangsaan.
e. Sebab perkara-perkara yang tidak dapat dielakkan sekiranya ada
perubahan Jadual dan Instruktur maka akan diberitahu kepada peserta.
UJIAN OBJEKTIF ( 50%)
Di akhir kursus satu ujian objektif akan dijalankan. Ujian ini mengandungi
50 soalan objektif dan masa ujian ialah 11/4 jam.
SEMINAR ( 10 %)
Semua peserta diwajibkan mengambil bahagian dalam satu
seminar yang akan diadakan pada akhir kursus dan topik yang
akan disediakan dan perbincangkan ialah seperti berikut :a.
Persediaan Fizikal (Suaian Fizikal untuk sukan)
Biomekanik – Persediaan atau Pembetulan Teknik Sukan
Tujuan Seminar ialah untuk melihat :a.
Kerjasama dalam kumpulan
Kemampuan melakukan penyelidikan
Kemampuan menyediakan kertas kerja
Kemampuan dan keyakinan jurulatih berhadapan audien
Peserta akan dibahagikan kepada 6 kumpulan (6 orang setiap
kumpulan) dan akan bekerjasama menyediakan kertas kerja
untuk seminar serta perbentangan.
Persediaan Kumpulan adalah seperti berikut:
a) Persediaan Persembahan dalam Power Point
b) Edaran Kertas Kerja bagi semua peserta.
c) Kertas Kerja dalam Words bukan power Point.
d) Kertas Kerja untuk Panel.
e) Topik yang dipilih adalah yang boleh disembahkan
dalam masa yang diberi. Contoh Tajuk bagi Periodisasi
ialah Persediaan atlet dalam Fasa Pertandingan dalam
aspek Kekuatan sahaja.
f) Setiap ahli Kumpulan harus mengambil bahangian
Setiap kumpulan akan membentangkan kertas masing-masing
selama 20 minit dan 5 minit lagi untuk sesi soal jawab.Setiap
peserta dalam kumpulan dapat membentangkan sekurangkurangnya 3 minit.
Penilaian pembentangan akan dibuat oleh panel yang dilantik oleh
Cawangan Kejurulatihan MSN.
Aspek-aspek yang akan dinilai adalah seperti berikut :-
PERATUSAN MARKAH (10%)
Kertas Kerja hendaklah bertaip Double – Spacing dan sekurangkurangnya satu salinan hendaklah diserahkan kepada panel
5.3 PROJEK ASPEK PRAKTIKAL KAJIAN (30%)
Setiap peserta akan diwajibkan menyediakan satu projek / kajian
padang bertaip berdasarkan salah satu dari aspek berikut ;a.
Ujian padang – parameter fisiologi
Biomekanik – Persediaan atau Pembetulan Teknik Sukan
Cara pemilihan tajuk / aspek akan ditentukan oleh peserta sendiri
berdasarkan satu-satu tajuk/aspek Praktikal Kajian Sukan masingmasing, contohnya, Tajuk yang dipilih:Tajuk: Sukan Hoki: Peningkatan Latihan Anerobik semasa Musim
Perbincangan: Masaalah yang dihadapi oleh pemain sendiri
dalam pasukan. Posisi. Boleh beri Data.
Cara Mengatasi masaalah. Jenis Latihan. Kajian berkaitan Bukti.
Cadangan untuk mengaplikasikan bagi pasukan sendiri..
Projek boleh dibuat dalam format Thesis. Tetapi lebih kepada
Kualitatif daripada Kuantitatif.
Format Thesis- Pendahuluan, Tujuan dan Objektif ,Makluman
Projek ini harus disampaikan kepada penyelaras semasa datang
untuk VIVA. 3 bulan selepas kursus.
Format Susunan Buku Laporan Projek adalah seperti di lampiran.
- Kertas Kerja hendaklah bertaip Double – Spacing , Fonts 12 dan
- Tidak Kurang daripada Tiga Ribu (3,000) patah
- 1 original dan 2 salinan
OrIginal – Kulit Hard Cover warna maroon.
2 Salinan – Boleh fotostat dan Comb Binding.
Naskah original akan disimpan oleh pihak Majlis Sukan Negara
Penilaian untuk kajian ini adalah berdasarkan aspek-aspek
Format dan Stail Penulisan
Aspek praktikal Kajian
Rumusan dan Cadangan
Semua peserta akan dikehendaki menghadiri satu sesi Viva yang
akan diadakan sekurang-kurangnya 3 bulan selepas kursus.
Peserta yang gagal menghadiri Viva setelah dipanggil akan
diberikan tempoh satu tahun selepas kursus untuk mengikutinya
atau Viva berikutnya diadakan selepas tempoh itu.
Mana-mana peserta yang gagal menghadiri Viva dalam tempoh
yang diberikan akan dianggap gagal keseluruhan kursus.
PENILAIAN SESI VIVA
MARKAH PENUH VIVA ADALAH 10 DAN MARKAH LULUS ADALAH 5
(Pengenalan sebagai Jurulatih)
1.3 KHUSUS (Berkenaan Sukan)
PENGETAHUAN SAINS SUKAN
2.1 ANATOMI & FISIOLOGI
2.5 LATIHAN FIZIKAL
a. Keputusan hanya akan diumumkan kepada peserta yang telah selesai
menjalani semua bentuk penilaian.
b. Markah lulus untuk setiap komponen penilaian ialah
c. Markah LULUS keseluruhan ialah 50%
1. Sijil boleh diambil dari pihak MSNM setelah diumumkan kepada
KURSUS SAINS SUKAN TAHAP III
SKIM PERSIJILAN KEJURULATIHAN KEBANGSAAN (SPKK)
FORMAT SUSUNAN BUKU LAPORAN PROJEK ASPEK PRAKTIKAL KAJIAN
( Hard Cover)
(Ditaip seperti Format
( Hard Cover)
DISEDIAKAN OLEH :ZAWAWI ZAKARIA
KOD KURSUS 3(1)2012
KURSUS SAINS SUKAN
KEKUATAN KAKI UNTUK
ATLET LOMPAT JAUH
(DITAIP SEPERTI FORMAT
PRAKTIKAL KAJIAN INI
KURSUS SEBAGAI SALAH
SATU ASPEK PENILAIAN
1 (Muka Surat)
2 ( Muka Surat)
(Akhir) Muka Surat
FORMAT INI DITAIP DALAM BUKU LAPORAN PROJEK
(LAPORAN INI DIISI OLEH PEMERIKSA / PENILAI)
FORMAT DAN STAIL PENULISAN
ASPEK PRAKTIKAL KAJIAN
RUMUSAN DAN CADANGAN
( TANDATANGAN PENILAI)
“ If someone feels that they had never made a mistake in their life,
then it means they had never tried a new thing in their life.”
KANDUNGAN TAHAP III
UNIT 1 SPORTS PHILOSOPHY
The Olympic spirit
UNIT 2 SPORTS IN MALAYSIA
Malaysia in the international sports arena
Success in other world level competitions
UNIT 3 ANATOMY AND SPORT PHYSIOLOGY
Hormone and exercise.
Training for aerobic and anaerobic power
UNIT 4 SPORT BIOMECHANIC
Common technique analysis approach
Qualitative video analysis of sports skill
Capturing and editing procedure
UNIT 5 TRAINING AND FITNESS
Application of per iodization in sports
Agility and coordination
Sport – specific requirerement for speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) programme
Fundamental of functional strength training
Power training for sports
Physical fitness testing procedure
UNIT 6 SPORT NUTRITION
Planning your nutrition for training
Nutrient requirement for athletes
Nutritional issues and challenges
Assessment of nutritional status
Food quality and safety
UNIT 7 COACHING COMPETENCIES
Developing top level athletes
Planning an international sport competitions
Decision making in sports
UNIT 8 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
Team Building & Cohesion)
Test & Measurement in Sport Psychology)
Plan and Application of Mental Skills Program in training
UNIT 9 MOTOR BEHAVIOR
Augmented Feedback in Learning
Kinematic Feedback and other Feedbacks
Retention and Transfer of Learning
Conditions of Practice
Facilitating Learning and Performance
UNIT 10 SPORTS MEDICINE
Rehabilitation of sports injury
Medical conditions in athletes
Medical preparedness for competition and travel
“ History stands witness to the fact that those who cut theirs country’s throat end up
cutting their own “
“ Believing everybody is dangerous but believing nobody is more dangerous”
What do we mean by 'fair play' and 'level playing field'?
In ethics, the concept of fairness involves treating everyone equally and impartially.
'Fair play' is usually understood to mean using only tactics that are in accord with the
spirit of the sport.
A 'level playing field' is a situation in which competitors are required to follow the same
rules and are given an equal ability to compete.
This means that no matter what the rules are, as long as they are applied equally and
impartially the playing field is still level. If drugs (or any currently-illegal tactics) were
allowed, as long as everyone had equal access to them the sport would still be fair. If
some sportsmen did not want to use legal drugs for health or moral reasons, they
would be at a disadvantage, but it would be seen as their own fault.
The Five Ideals of Fair Play
Respect the rules
Respect the officials and their decisions
Respect your opponent/s
Give everybody an equal chance to participate
Maintain your self-control at all times
Sportsmanship is simply good character when participating in sports. It is about respect
for opponents, officials, teammates, coaches and the games itself (Martens, 2004).
Thus it is imperative to develop good character. Three steps to coach for character.
Step 1 – Identify the principles of character
Step 2 – Teach the principles of character
Step 3 – Provide opportunities to practice
Actions in sport
• Be respectful of the game & its rule and traditions
• Be respectful of your opponents
• Be respectful of the officials
• Be respectful in victory and defeat
• Prepare yourself to do your best
• Be punctual for practices and games
• Be self-disciplined
• Be cooperative with your teammates
• Help your teammates play better
• Support teammate in trouble
• Be generous with praise, stingy with critics
Be a good citizen
Play for the team, not yourself
Play by the spirit of the rules
Be loyal to the team
Play drug free
Admit to your own mistakes
Treat other players as you wish to be treated
Be fair to all players, including those who are
Give other players an opportunity
Play to win within the rules
Be a good role model
Strive for excellence
Give back to the sport
Encourage teammates to be good citizens
Source: Martens (2004), page 59.
1.1.3 The Olympic Spirit
The Olympic Spirit: “Not to win but to take part”
The Olympic spirit is best expressed in the Olympic Creed:
"The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the
most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not
to have conquered but to have fought well."
The Olympic Games give us the chance to celebrate our shared humanity, and the
object of the competitors should be to express this humanity by performing fairly and
honestly to the best of their natural ability. The Olympic spirit can be seen in all those
who compete in the Games, not just in those who win the medals. This spirit can be
seen in athletes from poorer parts of the world, who have little chance to develop their
skills or gain experience, but who do the best they can with limited resources, and who
represent their country with pride and dignity. In the spirit of the Olympics, the most
important thing is to have taken part fairly, and to have done one's best. This is what the
Olympic Games are really about, and some might say it's what life is really about as well.
What do you think?
The Olympic Games give us the
chance to celebrate our shared
to mark a special occasion, or to
praise or highlight something special,
with festive events
Athletes say they have to conquer their
fears and doubts in order to perform at
to defeat or achieve victory over
someone or something
The Olympic Creed always appears on
the scoreboard during the Opening
A set of basic beliefs and principles
Even though she wasn't the winner of
her event, she did her best and
performed with dignity.
a sense of pride and self-respect
One of the essential qualities of a
great athlete is belief in his or her own
of the greatest importance;
It's essential that athletes perform
fairly, referees rule fairly, and judges
(to do something) with honesty;
without cheating or bias
What do you think people mean when
they talk about our 'shared humanity'
or the 'human spirit'?
the fact or condition of being human;
positive qualities we share, such as
The object of athletes should be to
perform to the best of their ability.
the thing you want to get or achieve;
what you aim to do
Most athletes perform better in front of
a crowd, possibly because of
to carry out an activity for which one
has trained, such as a sport
The Olympic spirit is shown when
spectators applaud all the competitors,
not just the winners.
a special attitude or feeling
associated with something
Every athlete has to struggle against
difficulties such as injuries and
to try hard, esp. when faced with
difficulties or challenges
Over 10,000 athletes will take part in
the next Olympic Games.
to join in (an activity); participate
Source: http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/sports-olympics-spirit.htm.Retrieved on
16 September 2008
1.2 Sport and athletes’ character building
1.2.1 Negative aspect in sport and ways to overcome it
People engaged in sports are less likely to indulge in bad habits. Since a sportsman
makes lots of effort and time in order to get good performance, they will not have much
spare time to consider indulging in bad habits, such as gambling, committing crime or
taking drugs etc.
Gambling through sports is gaining more and more popular now. As a matter of fact,
once soccer betting was legalized, more people are engaged in this activity. Indeed,
many people wanted to use sports as a way to gain money but end up in losing it . Lots
of money is being “invested” in this undesirable activity, and as a result, new social
problem is triggered in society. Moreover, it may cause corruptions between the soccer
team members and the gambling company.
All nation in the world are familiar with major addictions such as narcotics, alcohol, and
tobacco. Society has spent countless millions of dollars warning about these
substances, however another addiction that receives far less attention is gambling. In
America, gambling has a major impact on the college campuses across the country, so
much so that the executive director of the N.C.A.A., Cedric W. Demsey, in his 1997
“State of the Association” address called gambling the most serious threat facing
Gambling in sport has among others two major impacts. First, gambling on sports just
like casino gambling is addictive. Secondly, gambling on sports has hurt the integrity of
sports. Because gambling on sports is causing negative consequences for athletes,
and games, all government should ban all gambling on sports, and steps should be
taken to decrease the prevalence of illegal and Internet gambling.
Brochures and advertisement on the negative impacts that sports gambling cause
should be readily available to the general public.
Drugs in sports
Drugs have been used for centuries by athletes in an attempt to improve sport
performance. In fact, the breakdown of ancient Olympic Games was caused by political
interference as well as drug. In more recent time, any substance that athletes believe
might influence performance has been used, often in very high dosages and with
disastrous effects. A cyclist, Linton was the first death of doping from using caffeine a
century ago followed by another cyclist, Knud Jensen, the Danish 100 km time trial team
who collapsed and died in Rome Olympic in 1960 after taking nicotinic titrate (drug used
to increase the supply of blood to the leg muscles). In 1961, an inquiry into drug taking in
Italian soccer revealed that 8 out of the 36 first division players tested had been taking
amphetamines (Beashel & Taylor, 1992). Ben Johnson was tested positive with anabolic
steroids at the Seoul Olympic in 1988.
Coach is responsible for his athletes and is respected by the athletes, as such he can be
a valuable medium for drug education and help reduce drugs use in sport by:
a. being a good model
b. communicate own belief to athletes about negative effect of drug use
c. practice sound coaching principles and provide information on effectiveness of
training on sport performance
d. provide accurate, unexaggerated and relevant information about the harmful
effects of drugs
e. discourage athletes from sharing medications for what may appear to be similar
discourage smoking and remind of passive smoking
g. discourage alcohol drinking and never use alcohol as reward
h. finding out the reasons why athletes use drugs
Violence in sport
Violence in sports can incorporate or be influenced by a wide range of activities, from
trash talking- to unruly fan behavior to deliberate physical assaults to fighting.
Athletes have become a major part of society countries around the globe. Athletics play
an important role in shaping our characters and our values. While most athletes do this
in a positive way there is a percentage that have a negative effect on people lives.
Unfortunately there are people in this world that use violence as a way of being in
control. Some men or women need to feel in control, like they are in charge. There was
a quote that I came across that stated, "Sports often encourage people to define their
relationship with others in terms of domination." In fact many historians tend to believe
that an increase in spectator violence coincides with the commercialization of sports.
An example of spectator violence is sport hooliganism. A hooligan is a disorderly and
noisy person who behaves in a violent and destructive way. He go to matches to engage
in aggressive and violent behavior before, during and after the game.
1.2.2 The formation of leadership quality through sport
Leadership means (Martens, 2004):
a. knowing how to chart a course, to give others direction
b. developing social and psychological environment (team culture) as well physical
The culture is created through selecting, motivating, rewarding, retaining and unifying
members of the team, which includes assistants, players, parents and others. Excellent
coach (leader) provides team vision and translates it into reality. Coach develops
environment that ensures maximum opportunity for athletes to achieve success and
consequently team success.
Many people argue that sport can build leaders, but nobody has investigated exactly
how this might occur (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). The following approach can help
develop leadership quality:
a. coaches appointed athletes to leadership positions
b. new players became involved with older peers through increasingly challenging
c. parents mentored players on complex cognitive sport issues and decision making
d. players maintained good relationships with peers and gained their trust
e. parents supported sport involvement and activities (through monetary support,
encouragement, and moral support)
f. coaches provided an excellent training environment to help develop skill
1.3 Current issues
1.3.1 Ergogenic aids
What are Ergogenic Aids?
Erogenic aids consist of substance, drugs, procedures and even devices that are
intended to improve athletic performance.
Some of these substances are naturally occurring, easily available and completely
legal while others are manufactured, illegal, or banned by many sporting
organizations. Many athletes, coaches, politicians and fans feel the use of certain
substances is unethical in sports.
Ergogenic aids can be classified into five categories:
a. Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
i. carbohydrates, muscle glycogen and muscle glycogen super compensation
ii. proteins, vitamins and iron
iii. water and electrolytes
b. Pharmacological Ergogenic Aids
iii. anabolic steroids
c. Physiological Ergogenic Aids
ii. blood doping
d. Psychological Ergogenic Aids
ii. covert rehearsal strategies
iii. stress management procedures
e. Mechanical Ergogenic Aids
i. extrinsic biomechanical aids
ii. physical warm-up
1.3.2 Winning versus sporting spirit
“Athletes First, Winning Second” (The motto of the American Sport Education
Program, Weinberg & Gould, 2007). Every decision make by a coach should be
based on what is judge as the best for athletes, and second on what may improve
the athlete’s or team’s chances of winning.
The above motto is hard to implement as many administrators demand coaches to
practice “Winning First, Athletes Second”. This happens because administrators
have their own objectives or are pressured by others. Usually, coaches who help
young people become better humans but fail to win are considered losers and often
are displaced or fired.
In sport, the objective of every athlete and coach must be winning within the rules of
the game. Emphasis on winning should not be on the winning itself but on the
striving to win.
In addition winning must be matched with sportsmanship. Athletes must demonstrate
sportsmanship (simply good character when participating in sports) when striving to
win. According to Martens (2004), athletes must have respect for opponents,
officials, teammates, coaches and the games itself.
“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part just as
the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing
is not to have conquered but to have fought well” (Barron de Coubertin, founder of
the modern era of the Olympic Games,
Martens, 2004: page 57)
1.3.3 Aggression in sport
Any form of behavior (physical or verbal) directed toward the goal of harming or
injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment (Baron &
For an act to be considered aggression, it must meet four criteria (Gill, 2000):
a. it is a behavior
b. it involves harm or injury
c. it is directed toward a living organism
d. it involves intent
Sport specific aggression determinants
Athletes behave aggressively because (Weinberg & Gould, 2007):
a) someone has committed aggression against them
b) the opposition has annoyed them
c) they are highly ego oriented and have a low level of moral development
d) they want to show how tough they are
e) they believe it is part of their role
f) they feel group pressures to be aggressive
Strategies to control aggression in sport and physical activity settings
Situations of aggression
• athletes are frustrated – losing,
perceive unfair officiating , are
embarrassed, are physically in pain,
playing below their capabilities or
poorly, overemphasis on winning
Strategies for coaches
• Coaches should be sensitive to detecting and
• Detect causes of frustration, remove athlete
from the situation at the first signs of
• Teach athletes skills to control their emotions
and their reactions to frustration (eg. Simulate
frustrating conditions to allow players to
practice emotional control strategies under
• Use modeling and reinforcement approaches
• Learn appropriate behavior; differentiating
aggression from appropriate, intense or
• Learn to resolve conflicts and disputes in a
nonviolent fashion (meet, record facts, express
feelings, aims to resolve, outline necessary
changes, develop action plan & have follow up
on the plan)
1.3.4 Other issues
Media and its effects on sport
Commercialization in sport
Doping in sport
Other issue as suggested by participants
THOUGHT FOR THE DAY FOR COACHES
“The game doesn’t progress through an accumulation of many championships or
tournaments, but through continuous development of original ideas”
“Tomorrow’s success is founded on today’s preparation”
“The tragedy of coaching young players focuses on the fact that many coaches may
know a lot about the game, but they don’t know their young pupils”
“Youth prefer to be stimulated instead of being instructed”
“Moving step by step, you may travel great distances”
“Too much drill will kill”
“Coaches who don’t apply new remedies should expect to suffer new troubles”
“Poor performance at short term doesn’t mean that the long term objectives can not be
“You can help a player a lot by correcting him, but more by encouraging him”
“There is no greater power on the playing field than the player’s intelligence”
“The genuine coach generate ideas and opens the mind of his players. His far reaching
task is to let the others think, instead of thinking for them”
“The coach or player who doesn’t learn from defeat, will always be a beginner”
“When the coaches of today tend to teach the way they were taught in the past, how we
can expect progress”
“The player who runs has to think, and the one who thinks has to run”
“Only a coach who has got enough brain can be simple”
“Mastering a skill doesn’t mean that the player knows to use it in precise moment
during the game”
“The development of the game is so fast these days that the coach who says it can’t be
done is generally interrupted by someone doing it”
“If you win, you need not have to explain. If you lose, you should not there to explain”
SPORTS IN MALAYSIA
A discussion on the sporting achievements of Malaysia would not be complete if we do
not flash back to the history of our participation and the golden moments achieved by
our athletes in international meets.
From the ’50s through the ’70s, badminton, athletics, soccer, hockey and weightlifting
were among the sports which had contributed to the good name of our country in the
SEA Games, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games, and the Olympics.
Past athletes of the bygone era, to name a few, badminton legend Eddy Choong,
Malaysia’s most outstanding sprinter M.Jegathesan, 110m hurdler Ishtiaq Mobarak,
soccer giants ”Rajabola’ Ghani Minhat and ’Supermokh’ Mokhtar Dahari, cycling
champions Daud Ibrahim and Ng Joo Ngan, hockey Olympian Ho Koh Chye,
international tenpin bowler P.S. Nathan, and track queen of the ’70s Marina Chin and the
’Bionic Lady’ heptathlete Zaition Othman, were all household names.
From the ’80s onwards, the new generation of sportsmen and sportswomen in
badminton, tenpin bowling, squasy,aquatics, and wushu continued to do our country
proud in international competitions. Names like, Razif and Jailani, the Sidek brothers
(badminton), M.Kumaresan (cycling), Shalin Zulkifli (tenpin bowling), Lim Keng Liat
(swimming), Nicol David (squash), Lim Chong Wei (badminton), Bryan Nickson (diving),
and Chai Fong Yin (wushu) are all synonymous with our sporting achievements and our
capacity to accept challenges at the world level reflecting our spirit of ’Malaysia Boleh’
Malaysia in the international sports arena
- Participation & Achievements
The Southeast Asian Games (also known as the SEA Games),is a biennial multi-sports
event involving participants from the member countries of Southeast Asia.
Originally, the SEA Games was called SEAP Games or in full, the Southeast Asian
Thailand, Laos, South Vietnam, , Burma ( now Myanmar) ,Malaya (now Malaysia)
Singapore were the founding members that agreed to the formation of the ‘SEAP
Games Federation Committee’ (SGF) in 1958.
Currently there are 11 nations that are members of the SEA Games Federation.
In 1959, Bangkok, Thailand, hosted the first SEAP GAMES.
Up to 2007, the SEA Games had been contested 24 times and members of the SGF
took turns to organize the event.
Malaysia played host in 1965, 1971, 1977, 1989, and 2001.
The outstanding achievements by our athletes in the 21st SEA Games in 2001 is of great
historical significance for Malaysia. The 111 gold medals won by our athletes represent
the highest number of gold ever achieved by our national contingent in the SEA Games.
This figure surpassed the 67 gold medals won by the 1989 SEA Games contingent.
Malaysia - participation and achievements in SEA Games (1959-2007)
Hanoi & HCM
An analysis from the table shows that:
1. The Malaysian contingent has always done well when the SEA Games is hosted
2. Except for the 9th SEA Games in 1977 in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian
Contingent has always won over 20% of the gold medals in contention, when
Malaysia hosted the Games.
3. When the host country is either Indonesia or Thailand, the domination by the host
country is so strong that the chance for Malaysia to win more gold medals is
Also known as Asiad , the Asian Games is the biggest sports competition in the
continent of Asia. This multi-sports event is held every four years attracting top
sportsmen and sportswomen from the all the member countries.
The Asian Games is organized under the regulations of the Asia Olympic Council OCA)
with supervision by the International Olympic Council (IOC).
According to its history, the Asian Games was mooted by Dutt Sondhi, India’s IOC
representative. He put forth the idea during the Olympics Games in 1948 held in London.
As a result, the Asian Games Federation was formed and it was decided to have the
first Asian Games in India with New Delhi as the host city in 1951.
The first time Malaysia participated was in the second Asian Games held in Manila,
Philippines in 1954.
In the 1966 Asian Games in Bangkok, our national track and field team won 5 gold
medals. This achievement proved that the 60s were the golden era of Malaysian
athletics. Among the well known athletes were M.Jegathesan, Natashar Singh, Rahim
Ahmad, Cheryl Dorall, R. Subramaniam, M.Rajamani, and Ishtiaq Mobarak.
In the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Malaysia won 42 medals. To date, this was the best
achievement so far in terms of medal haul by our contingent in the Asian Games.
Malaysia’s achievements in Asian Games 1954-2006
* Did Not Participate
Starting from the first meet in 1930 until the fourth in 1950, the competitions were
known as the British Empire Games. Later, due to further historical developments, the
name was changed to British Empire & Commonwealth Games (1954) and then again
renamed British Commonwealth Games (1966).
Finally, in 1978 the name
Commonwealth Games was adopted and has remained until today.
The history of Malaysia’s involvement in the Commonwealth Games ( British Empire
Games then) started in 1950 when Auckland,New Zealand hosted the second Games.
Malaysia participated only in the weightlifting event. The four weightlifters showed
outstanding performance and won a medal each in their respective events.
In Perth, Australia,1962, Malaysia took part in 4 sports, namely, athletics, swimming,
cycling and weightlifting. Malaysia’s only achievement came from weightlifting which
secured one bronze medal from the featherweight event.
In all the Commonwealth Games which Malaysia took part between 1970-1990,
badminton continuously gave excellent performance and contributed medals to our
In 1994, Malaysia sent athletes for 8 sports in the Commonwealth Games held in
Victoria, Canada. Once again, our badminton players helped Malaysia’s medal collection
by winning 6 medals (2G,2P,2B). The seventh medal came from our traditional
contributor, weightlifting, which contributed a bronze,
Malaysia’s achievements in the Commonwealth Games 1950-2006
Auckland, New Zealand
*Did Not Participate
1998 was a historic and challenging year for Malaysia for being the host country for the
XVI Commonwealth Games which was held in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysians had the
opportunity to witness and assess the performance of our national athletes who were
trained under the Program Jaya ’98. The National Sports Council of Malaysia launched
this 4-year plan project in 1994 to prepare our national athletes for international
competitions with the KL Comonwealth Games as the climax. The Malaysian contingent
won 10 Gold medals , 14 Silver, and 12 Bronze. With this best ever Commonwealth
Games medal haul, Malaysia was ranked 4th in the overall positions of the participating
teams. This achievement has remained Malaysia’s best ranking in all the
Commonwealth Games it has taken part in. Names like Sapok Biki (boxing), G.
Saravanan (athletics), Hamidon Hidayat (weightlifting), Nuruhuda Baharin (shooting),
and the rhythmic gymnastic team members began to receive public attention in
Malaysia when they each won a gold medal for their sports.
In the 2002 Manchester Games, badminton, our traditional medal contributor, won 3 gold
medals. Weightlifting contributed another 3 gold medals through Amirul Hamizan who
also set three new records.
Sports that contributed to Malaysia’s medal tally.
(1998 KL Commonwealth Games)
The Olympic Games is the biggest sporting event in the world. This multi- sports
gathering takes place every four years. The top teams and athletes representing their
countries come together in this meet and compete in the tradition enshrined in the
Olympic spirit. The first modern Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in the year 1896.
Twelve nations represented by their 500 athletes competed . Malaysia first took part in
1956 when the Olympic Games was held in Melbourne,Australia. The Malaysian
contingent consisted of 33 athletes who competed in 5 sports, hockey, weightlifting,
athletics, swimming, and shooting. In this first international Olympic outing, the national
hockey team managed a creditable 9th placing out of 12 teams.
The national soccer team created history when it successfully went through the
qualifying rounds and played in the Munich Olympic in 1972. Malaysia has taken part
in all the Olympic Games so far except for the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow,
USSR, where Malaysia along with many other countries boycotted the Games for
political reasons. If not for this boycott, our national soccer team would have seen action
for the second time in the Moscow Olympics. Until today, so far all the medals won by
Malaysia in the Olympics came from the badminton players. In the 1992 Olympics in
Barcelona, Spain, badminton doubles pair, Razif and Jailani Sidek became the first two
Malaysian sportsmen to win a medal each when they won the bronze medal. In Atlanta,
1996, another badminton doubles pair, Cheah Soon Kit and Yap Kim Hock captured the
silver medal in the Olympics.
National player Lim Chong Wei won the silver in the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
Achievements in Olympic Games
Kit Yap Kim
Qualified for final
Lim Keng Liat
Entered Semi final
Entered final round
CS Cheng &
Entered Top 8
Success in other World Level Competitions
Besides the achievements in regional competitions and the Olympic Games, Malaysian
sportsmen and sportswomen had also shown outstanding performances in many other
international meets. Our national badminton team had won the Thomas Cup, the
supremacy of world -class badminton, 4 times. Also, Malaysian badminton players had
won numerous singles and doubles titles in tournaments such as the All England and
World GP Circuit.
Eddy Choong was the first Malaysian player to win the All England singles title in
1953. Subsequently, other Malaysian players too recorded great success in other years
when they captured the singles and the doubles titles in competitions all over the world.
After Hafiz Hashim who became the All England champion in 2003, no other Malaysian
player has recaptured the prestigious title.
In their All England debut in 2006, doubles pair Tan Boon Heong-Koo Keen Kiat
emerged as champions. However, in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the much expected
pair failed to perform to general expectation. Apart from having qualified and
participated in a few Olympics, the best performance so far by our national hockey team
was the 4th placing in the 1975 World Cup tournament held in Kuala Lumpur. In that
semi-final match India defeated Malaysia . Another historic achievement by our
national hockey team was when they emerged silver medallists in the 1998 Kuala
Lumpur Commonwealth Games.
In tenpin bowling, since the time of P.S.Nathan, Malaysian bowlers were highly
regarded by players from other countries. In 2005, our bowlers captured 24 international
titles and this increased to 32 the following year.
Shalin Zulkifli is synonymous with the success of Malaysia in the international bowling
arena. Without doubt, in the ’90s, tenpin bowling outshone other sports in Malaysia with
Shalin’s success after success in winning titles both in national and international
competitions. Her fantastic performances at international level had injected great interest
in bowling among the younger potential players in Malaysia. As an example, in 2005,
Esther Cheah achieved the distinction of being the youngest female bowler ever to win
the World Tenpin Bowling Competition. In the same year, Malaysian bowlers captured
24 international titles and went on to win 32 titles in 2006.
Apart from badminton and tenpin bowling, squash has also made Malaysia proud in
international sports competitions. In 1998, at the age of 15 ,Nicol David was crowned
the World’s Women Junior Squash champion. With that historic achievement, she
became the youngest player to win the prestigious world title. This ‘squash queen’ went
on to chalk up more success and set an invincible record in Asia when she won the
Asia championship five times (1998,2000,2002,2004 and 2006).
In 2005, at the age of 22, she became the youngest female player to win the Women’s
World Open in Hong Kong.
In 2007, with her consistent outstanding performance in all the competitions she added 8
WISPA titles to her name.
Malaysia has yet to a win an Olympic gold medal, be it from an individual athlete or from
a team event. Malaysia is not lacking in terms of training facilities. Also, we have various
incentives for athletes who achieve excellence in their sports. In coaching, where local
expertise is lacking, the national sports associations with the financial assistance of the
National Sports Council of Malaysia, has engaged foreign coaches to train our elite and
potential athletes. From time to time, ambitious development programmes and training
projects have been carried out to win the elusive Olympic gold medals.
Malaysia has a rich sports history and it is important for us to learn about the lives and
struggles of our past and present world-standard sportsmen and sportswomen. We have
to made an in-depth comparison of our training system with that of the successful
countries. This will enable us to gain an insight into the effort required to reach sporting
excellence of international standard. Also, an understanding of the struggles and
sacrifices by sports legends, both local and foreign, can serve as a motivation and help
our future national athletes to scale greater heights in international meets.
1. Mohd Salleh Aman (2004) Sukan Dalam Masyarakat Malaysia, Penerbit Univ.
2. L.B.Ooi (200) Way of the Champions, Percetakan Solai Sdn Bhd, P.J. Malaysia.
3._________ (1998), Sukan Komanwel Dari Hamilton ke Kuala Lumpur (1930-1998),
Arkib Negara Malaysia.
4 .C.J.Chong,E.S.Tan (1995),Legends of the Flame,Pan Pacific Publications,
5. J.Johari,S.Ishak,A.R.A.Ghaffur,(1995),JAGUH MAKSAK,Penerbitan MAKSAK
6. http://en.wikipedia org/wiki Southeast Asia Games rtrvd 10.10.2008
Examples of outstanding achievements
by Malaysian athletes in international competitions
Year & Competition
Singles champion 4
Olimpic Games 1992
All England 1982
(1962) & Mohd.Jailani
Lee Chong Wei
( 1982 )
2007 Indonesia Open
2008 Beijing Olimpic
1974 ATF Manila
SEA Games 1965
Asian Games 1970
SEA Games 1971 KL
4 Gold medals
(all new records)
5 gold medals
Final 5th position
2004 World Cup, Mexico
Lim Keng Liat
Athens Olympic Games 11th
Commonwealth Bronze medal
Games Gold medal
Nurul Huda Abdullah
- SEA Games
Amirul Hamizan Ibrahim
( 19 )
Bryan Nickson (1990)
World Junior Bowling
Grand Slam Asia
Weightliftin 2002 Commonwealth
g (56 kg)
2001 World Women
Kej. Skuasy Terbuka di 5
Ranking Dunia 20062008
2004 Olimpik Athens
2008 Olimpik Beijing
World Junior Meet 2006
1994 Asian Games,
- 2004 World Ranking
-2004 Masters Open
in 4 countries
Ranking No 2
5 X Johan
5 X Johan
7th- qlfd for Beijing.
Examples of outstanding achievements
by Malaysian teams in international competitions
3th World Cup in 4th position
Games in KL
Junior World Cup
Qualified and played in Munich.
Qualified to play in Moscow but
joined in boycott of the Games.
Commonwealth Gold medal for Team Event
4X100m relay 1966
Tenpin Bowling 1994
Sukan Asia ,Jepun
Kej Boling Dunia di AS
Gold medal (trios)
Enterend ¼ finals
in Gold medal
Champion –first time
Players win, players lose, players prepare, players practice,players get hurt but players
get up. No matter what the outcome is , players play.
“ Everyone thinks of changing the world but no one thinks of changing himself ”
Hormones and Exercise
There are many physical, mental, and physiological benefits to regular exercise. One
category of benefits is the impact that exercise has on many of your body's hormones.
Hormones are chemical messengers within your body that affect almost all aspects of
Stimulates protein synthesis (muscle tone/development), and strength of bones,
tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.
Decreases use of glucose and increases use of fat as a fuel during exercise. This
helps to reduce body fat and to keep blood glucose at a normal level which helps
you to exercise for a longer period of time.
Release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain is increased with
increasing aerobic exercise time, especially more intense exercise such as
An endogenous upload from the pituitary gland that blocks pain, decreases
appetite, creates a feeling of euphoria (the exercise high), and reduces tension
Blood levels of endorphins increase up to five times resting levels during longer
duration (greater than 30 minutes) aerobic exercise at moderate to intense levels
and also during interval training.
After several months of regular exercise, you develop an increased sensitivity to
endorphins (a higher high from the same level of endorphins), and endorphins
that are produced tend to stay in your blood for a longer period of time. This
makes longer duration exercise easier (you're feeling no pain) and it causes your
exercise high to last for a longer period of time after exercise.
An important hormone in both males and females for maintaining muscle
tone/volume/strength, increasing basal metabolic rate (metabolism), decreasing
body fat, and feeling self-confident. It's produced by the ovaries in females and
by the testes in males.
Females have only about one tenth the amount of testosterone that males do,
but even at that level in females it also plays a role in libido and intensity of
orgasms. Production of testosterone in females begins to decline as a woman
begins to approach menopause and in males it begins to decline in his forties.
Blood levels of testosterone increase with exercise in both males and females
beginning about 20 minutes into an exercise session, and blood levels may
remain elevated for one to three hours after exercise.
The most biologically active estrogen, 17 beta estradiol, increases fat
breakdown from body fat stores so that it can be used and fuel, increases basal
metabolic rate (metabolism), elevates your mood, and increases libido. This
hormone is at much higher blood levels in females, but the ovaries begin to
produce less of it as a woman begins to approach menopause.
The amount of 17 beta estradiol secreted by the ovaries increases with
exercise, and blood levels may remain elevated for one to four hours after
A hormone produced by the thyroid gland, Thyroxine increases the metabolic
rate ("metabolism") of almost all cells in the body. This increase in "metabolism"
helps you to feel more energetic and also causes you to expend more calories,
and thus is important in weight loss.
Blood levels of thyroxine increase by about 30% during exercise and remain
elevated for several hours afterward - this period of time is increased by an
increase in intensity and/or duration of exercise. Regular exercise also increase
thyroxine levels at rest.
A hormone produced primarily by the adrenal medulla that increases the amount
of blood the heart pumps and directs blood flow to where it's needed.
Stimulates breakdown of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) in the active muscles
and liver to use as fuel. It also stimulates the breakdown of fat (in stored fat and
in active muscles) to use as fuel.
The amount of epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla is proportional to
the intensity and duration of exercise.
An important hormone in regulating (decreasing) blood levels of glucose ("blood
sugar") and in directing glucose, fatty acids (fat), and amino acids (protein) into
the cells. Insulin secretion by the pancreas is increased in response to a rise in
blood sugar and/or amino acids (protein) as is often the case after a meal.
Typically, the larger the meal, or the greater the quantity of simple sugars
consumed, the larger the insulin response.
An excessive insulin response causes fat production within the cells - thus,
insulin is sometimes called the "fat hormone". Many overweight people's cells
develop a resistance to insulin so that it takes more insulin to have the same
effect. This creates a situation where blood levels of insulin are higher than
normal. This condition is often improved by losing weight and daily aerobic
Blood levels of insulin begin to decrease about 10 minutes into an aerobic
exercise session and continue to decrease through about 70 minutes of exercise.
Regular exercise also increases a cell's sensitivity to insulin at rest.
A hormone that is also secreted by the pancreas, but it's job is to raise blood
levels of glucose ("blood sugar"). When blood sugar levels get too low, glucagon
is secreted and causes stored carbohydrate (glycogen) in the liver to be released
into the blood stream to raise blood sugar to a normal level. It also causes the
breakdown of fat so that it can be used as fuel.
Glucagon typically begins to be secreted beyond 30 minutes of exercise when
blood glucose levels may begin to decrease.
So, next time you're exercising, think about all the wonderful things that are
happening to your hormones. It might even make you want to do more exercise!
Endorphin is a type of hormone which is also a natural painkiller: a substance in the
brain that attaches to the same cell receptors that morphine does. Endorphins are
released when severe injury, or high aerobic activity occurs, often abolishing all
sensation of pain and creating a sense of euphoria.
Types of Endorphins.
• Beta-endorphins are produced by the pituitary gland and are believed to
produce a greater "high" than the other types of endorphins. The betaendorphin is generally believed to provide a considerable amount of
natural pain relief. Some scientists believe it is due to beta-endorphins
that some people who experience a traumatic injury, such as the loss of a
limb, experience little or no immediate pain.
Alpha-endorphins have been studied since the 1970's, but little is known
about how they affect the body. Some research suggests that alphaendorphins may stimulate the brain in ways similar to amphetamines and
others claim that they may help treat anaphylactic shock and similar
Gamma-endorphins have also been researched since the 1970's, but
most of the information on how the substance affects the body is pure
speculation. Some studies show that they have antipsychotic effects on
patients suffering from disorders such as schizophrenia, while others
show that they may help regulate blood pressure.
How Do Endorphins Work?
Endorphins act by locking into receptors in the nervous system for chemicals that
transmit pain messages to the brain. Once the endorphin, or the "key", is in the
"lock," pain causing chemicals are prevented from transmitting their messages
(Rathus and Nevid 2003). Endorphins interact with the opiate receptors in the
brain to reduce our perception of pain, similar to the drugs morphine and
codeine. The body's release of endorphins, however, does not lead to addiction
like morphine and codeine might.
The release of endorphins is different based on each individual. Certain foods
such as chocolate and chili peppers can lead to enhanced production of
endorphins. Laughter is thought to release endorphins into the brain. Strenuous
exercise, exposure to ultraviolet light, massage therapy, and acupuncture can
also activate endorphin production.
Effects of Endorphins
"Reduce pain and anxiety and increase the feeling of well being. They stimulate
the immune system, and they help you learn. They reduce appetite for drug and
alcohol seeking behavior. Endorphins also affect our reaction to light and
"The brain responds to pain signals by producing and activating morphine-like
hormones called endorphins. This pain relief effect lasts for about 30 hours
(longer than known analgesics), and without side effects when given frequently."
Training for Aerobic and Anaerobic Power
General Principles of Training
Individuality: any training program must consider the specific needs and abilities
of the individual for whom it is designed
Specificity: adaptations to training are highly specific to the nature of the training
activity and should be carefully matched to an athlete’s specific performance
Reversibility: training programs must include a maintenance plan to ensure that
the gains from training are not lost
Progressive overload: the training stimulus must be progressively increased as
the body adapts to the current stimulus
Hard / easy: programs must alternate high-intensity workouts with low-intensity
workouts to help the body recover and achieve optimal training adaptations
Per iodization: the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training
to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition
The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the
involvement and availability of oxygen
Maximal aerobic power is the maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP
The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without
the involvement of oxygen
Maximal anaerobic power is the maximal capacity of the anaerobic system to
Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training Programs
Programs are designed along a continuum
Anaerobic power is represented by the ATP-PCr system and anaerobic glycolytic
system, while aerobic power is represented by the oxidative system
Longer sprints, interval training
Variables to Manipulate for Interval Training
Rate of the exercise interval
Distance of the exercise interval
Number of repetitions and sets during each training session
Duration of rest or active recovery interval
Type of activity during the active recovery interval
Frequency of training per week
Blood Lactate Concentration in a Single Runner After a Single Set of 5 Repetitions
of Interval Training at 3 Different Paces
Types of Training
Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training
Training programs are designed to train one or more of the three metabolic
Interval training consists of repeated bouts of high- to moderate-intensity
exercise interspersed with periods of rest or reduced-intensity exercise
Exercise intensity and recovery rate can be monitored with a heart rate monitor
Interval training is appropriate for all sports
Continuous training has no rest intervals and can vary from LSD training to highintensity training
Fartlek training is an excellent activity for recovering from several days of more
Interval-circuit training combines interval training and circuit training into one
Objective of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training
Aerobic (endurance) training
Improved central and peripheral blood flow
Enhances the capacity of muscle fibres to generate ATP
Increased short-term, high-intensity endurance capacity
Increased anaerobic metabolic function
Increased tolerance for acid–base imbalances during highly intense effort
Muscular endurance: the ability of a single muscle or muscle group to sustain highintensity repetitive or static exercise
Cardio respiratory endurance: the entire body’s ability to sustain prolonged, dynamic
exercise using large muscle groups
Evaluating Cardio respiratory Endurance
Highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal exercise
VO2max can be increased by 10-15% with 20 weeks of endurance training
Increases in VO2max With Endurance Training
VO2 = SV × HR × (a-v)O2 diff
Changes in VO2max With 12 Months of Endurance Training
Cardiovascular Adaptation to Training
Percentage Differences in Heart Size Among Three Groups of Athletes Compared With
Heart Size (Central) Adaptation to Endurance Training
The left ventricle changes significantly in response to endurance training
The internal dimensions of the left ventricle increase as an adaptation to an
increase in ventricular filling secondary to an increase in plasma volume and
diastolic filling time
Left ventricular wall thickness and mass increase,
allowing for greater
Measuring Heart Size: Echocardiography
Changes in Stroke Volume With Endurance Training
Stroke Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training
Endurance training increases SV at rest and during sub maximal and maximal
Increases in end-diastolic volume, caused by an increase in blood plasma and
greater diastolic filling time (lower heart rate), contribute to increased SV
Increased ventricular filling (preload) leads to greater contractility (Frank-Starling
Reduced systemic vascular resistance (after load)
Heart Rate Adaptations to Endurance Training
Decreases by ~1 beat/min with each week of training
Increased parasympathetic (vagal) tone
Decreases heart rate for a given absolute exercise intensity
Unchanged or decreases slightly
Changes in Heart Rate With Endurance Training
Heart Rate Recovery
The time it takes the heart to return to its resting rate after exercise
Faster rate of recovery after training
Indirect index of cardio respiratory fitness
Prolonged by certain environments (heat, altitude)
Can be used as a tool to track the progress of endurance training
Changes in Heart Rate Recovery With Endurance Training
Cardiac Output Adaptations to Endurance Training
Q = HR x SV
Does not change at rest or during sub maximal exercise (may decrease slightly)
Maximal cardiac output increases due largely to an increase in stroke volume
Changes in Cardiac Output With Endurance Training
Cardiac Output Adaptations
Q does not change at rest or during sub maximal exercise after training (may
Q increases at maximal exercise and is largely responsible for the increase in
Increased maximal Q results from the increase in maximal SV
Blood Flow Adaptations to Endurance Training
Blood flow to exercising muscle is increased with endurance training due to:
Increased capillarization of trained muscles
Greater recruitment of existing capillaries in trained muscles
More effective blood flow redistribution from inactive regions
Increased blood volume
Blood Pressure (BP) Adaptations to Endurance Training
Resting BP decreases in borderline and hypertensive individuals (6-7 mmHg
Mean arterial pressure is reduced at a given sub maximal exercise intensity (↓
SBP, ↓ DBP)
At maximal exercise (↑ SBP, ↓ DBP)
Blood Volume (BV) Adaptations to Endurance Training
BV increases rapidly with endurance training
Plasma volume increases due to:
Increased plasma proteins (albumin)
Increased antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone
Red blood cell volume increases
Increases in Total Blood Volume and Plasma Volume With Endurance Training
Blood Flow, Pressure, and Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training
Blood flow to active muscles is increased due to:
– ↑ Capillarization
↑ Capillary recruitment
More effective redistribution
↑ Blood volume
Blood pressure at rest as well as during sub maximal exercise is reduced, but not
at maximal exercise
Blood Flow, Pressure, and Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training
Blood volume increases
Plasma volume increases through increased protein content and by fluid
Red blood cell volume and haemoglobin increase
Blood viscosity decreases due to the increase in plasma volume
Respiratory Adaptations to Endurance Training
Little effect on lung structure and function at rest
Increase in pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise
↑ Tidal volume
↑ Respiratory rate
Pulmonary diffusion increases at maximal exercise due to increased ventilation
and lung perfusion
(a-v)O2 difference increases with training, reflecting increased extraction of
oxygen at the tissues
Adaptations in Muscle to Endurance Training
Increased size (cross-sectional area) of type I fibres
Transition of type IIx → type IIa fiber characteristics
Transition of type II → type I fiber characteristics
Increased number of capillaries per muscle fiber and for a given cross-sectional
area of muscle
Increased myoglobin content of muscle by 75% to 80%
Increased number, size, and
oxidative enzyme activity of
Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake and SDH Activity With Endurance Training
Joggers, and Highly Trained
Adapted, by permission, from D.L. Costill et al., 1979, "Lipid metabolism in skeletal
muscle of endurance-trained males and females," Journal of Applied Physiology 28:
251-255 and from D.L. Costill et al., 1979, "Adaptations in skeletal muscle following
strength training," Journal of Applied Physiology 46: 96-99.
Adaptations in Muscle With Training
Type I fibers tend to enlarge
Increase in type I fibers and a transition from type IIx to type IIa fibers
Increased number of capillaries supplying each muscle fiber
Increase in the number and size of muscle fiber mitochondria
Oxidative enzyme activity increases
Increased capacity of oxidative metabolism
Metabolic Adaptations to Training
Lactate threshold increases due to:
– Increased clearance and/or decreased production of lactate
– Reduced reliance on glycol tic systems
Respiratory exchange ratio decreases due to:
Increased utilization of free fatty acids
Oxygen consumption (VO2)
Unchanged (or slightly reduced) at submaximal intensities
– VO2max increases
– Limited by the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to
Changes in Lactate Threshold With Training
Changes in Race Pace With Continued Training After VO2max Stops Increasing
Increased Performance After VO2max Has Peaked
Once an athlete has achieved her genetically determined peak VO2max, she can still
increase her endurance performance due to the body’s ability to perform at increasingly
higher percentages of that VO2max for extended periods. The increase in performance
without an increase in VO2max is a result of an increase in lactate threshold.
Limiting Factors to VO2max & Endurance Performance
Four factors limiting VO2max
– Respiration (pulmonary diffusing capacity)
Cardiac output; Increasing Q contributes to the ability to increase
Arterial blood pressure
Flow to non exercising regions
Muscle blood flow
Muscle capillary density
Muscle vascular conductance
Hb – O2 affinity
Enzymes and oxidative potential
Mitchondria – size and number
Muscle mass and fiber type
Increasing Q contributes to the ability to increase VO2max
Ability to increase Q brought by redistribution of blood from the non-exercising
tissue/organ region (mainly splanchnic and spleen)
Cardio respiratory Endurance and Performance
It is the major defense against fatigue
Should be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitness
All athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance
Adaptations to Aerobic Training
Although VO2max has an upper limit, endurance performance can continue to
An individual’s genetic makeup predetermines a range for his or her VO2max and
accounts for 25-50% of the variance in VO2max
Heredity largely explains an individual’s response to training
Highly conditioned female endurance athletes have VO2max values about 10%
lower than their male counterparts
All athletes can benefit from maximizing their cardio respiratory endurance
Summary of Cardiovascular Adaptation to Chronic Endurance Training
Adapted, by permission, from Donna H. Korzick, Pennsylvania State University,
Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Training
Increased muscle fiber recruitment
Increased cross-sectional area of type IIa and type IIx muscle fibers
Energy System Adaptations to Anaerobic Training
Increased ATP-PCr system enzyme activity
Increased activity of several key glycolytic enzymes
No effect on oxidative enzyme activit
Changes in Creatine Kinase (CK) and Myokinase (MK) Activities With Anaerobic
Performance in a 60 s Sprint Bout After Anaerobic Training
Anaerobic training bouts improve both anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity
Increased performance with anaerobic training is attributed to strength gains
Increases ATP-PCr and glycolytic enzymes
Specificity of Training and Cross-Training
To maximize cardiorespiratory gains from training, the training should be specific
to the type of activity that the athlete usually performs
Cross-training is training for more than one sport at a time
Gains in muscular strength and power are less when strength training is
combined with endurance trainin
Thermoregulation refers to the mechanisms and control systems used by the body to
balance thermal inputs and thermal losses so as to maintain its core temperature nearly
In a healthy individual, the temperature of the core of the body is regulated by feedback
control mechanisms that maintain it nearly constant around 98.6°F (37°C) throughout the
day, week, month or year. This thermoregulation is efficiently coordinated by the central
nervous system (CNS) as long as the temperature of the surroundings ranges between
68°F (20°C) and 130°F (54°C).
The body increases and lowers its core temperature using a temperature control system
that works like a thermostat. Increased body temperature activates mechanisms
promoting heat loss, and lowered body temperature activates mechanisms enabling the
accumulation or production of heat. Such a system is called a feedback control system,
because it uses as input the total or partial output of the system, meaning that the
consequences of the process dictate how it will go on further. A feedback system has
three components: sensors that register the change, a control center that receives the
signals of the sensors, and an effector mechanism, meaning a pathway for the
commands of the control center when it responds to the information received from the
sensors. In thermoregulation, the control center is located in the hypothalamus, a tiny
cluster of brain cells located in the brain just above the pituitary gland. It also contains
the key temperature sensors. Other sensors, located all over the body, record whether
the body temperature is too high or too low. There are three main effector mechanisms
involved in thermoregulation. The first is the vaso-motor system, which consists of the
nerves that act on vascular smooth muscle to control blood vessel diameter; the second
is provided by metabolic effectors, which are substances produced by the body to
increase its activity. The third main effector mechanism is provided by the sweat glands.
The vasomotor system is responsible for two physiological responses called vasodilation
and vasoconstriction. The first increases blood flow in the tissues and the second
Heat production, also called thermogenesis, is the result of several different body
functions. One of them is the action of the thyroid gland, located in the neck. Hormones
released by this gland increase the body's metabolism, meaning the activity of the body.
Increased production of heat is thus achieved by increasing the metabolic processes in
which energy is released in the form of heat. Other producers of heat are the skeletal
muscles, the liver, the internal organs, and the brain. Muscles play a major role in
thermogenesis. Because of their weight, they are able to produce very large amounts of
heat very rapidly during increased physical activity. Digestion also results in an
increased production of heat.
Heat is lost from the body in four different ways: by conduction, convection, evaporation,
and radiation. Heat loss by conduction occurs because there is a gradient between the
body temperature and the temperature of the surrounding environment. When the
external temperature is lower, heat flows from the body to the colder external
environment. The body also loses heat by evaporation, mainly through sweating. This
mechanism occurs especially during phases of increased heat production, for example
during physical exercise. The sweat glands are controlled by cholinergic impulses
through the sympathetic nerve fibers. During intensive sweating, up to one liter of sweat
may be formed. When the humidity of the environment is higher, heat loss through
sweating is easier. When the body needs to accumulate heat, adrenergic impulses
restrict the blood flow through the skin, with the result that the skin becomes an
insulator, thus decreasing heat loss to a minimum. The body can also lose heat by
convection, through the circulatory system. With this mechanism, heat flows from each
cell to the surrounding extracellular fluid (ECF) and afterwards to the circulating blood.
Heat loss is modulated by the amount of blood that circulates through the body surface.
The high flow occurring through the sub-cutaneous area and the skin transfers the heat
carried by the blood to the environment through the body surface. Finally, the body can
lose heat by simply radiating it away.
Several conditions can influence body temperature, such as exercise, the time of day,
the environmental temperature, digestion and the level of water consumption. For
example, body temperature varies in the narrow range between 36.5°C and 37.5°C. It
slightly increases during the day, reaching a peak between 6:00 to 10:00 p.m. and a low
between 2:00 and 4:00 a.m. This diurnal variation depends on the body activity
throughout the day. Diurnal variations do not change in persons that work at night and
sleep during the day and they also occur when fever is present. Fever reaches a peak in
the evening, and decreases during the night so that, in the morning, even a very sick
person may have an almost normal temperature. Body temperature changes are also
more intensive in young people than in older people. Physical activity also increases
body temperature, in some cases very significantly. For example, the average body
temperature of marathon runners may increase to 39–41°C. The feedback control
system responsible for thermoregulation is very complex, but overall, it can be
summarized as follows:
When the surroundings are hot or when the body is vigorously exercising:
The body core temperature starts to rise.
This increase in temperature is detected by heat sensors in the body.
These sensors send signals to the CNS.
The CNS stimulates the sweat glands.
This increases the production of sweat.
And this activates the evaporation of sweat.
Which promotes heat loss by evaporation.
The CNS also signals the vasomotor system to dilate the capillaries underlying
Vasodilation occurs and the capillaries become larger.
More blood flows underneath the skin surface.
Which promotes heat loss by conduction, radiation, and convection.
The body core temperature returns to normal.
When the surroundings are cold or when the body is resting:
The body core temperature starts to drop.
This is detected by cold sensors in the body.
These sensors send signals to the CNS.
The CNS slows down the activity of the sweat glands.
This lowers the production of sweat.
And it decreases the evaporation of sweat.
Which reduces heat loss by evaporation.
The CNS also signals the vasomotor system to constrict the capillaries
underlying the skin.
Vasoconstriction occurs and the capillaries become narrower.
Less blood flows underneath the skin surface.
This reduces heat loss by conduction, radiation, and convection.
The body core temperature returns to normal
The major function of thermoregulation is to help maintain homeostasis, meaning the
stability of the body's internal environment. A wide variety of body systems and organs
interact to maintain the body's internal environment (the immediate surroundings of
cells) constant in response to changes that occur either in the conditions of the external
environment or in the conditions of the internal body environment. Thermoregulation is
one of these essential homeostatic mechanisms.
Role in human health
Thermoregulation is of the utmost importance in maintaining health, because human life
is only compatible with a narrow range of temperatures. Core temperature changes of
the order of 3°C will not interfere with physiological functions, but any variation outside
that range has very serious effects. For example, at 28°C, the muscles can no longer
respond, at 30°C, confusion occurs and the body can no longer control its temperature,
at 33°C, loss of consciousness occurs, at 42°C, the CNS breaks down with irreversible
brain damage, and at 44°C, death occurs, the result of the body proteins starting to
Common diseases and disorders
• Fever—Increase in body core temperature. Fever is not an illness but a natural
reaction to a number of illnesses.
• Hyperthermia—Overheating of the body caused only by an external factor, as for
example a hot environment, or a hot bath.
• Hypothermia—A low body temperature, as caused by exposure to cold weather
or a state of low temperature of the body induced by decreased metabolism.
• Hypothyroidism—Hypothyroidism refers to a condition in which the amount of
thyroid hormones in the body is below normal. Since the thyroid hormones are
important in thermoregulation, hypothyroidism affects the body's capacity to
Acetylcholine — Neurotransmitter produced by an enzyme in the body that stimulates
Adrenaline — A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that causes vasodilation of
the small arteries in muscle and increases cardiac output.
Adrenergic — Substance that has an effect similar to that of adrenaline.
Antagonist — A substance that cancels or counteracts the action of another.
Capillaries — The smallest vessels of the body.
Central nervous system (CNS) — One of two major divisions of the nervous system.
The CNS consists of the brain, the cranial nerves
and the spinal cord.
Cholinergic — Substance that has an effect similar to that of acetylcholine.
Conduction — Heat transfer by means of molecular agitation within a material without
any motion of the material as a whole. If one end of a metal piece is at a
higher temperature, then heat will be transferred down the piece toward
the colder end.
Convection — Heat transfer by motion of a fluid when the heated fluid is caused to
move away from the source of heat, carrying energy with it.
Dermis — Layer of connective tissue underlying the skin. Contains smooth muscle
tissue, nervous tissue and blood vessels.
Endocrine glands — Glands that secrete substances which are released directly into
the bloodstream and that regulate metabolism and other body
Endocrine system — The system of glands in the body that secrete their hormones
directly into the circulatory system.
Enzyme — A type of protein produced by the body that speeds up chemical reactions.
Some enzymes regulate certain functions due to their ability to change their
activity by modifying their structure.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) — The fluid found outside of the cells and between the cells in
Feedback system — A feedback system uses as input the total or partial output of the
system. Feedback systems are used to control and regulate
processes. They use the consequences of the process (for
example, too much or too little produced) to regulate the rate at
which the process occurs (decrease or increase the rate of the
Homeostasis — Stability of the body's internal environment, achieved by a system of
integrated control systems activated by feedback systems.
Homeostasis is thus the maintenance of a constant internal
environment (the immediate surroundings of cells) in response to
changes occurring in the conditions of the external environment and
the conditions of the internal body environment.
Hormone — A naturally occurring substance secreted by specialized cells that affects
the metabolism or behavior of other cells possessing receptors for the
Hypothalamus — The hypothalamus is a tiny cluster of brain cells just above the
pituitary gland, that is involved in the regulation of body
Metabolic effectors — Substances, such as hormones, that can increase the
metabolism of the body or of a target organ.
Metabolism — The sum of all the physical and biochemical processes occurring in the
body to produce what is required to maintain life. This includes the
transformation of nutrients into energy and the use of energy by the
Nervous system — The entire system of nerve tissue in the body. It includes the brain,
the brainstem, the spinal cord, the nerves and the ganglia and is
divided into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central
nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) — One of the two major divisions of the nervous
system. The PNS consists of the somatic
nervous system (SNS), that controls voluntary
activities and of the autonomic nervous system
(ANS), that controls regulatory activities. The
ANS is further divided into sympathetic and
Radiation — Heat transfer that occurs by the emission of electromagnetic waves which
carry energy away from the emitting object.
Thermogenesis — Production of heat.
Thermoregulation — Regulation of body temperature so as to maintain it nearly
constant at 98.6°F (37°C).
Thyroid gland — A butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck on both sides
of the windpipe. It controls the rate at which the body produces energy
from nutrients. It secretes the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and
thyroxine (T4) which increase the rate of metabolism and cardiac
Vasoconstriction — The decrease in the internal diameter of a blood vessel resulting
from tightening the smooth muscle located in the walls of the
vessel. Vasoconstriction decreases the blood flow.
Vasodilation — The increase in the internal diameter of a blood vessel resulting from
relaxation of the smooth muscle located in the walls of the vessel.
Vasodilation increases the blood flow.
Vasomotor system — The neural systems which act on vascular smooth muscle to
control blood vessel diameter.
BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION
Since you are a warm-blooded animal, your body attempts to keep its internal
temperature constant. Human life is only compatible with a narrow range of
Temperature (C) Symptoms
loss of body temp. control
loss of consciousness
central nervous system breakdown
( by irreversible protein "denaturation", or unfolding; once their shape changes, they
cease to function properly.) As we will see in the next section, you are constantly
generating heat, and so your body must take active steps to lose that heat. The following
table illustrates the power cost of various common activities:
Energy Cost (Cal/m 2 hr)
working at a desk
washing & dressing 100
walking (3 mph)
Approximately 80 % of these costs is waste heat. The other side of this coin is cold
weather: your body must then work to stay warm. The mechanisms which either are
used by your body or affect its function are "conduction", "convection", "radiation" and
Conduction is the flow of heat energy from regions of warmer temperature to regions of
Acclimation to Cold
Early onset of cold induced vasodilation
Low peripheral temperature
Low peripheral temperature
Shivering (increase BMR 2-3X)
Inadequate delivery of heat to periphery
Factors Affecting Thermal Acclimation
Both infants and elderly have lessened ability to acclimatize to heat or cold
Body size and shape. The surface area to weight ratio will affect the level of
acclimatization attainable Body composition Subcutaneous adipose deposits insulate the
core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in the cold
The body attempts to increase and conserve body heat by rerouting circulation and
shivering Vasoconstriction causes the blood to pool internally to conserve organ heat
Shivering causes the temperature to increase due to muscular activity Individuals
respond to cold stress by increasing muscular activity, wearing more clothes, or heating
their living space
Adapting to Climate Extremes
Humans and many other mammals have unusually efficient internal temperature
regulating systems that automatically maintain stable core body temperatures in cold
winters and warm summers. In addition, people have developed cultural patterns and
technologies that help them adjust to extremes of temperature and humidity.
In very cold climates, there is a constant danger of developing hypothermia, which is a
life threatening drop in core body temperature to subnormal levels. The normal
temperature for humans is about 98.6 ° F. (37.0 ° C.). Hypothermia begins to occur
when the core body temperature drops to 94° F. (34.4° C.). Below 85° F. (29.4°C.), the
body cools more rapidly because its natural temperature regulating system (in the
hypothalamus) usually fails. The now rapid decline in core body temperature is likely to
result in death. However, there have been rare cases in which people have been
revived after their temperatures had dropped to 57-60° F. (13.9-15.6° C.) and they had
In extremely hot climates or as a result of uncontrollable infections, core body
temperatures can rise to equally fatal levels. This is hyperthermia. Life threatening
hyperthermia typically starts in humans when their temperatures rise to 105-107° F.
(40.6-41.7° C.). Only a few days at this extraordinarily high temperature level is likely to
result in the deterioration of internal organs and death.
Body size and shape are significant factors in how efficiently an individual responds
physiologically to cold and hot climates. Two 19th century naturalists, Carl Bergmann
and Joel Allen, formulated rules concerning these factors.
In 1847, the German biologist Carl Bergmann observed that within the same species of
warm-blooded animals, populations having less massive individuals are more often
found in warm climates near the equator, while those with greater bulk, or mass, are
found further from the equator in colder regions. This is due to the fact that big animals
generally have larger body masses which result in more heat being produced. The
greater amount of heat results from there being more cells. A normal by-product of
metabolism in cells is heat production. Subsequently, the more cells an animal has, the
more internal heat it will produce.
In addition, larger animals usually have a smaller surface area relative to their body
mass and, therefore, are comparatively inefficient at radiating their body heat off into the
surrounding environment. The relationship between surface area and volume of objects
was described in the 1630's by Galileo. It can be demonstrated with the cube shaped
boxes shown below. Note that the volume increases twice as fast as the surface area.
This is the reason that rrelatively less surface area results in relatively less heat being
lost from animals.
Polar bears are a good example of this phenomenon. They have large, compact bodies
with relatively small surface areas from which they can lose their internally produced
heat. This is an important asset in cold climates. In addition, they have heavy fur and
fat insulation that help retain body heat.
In 1877, the American biologist Joel Allen went further than Bergmann in observing that
the length of arms, legs, and other appendages also has an effect on the amount of heat
lost to the surrounding environment. He noted that among warm-blooded animals,
individuals in populations of the same species living in warm climates near the equator
tend to have longer limbs than do populations living further away from the equator in
colder environments. This is due to the fact that a body with relatively long appendages
is less compact and subsequently has more surface area. The greater the surface area,
the faster body heat will be lost to the environment.
This same phenomenon can be observed among humans. Members of the Masai tribe
of East Africa are normally tall and have slender bodies with long limbs that assist in the
loss of body heat. This is an optimal body shape in the hot tropical parts of the world but
would be at a disadvantage in subarctic regions. In such extremely cold environments, a
stocky body with short appendages would be more efficient at maintaining body heat
because it would have relatively less surface area compared to body mass.
We lose heat to the surrounding environment in several ways, as shown in the
illustration above on the right. However, simple radiation is the process that is
responsible for most of the loss, except in hot dry climates where evaporative cooling,
or sweating, can be more significant.
Cold Climate Responses
Many people living in freezing climates drink alcohol to warm themselves. This
increases blood flow to the body extremities, thereby providing a feeling of warmth.
However, it results only in a temporary warming and can speed up the loss of heat from
the vital internal organs, resulting in more rapid death from hypothermia. A much more
effective cultural response to extremely cold temperatures is the use of insulating
clothing, houses, and fires. People all over the world also adapt by limiting outdoor
activities to warmer times of the day. In some societies, sleeping in family groups with
bodies pushed up against each other is also done in order to minimize heat loss during
the cold months of the year.
When the environment is very cold, life can depend on the ability of our bodies to reduce
heat loss and to increase internal heat production. As Bergmann and Allen observed,
the human physiological response to cold commonly includes the evolution of more
massive, compact bodies with relatively less surface area. Shivering can also cause a
short-term warming effect. The increased muscle activity in shivering results in some
heat production. There are three additional important types of biological responses to
cold conditions found among humans around the world:
1. increased basal metabolic
2. fat insulation of vital organs
3. change in blood flow patterns
Different populations usually develop at least one of these important adaptive responses
to consistently cold conditions. People living in harsh subarctic regions, such as the Inuit
(Eskimo) of the far northern regions of the western hemisphere and the Indians of Tierra
del Fuego at the southern end, traditionally consumed large quantities of high calorie
fatty foods. This significantly increases the basal metabolic rate, which, in turn, results in
the production of extra body heat. These peoples also wore heavy clothing, often slept
in a huddle with their bodies next to each other, and remained active when outdoors.
The Ju/'hoansi of Southwestern Africa and the Aborigines of Australia usually respond
physiologically to the cold in a different way. Thick fat insulation develops around the
vital organs of the chest and abdomen.
In addition, their skin cools due to
vasoconstriction at night.
As a result, heat loss is reduced and the core body
temperature remains at normal levels. However, the skin feels very cold.
This response would not be adaptive if the Kung and the Aborigines lived in consistently
freezing environments because the concentration of body heat in their torsos would
allow the loss of fingers, toes, and other appendages from frostbite. Their physiological
adaptation is to environments that rarely stay below freezing long and that do not have
abundant high calorie fatty foods.
Hot Climate Responses
Adapting to hot environments is as complex as adapting to cold ones. However, cold
adaptation is usually more difficult physiologically for humans since we are not subarctic
animals by nature. We do not grow dense fur coats nor do we usually have thick layers
of fat insulation like polar bears.
The effect of heat on our bodies varies with the relative humidity of the air. High
temperatures with high humidity makes it harder to lose excess body heat. This is due
to the fact that when the moisture content of air goes up, it becomes increasingly more
difficult for sweat to evaporate. The sweat stays on our skin and we feel clammy. As a
result, we do not get the cooling effect of rapid evaporation.
In dry hot weather, humidity is low and sweat evaporates readily. As a result, we usually
feel reasonably comfortable in deserts at temperatures that are unbearable in tropical
rain forests. The higher the desert temperatures, the more significant of a cooling effect
we get from evaporation. This relationship between relative humidity and air
temperature is quantified below. When the apparent temperature is in the light yellow
range, heat exhaustion and cramps are likely for humans. In the bright yellow range, life
threatening heat stroke is likely.
While evaporative cooling is very effective in dry climates, there is a major drawback.
That is the rapid loss of water and salts from the body through sweat. This can be fatal
in less than a day if they are not replaced. It is common to lose a quart or more of water
through sweating each hour in harsh summer desert conditions. Commercial "sport
drinks" are designed to help people in these situations rehydrate and replenish lost
mineral salts. It is easy and inexpensive to create your own equivalent drink without the
unnecessary food coloring and sugar that the commercial drinks often include to make
them more appealing to customers.
Most people have the ability to physiologically acclimatize to hot conditions over a period
of days to weeks. The salt concentration of sweat progressively decreases while the
volume of sweat increases. Urine volume also reduces. In addition, vasodilation of
peripheral blood vessels results in increased heat loss through radiation. Vasodilation
also causes flushing, or reddening, of the skin since more blood is close to the surface.
NOTE: Sweating is not only a mechanism for getting rid of excess body heat. Our
sweat contains a number of different substances, including pheromones that can have
powerful affects on the hormone systems of others who are physically close to us.
Researchers at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia have shown that
pheromones in the sweat of men can cause an increase in the amount of luteinizing
hormones released from a woman's pituitary gland at the base of her brain. This in turn
can shorten the time until the next ovulation. Subsequently, human male pheromones
are now being considered as potential future fertility drugs for women. Pheromones
released by sisters and other women living together can cause a synchronization of their
menstrual cycles. It is likely that human males also respond subconsciously to female
pheromones in a way that affects their reproductive systems.
PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE
In developing an effective physical fitness program, you must adhere to basic exercise
principles, regardless of your fitness level. These principles can best be remembered by
the acronym "PROVRBS."
PROGRESSION - The intensity and duration of exercise must gradually increase
to improve the level of fitness.
REGULARITY - A regular fitness program requires exercising the four
components of fitness at least 3 times a week. The four
components are: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility.
OVERLOAD - In order to obtain a training effect, the work load of each exercise
session must exceed normal demands placed on the body. Find
your one rep max lift for each exercise, then set the amount of
weight used during each exercise at a level that will cause muscle
failure with 8-10 repetitions.
VARIETY - Variety is the key to a lasting program because it relieves boredom
and increases motivation and progress. Your muscles' "memory
cells" will stop growing if you don't shock them occasionally with a
change in your routine.
RECOVERY - Alternating muscle groups every other day, or alternating hard and
easy days for each component of fitness, allows muscle repair
and growth. Recovery can help avoid burn-out and injury.
BALANCE - Overemphasizing one component of fitness inhibits your overall
progress. Include all four of the components on a regular basis to
achieve proper balance.
SPECIFICITY - Plan your training towards your specific goals. For example,
increase your 2 mile run time using specific cardiorespiratory
activities such as interval training
“We cannot prepare the future for our youth but we can certainly prepare our youth
for the future”
“In a day , when you don’t come across any problema, you can be sure that you are
travelling in a wrong path”
Common Technique Analysis Approach
In biomechanics of sports, the two most common technique analysis approaches are the
qualitative and quantitative methods.
1. Qualitative Analysis
From a sports biomechanics perspective
to identify and correct faults in skill execution using a minimum of measurements
= Qualitative Video Analysis
This method is a systematic watching and thoughtful judgment of the quality of human
movement so as to provide the most proper intervention to pick up sports performance.
To successfully analyze a movement, the very first step is to formulate one or more
questions regarding the movement. The following general questions might be included:
1. Is the movement being performed through a suitable range of motion (ROM)?
2. Is the movement being performed with enough force?
3. Is the sequencing of body movements suitable for completing of the skill?
4. Why is the javelin thrower not getting better distance?
Besides, more definite questions might take account of these:
1. Is release of the handball taking place at the instant of full elbow extension?
2. Is there hyper trunk extension taking place during the execution of the shot?
Once one or more questions have been recognized, the following step in analyzing
human movement is to collect data. The most commonly data collected by teachers and
coaches is qualitative visual or ocular observation data. In order to acquire the best
observational data, it is practically to plan ahead as to the optimal distance (s) and
viewpoint (s) from which to make the comments. Breaking down a whole motion of
performing a particular skill into phases will provide the teachers or coaches with a more
logical frame by frame study.
2. Quantitative Analysis
Describing and explaining performance skills using measurement systems in
= Quantitative Video Analysis
The advancement of technology resulted in the ability to record, display and evaluates
dynamic movements both kinematically and kinetically. Quantitative biomechanical
analysis methods employ a wide range of data collection instruments to observe,
capture and evaluate athletes’ performance. These instruments include high-speed
cameras, force platforms, electromyography (EMG) and electro-goniometers.
High-speed cameras offer teachers, coaches and sports biomechanists especially with
the capability to capture and record complex movements sequence. Once the sequence
of motion is captured, the location of the body markers of the athlete are eventually
converted into coordinates using a digitiser. During digitizing, kinematic data such as
displacements, velocities and accelerations of the recorded motion are obtained.
Force platforms or force plate are examples of dynamometers normally used nowadays
to measure the ground reaction forces (GRF). The electrical energy collected in the
strain gauge, the transducers in the force plate will then transfer kinetic energy into
electrical energy. This electrical energy is then recorded in an analogous form of force
Electromyography provides information on athletes’ muscular activities by recording
changes in the electrical potential of a muscle during contracting or relaxing. These
signals will record indications of the electrical activity of a particular muscle.
Electro-goniometer provides instantaneous and reliable way of obtaining kinematic data
on joint angular movements. The data obtained will eventually provide a good insight of
angular movement characteristics and flexibility of joint segments before any further
diagnosis, rehabilitation or exercise prescription being made.
Qualitative Video Analysis of sports skill:
1. SILICOCOACH Pro - videoing
Silicon COACH Pro software is designed for teachers, coaches, sports scientist or
biomechanist to provide meaningful feedback for their athletes or subjects. Capture a
video with a well planning procedure (Figure 1).
Figure 1 : A well planning procedure
1. A chalkboard or piece of paper with the name of the new person should be
displayed in front of the camera.
2. A proper number of fingers to indicate the trial number if the movements are
3. Determine and plan the best angle of a movement to be capture.
4. The plane of any movement will need to be perpendicular to the camera.
5. Lighting should be shown from behind the camera side towards the event.
6. A one meter scaling rod need to be put in the field of view. Once the scaling rod
has been videotape, you cannot adjust the zoom or focus on the camera.
7. The camera should be place at a distance from the subject. The image size
should be as large as possible.
8. Use the manual focus to avoid the camera focusing on an unwanted object in the
background or foreground as the subject moves.
9. Use a high shutter speed to capture a clear image
10. As the shutter speed increases, less light is allowed to reach the videotape,
causing the image to turn dark.
11. Spot lights is required to achieve the necessary lighting levels to video indoors
with a high speed shutter.
12. Record at least 2 minutes of videotape prior to videotaping any activity that you
want to analyze. When taping be sure to record plenty of tape prior to and after
the period of interest.
Capturing and editing procedure
Digital Video Camera
Silicon COACH Pro software
1. Use the ‘folder list’ to specify the folder where to save the file
2. Select the folder into which to capture the movie.
3. Locate video footage that intended to capture on the video source.
4. Select the ‘CAPTURE ‘ tag. Use the controls to operate the camera.
5. Click the ‘START’ button. Be aware there may be a 1-2 second delay for the system
6. Once completed capturing, click the STOP button to stop the capturing process.
‘Esc’ key can be used for the same purpose.
7. You can trim down the unwanted video clips.
8. The movie name will now appear in the File list. The movie can be viewed by
double clicking on it in the File list or select PLAY after a Right Mouse Click.
Part 1: Building the presentation
1. In the Presentation Builder screen click on the Template button.
A list of templates will appear.
2. Double click on the ‘Short – 2’ template to load the template into the presentation
Note: how the movies in the Movie Column are called View 1 and View 2. (Click
expand all at the top of the presentation area to see video file place holders).
3. The first series of screen set-ups in each of these templates are called Single Play
(Double click the green icons to access these options) and the lower series of
screen set-ups are under Single Manual or Dual Manual control.
4. If you replace View 1 with a movie called XXX avi the full path to the movie appears
in the Presentation area only when you roll your mouse over the video icon, e.g.
5. To change the movies from the defaut ‘View 1’, and ‘View 2’ place-holders, drag
your new movie over the first occurrence of the one you want to replace (e.g. ‘View
1’) Your new movie will replace all occurrences of the ‘View 1’ place-holder.
6. to create own templates. Click on the ‘Screen Set-up’ button. Drag the set-up you
desire onto the presentation area. The new set-up will always be added to the end
of the list.
Part 2: Using the screen tools
1. Capture a video
All of our products include integrated video capture for analog and digital video. This
means you can use siliconCOACH to capture through standard video capture cards, or
Firewire cards (IEEE 1394) that support Direct X 8 or later (see Hardware
Requirements). The video capture interface allows you to capture Analog or Digital
Video and save it as a movie file on your computer. The movies can be "trimmed" to
remove unwanted footage or compressed to speed up transmission over the Internet.
The interface is intuitive yet powerful enough to give you the flexibility you need to deal
with different formats and hardware specifications.
2. Drawing Buttons
The following table illustrates the drawing and measurement tools that are available.
Click this to...
Straight line tool
Draw a straight line
Arrowed line tool
Draw an arrowed line
Draw a non-linear line
Curved line tool
Draw a curved line
Horizontal line tool
Draw a horizontal line
Vertical line tool
Draw a vertical line
Point marker tool
Track a point of interest
Use the oval shape to enclose an area of
Use the rectangle shape to enclose a area of
Add a grid over a person to get reference
Normal angle tool
Calculates an angle between any three points
Vertical angle tool
Measure the angle relative to a vertical line
Horizontal angle tool
Measure the angle relative to a horizontal line
Set the scale
Discrete Measurement Calculate a distance between any two points
Determine the change in distance of an object
across a number of frames
3. Build a presentation
Silicon COACH uses a unique presentation builder which uses template designs to
dramatically speed up the process between video capture and analysis. To create a
presentation, open a template and simply drag the movies into the placeholders. A
presentation template is simply a presentation with predefined screen set-ups that you
can drop movies into. As you become more proficient and discover your own
presentation needs, you can develop your own presentation templates.
For even more speed and ease of use you can use the 'Quick Present and Play’ feature.
After you finish capturing your video, the software automatically loads that captured
video into a Presentation and starts playing it for you, giving you and your athlete or
client feedback in a matter of seconds.
4. Customize screen setups
The screen setups are the building blocks of a presentation. The characteristics of a
screen setup can be changed simply be clicking on it and selecting a new option. Two
movies can be overlaid to highlight differences in technique. The overlaid movie can be
scaled and moved to achieve the best alignment.
To speed up the assembly of a presentation, you can select a screen set-up that will
automatically pair the movies you wish to use. You can display one, two or four movies
on the screen at the same time. You can also display the movies in the two screen
setup-ups in a way that best suits the movement you are analyzing. In all cases, the
movies are scaled in such a way that the original aspect ratio is maintained. This means
that the images aren't distorted and that an accurate analysis can be conducted. Further
more, all the movies can be synchronized to a common event (for example ball strike or
ground contact), so that the videos will play through that key point in time together.
Number Two Screen Description
of Movies Orientation
Only one movie is visible. The
frame height and width of the
movie is scaled so that each frame
is completely visible.
(click for larger image)
The two movies will be shown side
by side and the frame height and
width of each movie is scaled so
that each frame is completely
The two movies will be shown side
by side but only the central portion
of the movie will be visible. The
movie is at full height to allow you
to get a larger view of an activity
that is tall but not very wide.
The two movies will be shown one
above the other but only the central
portion of the movie will be visible.
The movie is at full width to allow
you to get a larger view of an
activity that is wide but not very tall.
The two movies are shown with
one on top of the other. The
amount of transparency can be
altered to highlight specific points
The four movies will be shown side
by side and the frame height and
width of each movie is scaled so
that each frame is completely
5. Split fields (50 or 60 Hz for PAL/NTSC)
One of the major advantages of silicon COACH Pro is its ability to extract 50 PAL/60
images per second (Hz), out of original digital video. This is essential to accurately
analyse fast or complex movements. The images below highlight this feature. In the first
series of images at 50Hz the impact of the ball on the racquet is evident in the forth
image, however, in the 25Hz footage this key point is not clear.
At 50 Hz Pal or 60 Hz NTSC
(click for larger image)
At 25 Hz Pal or 30 Hz NTSC
(click for larger image)
6. Watch the presentation
Once you have created your presentation you can then watch it in the Presentation
viewer. Here you will also find a large selection of control, drawing and measurement
(click for larger image)
7. Flip images
Movies can be flipped horizontally, which is useful when comparing left and righthanded athletes, or when assessing their general symmetry. In the two-screen
example below the right hand movie in the second image has been flipped so that a
comparison between the technique of the left and right limbs can be performed.
(click for larger image)
(click for larger image)
8. Use drawing and measurement tools
A full range of tools are available to enhance your analysis of a person’s technique.
These tools allow you to draw over a movie to highlight points of interest and measure
key variables such as distances, speeds and angles, including angles from a vertical
or horizontal reference line.
Your analysis can be saved as a movie file as you go. It can then be played back,
saved to disk, CD, or sent over the Internet. The saved file incorporates the movie
with your drawings, measurements and any verbal comments you add using your
9. Zoom tool
silicon COACH Pro has a zoom tool. This tool displays a small window that zooms in
on the portion of the screen where you have positioned the cursor. There are a
number of zoom levels available. The zoom window can also be stretched and
10. Blend function
The blend tool allows you to select a reference image and then advance the movie
so that each frame is blended with the reference image. Now you can visualize two
frames from the SAME movie at the same time. This helps you assess how much a
person has moved from the position they were in when you initially turned the Blend
11. Overlay images
A movie can be overlaid on top of another to highlight differences in technique. The
overlaid movie can be scaled and moved to achieve the best alignment. Also the
transparency of each image can be changed while you are watching it to highlight
the different points you want to make.
12. Save images as .jpg file
Any image you have on screen in silicon COACH can be saved as a .jpg file. This
includes all drawings and text. These images are ideal for preparing reports or
13. Export Presentation to video or CD
SiliconCOACH Pro and siliconCOACH Pro Server Edition are designed to create CD
presentations, so your athlete or client can take home a personalized copy of your
analysis. The analysis includes all of the drawings and measurements that you
make, and you can use a microphone to record your verbal comments as well. The
Package Wizard in the software simply packages all the files, including the free
siliconCOACH Viewer, into one folder ready to burn to CD.
Not all of your clients will have siliconCOACH software on their computer. If you have
made a presentation for them in siliconCOACH Pro or siliconCOACH Pro Server
Edition they can watch it on any Windows computer using the free siliconCOACH
14. Graphing Function
If you have tracked positional changes of a point over time, the latest version of
siliconCOACH automatically creates a graph of distance and speed. For example, if
you use the continuous measurement tool to track the position of the bar during a
squat action, you can press on the graphing button to automatically display the
distance traveled and speed of the bar. The cursor is synchronized with the video in
the background to visually show you what is happening at that point on the graph.
For even further analysis, you can export all your data into a comma-separatedvalues file to be opened in other analysis software such as Microsoft Excel.
15. Using the Technique Wizards with report PAC Technology
After eight years of developing sports analysis software we have realized that we can
not only give our clients great analysis tools, but we can also provide knowledge on
how to perform an analysis. To facilitate the transfer of knowledge between different
groups that are interested in movement analysis, report PAC Technology was
Report PAC Technology revolutionizes movement analysis because it provides a
mechanism for disseminating knowledge. To do this, reportPAC Technology creates
a report by combining the data collected in siliconCOACH Pro, siliconCOACH Pro
Server Edition, or siliconCOACH Student using Technique Wizards as a guide.
reportPAC Technology then saves this report to your local computer or allows it to be
uploaded to a web based database called siliconCOACH Central, by connecting
through the World Wide Web.
reportPAC Technology is not a stand alone piece of software. You must have
siliconCOACH Pro, siliconCOACH Pro Server Edition, or siliconCOACH Student to
use reportPAC Technology.
This image shows a Technique Wizard made for squatting
that guides the user through making a report.
This image shows an automatically generated completed
report for a tennis serve, as viewed in a web browser.
Part 3: Creating a Simple Presentation
1. Build a presentation with 1,2 or 4 screen views
- use the ‘ templates’
- use the ‘ screen setups’
Use PLAY, STEP, or MANUAL, controlled playback.
Flip the movie.
Synchronise two movies for playback.
When using MANUAL playback, please use :
• All the drawing tools
• All the erasers
• Measure joint angles
• Measure angles relative to the horizontal/vertical
• Set the scale and measure distance and speed
• Create graphs
• Make movies of your presentations.
‘” When a person feels that they got what they deserve because that’s what they
earned - that’s Pride “
“ I will not say I failed 1,000 times , I will say that I discovered 1,000 ways that can
cause failure “
APPLICATION OF PERIODIZATION IN SPORTS
Per iodization can be deﬁned as planned distribution or variation in training methods and
means on a cyclic or periodic basis (Plisk S.S., 2003). The basic goals are to exploit
complementary training effects at optimal times, manage fatigue, and prevent stagnation
or overtraining. Each individual training cycle is characterized by periodical adjustments
in the objectives, tasks, and content with the ultimate objective being to assist the
athletes in reaching a peak level of performance for the main competition(s) of the year
(Cissik J., 2008).
Generally there are three (3) common per iodization models which include “Classic”
linear, non-linear or undulating and reverse linear.
A. “Classic” Linear
Divides a long term training period called macrocycle into smaller phases called
mesocycle, which are also subdivided into weekly microcycle. It is characterized
by high initial training volume and low intensity. As training progress, volume
decreases and intensity increases in order to maximize strength, power or both.
In this model the training phase is designed to emphasized a particular
physiological adaptation (e.g., hypertrophy, maximal strength etc).
B. Non-linear or undulating
Enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7 to 10 day cycle by
rotating different protocol over the course of the training program (E.g., Monday –
strength, Wednesday – muscular endurance, Friday – hypertrophy). This model
requires less organization and planning. Kraemer et al. (2000) and Marx et al
(2001) demonstrate undulating periodization are just effective as linear
periodization for the development of strength, power and muscle mass and are
more effective than non-periodized program.
C. Reverse Linear
This model is considered as a linear periodization in reverse. The goals of this
model is to maximize muscle hypertrophy or endurance. It starts with the power
phase (high intensity: 2-3 reps/set; low volume: 3 sets/exercise) first. Rhea et al.,
(2003) demonstrate reverse linear periodization model is more effective for
increasing muscular endurance than linear periodization model. The authors
concluded that gradual increases in volume and decreases in intensity may result
in greater gains in muscular endurance.
LINEAR PERIODIZATION MODEL FOR SPORT SPECIFIC
Periodization Model for Endurance Sports
Sample : Long-distance and Marathon Running
High aerobic capacity is the essential physical attribute of distance runners. Equally
important is the ability to maintain a steady pace so that the runner efficiently taxes the
energy stores, where glycogen and free fatty acids are the fuels used to produce energy
for the race. Fast pace at the finish is dependent on an athlete’s capacity to produce
Dominant energy system : aerobic.
o 10K: 5% alactic; 15% lactic acid; 80% aerobic.
o Marathon: 5% lactic acid; 95% aerobic.
Energy suppliers: glycogen; free fatty acids.
Limiting factor: requires muscular endurance of long duration.
Training objectives: muscular endurance; power endurance; maximum strength.
MxS = Maximum strength (<80%)
M-EM = Muscle-endurance of medium duration.
M-EL = Muscle-endurance of long duration.
Periodization Model for Intermitten Sports
The most popular sport in the world is a game of great technical and physical demand, in
which power, speed, agility, and specific endurance determine the final result.
Dominant energy systems: alactic; lactic acid; aerobic.
o Alactic 15%, lactic acid 15%, aerobic 70%.
Energy suppliers: creatine phosphate; glycogen.
Limiting factors: power; starting power; power endurance; acceleration power;
deceleration power; reactive power.
Training objectives: power; power endurance; takeoff power; maximum strength.
Model for soccer: Amateur Team
Power, P-E, Mxs
T = Transition, P = Power, P-E = Power-endurance
The aerobic energy system (O2) can be trained via tempo training (60-600m) and
specific drills of 3-5 minutes nonstop.
The order of energy systems per phase also represents the priority of training in that
Model for soccer: Professional Team
Periodization Model for Explosive sports
A sprinter requires explosive speed and long, powerful strides. Endurance is not as
important a consideration as acceleration because the sprinter needs to move quickly
over a short distance.
Dominant energy systems: anaerobic alactic; lactic.
o 80% alactic; 20% lactic.
Energy supplier: creatine phosphate.
Limiting factors: reactive power; starting power; acceleration power; power
Training objectives: maximum strength; reactive power, starting power;
acceleration power; power endurance.
Model for Sprints
Periodizati Preparatory I
Prep. Comp. II
Mxs Conv. Maint:
Periodizati L.A. L.A.
Note: The aerobic (O2) training for a sprinter represents the cumulative effect of tempo training
(repetitions of 600m, 400m, and 200m)
NONLINEAR (UNDULATING) PERIODIZATION MODEL
Sample Mesocycle With Emphasis on Power
VL = Very light intensity workout.
L = Light intensity workout.
M = Moderate intensity workout.
H = Heavy intensity workout.
VH = Very heavy intensity workout.
P = Power workout.
An active rest day can be used for any workout if needed.
Sample Mesocycle With Emphasis on Strength
VL = Very light intensity workout.
L = Light intensity workout.
M = Moderate intensity workout.
H = Heavy intensity workout.
VH = Very heavy intensity workout.
P = Power workout.
An active rest day can be used for any workout if needed.
Sample Mesocycle With Emphasis on Hypertrophy and Strength
VL = Very light intensity workout.
L = Light intensity workout.
M = Moderate intensity workout.
H = Heavy intensity workout.
VH = Very heavy intensity workout.
P = Power workout.
An active rest day can be used for any workout if needed.
Sample Mesocycle With Emphasis on Endurance and General Preparation
VL = Very light intensity workout.
L = Light intensity workout.
M = Moderate intensity workout.
H = Heavy intensity workout.
VH = Very heavy intensity workout.
P = Power workout.
An active rest day can be used for any workout if needed.
Periodization is an organized approach to training that involves progressive cycling of
various aspects of a training program during a specific period of time to bring about
optimal gains in physical performance.
The year’s training or macrocycle is divided into two or more mesocycles that contain
preparatory, competition and transition periods. Each period has two or more
microcycles that are often divided into heavy, light and medium training days. The
mesocycles begin with high-volume and low-intensity training and progress to lowvolume and high-intensity training just prior to competition period.
Transition periods of active rest follow each competition period and may be interspersed
between phases or periods as unloading weeks. The nature of the sporting season
dictates the length and number of mesocycles during the training year.
In most sports, athletes start from either a stationary or a partially moving posture and
attempt to reach maximum speed as quickly as possible. This is referred to as
acceleration, or the rate of change of velocity.
Speed refers to the point at which athletes can accelerate no more and have reached
their maximum rate of movement. At this point, athletes attempt to hold that pace as long
as possible and to minimize “slowing” due to fatigue, friction, and air resistance.
Three area of change can directly cause improvement of acceleration and speed:
A. Taking faster steps (increasing stride rate) without decreasing the length of each
B. Increasing the length of each stride without decreasing stride rate.
C. Using sound biomechanics (form).
A fourth area – anaerobic endurance (speed endurance)
A. Has an indirect effect on acceleration and speed by reducing slowing at the end
of a long sprint and permitting repetitive short sprints to occur at the same rate,
relatively unaffected by fatigue.
Many functional movement have a ballistic nature even when initiated from a static
position. The action begins with a preparatory countermovement in which involved
muscle are rapidly and forcibly lengthened, or stretch-loaded and immediately shortened
in a reactive or spring like manner.
Eccentric-concentric coupling phenomenon is know as the stretch-shortening cycle
(SSC). SSC performance is independent of maximum strength in highly. It is actions
exploit the stretch reflex as well as the intrinsic elastic qualities of the muscle-tendon
SPRINT TRAINING GOALS
The goal of sprinting is to achieve high stride frequency and optimal stride length by
A. Maximizing the backward velocity of the lower leg and foot at the ground contact
B. Minimizing vertical impulse and horizontal braking forces
C. Emphasizing brief ground support time, explosive force production and rapid
D. Developing eccentric knee flexion strength to improve leg recovery mechanics
and place the foot properly at touchdown.
FACTORS AFFECTING ACCELERATION AND SPEED
1. Muscle fiber
Three types of muscle fiber are found in various parts of every athlete’s body:
A. Slow-twitch red (type I) – aerobic
Relies on oxygen to produce energy.
Develops force slowly and fatigue resistant.
Long twitch time, low power output, high aerobic capacity for energy
Limited potential for rapid force development and anaerobic power.
B. Fast-twitch red (type IIa) – anaerobic
Intermediate fiber type can contribute to both anaerobic and aerobic
It develops force moderately fast and has moderate fatigability, twitch
time, power output, aerobic power, and anaerobic power.
C. Fast-twitch white (type IIb) – anaerobic
Does not rely on oxygen to produce energy.
It develops force rapidly, and has fatigability (low endurance), a short
twitch time, high power output, low aerobic power, and high anaerobic
2. Body fat
Body fat of 6 to 10% of body weight for men and 12 to 17% for women is
desirable for sprinting short distance.
It is important to be aware that the lower range for both men and women may be
unhealthy even for athletes, depending on the individual, but excess fat provides
useless weight that negatively affects both acceleration and speed.
Age eventually all aspects of athletic performance.
No physiological reason exists for speed to diminish significantly from age 25 to
35 unless the athlete ceases training, loses strength and power, or adds body fat.
Gender is a factor in sprinting.
The faster stride rates and longer strides of males appear to account for the time
Removing errors in arms action, body lean, foot contact, over striding, under
striding, and tension can improve acceleration and speed.
AGILITY AND COORDINATION
Agility is the ability to change direction while maintaining good body position with
explosively break, change direction and accelerate again. When integrated with a
coordination system, agility permits an athlete to react to a stimulus, start quickly and
efficiently, move in the correct direction, and be ready to change direction or stop quickly
to make a play in a fast, smooth, efficient, and repeatable manner.
People possess several types of agility:
A. Whole-body horizontal changes of direction such as faking and avoiding.
B. Whole-body vertical changes of direction such as jumping and leaping.
C. Rapid movements of body parts that control movement of implements in sports such
as tennis, squash, and hockey field.
There are two critical elements in developing agility, coordination, and skill:
A. The role of coordination is to execute the movements chosen in response to a
B. The role of skill is to orchestrate these coordinated abilities into an efficient and
effective set of general, special, and sport-specific movements.
Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (Thomas 1993) defines coordination as “the
working together of various muscles for the production of a certain movement.” In the
field of exercise science, coordination is recognized as the ability of the body to organize
two or more patterns to achieve a specific movement goal.
Coordination involves an intricate and complex sequence of activities that can be
simplified as below:
A. Activities encompass reacting to sensory input (stimulus).
B. Choosing and processing the proper motor program from learned skills (motor
C. Executing the action.
The process of motor learning itself can be broken into four steps:
A. Muscle movements stimulate the sensory receptors.
B. The sensory receptors send information to the central nervous system (CNS), which
acts as a processor for the information.
C. The CNS executes, adjusts, or improves this information.
D. The CNS sends the information back to the required muscles via motor pathways.
There are three main stages in coordination refinement:
Crude coordination (general)
i. In this stage the athlete attempts to learn a new task and must consciously
comprehend all movement. The athlete must be aware of his/her body in order to
control the new task.
ii. He / she will rely heavily on visual and auditory input systems because the other
senses of the body’s aren’t quite ready to give highly accurate information.
Fine coordination (special)
In this phase the athlete starts to internalize how movements should feel, relying
less on the visual and auditory systems, with the exception of input from the
coach, and more on the depth receptors, proprioceptors, and dynamic and static
Superfine coordination (specific)
This is the final stage motor learning, when integration of the automated motor
FOUNDATIONS OF AGILITY AND COORDINATED MOVEMENT
A. Balance and base of support
Balance – the ability to maintain the center of body mass over a base of support.
The center of mass is a constant and will always lie within the body. Height,
gender, and body type affect an athlete’s center of mass.
In a static, erect position, the center of mass will be located at the same point as
the center of gravity.
Good posture is critical to athletic performance and is seen in an erect trunk.
It is the result of good core stability, which in turn is created by a harmony of
contractions by the transverse and rectus abdominis, erector spinae, and many
other muscles that help stabilize the pelvic and thoracic regions.
Core stability acts as a solid foundation for the head, which should be in line with
the trunk. This in turn creates a consistent, stable environment for the eyes to
gather reliable information to add to the feedback system.
C. Foot interaction with the ground
For more positions in sport, improving foot-ground interaction can offer greater
performance rewards than working on specific technical skills.
The calf represents only about 14% of the power within the kinetic chain, yet this
component either activates or compromises all the bigger muscle groups within
the chain such as the legs, hips, torso, and arms.
D. Ground reaction forces
Ground reaction forces develop from the ability of the body to deliver force into
the ground, transfer energy, and produce an equal and opposite reaction that
propels the body and limbs in the desired direction.
The lifting of the leg should be relatively how for multidirectional movement.
Reaction will be improved by using the proper stance and weight distribution as
well as taking a positive first step in the desired direction.
Reaction will be significantly improved with practice in visual, auditory, technical,
and tactical anticipation.
F. Acceleration and deceleration
Acceleration relies on great posture, a total-body lean, positive shin angles, and
aggressive piston-like leg and arm action.
Deceleration requires great relative strength and technique.
Deceleration occurs during cutting and stopping with various levels of
abruptness; it is critical to bend or yield to stop.
G. Starting quickness
Starting quickness and first-step quickness are related to stance, reaction, and
knowing where to go.
A balanced stance with great positive angles helps propel the athlete in the
Cutting, or executing a change of direction, requires rapid deceleration and
reacceleration while performing various movements.
Cutting can link movement in (1) one direction with the same movement in
another direction, (2) link different types of movement.
A crossover is a transition from lateral to backward movement, enabling the
athlete to cover a lot of distance in a short time when immediate reaction is not
DESIGNING AN AGILITY PROGRAM
A drill is an exercise designed to address a specific aspect of a greater skill. It is
important to classify drills based on how much they contribute (by percentage) to the
desired motor ability (mobility, biomechanics, strength, energy system development,
etc). Drills should be classified as to whether they are general, special, or sport-specific
exercises for a given skill, movement, player, sport, or position.
A. Evaluate athletes
To improve and maximize the effectiveness of a training program, it is important
to evaluate the needs of the athletes.
Evaluate the athlete by answering these questions:
a) What is the developmental level of the athlete (age, skill, etc)
b) What is the current state of his/her movement?
c) What is the athlete’s limiting factor?
Motor ability (i.e., mobility, strength, etc.)?
B. Structure the workout plan
To help athletes get the most out of their workouts, coaches should do the
a. Plan a specific goal for each movement session.
b. Strive for perfect technical execution of every rep, set, drill, and skill.
c. Quality (proper execution and intensity) is far more important than
d. Work on simple skills before complex skills.
e. Have athlete master fundamental (general) movement skills before
progressing to more advanced (special ad specific) skills.
f. Provide accurate feedback with visual and auditory cues, and encourage
athletes to use sensory input.
g. Work on stride frequency (rapid, response, quickness, decelerations) and
stride length (short and long, power).
h. Remember: starting is extending position and stopping is bending
C. Movement preparation
The goals of movement preparation are to:
a. Elevate the core body temperature
b. Actively elongate the muscles
c. Activate the nervous system, proprioceptors, and stabilizers
d. Improve kinesthetic awareness
e. Work on technique by reinforcing critical motor programs daily
Essentially, movement preparation is warming up in way that is similar to the way
the athlete plays.
These exercises incorporate and reiterate correct posture, core stabilization,
balance, coordination, and range of motion through all planes of movement.
The sequence of movement preparation:
a. Warm-up – start with basic, active movements such as movement related
to sports requirement, or even light games that improve kinesthetic
b. Joint mobility – this type of work mobilizes and strengthens segments of
the body in flexion, extension, and rotation. These drills actively ease the
body into motion, gradually elongation and preparing the muscles for
more intense dynamic flexibility.
c. dynamic flexibility – work consists of a progression form walks,
marches, and skips through runs, which start at the feet and progress up
the body toward the head. These movements start slowly with small
amplitude, then progress into large, fast movements that activate the
performance systems essential for practice or competition.
D. Movement drills
This is the actual application of the lesson plan, incorporating into the drills all the
elements specifically aimed at attacking the factors that are limiting an athlete’s
Guideline progression for effective learning:
a. Pre-programmed closed skills with variations such as eyes closed, shoe
off, resistance or assistance, uneven surfaces.
b. Pre-programmed with outside stimulus such as ball, hand signals, or
commands, progressing to random agility (open skills).
c. Random agility progressing from reaction to a single stimulus to reaction
to several or sensory input systems.
SAMPLE DRILLS (AGILITY AND COORDINATION)
Develop balance, flexibility in the hips, footwork, and lateral speed.
Start in a two-point stance.
Step with right foot over the left leg.
Move the left foot to the left behind the right leg.
Step with the right foot behind the left leg.
B. 40-Yard Sprint
Develop agility and conditioning.
Start in a two-point stance on the starting line.
Sprint 5 yard (4.6 meters) to the first line, touch the line with your right hand,
return to the starting line, and touch it with your left hand.
Sprint 10 yard (9 meters) to the second line, touch the line with your right hand,
return to the starting line, and touch it with your left hand.
Sprint 5 yard (4.6 meters) to the first line, touch the line with your right hand, and
return to the starting line.
Combine biomotor skills during leg of the drill.
Start the drill from various positions (e.g., lying, sitting, etc).
Add tumbling to each turn.
C. Forward roll over shoulder (tumbling)
Develop total-body agility and kinesthetic awareness.
Start in a two-point stance with left foot forward.
Bend over and start to fall forward.
As you are about to make contact with the ground, roll over the left shoulder.
Roll and come back up to your feet.
Perform forward rolls over both shoulders and with either foot forward.
Add a sprint in any direction before or after the tumbling drill.
React to any stimuli after tumbling (e.g., a visual cue to run to a cone).
D. Toes, get up, and catch
Improve level-change capability; enhance transition from power to agility.
Lie down on your back.
Hold a medicine ball in your hands.
Perform a chest pass into the air.
Scramble up and catch the ball before it hits the ground.
To introduce a drill to athlete, clearly define the name, purpose, procedure, key
points, and the specific role the drill will play in making the athletes better during
The athletes will then have a clear understanding of what they need to do.
Place athletes in situations in which they will learn by doing and feeling.
Guideline for athlete progression from beginner to advanced stages:
a. Beginners – use the prescribed order at the beginning of the practice.
Technique is more important than speed. The goal is to establish the
b. Intermediate – use the prescribed order, progressing intensity, density,
and volume. Have the athletes perform the drills before or during
c. Advanced – vary the order, intensity, density, and volume. Have the
athletes perform the drills before, during, or after practice.
During the general preparatory phase of training:
a. The goal is to establish a conditioning foundation.
b. The most effective way of doing this is to spend a lot of time working on
movement preparation activities.
c. Teach general and special movement skills.
d. Enhance energy-system work with creatine games.
The special preparatory phase builds on the general preparatory phase.
a. Work on mastering special in pre-programmed work.
b. Mixing altered (resisted and assisted) movements with free movements.
c. Progress all drills gradually after athletes demonstrate mastery so that the
athletes are continually challenged.
Quickness is the ability to initiate skilled movements more quickly than his/her
opponents. The quickest athlete will always dominate team sports that involve one-onone confrontations and individual sports whose strategies follow a read-react-and
The mechanical demands of sports quickness are multidirectional and rely much more
on eccentric power, dynamic balance, proprioception, and balanced flexibility. Quickness
is a learned skill that contributes to sports technique, individual tactics, and team
systems. Each individual tactic relies on a series of quick biomechanical adjustment,
such as the sequence of backpedaling, cutting into a power shuffle, and then jumping
forward to control turnover.
The ability to change speed quickly while already moving fast is a deceptive tactic that
proves effective technique to counteract the opponent movement. Being able to shift
from fourth gear to second gear and jump right back up to fifth in the blink of an eye is
one of the most dangerous offensive tools.
The mechanics of quickness start with a good power position, athletic position, or ready
position. During the movement:
A. The feet remain close to the ground with more horizontal displacement than
B. During the 1st two or three strides, 85% (or more) of time is spent supported by
C. Directional change relies on independent leg action or weight transfer from one
leg to the other.
D. From there, quickness is manifested in many ways:
Forward, backward, and sideways stopping
Forward, sideways, sideways crossover, and backward starting
Reacting into lateral movement, cutting, turning, and spinning
Backpedaling; crossing over; lunging; and controlled falling (to block a shot
or dive for a ball).
All these actions have unique mechanical demands. For many skills such as passing,
throwing, and shooting, athletes must have effective rotational quickness.
Anatomical and physiological considerations
Most common sports actions is the stop-and-start, harnesses the natural system of the
body for explosive force production. Anatomy and muscle physiology of quickness
includes sensory receptors in the muscle spindle and musculotendinous junction. The
series elastic element, myotatic stretch reflex, and intrafusil muscle fibers are worth
noting for their contribution to the powerful force-production process.
The stopping action loads the muscle under tension during the eccentric pre-stretch.
This produces stored elastic (potential) energy that may increases the contractile speed
of the agonist muscle during the concentric phase to produce a more explosive start.
The keys are the rate of the stretch and the ability to minimize the time from ground
contact to initiating the reversal of movement that some books called amortization phase
or countermovement phase.
In the quickness training myotatic stretch reflex is the “stretch receptor” in the muscle
spindle, thus made up of extrafusal fibers the contract or elongate under external tension
to produce movement, it also includes intrafusal muscle fibers to serve and providing
feedback on the magnitude and rate of muscle lengthening as a protective machnism.
During the action is rapid, extrafusal fiber elongate and intrafusal muscle stretch, the
sensory receptors of the intrafusal fibers sent a massage directly to the spinal cord,
which in response delivers a command to inhibit the agonist muscle and concentrically
contract the stretched muscle
During a stop, the legs are loaded with potential elastic energy when the muscles are
forced to lengthen (stretch) to absorb and control the stop. If the countermovement
(amortization) time is too long, there is a slow stop or a pause at the bottom because of
inadequate strength and power to reverse the movement immediately, the elastic energy
is lost as heat. If the countermovement (amortization) time is short, the elastic energy
will contribute to a more explosive concentric contraction. One of essential goal of
quickness practice is to eliminate, or minimize, the pause that happens between the end
of the eccentric phase and the beginning of the concentric (coupling time) phase of
movement. Drills targeting the stop-and-start will always involve a rapid
countermovement (amortization) and minimal coupling time (concentric), both of which
are vital to producing quickness, explosive contraction, and to harness the elastic energy
as kinetic energy. For these reasons, improved stopping is the key to improved
For explosive quickness, first teach players how to stop more effectively rather than
keying in on starting. Use drills that are designed to improve and accelerate braking
capability to help stimulate the natural joint and muscle sensors. The stop-start action,
eccentric-concentric sequence, countermovement, and center-of-gravity shift are drawn
on to produce the maximal force in the shortest time.
To improve quickness, training must focus on the neuromuscular system. Practice drills
must be structured for the muscles to learn to fire more quickly and to allow the brain to
rehearse specific movement patterns at high speeds. Neuromuscular adaptation that
requires explosive and precise movement patterns with perfect technique.
Nervous-system training produces stored motor patterns of explosive complex
movements. This kind of training increases the ability of the brain to turn on the muscle
more quickly. Nervous-system training results in an increased firing rate of motor
neurons, selective and maximal recruitment of fast-twitch fibers, quicker reactions, and
more explosive force production.
From bioenergetic perspective, quickness is improved exclusively with the adenosine
triphosphate-phosphocreatine (ATP) energy system (thus through anaerobic training),
and training prescribed accordingly. At the end of a match, during a prolonged shift, or in
overtime, the successful athlete will still be able to mobilize motor units to coordinate
explosive skills under fatigue.
A. Introduce quickness drill technique by incorporating the movements into dynamic
warm-ups and agility drills.
B. Quickness practice is quality practice, not quantity practice.
C. The athlete needs to do full-out overspeed efforts for few seconds followed by
D. Complement and support quickness development with high-velocity anaerobic
E. The athlete must be lean to optimize quickness.
F. Excess fat weight does not contribute to force production and only provides an
additional load to overcome.
G. Physical development should prioritize the legs and the speed center, or core of
the body (abdominals, lower back, adductors, abductors, hip rotators, hip flexor,
hip extensors, and glutes), which initiates and powers all high-speed actions.
H. Muscle hypertrophy in the speed center and leg muscle groups also lowers the
body’s center of gravity.
I. For quickness readiness, athletes first need efficiency of movement, which
includes coordination, dynamic balance, agility, balanced flexibility,
proprioception, and sports technique.
J. In building the prequickness foundation, balanced flexibility is the most critical.
K. The balanced flexibility contributes not only to the quick-feet drills but also
directly to improved quickness.
L. Serious muscle imbalances, in strength or flexibility, prevent dynamic balance
and equal quickness in all directions.
Stopping and starting
A. The majority of injuries occur not in the acceleration phase but during the
deceleration and stopping needed to achieve quick direction changes.
B. Stop training includes eccentric strength, stop-and-hold, stop-and-balance,
single-leg stop, lateral stop, and stopping on unstable surfaces.
C. On the start phase, increase foot quickness by instructing athletes to “pop” the
feet off the ground. They should pop off from the toes and minimize ground
D. Medicine balls help bridge the gap between upper-body power and quickness,
allowing the athlete to explode through a full range of motion in a standing, more
sport-specific movement pattern.
E. The athlete should always maintain a ready position with knees flexed and hips
F. Regeneration time, needs a shorter work phase and a longer rest period.
Incorporating quickness drills in practice
A. For progression within a particular drill, increase the number of foot contacts to
achieve in a set time, increase lateral distance, increase drill movement-pattern
complexity, and decrease the time to complete a drill course.
B. Incorporate visual or auditory stimuli at random times in varied movement
i. E.g., players may explode into action after a ball is dropped in front of them,
attempting to catch it before it hits the ground again.
ii. Coaches can also call out directions. These are read-react-and-explode
C. Once the athlete has improved his or her quickness, the final progression is to
develop his/her ability to execute coordinated and explosive quickness while
i. Top athletes aren’t just quicker, but they must also be able to mobilize
motor units to coordinate explosive complex movements when heavily
ii. To become great athlete, they must learn how to execute sports skills at a
high rate of acceleration.
iii. Put overspeed quickness drills at the end of practice.
iv. Incorporate quickness development into drills on the court, field or the ice to
help transfer improvement into game.
v. They must be able to execute skills at top-end acceleration through a
variety of movement directions under balanced and off-balance conditions,
and in some sports, while withstanding contact.
QUICKNESS EXAMPLE DRILLS
A. Multidirectional skipping
Improve quickness and coordination in locomotive mechanics.
A. While skipping, respond to commands or cues to change your direction, using
forward, backward, and side-skipping.
B. Stay facing a target in front of you.
A. Increase the amplitude of your skip and lower the number of reps.
B. Concentrate on the first skip after the command to change direction.
C. Add a sprint or skill on command.
B. Medicine-ball lateral shuffle/pass
Improve quickness and elastic strength.
A. You and a partner face each other. The distance you travel depends on the
weight of the medicine ball: The lighter the ball, the farther you travel.
B. The drill begins with you both shuffling laterally while performing a chest pass
back and forth along the predetermined route.
C. Upon reaching the target distance, return in the opposite direction while
continuing to pass the ball.
A. One of you leads and is free to change direction at will. The other athlete reacts
C. Wheelbarrow drill
Improve power in the upper body and core muscles.
A. A partner holds your feet while your hands perform a predetermined pattern or
B. This should be done as quickly as possible while maintaining a straight body.
C. It can be timed to judge improvements or your coach can encourage the use of
visual cues, such as ladders, mini hurdles, dot patterns.
A. Perform jumps instead of hand runs.
B. Perform lateral shuffles or circular walks with the hands.
NOTE: All plyometric exercises can be initiated via a stimulus, such as a whistle
blow, and can be preceded or followed by any skill (for example, catching
a ball, sprinting, tumbling, etc).
D. Ball drops with a partner
Improve visual stimulus response and first-step quickness.
A. Using a ball, which can be specific to the target sport, have a partner stationed 5
to 10 yards (4.6 to 9 meters) away and drop the ball from shoulder height.
B. Your partner must catch the ball after the first the first bounce but before a
A. The height of the drop, or distance between partners, can be changed to
accommodate skill level.
B. You may choose to use a ball in each hand in order to increase the difficulty of
E. Backpedal (assorted biomotor skills)
Improve quickness and flexibility in the hip flexor.
A. In an athletic stance, maintain your center of gravity over your base of support
and run backward.
B. Increase your stride length with good form.
A. On command, use an “open step” and sprint to a designated cone.
SPORT - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT FOR SPEED, AGILITY, QUICKNESS (SAQ)
Dynamic balance is highlighted in tennis, not just during movement but also in the
instant just before ball contact with the racket. Player must be able to recover their
balance to avoid leaving the rest of the court open. Examples for tennis movement:
A. Close proximity.
i. The area within approximately four meters of the offensive position.
ii. Usually around the center mark where the players hit the majority of their
iii. Critical movement skills are lateral and base, allowing the players to move
with perfect balance to offensive or defensive forehands & backhands.
iv. The base stance allows the athlete to be poised for lateral movement.
B. Baseline to volley.
i. Starts with the multidirectional stance, which enables players to react in a
ii. They must take a positive first step; link together three to five explosive,
acceleration steps; and then link into deceleration and lateral and base (split
step), making sure to keep the hips down.
iii. This will put them back in perfect position to react to a great volley and
recover immediately into a good stance to repeat the action.
A. Goalkeepers need to work especially hard on stance, reaction skills from all
positions, crossover steps link to jumping and diving, landing and tumbling, and a
modified base stance to give them the best opportunity to react in every direction,
including vertical and horizontal jumping.
B. Fullbacks must work on acceleration and deceleration linked to a modified lateral
and base so that they can position themselves to react to the offensive player. To
make these linked skills more specific in drills, have athletes take a position
against an opponent. As with all positions in soccer, fullbacks will greatly benefit
from working on S-style runs.
C. Front-line players (forwards) should concentrate on being able to link many
different skills. They cover significantly greater ground than other players and
benefit from being able to link acceleration to transition. Players should train
modified absolute speed while being bumped along the way by another player.
Soccer players should become proficient at all special and specific and specific
stride-frequency drills to enhance their ability to dribble at speed.
A. Defensively, blockers players
i. Must work on developing the base stance that readies them for lateral
ii. They must develop crossover to base components and then link them with
iii. These athletes must learn to link the inertia from lateral movement to a
vertical jump by redirecting ground reaction forces.
B. Defensively, backcourt players
i. Must master the stance.
ii. They must maintain positive angles.
iii. Keep their weight forward by bending the legs and hips, and maintain good
posture in the receiving position.
C. Offensively, setters players
i. Need to be proficient at linking every movement skill.
ii. Outside hitters must be incredibly agile so that they can link several
explosive accelerative steps, and then decelerate and transfer this energy
through positive angles and a stable core to vertical movement.
iii. Once airborne, the stable torso acts as a platform that allows athletes to
maintain balance, generate spiking forces, and stick the landing without
going into the net.
FUNDAMENTALS OF FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH TRAINING
Over the past 10 years, there has been a shift toward making training more functional.
The revolution began, as it often does, with physical therapists, and functional training
was slowly adopted by coaches and personal trainers.
Functional training is a method of strength training which mimics certain sport or activity
movement patterns and combines them into a training regime. This type of training is
based on two very simple facts. First, most sports are not played in a stationary position.
Second, most sports involve two or more joints working together. The functional training
goal is to not only work specific muscles, but to also work the stabilizing muscles in the
“core” deep abdominal and back as well as other stabilizing muscles in the hip and
Traditional (Conventional) versus Functional
Traditional strength training usually consists of trying to develop strength and build
muscle through isolating specific muscle groups. This type of training could be called
dysfunctional training and only develop segmental strength. It is adequate for building
muscle but it does not train the body to meet the specific demands of life and sports. It
does not reproduce real life conditions and only serves to create non-functional strength.
Typical strength training attempts to develop the body through a piecemeal approach,
isolating specific muscle groups. Worse yet, this is often done with the body unloaded,
sitting stationary on a machine while moving one isolated body part through a controlled
range of motion, usually in a strict linear, straight ahead motion.
Traditional strength training train isolated muscle function while functional training train
the body to work as a unit. The central nervous system is programmed to make the body
function as a unit, not to work in terms of isolated muscle function.
Functional Training Tools
Functional training equipments include stability balls, form roller, half form roller, wobble
board, Airex mats, agility ladder, medicine balls, weight vests, tubing or resistance band.
The Functional Continuum
To properly design a functional strength training program, three principles need to follow
which are (1) Learn the basic exercises first, (2) begin with simple body weight
exercises, and (3) progress from simple to complex exercises (refer table 1). Examples
of exercises will be demonstrated during the practical session.
Table 1. The functional continuum.
Lower Body Exercise
Upper Body Exercise
One leg with
Adapted from Boyle M. (2004)
Examples of Functional Training for Sport Specific
A golfer who wants to maximize his power, should focus on the major muscles
involved (legs, hips to the torso & through the upper body). By using a high pulley
with weights & stimulating his swing all the way to the from the beginning of the
stroke to the follow through
A soccer player who want to improve the speed & distance of his kick could use
an ankle strap on a low pulley machine to mimic the kicking motion used on
playing games, challenging the muscle of the leg along with balance & torso
A tennis player can develop a powerful forehand or backhand by using a pulley
with a resistance to mimic swing movement, including chest, shoulder, forearm
muscle & torso
POWER TRAINING FOR SPORTS
Power training enables an athlete to apply the greatest amount of their maximal
strength in the shortest period of time. This is crucial for many sports men and women
who will rarely be required nor have the time to produce maximal forces.
Most athletic activities involve far faster movements and far higher power outputs than
are found in maximal strength exercises. An athlete can be exceptionally strong but
lack significant explosive power if they are unable to apply their strength rapidly. A
prerequisite to starting one of these routines is the development of a solid base of
functional strength. Power training will becomes less effective and the risk of injury is
increased if a phase of anatomical adaptation has not already been completed.
Types of Power Training
Listed below are the commonly used methods for power training:
A. Heavy Strength Training
Strength training alone can increase explosive power by positively affecting the
top half of the power equation or the peak force production. Most athletic
movements also start from a stationary position and it is this early phase of
moving a resistance that requires the most effort. Therefore the greater an
athlete's strength is, the more explosive this initial phase of motion will be.
However, once this initial inertia has been overcome less force and more speed
is required to continue the movement and heavy strength training becomes less
Additionally, lifting weights of 70-100% 1-RM has also been shown to reduce
the rate of force production which is counter-productive to power development.
This may explain why in strength trained individuals heavy resistance training is
less effective at increasing vertical jump performance compared to ballistics or
B. Explosive Strength Training
Once a plateau in strength has been reached, more sport-specific types of
power training are required. Completing traditional weight lifting exercises as
fast as possible with relatively light loads produces in theory, the greatest power
output. However, there is a problem with this approach.
Lifting a bar rapidly loaded with 30% 1-RM is difficult to execute, particularly in
the final phase of the movement. The athlete must decelerate and stop the bar
in order to keep it under control. This deceleration activates the antagonist
muscles negatively affecting power output and hinders the required
Performing ballistics and plyometrics training can avoid this problem. In this
types of training there is no deceleration. The athlete is free to jump as high as
possible or throw an object as far as possible without restricting the movement.
The parameters for explosive strength training can be seen in the table below:
Table 2. Explosive Strength Training Guidelines
Load (single effort events)
Load (multiple effort events)
Number of exercises
Reps (single effort events)
Reps (multiple effort events)
Speed of execution
80 – 90% of 1RM
75 – 85% of 1RM
3 – 5 min
Fast (1:1:2 or 1:1:3)
Adapted from Fleck S.J and Kramer W.J (2004)
During a ballistic action, the force far outweighs the resistance so movement is
of a high velocity. The resistance is accelerated and projected. Examples
include a medicine ball throw and a jump squat. The aim is to reach peak
acceleration at the moment of release projecting the object or body as far as
It is recommended that a load of 30-35% 1-RM should be used for exercises
that include free weights such as jump squats (Fleck S.J and Kramer W.J.,
2004). For many ballistic exercises the weight of the objects themselves dictate
the load i.e. medicine balls ranging from 2-6kg (4.4-13lbs) and kettlebells
ranging from 10-32kg (22-70lbs). Parameters for ballistic power training are
summarized in the table below:
Table 3. Ballistic Training Guidelines
30 – 35 of 1RM
10 – 20
2 – 3 min
2 – 3 / week
Number of exercises
Reps (medicine ball)
Reps (30% of 1RM)
Speed of execution
Adapted from Fleck S.J and Kramer W.J (2004)
Ballistics can place considerable eccentric forces on joints, ligaments and
tendons when landing from a jump squat for example. Athletes should always
progress gradually from unloaded to loaded exercises and must not be fatigued
before starting a ballistic power training session.
Choosing the Right Form of Power Training
The type of power training employed must be the most specific to the sport or event.
Olympic lifts, such as power cleans, may be suitable for sports such as football and
rugby. Some plyometric exercises are suitable for soccer and hockey. Ballistic
exercises with medicine balls fit well with basketball and volleyball.
But many sports would benefit from a combination of power training methods. Take
basketball for example - explosive strength training such as power cleans, plyometric
exercises such as depth jumps and ballistics such as jump squats and overhead
medicine ball throws would all be suitable choices.
Plyometric is a combination of Greek words (pilo = more; metric = to measure).
Plyometric refers to those activities that enable a muscle to reach maximal force in the
shortest possible time. The muscle is loaded with an eccentric (lengthening) action,
followed immediately by a concentric (shortening) action. Plyometrics revolve around
jumping, hoping and bounding movements (lower body) and swinging, quick action
push-off, catching or throwing, arm swings and pulley throw (upper body). Plyometric
exercises depend on the quality of movement, not the quantity of exercises, to
accomplish speed-strength characteristic.
A practical definition of plyometric exercise is a quick, powerful movement using a prestretch or countermovement that involves the stretch shortening cycle (SSC). The
purpose of plyometric exercise is to increase the power of subsequent movements by
using both the natural elastic components of muscle and tendon and the stretch reflex.
A wide variety of training studies shows that plyometrics can improve performance in
vertical jumping, long jumping, sprinting and sprint cycling. It appears also that a
relatively small amount of plyometric training is required to improve performance in these
tasks. Just one or two types of plyometric exercise completed 1-3 times a week for 6-12
weeks can significantly improve motor performance. Additionally, only a small amount of
volume is required to bring about these positive changes. For example, 2-4 sets of 10
repetitions per session or 4 sets of 8 repetitions. Currently research has demonstrated
an increase in running economy for endurance athletes. Thus, this type of training
regime may also beneficial for endurance runner.
Mechanics and Physiology of Plyometric
A muscle that is stretched before a concentric contraction, will contract more forcefully
and more rapidly. A classic example is a “dip" just prior to a vertical jump. By lowering
the center of gravity quickly, the muscles involved in the jump are momentarily
stretched producing a more powerful movement. But why does plyometric work? Two
models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon.
A. Mechanical model
In this model, elastic energy is created in the muscles and tendons and stored
as a result of a rapid stretch. This stored energy is then released when the
stretch is followed immediately by a concentric muscle action. The effect is like
that of stretching a spring, which wants to return to its natural length. The spring
is this case a component of the muscles and tendons called the Series Elastic
B. Neurophysiological Model
When a quick stretch is detected in the muscles, an involuntary, protective
response occurs to prevent overstretching and injury. This response is known
as the stretch reflex. The stretch reflex increases the activity in the muscles
undergoing the stretch or eccentric muscle action, allowing it to act much more
forcefully. The result is a powerful braking effect and the potential for a powerful
concentric muscle action.
If the concentric muscle action does not occur immediately after the pre-stretch,
the potential energy produced by the stretch reflex response is lost. (i.e. if there
is a delay between dipping down and then jumping up, the effect of the counterdip is lost).
It is thought that both the mechanical model (series elastic component) and the
neurophysiological model (stretch reflex) increase the rate of force production
during plyometrics exercises
Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC)
The SSC employs the energy storage capabilities of the series elastic component
(SEC) and stimulation of the stretch reflex to facilitate a maximal increase in muscle
recruitment over a minimal amount of time. The SSC involves three (3) distinct
phases – eccentric, amortization and concentric (refer table 4).
The first phase (eccentric) is the pre-stretch or eccentric muscle action. Here, elastic
energy is generated and stored. The second phase (amortization) is the time
between the end of the pre-stretch and the start of the concentric muscle action. The
shorter this phase is, the more powerful the subsequent muscle contraction will be.
The third phase (concentric) is the actual muscle contraction. In practice, this is the
movement the athlete desires – the powerful jump or throw. This sequence of three
phases is called the stretch-shortening cycle. In fact, plyometrics could also be called
stretch-shortening cycle exercises.
Table 4. Summary of Stretch Shortening Cycle
1 - Eccentric
Stretch of agonist muscle
2 - Amortization
Pause between phases 1 and 2
3 - Concentric
Shortening of agonist muscle −
Elastic energy is stored in
Ia afferent nerves synapse
with alpha motor neurons
transmit signals to agonist
Elastic energy is released
Type of Plyometric Exercises
A. Rhythm Plyometrics
Rhythm Plyometric help develop the coordinated movement skills required in
sports. Their primary objective is to give the athlete greater kinesthetic
awareness or body sense, coordination and rhythm. Examples of common
rhythm drills are skipping, running with high knee lift, running butt kicks etc.
These drills develop the necessary technique and coordination to let speed and
power be expressed most efficiently.
B. Power Plyometrics
Power plyometrics emphasize the simultaneous application of maximum strength
and quickness. The focus of movement is explosiveness. Power plyometric drills
include a variety of jumping movements – hops, bounds, single jump and leaps.
Upper body exercise include medicine ball throws, pendulum throws etc.
C. Speed Plyometrics
Speed plyometrics emphasize the speed component of training. The objective of
speed plyometrics training is to force the neuromuscular system to respond more
quickly to a stimulus. Many of these drills will be the same as those done for the
rhythmic movement, stressing maximum quickness. Fast skips, arm swings are a
Plyometric Program Design
The mode can be determine by the body region performing the given exercise.
E.g., a single-hop is a lower body exercise; two-hand medicine ball throw is an
upper body exercise (refer table 5).
Table 5. Lower-Body Plyometric Drills
Type of jump
These drills involving jumping and landing in the same spot. Jumps in place
emphasize the vertical component of jumping and are performed repeatedly,
without rest between jumps; the time between jumps is the SSC’s amortization
phase. Examples of jumps in place include the squat jump and tuck jump.
These emphasize either horizontal or vertical components. Standing jumps are
maximal efforts with recovery between repetitions. The vertical jump and jumps
over barriers are example of standing jumps.
Multiple hops and jumps involve repeated movements and may be viewed as a
combination of jumps in place and standing jumps. One example of a multiple
jumps is the zigzag hop.
Bounding drills involve exaggerated movements with greater horizontal speed
that other drills. Volume for bounding is typically measured by distance but
may be measured by the number of repetitions performed. Bounding drills are
normally greater than 98 ft (30 m) and may include single and double leg
bounds in addition to the alternate leg bounds.
These drills increase the intensity of multiple hops and jumps by using a box.
The box may be used to jump on or off. The height of the box depends on the
size of the athlete, the landing surface, and the goals of the program. Box drills
may involve one, both or alternating legs.
Depth jumps use gravity and the athlete’s weight to increase exercise intensity.
The athletes assumes a position on a box, steps off, lands, and immediately
jumps vertically, horizontally, or to another box. The height of the box depends
on the size of the athlete, the landing surface, and the goals of the program.
Depth jumps may involve one or both legs.
Plyometric intensity refers to the amount of stress placed on involved muscles,
connective tissues and joints and is controlled primarily by the type of drill
performed (refer table 6).
Table 6. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Lower Body Plyometric Drills
The ground reaction force during single leg lower body plyometric drills places
more stress on an extremity’s muscles, connective tissues, and joints, than
during double-leg plyometric drills.
Greater speed increases the intensity of the drill.
Height of the
The higher the body’s center of gravity, the greater the force on landing.
The greater the athlete’s weight, the more stress is placed on muscles,
connective tissues, and joints. External weight (in the form of weight vests,
ankle weights, and wrist weights) can be added to the body to increase a drill’s
Refers to the number of plyometric training sessions per week. Research is
limited on the optimal frequency for plyometric training. Many researchers
suggest relying on the recovery time between plyometric sessions. Forty-eight to
seven-two hours between plyometric sessions is a typical recovery time
guideline. Two to four plyometric sessions per week are commonly performed by
During the in-season, one session per week is appropriate for football players,
while two or three session per week are common for track and field athletes.
During the off-season, plyometric training frequency may increase to two or three
sessions per week for football players and three to four times per week for track
and field athletes.
As plyometric drills involve maximal efforts, complete and adequate recovery (the
time between repetitions, sets and workouts) is required. Research is limited on
the optimal frequency for plyometric training. Recovery for depth jumps may
consist of 5 to 20 seconds of rest between repetitions and 2 to 3 minutes
The time between sets is determine by a proper work-to rest ratio (e.g., 1:5 to
1:10) and is specific to the volume and type of drill performed. Recovery between
workouts range is between two to four days. In addition, drills for the same body
area should not be performed two days in successions.
Plyometric volume is typically expressed as the number of repetitions and sets
performed during a training session. Lower-body plyometric volume is normally
given as the number of foot contacts (each time a foot, or feet together, contact
the surface) per workout (refer table 7). In plyometric bounding, it is expressed as
distance. For example, an athlete start program with a single-leg bound for 30
meter and may progress to 100 meter.
Table 7. Appropriate Plyometric Volumes
Beginner (no experience)
80 to 100
Intermediate (some experience)
100 to 120
Advanced (considerable experience)
120 to 140
* Volume is given in contacts per session
F. Program length
Research is limited on the optimal program length for plyometric training.
Currently most program range from six to ten weeks. In general, plyometric
training should be prescribed similarly to both resistance and aerobic training.
For quick and powerful movement sports, it is beneficial to perform plyometric
exercise throughout the training cycle (macrocycle). The intensity and volume of
the chosen drills should vary with the sport and the season.
Plyometric training must follow the principles of progressive overload. For
example, an off season plyometric program for football may be performed twice a
week. The program’s intensity should progress from low to moderate volume of
low intensity plyometric to low to moderate volumes of moderate intensity, to low
to moderate volumes of moderate to high intensity.
H. Warm up
The specific warm up for plyometric training should consist of low intensity,
dynamic movement (refer table 8).
Table 8. Plyometric Warm-Up Drills
Mimics running movements
Emphasizes posture and movement technique
Enhances proper lower-body movements for running
Prepares for impact and high intensity plyometric drills
• Toe jogging-not allowing heel to touch ground, emphasizes quick reaction
• Straight leg jogging-not allowing or minimizing leg flexion in preparation for
impact of plyometric drills
• “Butt-kickers:-flexing leg to allow heel to touch buttocks
Exaggerated form of reciprocal upper- and lower-extremity movements
Emphasis on quick takeoff and landing mimics plyometric activities
Drills that target changes of direction
Preparation for changes of direction during plyometric drills
Examples include shuttle, shuffle, pattern, and stride drills
Based on the lunge exercise
May be multidirectional (e.g., forward, size, backward)
Combining Plyometric Training With Other Forms of Exercise
Most sports training use multiple energy systems or required other forms of exercise to
properly prepare the athletes for their competitions. Each energy system and sport
specific need must be included in a well designed training program.
A. Combination of plyometric training with resistance training guidelines:
i. Combine lower-body resistance training with upper-body plyometrics and
upper-body resistance training with lower-body plyometrics (refer table X).
ii. Perform heavy resistance training and plyometric training on the same day is
usually not recommended. However, some athletes may benefits from complex
training – a combination of high intensity resistance training followed by
iii. Resistance training exercises may be combined with plyometric movement to
further enhance gains in muscular power. For example, performing a squat
jump with approximately 30% of one’s squat 1RM as an external resistance
further increase performance. This method is an advanced from complex
training and should be performed by athletes who have previously participated
in high intensity plyometric training program.
Table 9. Sample Schedule for Integrating Resistance Training and Plyometrics
High-intensity upper body
Low-intensity lower body
Low-intensity lower body
High-intensity upper body
Low-intensity upper body
High-intensity lower body
High-intensity lower body
Low-intensity upper body
B. Combination of plyometric training with aerobic training guidelines.
It is recommended to performed plyometric exercise before aerobic endurance
training as aerobic training may have a negative effect on power production.
Safety Considerations in Plyometric Training
A. Pre-training evaluation of the athlete
Proper technique must be demonstrated to maximize the drill’s effectiveness and
minimize injury. For lower-body plyometrics, proper landing technique is
essential, particularly in depth jumps. If the center of gravity is offset from the
base of support, injury may occur. The shoulders should be over the knees
during the landing, which should be accomplished through flexion of the ankles,
knees and hips.
For lower-body plyometrics, the athlete’s 1RM squat should be at least 1.5 times
his or her body weight. For upper-body plyometrics, the bench press 1RM should
be at least 1 times the body weight for larger athletes (weigh > 100 kg) and at
least 1.5 times the body weight for smaller athletes (weigh < 100 kg). Other
alternative measure of upper-body strength is the ability to perform five claps
push ups in a row.
For lower-body plyometrics, the athlete should be able to perform five repetitions
of squats with 60% body weight in 5 seconds or less. For lower-body plyometrics,
the athlete should be able to perform five repetitions of bench press with 60%
body weight in 5 seconds or less.
An athlete beginning plyometric training for the first time would be required to
stand in on one leg for 30 seconds without falling. An experienced athlete
beginning an advanced plyometric training must maintain a single-leg half squat
for 30 seconds without falling.
v. Physical Characteristic
Athletes who weigh more than 100 kg may be at risk for injury when performing
plyometric exercises. Therefore, those athletes weighing over 100 kg should
avoid high volume, high intensity plyometric exercises and should not perform
depth jumps from heights greater than 18 inches. Athletes with history of muscle
strains, pathological joint laxity, or spinal dysfunction should exercise caution
when beginning a plyometric training program.
PHYSICAL FITNESS TESTING PROCEDURE
a. Four cones
c. Flat floor with good traction
d. One timer, one spotter, and one person to record times
Figure 1. Floor layout for the T-test.
a. Arrange the four cones as seen in figure 1 (points A, B, C, and D).
b. Have the athlete warm up and stretch prior to the test.
c. The test begins with the athlete standing at point A.
d. On the “Go” command, the athlete sprint forward to point B and touches the base
of the cone with the right hand.
e. The athlete then shuffles to the left 5 yd (4.57 meter) and touches the base of the
cone at point C with the left hand. (Note: When shuffling the athletes should
always face front and not cross the feet.)
f. The athlete then shuffles to the right 10 yd (9.14 meter) and touches the base of
the cone at the point D with the right hand.
g. The athlete then shuffles to the left 5 yd and touches the base of the cone at
point B with the left hand, then runs backward past point A, at which time the
timer stops the watch.
h. For safety, a spotter and gym mat should be positioned several feet behind point
A to catch an athlete who falls while running backward.
The test score is the best time of two trials, to the nearest 0.1 s.
Reasons for disqualification of a trial: The athlete fails to touch the base of any
cone, crosses one foot in front of the other instead of shuffling feet, or fails to
face forward for the entire test.
SPEED TEST (40-YARD / 36.57 METER SPRINT)
b. Flat running surface with start and finish lines marked 40 yard apart, with at least
20 yard after the finish line for declaration
a. Have the athlete warm up and stretch for several minutes.
b. Allow at least two practice runs at submaximal speed.
c. The athlete should be positioned just behind the starting line with one or two
hands on the ground.
d. On the “Go” command, the athlete sprints 40 yard at maximal speed.
e. The score is average of two trials, to the nearest 0.1 s.
POWER (VERTICAL JUMP)- OPTIONAL
a. A smooth wall with a ceiling higher than the highest jumper could surpass.
b. A flat floor with good traction
d. Measuring tape or stick (Alternatively, a commercialize device may be used –
Procedures (using a wall and chalk)
a. The tester rubs chalk on the fingertips of the athlete’s dominant hand.
b. The athlete stands with the right shoulder about 15 cm from the wall.
c. With both feet flat on the floor, reaches as high as possible with the right hand
and makes a chalk mark on the wall.
d. The athlete then lowers the right hand and without a preparatory or shutter step,
flexes the knees and hips, bring the trunk forward and downward, and swing the
e. This downward countermovement prior to upward propulsion is the eccentric
phase of stretch shortening cycle, which enables maximum jump height. The
concentric portion of the movement follows immediately, characterized by knee
and hip extension and a forward and upward arm swing.
f. At the highest point in the jump, the athlete reaches up with the right hand and
places a second chalk mark on the wall. The score is the vertical distance
between the two chalk marks.
g. The best of three trials is recorded to the nearest 1cm.
Table 10. Vertical Jump Scores
Jump height can be converted into a power using the following formula:
Power = Body Mass (kg) x (4.9 x Height Jumped in Meters)2
For example if your weight 80kg and jumped 50cm (0.5m) your score would be:
80 x (4.9 x 0.5)2
80 x 2.45 x 2.45
FLEXIBILITY (SIT AND REACH TEST)
a. Measuring tape or stick
b. Adhesive tape (Alternatively, a standard sit and reach box may be used)
a. Have the athlete warm up with non-ballistic exercises involving the hamstrings
and lower back. For example, begin by walking rapidly for 3-5 min; performing
several repetitions of flexing forward from a standing, knees-straight position,
reaching toward the toe, then reaching upward toward the ceiling ( all without
jerking); jogging in place while trying to kick the heels into the upper thighs from
behind; and finishing with standing toe-touching or similar stretching on the floor.
b. Tape the yardstick or tape measure to the floor. Place one piece of tape about 24
in. (51 cm) long across the yardstick and at a right angle to it at the 15-in. (38 cm)
c. Have the shoeless athlete sit with the yardstick between the legs with its zero
end toward the body, the feet 12 in. (30 cm) apart, the toes pointed upward, and
the heels nearly touching the edge of taped line at the 15-in. (38 cm) mark.
d. Have the athlete slowly reach forward with both hands as far as possible on the
yardstick, holding this position momentarily. To get the best stretch, the athlete
should exhale and drop the head between the arms when reaching. Be sure the
athlete keeps the hands adjacent to each other and does not lead with one hand.
The fingertips should remain in contact with the yardstick. The tester may hold
the athlete’s knee down, if necessary, to keep them straight. A score of less than
15 in. (38 cm) indicates that the athlete could not reach the bottom of feet.
e. Record the best of three trials, to the nearest 0.25 in. or 1 cm.
PHYSICAL FITNESS TESTING
• Able to teach correct execution of physical fitness test procedures.
TABLE 11: PHYSICAL FITNESS TRAINING – PRACTICAL (1 HOUR)
Power test demonstration and practice
• Vertical jump test
Agility test demonstration and practice
• T-Test test
Speed test demonstration and practice
• 40 yard test
Flexibility test demonstration and practice
• Sit and reach test
execution of test
T & P – theory and practice
Equipments - Refer practical notes
• Able to teach correct execution of power exercise.
TABLE 12: POWER EXERCISES – PRACTICAL (1 HOUR)
Power exercise demonstration and
• Push press
• High pull
• Power clean
T & P – theory and practice
Equipments - Refer practical notes
execution of test
• Able to teach correct execution of lower and upper body plyometric exercises.
TABLE 13: PLOMETRIC TRAINING – PRACTICAL (40 MINUTES)
Plyometric warm up drill
• Jogging – toe jogging, straight leg
jogging, butt kicker
• Footwork – shuffle, stride drill
• Lunging – multidirectional
• Jump in place – 2 foot ankle hop,
Double leg tuck jump, Single leg
• Standing jumps – double leg
vertical , jump over barrier, single
leg vertical jump
• Multiple hops and jumps – double
leg hop, double zig zag hop, single
• Bounds – skip, power skip, double
arm alternate leg bound
• Box drills – single leg push-off, side
to side push-off, squat box jump
• Depth jumps – depth jump, depth
jump with lateral movement, single
leg depth jump
• Upper-body plyometric drills –
chest pass, depth push-ups, 45
T & P – theory and practice
Equipments - Refer practical notes
SPEED, AGILITY AND QUICKNESS (SAQ) DRILLS
• Able to teach correct execution of SAQ exercises
TABLE 14: SAQ TRAINING – PRACTICAL (40 MINUTES)
Speed drills –
execution of exercises
Agility drills – Carioca, 40-yard
shuttle sprint, toss-get-up and catch
Quickness drills – multidirectional
skipping, medicine ball lateral
shuffle/pass, partner blind toss
T & P – theory and practice
Equipments - Refer practical notes
FUNCTIONAL TRAINING DRILLS
• Able to teach correct execution of functional exercises
TABLE 15: FUNCTIONAL TRAINING – PRACTICAL (40 MINUTES)
Functional dynamic warm up
• Linear active warm-up (20 meter) –
high knee walk
• Lateral active warm-up – lateral squat
• Upper body – single arm push up
(medicine ball), double arm push
up (medicine ball), overhead press
• Lower body – single leg squats,
• Core (abs and back) – prone jack
knife, forward ball roll, twisting
lunge, balanced toss
Cool down exercise
T & P – the
ory and practice
Medicine balls (1 to 3 kg)
1. Bompa, T., O., & Carrera, M., O. (2005). Periodization Training For Sport,
Champaign IL, Human Kinetics.
2. Boyle, M. (2004). Functional Training For Sports, Champaign IL, Human KInetics
3. Earle, R., W. & Baechle, T.R (2004). NSCA’s Essentials Of Personal Training.
Champaign IL, Human Kinetics.
4. Foran, B. (2001). High-Performance Sport and Conditioning. Champaign IL,
5. Kreamer, W., J., & Fleck, S., J. (2007). Optimizing Strength Training, Champaign
IL, Human Kinetics.
“No great work can be done without sacrifice.”
Three Sentences for getting Success.
KNOW MORE THAN OTHERS
WORK MORE THAN OTHERS
EXPECT LESS THAN OTHERS
PLANNING YOUR NUTRITION FOR TRAINING
Why do you need a nutritional plan for training?
You need a nutritional plan for training to ensure you are meeting your body’s
increased nutrient requirements. These increased nutrient requirements will
depend on your training volumes, frequency and intensity. Your requirements will
also vary during the different training phases of the year. The skills you learn
when designing your nutritional plan for training can be used to individualize your
Following sound nutrition practices is most important during training. If you think
about it, you spend most of your time training and this is largely what determines
your performance in competition. Good nutrition will help you maximize your
training and your competition performance. Your nutrition on competition day is
just fine-tuning of your training nutrition.
Diet planning principles
Provides sufficient energy and nutrients
Consume a number of different foods in appropriate proportion to
each other. Calorie intake and energy expenditure should be
balanced to maintain a healthy weight and body composition. Balance
ordinarily results from practicing moderation and variety, and requires
that your child consume appropriate amounts of essential nutrients
Energy balance is essential for maintenance of lean muscle mass,
immune and reproductive function; and optimal athletic performance.
Energy balance occurs when intake = expenditure. If an increase in
body mass is the goal, then energy intake must be sufficient to meet
the needs for muscle growth.
Large amount of nutrients in a food with a small amount of
In consuming foods that are not nutrient dense.Your child should not
eat too little or too much of any one food or nutrient.
Because no single food or supplement contains all the nutrients needed for
optimum health, growth and performance, eating foods from each of the five
food groups daily, as well as different foods from within each group, is
essential. Consume a variety of foods within and among the food groups
Guides to planning meals for athletes
The basic diet and what is eaten at times of strenuous sports activity are pieces
in the jigsaw puzzle of performance capability. Those who understand the basic
principles of nutrition can prepare their body optimally for the athletic effort and
provide it with what it needs immediately before, during and after the
performance. Nutrition in sport is one piece of the jigsaw, one among the many
elements that affect athletic capability. In addition to nutrition, training, motivation
and physical constitution also play an essential part. For both professional and
recreational athletes, a normal, balanced diet is the foundation for optimum
performance. The most important aspect of an athlete’s diet is that it follows the
basic guidelines for healthy eating. Here we rely mainly on what the food pyramid
tells us. The food pyramid serves as a basis for planning a healthy, well-balanced
diet, gives the nutrients required for athletic performance, and as an extra bonus,
saves the money that might otherwise be spent on energy bars or supplements.
Classic food pyramids set out optimal nutrition guidelines for each food category
with carbohydrates as well as fruit and vegetables at the bottom and sugary
treats at the top. Normal food guidelines are for the general public and include
some recreational activity which is sometimes two to three times fitness per week
but this cannot be designated as sports nutrition. When you do more sports you
need more energy and more carbohydrate and this is not implemented in normal
pyramids. The original pyramid has been expanded to cover the energy and
nutrient needs for daily exercise by athletes and active individuals
The food pyramid for athletes shows what an athlete needs to do to cover these additional
nutritional requirements. As an example athletes do not necessarily need to increase their
fruit and vegetable intake from the recommended five portions, but should up their
wholegrain products and legumes by one serving per additional hour of exercise. Also
included are sports drinks and foods. There are sports foods which are widely used and
they ease nutrition in real life, so it doesn’t make sense to ignore this foodstuff. The
pyramid can’t consider all the specific aspects of every single sport for every single
athlete, but as a guideline it works for a wide range of sports.
Putting It All Together
It is not hard to plan your training diet. Start with three main meals, morning
and afternoon tea – these meals should meet baseline nutritional requirements.
• To meet your increased energy needs you may need to increase your
• Check that you are eating enough protein, iron and calcium containing
• Make sure you are meeting your basic fluid needs as well as
increased fluid needs when training.
• A good guide to meeting your needs is a stable body weight and
satisfying your appetite.
• Once you have planned your training diet you will be able to adapt it
to meet your body’s needs during different phases of training.
• Your training nutrition is changing constantly so keep an eating record
and check this every six to eight weeks to ensure you are meeting all
of the nutritional recommendations.
Checklist for training nutrition
The checklist below will show you where you are at with your training nutrition.
After you have filled out your eating record go through the checklist and identify
where you are not meeting the recommendations. Set goals for improvement.
Did you have breakfast?
Yes / No
Did you have lunch?
Yes / No
Did you have dinner?
Yes / No
Did you eat carbohydrate in the 2 hours before training?
Yes / No
Did you eat carbohydrate and protein within half to one hour after
Yes / No
Did you have 6-8 cups of fluid?
Yes / No
Did you have extra fluid before/during/after training?
Yes / No
Did you have enough serves of carbohydrate to meet your needs?
Yes / No
Did you have enough serves of protein to meet your needs?
Yes / No
Did you have enough serves of food containing iron to meet your
Yes / No
Did you have enough serves of food containing calcium to meet
Yes / No
Main points for the diet of athletes
You need a nutritional plan for training to ensure you are meeting your
body’s increased energy and nutrient requirements.
Carbohydrate provides the most readily available superior source of fuel
or “energy” for muscles to use. Athletes should consume 55-70% of their
energy from carbohydrate (5-10 g per kg of body weight per day),
depending on their sport.
Protein provides the body’s building blocks. Athletes should consume
15% of their energy from protein (0.8-1.7 g per kg of body weight per
day), depending on their sport.
Fat provides the body’s most concentrated energy source. Athletes
should try to keep their fat intake low.
Fluids are essential to regulate temperature and prevent dehydration.
Athletes should drink fluid before, during and after exercise. Athletes
should drink enough fluid to balance their fluid losses. Two hours before
exercise 400 to 600 ml of fluid should be consumed, and during exercise
150 to 350 ml of fluid should be consumed every 15 to 20 min depending
on tolerance. After exercise the athlete should drink adequate fluids to
replace sweat losses during exercise. The athlete needs to drink at least
450 to 675 ml of fluid for every 0.5 kg of body weight lost during exercise.
There are many fluids athletes can choose. Sports drinks are specifically
designed for efficient rehydration for exercise lasting more than 60
minutes. The optimum composition for sports drinks is 4-8% carbohydrate
and 500-700 mg/litre of sodium.
Iron is an essential element. A well planned diet will provide sufficient
Calcium intake is important to ensure peak bone mass and maintenance
of strong bones.
How do you put it all together to design a nutritional plan for training? Start with
three main meals and snacks and check that you have included enough
carbohydrate, protein, fluid, iron and calcium to meet your needs.
Proportion of carbohydrate, protein, and fat as energy for various
Water Output: Normal versus Exercise
Relating % loss of body weight to symptoms and performance in
0% -- normal heat regulation and performance
1% -- thirst is stimulated, heat regulation during exercise is altered, performance begins to decline
2% -- further decrease in heat regulation, increased thirst, worsening performance
3% -- more of the same
4% -- exercise performance cut by 20 - 30%
5% -- headache, irritability, "spaced-out" feeling, fatigue
6% -- weakness, severe loss of thermoregulation
7% -- collapse is likely unless exercise is stopped
PLANNING YOUR NUTRITION FOR COMPETITION
Competition nutrition is an extension of training nutrition. The correct nutritional
strategies before, during and after competition will help you achieve your event goal.
Planning your meals for competition is a good way of focusing on the event. By knowing
when, what and how much you are going to eat and drink, you can be confident that you
have the best possible nutritional preparation. Planning ensures that the food you want
is available, whether you’re at home or 149hiamine149e.
The goal of carbohydrate loading is to superload muscles with glycogen to
delay fatigue and enable you to maintain high intensity exercise for longer.
When competing for over 90 minutes normal glycogen stores will not be
enough to maintain exercise. Carbohydrate loading is a method of increasing
stored glycogen by 200-300%, thereby allowing the athlete to delay fatigue
and maintain high intensity exercise for longer. Carbohydrate loading is of no
benefit for sports of short duration, and is undesirable in sports with strict
Considerations for planning the pre-competition meal
• How well have you recovered from your last exercise session? If you
are in a tournament or a tour, you pre-competition meal will be part of
your recovery and preparation plan.
• What time is your event? You should aim to have a meal with more
than 200g of carbohydrate about three hours before your event. As
most events start early in the morning you have to decide if you are
going to get up early and eat, or if you will have a smaller
carbohydrate meal 1-2 hours before, and concentrate on getting more
carbohydrates during the actual event.
• In weight-bearing exercise like running, your stomach is joggled
around and you may experience more gastrointestinal symptoms
(stomach and gut upsets) compared with non-weight-bearing sports
like cycling and swimming.
Strategies to reduce stomach and gastrointestinal upsets
• Reduce your fibre intake by choosing lower-fibre cereals like
cornflakes, rice bubbles, white rice, pasta, bread and soft fruits with
• Reduce fat in the pre-competition meal. For example, have toast and
jam with no butter, use low-fat milk and do not choose to have a fried
meal or a meal containing fat (e.g. nasi lemak) for breakfast.
• Try liquid meals. They empty quickly from the stomach, and maybe
useful for athletes who compete early in the morning or who find it
difficult to eat solid meals before competition. Make the liquid meal
with water or trim milk.
Ensure that hydration is adequate.
Make sure you have tested out your pre-competition meal in training.
Pre-competition meal ideas
• White toast and low-fat spreads/spaghetti/corn/banana.
• Cereal with trim milk and/or yoghurt and/or fresh canned fruit.
• Muffins or crumpets with jam/honey.
• Low-fat pancakes with fruit.
• Creamed rice and fruit.
• Oatmeal with trim milk.
• Pasta with a tomato-based sauce.
• Baked potato with corn/spaghetti/tomato-based sauce.
• Sandwiches/rolls with spreads/banana.
• Fruit salad and yoghurt.
• Liquid meals.
Make sure you are well hydrated in the days leading up to the event. On
event day, maintain hydration by drinking at least two glasses (500 ml) of fluid
with your pre-event meal, then continue to drink up to start time, especially
when it is hot. Use water, a sports drink, diluted fruit juice or flat, diluted soft
The goals of your diet during your event are to prevent hydration, prevent
depletion of glycogen/energy stores, maintain blood glucose, maintain
electrolyte balance, prevent stomach upsets.
Strategies to meet your competition nutrition goals
•Practise your nutrition plan in training and write it down.
•Plan to meet fluid needs, taking into consideration temperature
and humidity on the day.
•Start drinking early in competition and continue drinking at regular intervals
during the event. Some people set their watches to alarm every 20
minutes to remind them to drink.
•When exercise intensity is high in tournament situations and in longer events,
plant to consume 1 g of carbohydrate per minute or 30-60 g per hour.
•Use carbohydrate-containing sports drinks or moderate to high glycemic
index foods. For example, a litre of 7% sports drink will provide 70 g
carbohydrate, a banana will provide 20 g carbohydrate, a cereal bar will
provide 20 g carbohydrate.
•When using a sports drink choose one you have tested in training. A sports
drink with 4-8% (ie: 40-80 g/l or 4-8 g/100ml) carbohydrate and 500-700
mg/l (20-30 mmol) sodium is recommended.
•Consume your carbohydrate-containing drink or food at regular intervals
during your event.
•In an endurance event like a marathon you may want to consume solid foods.
Examples of moderate to high glycaemic index foods that can be used
include ripe bananas, sandwiches with jam, honey or banana, jelly beans,
•Sports bars can also provide a convenient form of carbohydrate. Experiment
with these in training. You may want to take the wrapper off and cut the
bar into bite-sized pieces to make them easier to eat.
•Find out what foods will be available at the aid stations at your event and
familiarize yourself with these in training, or take your own food and fluids
Nutrition for after your event
•The goals of your diet following your event are to restore fluid and
balance, replenish depleted glycogen stores and provide nutrients to
help repair muscle damage.
•Following your event, it is essential to ensure fast recovery so you body is
prepared for your next training session.
Take an active role in your recovery, plan what you need too eat and
drink and make sure you have it with you.
•Make your recovery food and fluid your first priority after your event.
•Typically, it is high glycemic carbohydrates that will make good recovery
•Examples of carbohydrate foods with moderate-high Glycemic Index:
Most breakfast cereals
Most forms of rice
White and brown breads
Sports drinks and soft drinks
Sugar, jam and honey
Tropical fruits and juices
•Examples of nutrient-rich carbohydrate foods and meal combinations:
Breakfast cereal with milk
Fruit smoothie or liquid meal supplement
Sandwich with meat and salad filling
Stir-fry with rice and noodles
Strategies to restore your fluid and electrolyte balance
No matter how well you followed your fluid plan during your event, you will
probably have some degree of dehydration. It is essential to replace lost
• Start drinking as soon as you have finished your event, and continue to drink
until your urine is clear and you body weight is back to pre-race weight. You
need to drink 1.5 times the amount of body weight you have lost to replace
fluid losses from exercise and from urination.
• Replacing sodium losses will ensure maximum fluid retention. You can
replace sodium losses by drinking a sports drink or eating a post-recovery
meal or snack with salt as a component, or added.
Sports drinks provide optimal rehydration as the sodium content rebalances
body fluid, and helps your body retain the consumed fluid.
Drink cool fluids that you enjoy.
Avoid drinks containing caffeine and alcohol after competing.
Strategies to replace used glycogen stores
For the first two hours after your event, blood is still rushing to your muscles.
Muscle cells are still receptive to taking up glucose and enzymes are
receptive to converting glucose to glycogen. This is the best time to maximize
your recovery by eating moderate to high glycemic index foods and using
sports drinks. These products will provide glucose to the blood and muscles
quickly. If you wait until after two hours to consume carbohydrate, your
recovery will be slowed down.
In the 24 hours after your event aim to consume 7-10 g carbohydrate per kg
of body weight from carbohydrates.
Approach this goal by eating 1 g carbohydrate per kg of body weight as soon
after exercise as possible, then have a high-carbohydrate meal in the next
two hours, and normal meals and snacks for the rest of the day.
If a main meal is not available, have carbohydrate snacks (at least 50 g every
two hours) until you can have your next main meal.
Sports drinks can provide carbohydrate as part of the glycogen resynthesis
6.2.7 Strategies to help the repair of muscle damage
Muscle damage can occur due to body contact or eccentric exercise (that is,
the type of exercise that makes you sore the next day). The damage to
muscle fibres means they cannot store glycogen as well. If you have had a
hard competition or have bruising and muscle damage (that is, soreness),
pay special attention to meeting your recovery carbohydrate needs to help
muscle recovery. Do not expect optimal endurance performance until
soreness is gone, as muscle glycogen will not be totally replaced. Avoid
alcohol for at least 24 hours. Alcohol causes more blood to flow to the injured
area, increasing swelling and bleeding that will slow recovery and make the
Hints for the post-event diet
Recovery will be just as rapid if the carbohydrate is consumed in a few meals
or many snacks, as long as you meet your total carbohydrate needs.
Moderate to high glycaemic index foods may promote greater glycogen
storage than low glycaemic index foods.
Carbohydrates can be consumed as solids, fluids or a combination of both.
Including small amounts of protein in the recovery meal can help increase the
rate of muscle glycogen storage.
Glucose and sucrose provide faster muscle recovery than fructose, the sugar
found in most fruit and fruit products. Fructose does enhance liver glycogen
storage, but only very slowly replaces muscle glycogen. It can form part of
the recovery meal, but should not be the only source of carbohydrate.
Choose foods that you like!
Main points about your competition diet
Carbohydrate loading involves tapering exercise and increasing carbohydrate
intake in the three to four days before your event to “superload” muscles with
Pre-event nutrition is vital to ensure glycogen stores are topped up, hydration
is optimal and stomach upsets and hunger are prevented. Eat at least 200 g
of familiar foods in the four hours before competing and drink enough fluid to
During your endurance event consume 30-60 g carbohydrate per hour and
aim to replace fluid losses. Begin eating and drinking early in your event.
Post-event nutrition restores fluid and electrolyte balance, and replenishes
depleted glycogen stores, reducing recovery time.
In the first half to one hour after your event you should eat 1 g of
carbohydrate per kg of body weight, eat some protein and begin drinking
fluids. Within the next two hours you should aim to have a high-carbohydrate
meal and follow this with regular meals and snacks and drinks for the rest of
PERIODIZATION OF NUTRITION
The concepts of periodization can also be applied to your nutritional program.
By structuring your dietary intake you can maximize the training benefit of
each phase. This involves adjusting your nutritional plan or your daily diet to
complement your current the training phase. Your dietary needs, during the
base phase of training, for example, differ from your pre-event nutritional
needs. Understanding how to parallel nutrition periodization with your training
periodization can maximize your training progression and ensure race day
There are five phases/cycles to a yearly periodization training plan. The
phases are listed below with a brief description of the training focus, along
with some nutrition considerations that will be discussed in more detail in
future articles. Each training phase has different amounts of volume,
frequency, intensity and duration and each phase builds on the one before.
As you progress through each phase, your body will encounter varying
amounts of physical stress, and these stresses can impact your needs for
fluids, carbohydrates, protein and fats.
General preparation or foundation phase
The preparation phase or “preseason” may last from 4 to 8 weeks. The
training focus is preparing the body for the training yet to come. Some
coaches refer to this period as “training to train”. Workouts tend to emphasize
building basic aerobic endurance and muscular strength.
The base phase may last 12 to 24 weeks. The focus is skill and aerobic
development that is the backbone of training. Both the weekly volume and
duration of training start low and build throughout the phase. Workouts tend
to further develop aerobic endurance, muscular strength and may include
This is the phase where you want to establish a solid nutrition
foundation. Establishing good dietary habits early in the season will
allow you to handle the training stresses that come in the next phase.
Your calorie, carbohydrate and protein needs will increase, so eating
regularly scheduled meals is essential. You can also start
experimenting with new sports drinks, bars or gels at this time. If you
have gained weight during your transition phase or “off season”, this is
the time to make dietary adjustments so you can get back to your
optimal racing weight.
Specific preparation or build phase
The build phase can last 4 to 8 weeks. The training focus is becoming faster
and more efficient in all three disciplines. Workouts are more specific and
include race-pace training efforts and combination workouts to help simulate
the physical stresses of racing. In this phase, the training volume remains
consistent while the intensity increases.
Pre-competition or peak phase
The peak phase is where you want to bring together the year-long training for
an optimal performance. This phase may last 1 to 2 weeks – the frequency
and duration of the workouts decrease, but the intensity remains high.
The biggest nutritional challenge during this phase is consuming
adequate calories to support the high volume and increased intensity
of training. High intensity training means more carbohydrate is used
as a fuel source. Protein requirements may also be increased due to
the physical stress from high intensity training. Eating meals more
frequently may help meet the increased nutrient needs. Also,
maintaining a stable body weight is advised, and actively pursuing
weight loss is discouraged. Long brick workouts provide a great
opportunity to experiment with your race day nutritional plan. Keeping
a training food log can be helpful when you finally sit down to plan out
your race day nutritional strategy.
Since calorie requirements may be less due to a decreased volume,
you may need to reduce extra food portions. You do not want to
severely restrict calories but you do want to eliminate “empty” calories
or less nutritious foods. Since training intensity remains high,
carbohydrates continue to be the main energy source. Therefore high
carbohydrate foods (whole grains/cereals/fruits) should be included at
all meals. Your eating plan should emphasize “clean” wholesome
foods to help your body start the recovery process and prepare for
The competition phase is usually the week before your competition. The
focus is physical and mental rest and recovery. Training duration is
significantly reduced. Short bouts of moderate to high intensity workouts may
be planned to keep you feeling “sharp”.
Transition or off season phase
The transition phase follows your last competition of the year. This period can
last 1 to 6 weeks. The focus should be on enjoying more free time with family
and friends as well as trying different physical activities other than swimming,
biking or running. You want to remain physically active but not necessarily in
a structured way.
This phase tends to get the most attention as athlete’s want to know
“what should I eat?” If you pay attention to your nutrition in the prior
phases, what you should be eating the week or days leading up to
your race is very similar to what you should have been eating all
along. Nutritional adjustments that may be made are a slight decrease
in overall calories, a gradual increase in carbohydrates, and the
avoidance of caffeine or excessive salt. A few days before your race
there should be a decrease in fibre intake, increase in fluid intake and
for some athletes, increased sodium intake. Nutritional choices during
this phase ensure you get to the starting line with an adequately filled
Weight management tends to be the major issue in this phase. Since
training volume is reduced, you need to adjust your dietary intake to
compensate for the potential reduction in calories burned. This is a
good time to make dietary changes. Increase diet variety by eating
more natural wholesome foods including more colourful fruits and
vegetables. Clean out the cupboards and pantry. Throw away all
those outdated gel packets and vitamin/ minerals supplements.
Discard the less than healthful foods that you are tempted to overconsume. Restock your refrigerator, freezer and pantry with more
healthful foods so that when you enter into the general preparation
phase, you already have the basics in place to get your season off to
a good start.
Nutritional ergogenic aids and exercise performance
The use of nutritional supplements in sport is widespread and few serious
athletes do not, at some stage in their career, succumb to the temptation to
experiment with one or more nutritional supplements. Nutritional ergogenic
aids are aimed primarily at enhancing performance (either by affecting energy
metabolism or by an effect on the central nervous system), at increasing lean
body mass or muscle mass by stimulation of protein synthesis and at
reducing body fat content. Although not strictly ergogenic (i.e. capable of
enhancing work performance), supplements aimed at increasing resistance to
infection and improving general health are seen by athletes as important in
reducing the interruptions to training that minor illness and infection can
cause. Athletes use a wide variety of supplements aimed at improving or
maintaining general health and vitamin and mineral supplementation is
widespread. There is a theoretical basis, and limited evidence, to support the
use nutritional supplements during periods of intensive training, but further
evidence is required before the use of these supplements can be
Sports foods and supplements shown in scientific trials to benefit
• Antioxidant Vitamins C and E
• Bicarbonate and Citrate
Electrolyte Replacement Supplements
• Liquid meal supplements
• Multivitamins and Minerals
• Sports bars
• Sports drinks
• Sports gels
Sports foods and supplements which hints at possible benefits
Supplements which have no proof of beneficial effects
Branched chain amino acids (& other free-from amino acids)
Gamma-oryzanol & ferulic acid
Nitrous oxide supplements
Vitamin supplements when used in situations other than summarised in
muscle mass, and
same as steroids
same as steroids
long term effects
performance, antisupport for anticatabolic (slows
legal to certain
safe to 400 mg
no benefit unless daily, potentially
prior deficiency dangerous above
transport chain, does not support
use for athletes
response to tissue
Conjugated linoleic hormones, and
mass, weight loss,
and fat loss
no benefit in
none, if taken with
decrease fat mass
increases risk of
banned by world
and muscle cell
fat mass, delay
increase energy, no benefit unless
aerobic capacity, 8emi deficiency
none at RDA,
at high doses
none if taken in
Proposed Nutritional Ergogenic Aids – Vitamins
Proposed Ergogenic Value
Constituent of rhodopsin
(visual pigment) and is
involved in night vision.
Some suggest that vitamin A
improve sport vision.
Promotes bone growth and
5 mcg/d calcium absorption.
calcium may help prevent
bone loss in osteoperotic
15 mg/d As an antioxidant, it has
been shown to help prevent
the formation of free radicals
during intense exercise and
prevent the destruction of
red blood cells, improving or
maintaining oxygen delivery
Summary of Research Findings
No studies have shown that
vitamin A supplementation
improves exercise performance
Co-supplementation with calcium
may help prevent bone loss in
athletes susceptible to
osteoporosis . However,
vitamin D supplementation does
not enhance exercise performance
Numerous studies show that
vitamin E supplementation can
oxidative stress [348-350].
However, most studies show no
effects on performance at sea
level. At high altitudes, vitamin E
1.2 mg /
Thiamin (B1) d
Proposed Ergogenic Value
to the muscles during
exercise. Some evidence
suggests that it may reduce
risk to heart disease or
decrease incidence of
recurring heart attack.
Summary of Research Findings
may improve exercise
performance . Additional
research is necessary to
determine whether long-term
supplementation may help athletes
better tolerate training.
Vitamin K supplementation (10
mg/d) in elite female athletes has
been reported to increase calciumImportant in blood clotting.
binding capacity of osteocalcin and
There is also some evidence
promoted a 15–20% increase in
that it may affect bone
bone formation markers and a 20–
25% decrease in bone resorption
markers suggesting an improved
balance between bone formation
and resorption .
pyrophosphate) in the
removal of CO2 from
decarboxylic reactions from
pyruvate to acetyl CoA and Dietary availability of 160hiamine
in TCA cycle.
does not appear to affect exercise
capacity when athletes have a
theorized to improve
normal intake .
anaerobic threshold and
CO2 transport. Deficiencies
may decrease efficiency of
Constituent of flavin
Dietary availability of riboflavin
involved in energy
does not appear to affect exercise
metabolism. Theorized to
capacity when athletes have a
enhance energy availability normal intake .
during oxidative metabolism.
Studies indicate that niacin
Constituent of coenzymes
supplementation (100–500 mg/d)
involved in energy
can help decrease blood lipid
metabolism. Theorized to
levels and increase homocysteine
blunt increases in fatty acids levels in hypercholesteremic
during exercise, reduce
patients [354,355]. However,
niacin supplementation (280 mg)
during exercise has been reported
improve energy availability to decrease exercise capacity by
during oxidative metabolism. blunting the mobilization of fatty
Has been marketed as a
In well-nourished athletes,
supplement that will improve pyridoxine failed to improve
muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity, or lactic acid
Proposed Ergogenic Value Summary of Research Findings
accumulation . However,
aerobic power in the lactic
when combined with vitamins B1
acid and oxygen systems. It
and B12,it may increase serotonin
also may have a calming
levels and improve fine motor skills
effect that has been linked to
that may be necessary in sports
an improved mental
like pistol shooting and archery
In well-nourished athletes, no
A coenzyme involved in the
ergogenic effect has been
production of DNA and
reported. However, when
serotonin. DNA is important
combined with vitamins B1 and B6,
in protein and red blood cell
cyanocobalamin has been shown
synthesis. Theoretically, it
to improve performance in pistol
would increase muscle
shooting . This may be due to
mass, the oxygen-carrying
increased levels of serotonin, a
capacity of blood, and
neurotransmitter in the brain,
which may reduce anxiety.
Functions as a coenzyme in
Studies suggest that increasing
the formation of DNA and
dietary availability of folic acid
red blood cells. An increase
during pregnancy can lower the
in red blood cells could
incidence of birth defects .
improve oxygen delivery to
Additionally, it may decrease
the muscles during exercise.
homocysteine levels (a risk factor
Believed to be important to
for heart disease) . In wellhelp prevent birth defects
nourished and folate deficientand may help decrease
athletes, folic acid did not improve
exercise performance .
Acts as a coenzyme for
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl
CoA). This may benefit
aerobic or oxygen energy
Serves as an antioxidant.
Theorized to help minimize
peroxidation and muscle
Males 90 Used in a number of
Females processes in the body. It is
Research has reported no
improvements in aerobic
performance with acetyl CoA
supplementation. However, one
study reported a decrease in lactic
acid accumulation, without an
improvement in performance .
Research indicates that beta
carotene supplementation with or
without other antioxidants can help
peroxidation. Over time, this may
help athletes tolerate training.
However, it is unclear whether
affects exercise performance
In well-nourished athletes, vitamin
C supplementation does not
appear to improve physical
Proposed Ergogenic Value
involved in the synthesis of
epinephrine, iron absorption,
and is an antioxidant.
Theoretically, it could benefit
75 mg/d exercise performance by
during exercise. There is
also evidence that vitamin C
may enhance immunity.
Summary of Research Findings
performance [363,364]. However,
there is some evidence that
vitamin C supplementation (e.g.,
500 mg/d) following intense
exercise may decrease the
incidence of upper respiratory tract
6.21 WADA – PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES AND METHODS IN SPORTS
Doping does not necessarily mean that performance is enhanced. The ethics of
both sport and medical science are breached when someone dopes. It is
important to remember that a doping violation can happen regardless of whether
an athlete deliberately uses a prohibited substance, or unknowingly uses a
product containing a prohibited substance. The presence of a prohibited
substance or evidence of the use of prohibited method in your sample constitutes
a doping violation, irrespective of how it got there. The bottom line is that you are
responsible for any substance that youingest – it is your responsibility to ensure
that any product you take does not contain a prohibited substance.
Doping is prohibited to protect your rights to compete on a level playing field
without the use of prohibited substances or prohibited methods. There are other
reasons to prohibit doping, including the fact that doping can cause:
Harm to athletes who dope. Most sports carry a certain amount of risk. Many
prohibited substances and methods may add serious risks of harm to those
that use them. Clean and ethical sport does not require that athletes take
Harm to athletes who do not dope. Athletes who dope ruin fair sport for all
athletes who do not dope. Clean athletes may perceive the need to dope in
order to compete with other athletes they suspect are doping. This senseless
cycle of doping can bring about personal devastation through health and
safety risks, and the destruction of sport.
6.22 Prohibited substances
• Anabolic androgenic steroids (aas)
• Other anabolic agents, including but not limited to: Clenbuterol,
selective androgen receptor modulators (sarms), tibolone, zeranol,
Hormones and related substances
The following substances and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
Growth hormone (hgh), insulin-like growth factors (e.g.
Igf-1), mechano growth factors (mgfs);
Gonadotrophins (e.g. Lh, hcg), prohibited in males only;
Hormone antagonists and modulators
Diuretics and other masking agents
Enhancement of oxygen transfer
Blood doping, artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or
delivery of oxygen
Chemical and physical manipulation
NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR ATHLETES
Athletes who participate in endurance sports have specific needs because of
what they demand from their bodies. For example, athletes lose more
electrolytes, such as magnesium, potassium and sodium, through
perspiration and must diligently replace them. The wear and tear of intense
activity may necessitate increased intake of antioxidants such as vitamin E,
which can help protect muscle cells from oxidative damage. Since muscletissue breakdown is common during intense exercise, athletes also need
more proteins to repair the tissues. To keep their bodies performing optimally,
endurance athletes should be familiar with these 10 important nutrients.
This may be the most important nutrient for an athlete. In a survey of
more than 10,000 male and female athletes ages 7 to 50, fewer than
half consumed 1,000 mg of calcium daily. The recommended dietary
intake ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 mg/day depending on age and
For female athletes, calcium intake is of particular concern. Excessive
training (more than seven hours per week) may cause hormonal
declines in young girls that can stop menstruation. This hormonal
decline also compromises bone formation, possibly leading to
premature, irreversible osteoporosis. Recent research shows that
male endurance athletes of all ages experience testosterone deficits
Athletes should monitor their calcium intake. Dairy foods can supply
the required amounts unless sensitivities exclude them from the diet.
But a diet without dairy foods requires supplements. All athletes
should make sure they get 1,200 to 1,500 mg of calcium daily from
food or supplements. Drinking a cup of skim milk, for example,
provides about 300 mg of calcium.
For the casual athlete who trains less than four hours per week, iron
deficiency is no more of a concern than for a sedentary person. But
athletes who train for six or more hours per week often have irondeficiency anemia and should be checked yearly for the condition.
Female athletes who are unable to correct such mild anemia through
diet can benefit from supplements.
Athletes use iron stores more quickly than non-athletes and,
considering the neurologic effects of anemia on children and teens
who engage in rigorous sports, adequate intake of iron is quite
important. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron ranges
from 10 to 15 mg/day—an amount easily acquired from food. In the
absence of anemia, athletes shouldn’t take any supplemental iron
because it raises the risk of heart disease and colon cancer.
This mineral is involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production
from fatty acid oxidation, post-contractile muscular relaxation, and
bone remineralization. It is also involved in phosphatidylglycerol
(DPG) production, which is important to red blood cell formation. ATP,
present in all cells but particularly in muscle cells, stores energy. Low
magnesium levels can acutely contribute to early fatigue, nausea and
muscle cramps. Chronic magnesium deficiencies can lead to
Athletes lose magnesium through sweat and urine. This, combined
with the fact that athletes’ diets are usually low in magnesium,
generally leads to the need for supplementation. Recommended
intake for endurance athletes is 500 to 800 mg daily. Higher doses
can cause diarrhea.
This mineral, present in intracellular fluid, is responsible for regulating
total body water and stabilizing controlled and automatic muscle
contractions. It is also lost through sweat and urine.
In a study of athletes running 40 minutes at 21°C, potassium loss was
estimated at 435 mg/hour. The rate of potassium loss is
approximately 200 mg / kg of weight lost during exercise.
Cells release potassium into the bloodstream and serum levels rise
with exercise, possibly instigating fatigue. Potassium supplementation
after short events (less than two hours), and during and after long
events, is warranted. For post-activity replacement, athletes should
take about 435 mg/hour of exercise or 200 mg/kg of weight loss. As
much as 150 mg/hour during activity can be tolerated by most
athletes. Supplement potassium cautiously because too much too
quickly can cause cardiac arrest.
Supplementing with potassium during training does increase markers
of recovery, primarily serum lactate and muscle hydration, but does
not aid performance.
Essential to antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) production,
selenium is a free radical-scavenging tripeptide made up of glutamine,
cysteine and glycine. It is concentrated in the lining of the GI tract and
lungs, in the liver, and in skeletal muscle. In an animal study, reducing
muscular SeGPx increased cellular damage from prolonged exercise,
supporting the theory that free radical-induced muscle damage
causes muscle fatigue.
Research shows selenium benefits athletes’ immune function and
helps repair cellular damage. Researchers studied the selenium
supplementation effects on muscle SeGPx in 24 healthy
168hiamine168em males. Half took 240 mcg of sodium selenite; half
took placebo. After cycling to exhaustion—durations ranged from 2.6
to 3.5 hours—the group that took selenium showed less cellular
damage. Supplementation with 200 mcg of selenium is safe and
warranted for endurance athletes.
This element helps cells retain water and prevents dehydration.
Sodium also enables ATP generation. For events lasting longer than
five hours, especially in hot weather, hyponatremia (dangerously low
sodium) is a real concern. This especially applies to first-time or
slower-running marathoners. Most organized events have aid stations
with salty snacks. Anyone out for more than a few hours, especially
on a warm day, should make sure to get some salt from snacks and
A prospective study was performed on 36 athletes during a three- to
four-hour triathlon and 64 athletes at an ironman race, which lasts
between nine and 15 hours. No athletes were hyponatremic after the
shorter race, but 27 percent were hyponatremic following the ironman.
An average of 17 percent of the ironman participants required medical
attention, most for hyponatremia.
Extrapolated from that study, athletes should aim for 80 to 100 mg
sodium per quart of hydrating beverage and 100 to 300 mg sodium
per hour from other sources.
This mineral aids in post-exertion tissue repair and in the conversion of food
to fuel. Both male and female athletes have lower serum zinc levels
compared with sedentary individuals. Studies correlate endurance exercise
with periods of compromised immunity – zinc depletion may be one reason.
Those who train without days off lose zinc even more quickly. In a
study of cyclists, researchers looked at zinc excretion via sweat. Half
of the group underwent intense training for two months. Half
underwent moderate training with two to three days off per week. Both
groups were studied before and after. The exercising group showed
increased zinc excretion while the control group showed no increase.
The researchers believe altered zinc metabolism coupled with
increased zinc excretion and stress levels lead to fatigue and
decreased endurance. Athletes should take 30 to 60 mg zinc daily.
Zinc picolinate or monomethionate are most easily tolerated.
For athletes, one of the most important antioxidants is vitamin E.
Aerobic athletes may have an increased need for this vitamin because
their cells undergo more oxidative damage. Research shows athletes
have less cellular damage when they ingest more vitamin E. Aerobic
exercise places additional demands on the molecular free radical
scavengers of the body, and vitamin E is a well-known scavenger.
In a study of 30 top-class cyclists, five months of supplementation with
natural vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) at an 800-IU daily dose
significantly decreased markers of oxidative damage to muscle tissue.
However, vitamin E did not benefit athletic performance.
Studies evaluating vitamin E as an ergogenic, or performance aid,
show no benefit. One possible exception is at higher altitudes where
oxidative stress is more intense. A group of six mountain climbers
took 400 mg synthetic vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate). During
exertion at altitude, they showed less output of pentane and lactic acid
—both markers of oxidative damage, but not suggestive of improved
athletic performance. The athletes also showed a statistically
significant increase in anaerobic threshold compared to a placebo
The amount of vitamin E necessary to benefit athletes is not
obtainable through diet. The jury is still out on natural vs. synthetic
vitamin E, but endurance athletes should take 400 to 800 IU/day.
The RDA for protein is 60 mg per day for adults (specifically 0.8 g/kg
of body weight/day). This recommendation, however, is based on the
needs of sedentary individuals. Recent studies indicate that protein
needs increase during strenuous activity, which applies to both
strength and endurance athletes.
Endurance athletes need more protein for different reasons than
strength athletes do. Endurance athletes primarily use protein for
maintaining aerobic metabolism, compared with the increased tissuerepair needs of strength athletes. When intake is inadequate, the body
sequesters the needed proteins from lean tissue, which gives
overtrained endurance athletes a gaunt appearance. A protein deficit
also impairs an athlete’s recovery and wound-healing ability.
Researchers recommend endurance athletes eat 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg of
body weight/day of protein. For a 155-pound athlete, this means a
total of 85 to 100 g protein per day. Only a few studies recommend
protein intake levels as high as 2 g/kg of body weight/day.
This amino acid increases the numbers of lymphocytes and
macrophages. When glutamine levels are low these immune cells
show depressed activity. Prolonged exercise consistently lowers
glutamine levels. Glutamine supplementation reduces vulnerability to
infections after prolonged exercise, though a few studies examining
this phenomenon at lower exercise intensity levels have not shown
Oral glutamine replacement after exercise can lower infection risk. In
one study, 200 runners and rowers were given placebo or 2,000 mg
glutamine two hours after exercise. In the seven days following the
exercise, 81 percent of the glutamine-supplemented group were
infection-free compared to 49 percent in the placebo group. A
supplement that provides 2 g glutamine daily is wise for athletes in
Athletes who train strenuously for competition have greater nutritional
needs than sedentary people. Adequate nutrients can mean quicker
recovery time, lower infection rates, less fatigue, and ultimately, can
help athletes reach their desired performance levels.
Strength and Power Athletes
In order to build lean muscle mass you need to combine an adequate calorie
intake with a solid muscle strengthening program. A large number of calories are
needed to fuel both workouts and tissue building. While getting enough calories
is important, it is also important to get the right kind of calories.
Carbohydrate is the predominant energy source for strength training.
Stored as glycogen in the muscles, it is the fuel used to supply energy
for short, intense bursts of power. The harder and longer you work
out, the more glycogen your muscles require. Once these stores of
glycogen are gone your energy level will drop and you will run out of
fuel to power muscle contractions. For this reason, athletes doing
strength training exercise in the hopes of building lean muscle need to
have an adequate carbohydrates intake. Experts recommend at least
500 to 600 grams of carbohydrate per day to keep your muscle
glycogen stores high. You can base your personal requirement on the
3.6 g CHO x body wt (lbs) =
grams CHO / day
Protein is the basic building material for muscle tissue, and strength
trainers need to consume more than the non-exercisers. However,
most strength athletes still overestimate their protein needs. Daily
protein recommendations for serious strength athletes are about 0.6
to 0.8 grams per pound of body weight.
After you’ve met your carbohydrate and protein needs there is room
for fat. Fat is an essential nutrient, however, you require a small
amount of it to remain healthy. Less than 30% of your total daily
calories should come from unsaturated fat.
In addition to the regular eight glasses of water every day, you need
to drink to replace fluids that are lost during exercise. To be confident
that you are well hydrated before workouts, drink 2 cups of fluid 2
hours before exercise. During your workout, drink 4 to 8 ounces every
15 to 20 minutes. After exercise, replace any further fluid losses with
16 ounces of water. If you want to be precise, you can weigh yourself
before and after workouts. For each pound lost during exercise, you
should be drink 16 ounces of fluid.
Energy bars and sports drinks may be helpful if exercise lasts longer
than 1 hour. Carbohydrate supplements can be useful to help fit
adequate carbohydrates into a busy day if you don’t have time to eat
a meal. Consuming a meal-replacement beverage just after musclebuilding exercise is convenient but you can do the same thing with a
tuna sandwich, a banana, a bagel or other real food snack. You
should try to consume some protein and carbohydrate after your
workout in order to fuel muscle growth and replenish glycogen stores
for your next workout.
Most supplements that are supposed to help build muscle don’t work.
But some, such as creatine, fluid and electrolyte replacers,
carbohydrate supplements, and liquid meal replacers may offer some
benefits to strength training athletes. Several vitamins and minerals
actually work well together in keeping us fit and having stronger
muscles. Such vitamins and minerals that contribute to this are
potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus which all greatly
work together in making sure that our muscles are able to contract
smoothly and effectively, as they should. This is, of course, essential
to keeping the heart beating in a regular and efficient fashion. It is also
important to take note that while the heart is the most important
muscle in the body, each and every muscle in a person’s body
deserves to be treated with equal importance and care since they
work as a group.
Vitamin C is highly essential to the health and performance of
muscles because it works alongside potassium, magnesium, calcium
and phosphorus in their muscle regulation tasks. Vitamin C is also
necessary to the formation of collagen and elastin, which are
important connective tissues of the body that helps build muscle
structure. Vitamin C is also responsible for the well-being of the blood
vessels, which support the muscles need for oxygen and nutrients.
Naturally, as with most of the important processes and systems of the
body, the vitamins that make up the powerful and essential Vitamin B
complex have a role in the health and function of the muscles. In fact,
deficiencies in the B vitamins can even lead to all sorts of muscle
problems, including a lack of muscle coordination. The B vitamins are
greatly responsible for the creation of the red blood cells that support
the entire body.
When combined with a good diet and strength training program,
creatine has the potential to produce slightly more power during
workouts. Research has also found that loading creatine into the
muscles may help speed up muscle gain. While many creatine
supplements are available at a price, meat is the best dietary source
of creatine. Typical dose for creatine loading is 5 grams of creatine
monohydrate four times per day for 5 days. A maintenance dose of 2
grams per day can follow. Taking more than the usual dosage of
creatine offers no added benefit. Also, users should be aware that
creatine and other popular supplements are subject to little
government regulation, so there is no guarantee that they are pure.
Different activities place special metabolic requirements on muscle systems, and
these differences alter the nutrition requirements among athletes involved in
various types of sports. Sports that require a high level of power and speed over
short distances have a high anaerobic component. Athletes in these sports are
not interested in their ability to move efficiently over long distances for long
periods of time; they want to be there first in short distances. When a baseball
player steals a base, there is virtually nothing about that 4- to 5-second
experience that requires aerobic efficiency. The sprint to the next base is entirely
dependent on anaerobic metabolism, which is almost entirely dependent on
phosphocreatine and glycogen as fuels. Bodybuilders need explosive power to
train but almost never place continuous stress on the muscles for longer than 1.5
minutes, which is the approximate time limit for anaerobic activities.
There has been an evolution in the way athletes eat to support top athletic
performance. Around AD 200, Diogenes Laertius wrote that the training diet of
Greek athletes of the time consisted of dried figs, moist cheeses, and wheat
products. American Olympians at the Berlin Games of 1936 had a daily intake
that included beefsteak, lots of butter, three eggs, custard, 1.5 liters of milk, and
as much as they could consume of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables,
and salads. With each successive Olympic Games, athletes have consumed
certain foods and avoided other foods depending on the state of nutrition
knowledge. Since the 1960s, however, there has been a purposeful scientific
effort to learn what athletes need and why they need it. This scientific
173hiamine173 has led to a much-improved understanding of how muscles work
for power and how they work for speed. The science of sports nutrition has also
helped us understand the different nutrition demands associated with different
types of activities. A failure to consider the nutrition implications of the activity will
most certainly lead to problems in training and to performance outcomes that are
below the capabilities of the athlete.
Our current knowledge of nutrition requirements for anaerobic activity is
substantial, with the clear understanding of what it is that muscles use in this type
of activity: phosphocreatine and glycogen. Of course, there is also a question of
how to obtain and sustain the larger muscle mass typically needed by athletes
involved in anaerobic activity, and the answer to this question is also known:
more calories. However, despite the well-established nature of these facts,
anaerobic athletes place an unyielding focus on protein intake to satisfy the
phosphocreatine, glycogen, and muscle requirements of their activities.
Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways
Athletes have the capacity to obtain a limited amount of energy quickly
without oxygen. Events that are predominantly anaerobic (i.e., they
require maximal power and energy over a limited period of time) rarely
last longer than 90 seconds because the anaerobic energy supply would
be exhausted. In some anaerobic events, such as boxing, each round is
followed by a period of rest to allow the cells to prepare for the next bout
of intense work. What follows is a description of the anaerobic metabolic
Phosphocreatine (Phosphagen) System
Anaerobic metabolic processes supply ATP from phosphocreatine (PCr)
and glycolysis without oxygen. The in-muscle concentration of preformed
ATP is 25 to 33 percent of the concentration of PCr. The enzyme creatine
kinase can break apart PCr into inorganic phosphate and creatine, with a
resultant release of energy. The free inorganic phosphate is united with
ADP to reform ATP. The breakdown of PCr is not reversible until energy
is obtained from other sources (mainly through oxidative metabolic
processes). The volume of energy that can be supplied by the breakdown
of PCr is vast, and it can be produced instantaneously. However, the
length of time that this high volume of energy can be supplied is never
greater than 10 seconds because of the limited amount of PCr stored in
tissue. The formation of energy from PCr breakdown is directly linked to
the intensity of exercise: The higher the exercise intensity, the greater the
reliance on PCr breakdown as a source of energy. Athletes performing
maximal exercise for 8 to 10 seconds (sprint, vault, jumps) must take a
break of 2 to 4 minutes to allow for the regeneration of PCr before
undertaking another maximal bout of exercise.
Creatine monohydrate supplementation is popular because athletes want
to increase the storage of PCr, with the hope of increasing both capacity
Glycolysis (Glycolytic System)
Glycolysis refers to the anaerobic breakdown of glucose or glycogen for
energy. There is a delay of 5 to 10 seconds after the initiation of activity
before the glycolytic system can supply energy to working tissues. The
six-carbon glucose molecule is phosphorylated and broken into two threecarbon molecules (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate, or G3P). Each
molecule of G3P is converted into pyruvate with the formation of ATP.
The glycolytic reaction creates two molecules of ATP for each molecule of
glucose; it creates three molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose if
glycogen is the initial substrate. The pyruvate may be converted to acetylCoA for later storage as fat or conversion to lactate. In either case, the fat
or lactate created from pyruvate can be oxidative sources of energy.
Glycolysis has half the power to create energy as the PCr system but has
three times the capacity. The combination of PCr and glycolysis can
support predominantly anaerobic maximal work for approximately 90
seconds, often referred to as the anaerobic maximum
Endurance events such as road cycling, long-distance swimming, marathon,
triathlon, and 10K run all require a high level of endurance and place a relatively
low premium on anaerobic power. These events force competitors to perform at
the margin of their maximal aerobic capabilities over long distances. As training,
nutrition, and selection of athletes in endurance sports improve, records continue
to fall. This suggests that doing the right things can and will result in moving the
known envelope of speed in endurance events. The winner of the marathon at
the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996 won with an average running pace of slightly
under a 5-minute mile, a feat that is not commonly achieved. Despite this
incredible speed, the athlete had to maintain this pace at a level that allowed a
sufficient oxygen uptake to sustain, primarily, aerobic muscular metabolism. That
is, the majority of all muscular work took place with fuel being burned in the
presence of oxygen. This is an efficient means of obtaining energy, allowing the
athlete to sustain muscular work for long periods of time.
Aerobic training does some wonderful things to the athlete’s ability to use
oxygen. The intermediary (type Iia) fibers, which tend to behave more like fasttwitch (power) fibers than slow-twitch (endurance) fibers, dramatically increase in
mitochondrial content and the in enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. The
training impact on oxygen usage is well known. In studies looking at blood lactate
than are untrained subjects doing the same intensity of work. The conversion of
the 175hiamine175 of the intermediary fibers results in an improvement in the
athlete’s aerobic endurance. The increased ability to use oxygen results in an
improvement in the ability to burn fat as a primary fuel, reducing the reliance on
Since even the leanest athletes have a great deal of energy stored as fat, this
increased ability to burn fat dramatically improves endurance. However, since
carbohydrate is needed for the complete combustion of fat, carbohydrate is still
the limiting energy source for endurance work because athletes have relatively
low carbohydrate stores. This is clearly demonstrated by findings that athletes
consuming a high-fat diet have a maximal endurance time of 57 minutes; on a
normal mixed diet their endurance rises to 114 minutes; and on a highcarbohydrate diet, their maximal endurance rises to 167 minutes.
Of the energy stores available to us, fat is the most efficiently stored and
provides the greatest mass from which we can derive ATP energy. Glycogen
requires approximately 3 grams of water for storage, while fat storage is
essentially anhydrous, making fat a more efficient form of energy storage. Muscle
and liver glycogen stores represent a small fraction of the energy in fat stores but
have the advantage of being able to be metabolized either anaerobically or
aerobically, while fat can only be metabolized aerobically. Protein stores are from
functional tissues that, under ideal conditions, would never be catabolized as a
source of energy. Nevertheless, a small amount of protein (approximately 5
percent of total energy needs) does appear to be metabolized to meet energy
requirements in most activities. In the absence of carbohydrate, protein stores
are catabolized at a faster rate to provide a source of glucose (the amino acid
alanine can be converted to glucose by the liver) and a source of acetyl-CoA and
oxidative metabolism. However, this protein catabolism is not desirable and can
be avoided with a regular supply of carbohydrates and adequate total energy
At the initiation of exercise, the majority of ATP is derived anaerobically. For
highly intense, maximal-effort activities, the requirement for a high volume of
energy mandates a continuous dependence on anaerobic processes. However,
for lower-intensity activities the majority of ATP is initially provided anaerobically,
but then the activity switches to aerobic metabolism to meet most ATP needs.
Anaerobic and aerobic metabolic processes should be thought of as proceeding
simultaneously, with the intensity of the activity determining the predominant
metabolic pathway for the supply of ATP. High-intensity, maximal-effort activities
rely more on anaerobic metabolism, while lower-intensity activities rely more on
aerobic metabolism. Because far more energy is available to us aerobically (fat
can only be metabolized aerobically), the high energy needs of endurance
athletes force them to train muscles to be more aerobically competent. Cells of
well-trained aerobic athletes have more mitochondria and more aerobic enzymes
in the mitochondria, resulting in a higher capacity to derive energy aerobically.
Sports requiring power and endurance
Team sports such as basketball, volleyball, rugby, team handball, and soccer all
have combinations of high-intensity and lower-intensity activity interspersed
throughout the competition. The mixed intensity of certain individual sports, such
as figure skating and tennis, may also fall into this category. This differs from
other sports, where the focus is either predominantly endurance or predominantly
power or speed. There is nothing in artistic gymnastics training or competition
that requires, for instance, a great deal of aerobic endurance; and marathon
runners rarely require the explosive power exhibited by gymnasts. Team sport
athletes must focus on speed, power,andendurance. Soccer players must run the
field at a controlled pace until a sudden opening requires a quick burst of speed.
Basketball players may jog back and forth in a steady aerobic pace, but each
player must have the capacity for a powerful jump to grab a rebound or for a
quick sprint to make a defensive play.
The intermittent high and low intensity of team sports creates a requirement for
energy that is derived from a combination of aerobic and anaerobic means.
Although the anaerobic metabolic processes are solely reliant on existing stores
of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), and muscle glycogen, the aerobic processes
derive energy from muscle glycogen, blood glucose, fat, and to a lesser extent,
protein. There is a heavy reliance on muscle glycogen for the majority of muscle
energy during team sport activity, with nearly an equal reliance on fat and blood
glucose for most of the remaining source of energy. Fat is almost never in short
supply. However, the amount of glucose energy in blood is small and requires
constant vigilance by the athlete to ensure a continuing source of glucose during
The heavy reliance on muscle glycogen and blood glucose to 176hiami the
energy needs of working muscles demands a high level of consumed
carbohydrates before exercise and carbohydrate-containing sports beverages
during exercise. In a study of the performance outcomes of a moderate (39
percent of total calories) versus high (65 percent of total calories) carbohydrate
intake, the higher-carbohydrate diet significantly improved intermittent exercise
Repeated sprint work is enhanced by consumption of a carbohydrate-electrolyte
beverage. Although it has been long established that consumption of a
performance, only recent studies have clearly shown the benefits of these
beverages during high-intensity, short-duration efforts such as those found in
football and basketball. Subjects performed seven additional 1-minute cycling
sprints at 120 to 130 percent of peak VO2when they consumed a 6 percent
carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, as compared with a water placebo. This
finding suggests that a dramatic improvement in sprint capability during the last 5
to 10 minutes of a basketball game is possible if players methodically consume a
A similar study determined that sports drinks (i.e., carbohydrate-electrolyte
beverages) can help maintain high-intensity efforts during high-intensity activities
consisting of intermittent sprinting, running, and jogging. Again, these findings
have strong positive implications for sustaining high-intensity activity over the
course of a typical basketball or soccer game.
The effects of consumption of the individual components of a sports beverage
(electrolytes, water, or carbohydrate) and of the combination of all components
have also been assessed. Compared with the electrolyte-only trial, performance
during the water-only and carbohydrate-only trials was approximately 6 percent
faster. However, the combination of carbohydrate and water caused a
performance enhancement that was approximately 12 percent faster than the
electrolyte trial and 5 to 6 percent faster than when water only or carbohydrate
only were consumed. These findings support the thesis that carbohydrate
enhances water absorption and that the limited carbohydrate storage mandates
consumption of carbohydrate during exercise. The high demands on circulating
and stored carbohydrate during high-intensity work require a constant vigilance
to ensure proper and speedy replacement. This study was based on earlier work
that showed exercise performance improved significantly with carbohydrate
feedings. It has also been found that the optimal level of carbohydrate
concentration during exercise is 6 to 7 percent. This concentration is best for fluid
absorption and also helps to efficiently deliver carbohydrate. An 8 percent
carbohydrate solution causes a slower fluid absorption.
A basketball player leaping for the ball and a soccer player sprinting toward the
ball and jumping high to kick it are activities comparable to certain forms of
strength training. A study of resistance-trained athletes found that athletes
tended to perform more repetitions of the same weight when carbohydrate was
consumed versus a water placebo. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations
were higher with the carbohydrate trial, suggesting that more carbohydrate was
available and used to sustain the high-intensity exercise. A study of head-to-head
comparisons of Gatorade, Powerade, and All Sport found that Gatorade
stimulates fluid absorption faster than either Powerade or All Sport. This
difference can be attributed to both the type of carbohydrate and the
concentration of carbohydrate in the beverages. Gatorade has a carbohydrate
concentration level that is consistent with the positive findings in virtually all the
studies (6 percent) and contains an equal mixture of sucrose and glucose.
Powerade and All Sport have higher carbohydrate concentrations, mainly from
fructose. Fructose has been shown to cause gastrointestinal (GI) distress; it is
also less efficient in sustaining blood glucose because it requires a secondary
conversion in the liver after absorption.
Athletes who perform repeated or sustained high-power efforts experience a
reduction in performance when they are dehydrated. A 6 percent carbohydrate
solution aids in fluid delivery, a fact that should be considered when team sport
athletes select rehydration beverage.
Several general nutrition guidelines-covering what to do before, during, and after
exercise and competition-are important for virtually all athletes involved in sports
that have intermittent periods of maximal intensity.
The two keys to these guidelines are fluids and carbohydrates in the context of a
generally varied diet. Athletes should explore workable strategies to consume
both fluids and carbohydrates at every opportunity. Recent findings tend to
contradict the traditional and commonly followed belief that carbohydratecontaining beverages are useful only for endurance (aerobic) activities lasting
longer than 60 minutes. The best predictors of athletic performance are
maintenance of blood volume and maintenance of glycogen and glucose. What
follows are some strategies that might be useful for achieving both enhanced
hydration and improved maintenance of system carbohydrate in different sports.
NUTRITIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
The pitfalls of travel can undermine the best your training has to offer. The stress
of travelling, jet lag, adapting to new surroundings, and gastrointestinal illness
are all factors that can affect how well you’ll be able to perform once you reach
your destination. Knowing what to expect when travelling and planning for the
challenges you’ll face can make big differences in your performance. Frequent
travel can pose a number of challenges:
Disruptions to the normal training routine and lifestyle while the athlete is
Changes in climate and environment that create different nutritional
Changes to food availability including absence of important and familiar
Reliance on hotels, restaurants and takeaways instead of home cooking
Exposure to new foods and eating cultures
Temptations of an “all you can eat” dining hall in an Athletes’ Village
Risk of gastrointestinal illnesses due to exposure to food and water with
poor hygiene standards
Excitement and distraction of a new environment
The keys to eating well while hiamine are:
Investigate food patterns and availability at your destination before you
leave home. This may help you to plan useful food supplies to take on
your travels that can replace missing and important items. Contact the
catering 179hiamine179e at your destination to let them know of your
needs for meal timing and menus.
Make an eating plan for travel that incorporates the best of the available
food supplies (e.g. airline catering, restaurants en route) as well as selfsupplied snacks.
Eat and drink well while on the move
Recognise that enforced rest while traveling will reduce energy needs, but
create more opportunities for high energy intake if the athlete succumbs
to “boredom eating”. Be aware of eating to real need. When moving to a
new time zone, adopt eating patterns that suit your destination as soon as
the trip starts. This will help to adapt your body clock. Be aware of unseen
fluid losses in air conditioned vehicles and pressurized plane cabins.
Have a drink plan that keeps you well hydrated.
Be wary of food and water hygiene.
Find out whether it is safe to drink the local water supply. If risky, stick to
sealed bottles of water and other drinks or hot drinks. Be wary of ice
added to drinks – it is often made from tap water. In high-risk
environments stick to food produced in good hotels or well-known
restaurants. Avoid eating food from local stalls and markets, however
tempting it is to have an “authentic cultural experience”.
Stick to food that has been well-cooked, and avoid salads or unpeeled
fruit that has been in contact with local water or soil.
Choose well from local cuisine and supplement with non-perishable food
supplies brought from home
Use clever tactics in restaurants, all you can eat dining halls and when
choosing takeaways. Stick to an eating plan based on what is normally
eaten at home, or what meets new nutritional needs, rather than being
mesmerized by all the food on offer. Be assertive in asking for foods to be
prepared to your needs – for example, with low fat cooking methods, or
with an added carbohydrate serving. Avoid hanging around in restaurants
or dining halls for entertainment – it can often lead to unplanned and
Taking a probiotic supplement may help. Probiotic supplements contain
healthy microbes that live naturally and peacefully in your digestive tract.
Taking a supplementary dose of the beneficial microbes may help to ward
off the pathogenic ones
Remember that your normal eating patterns probably involve well-timed and wellchosen snacks. If your new catering arrangements provide only for main meals,
ensure that the menu at meals includes some items that can be taken away for
The challenges of performing physical work at high altitude are daunting, but
nutrition strategies can help people attain their goals in this environment, whether
it’s a 3-day (4,390 meter climb up Mount Rainier or a week-long trek up the 5,890
meter Mount Kilimanjaro. This topic reviews the physiological and nutritional
stresses the human body experiences when working in the often cold setting of a
high altitude and presents recommendations for successfully dealing with this
Meeting energy and nutrient needs
Energy expenditures of humans climbing Mount Everest average 2.5 to 3.0 times
higher than at sea level. It is easy to understand why weight loss from reduced
energy intake is a common outcome of exercise in cold or high-altitude
environments. Athletes performing in these environments should make a
conscious effort to eat at frequent intervals. They should focus on carbohydrate
foods because these foods take less oxygen to metabolize than do fat or protein
foods, help replace glycogen stores, and have a protein-sparing effect. In
addition, inadequate carbohydrate consumption will eventually result in low blood
sugar, which leads to mental confusion and disorientation. Some reports indicate
that mountaineers show a preference for carbohydrates and an aversion to fat.
However, this finding is not consistent; other studies indicate that athletes at high
altitude do not shift their food selections away from high-fat items and toward
high-carbohydrate foods. The same report indicates that high-altitude
environments blunt the sense of taste, which may contribute to inadequate
energy intake. This inadequate energy intake leads to a weight loss (including
muscle weight) that negatively affects strength, endurance, and the capacity to
produce heat. The goal should therefore be to consume an adequate volume of
food to provide sufficient calories rather than place undo importance on the
distribution of energy substrates. Athletes should have foods available to them
that they know they will eat in large quantities and that make them feel good after
they are consumed. To make matters even more difficult, the time to cook a meal
doubles for each 5,000-feet (1,500 meter) climb in elevation. Pre-packaged, highcarbohydrate snacks and foods are a good alternative for most meals, with
cooked meals reserved for those times when athletes have available water and
The intake of vitamins and minerals is something better considered before
exposure to either cold or high altitude. Iron status in particular should be
excellent before attempting a high-altitude trek because oxygen-carrying capacity
is stretched to its limit in this environment. Taking iron supplements while on the
climb is not likely to be of much benefit because it takes a great deal of time
(months) to improve a poor iron status. Oxidative stress may be higher in hot and
cold environments, so consumption of foods that contain antioxidants or periodic
consumption of a multivitamin and multi-mineral supplement should be
considered. A study of oxidative stress in humans at high altitude found that
those receiving an antioxidant mixture had lower breath pentane (a marker of
oxidative stress) compared with those receiving single antioxidant supplements.
Consuming a variety of antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, beta-carotene,
selenium, and vitamin E (as would be present in a broad-spectrum supplement),
is therefore likely a better strategy than focusing on a single antioxidant.
Meeting fluid needs
Consuming sufficient fluids in cold and high-altitude environments presents
unique challenges, all of which must be overcome to ensure an adequate
hydration state. These factors include providing adequate availability of drinking
fluids, avoiding the freezing of drinking fluids, and overcoming voluntary
dehydration. The basic strategy is for each person to ensure an availability of a
minimum of 2 liters of fluids and preferably 4 liters of fluids per day. The 2 liters is
truly a minimum because hard physical work in a cold, high-altitude environment
may result in 2 liters of water loss per hour.. Using melted snow or ice as the
source of fluids is not a reasonable planning option; melting snow and ice at high
altitude takes a great deal of time and adds significant weight in fuel, pots, and
stoves. In addition, it is possible that the available ice and snow is impure and not
fit for consumption. It has been reported that Giardia lamblia, a diarrhea- causing
intestinal parasite, is present in high-altitude regions. Of course, in emergency
situations any available fluids should be consumed, but the risk of infection is
present if purification devices are not used. A unique strategy for keeping fluids
from freezing is to add glycerol, which may improve fluid retention, adds calories
to fluids, and reduces the freezing point. The last characteristic of glycerol is
rarely considered, but for the athlete working in a cold environment, it is
extremely important. The added calories are also an important benefit of glycerol
because both cold-weather and high-
Overcoming voluntary dehydration
When left to their own devices, athletes typically consume less fluid while
exercising than is needed to sustain an optimal hydration state. This condition,
termed voluntary dehydration, may be an even greater problem when athletes
exercise in the cold than when they exercise in the heat. The basis for this
remains unclear, but two theories, one physiological and one practical, have
been suggested as the possible cause. There is a possibility that cold skin or
lower core body temperature modifies the thirst sensation and the voluntary
restriction of fluids seems to occur most often late in the day, an act that blunts
the necessity for an athlete to leave a warm tent to urinate in a cold and
unfriendly environment during the night. The only reasonable solution to avoid
voluntary dehydration is for athletes to place themselves on a fixed drinking
schedule, whether or not the sensation of thirst exists. Having small sips of fluids
at regular intervals also eliminates the need to consume a large volume of fluid at
one time, which may stimulate the need to urinate.
Hot and humid environments
The risks of dehydration and heat injury increase dramatically in hot,
humid environments. If the ambient temperature exceeds body
temperature, heat cannot be dissipated by radiation. Moreover, if the
relative humidity is high, the potential to dissipate heat by evaporation of
sweat is substantially reduced – at a relative humidity of 100%,
vaporization of sweat does not occur. Instead, in humid environments,
sweat drips from the body, leading to non-functional fluid loss. When
temperature and humidity are both high, there is a very high risk of heat
illness, and competitive events should be postponed, rescheduled, or
cancelled. If competitive events do occur under these conditions
nutritional strategies play an important role in assisting an athlete to
perform as well as possible in a hot environment.
A key issue is the prevention of hypohydration during an exercise
session. Fluid intake strategies should be undertaken in a cyclical
sequence: hydrate well prior to the workout, drink as much as is
comfortable and practical during the session, and rehydrate aggressively
afterwards in preparation for future exercise bouts. There is some interest
in hyperhydration strategies, such as hyperhydration with glycerol, to
prepare the athlete for a situation where there is little opportunity for fluid
intake to match large sweat losses. Recovery of significant fluid losses
after exercise is assisted by the simultaneous replacement of electrolyte
Carbohydrate requirements for exercise are increased in the heat, due to
a shift in substrate utilization towards carbohydrate oxidation. Daily food
patterns should focus on replacing glycogen stores after exercise, and
competition strategies should include activities to enhance carbohydrate
availability, such as carbohydrate loading for endurance events, pre-event
carbohydrate intake, and intake of sports drinks in events lasting longer
than 60 min. Although carbohydrate ingestion may not enhance the
performance of all events undertaken in hot weather, there are no
disadvantages to the consumption of beverages containing 4-8%
carbohydrate and electrolytes. In fact, the palatability of these drinks may
enhance the voluntary intake of fluid. Although there is some evidence of
increased protein catabolism and cellular damage due to production of
oxygen radicals during exercise in the heat, there is insufficient evidence
to make specific dietary recommendations to account for these issues.
Athletes who participate in cold weather activities have a variety of special
needs when it comes to performing at an optimal level while staying
comfortable and safe as temperatures drop. But how you fuel your exercise in
the cold can also help you perform your best and stay comfortable and safe.
Proper nutrition can help regulate your core temperature, and keep your body
warm while fuelling your muscles. In the summer it’s easy to sweat to
regulate your temperature and remove excess heat. In cold weather, you
need this heat to stay warm.
In the cold weather your body temperature normally drops. Your metabolism
increases to warm and humidify the air you breathe and you tend to burn
slightly more calories to stay warm. Breathing in cold, dry air forces your body
to warm and humidify that air and with each exhalation, you lose significant
amounts of water. Athletes training and competing in cold environments need
to consciously drink more fluids to replace the water that gets lost via
respiration. Add this to a decreased desire to drink (the thirst mechanism is
reduced in cold weather) and the difficulty of removing multiple layers of
clothing to urinate may cause some athletes, especially women, to voluntarily
limit their fluid intake. Dehydration is one of the main reasons for reduced
performance in the cold.
When it comes to eating during cold weather exercise, warm foods are ideal,
but not very practical. The problem with cold foods and fluids is that they can
chill the body. In summer, this cooling effect is helpful during exercise, but in
winter hot foods are the better choice. Ideal foods are complex carbohydrates
consumed 2 hours prior to exercise. Soups, chilli, bread, bagels, pasta with
tomato sauce baked potatoes, cereals; peanut butter, lean meat, and low-fat
cheese are good choices.
It’s also important to eat continually to replace carbohydrate stores that are
being used for exercise and warming. If you don’t replace this energy you will
likely feel more fatigued and chilled.
Recommendations for Cold Weather Nutrition
Drink plenty of water
Eat a variety of high carbohydrates foods
Plan to eat a small snack every 30-45 minutes (100-200
Eat warm or hot food when possible
Decrease caffeine consumption
Don’t drink alcohol. Alcohol dilates the blood vessels and
increases heat loss.
The vegetarian athlete
Some athletes choose to follow vegetarian diets. Nutrition
recommendations for these athletes should be formulated with
consideration of the effects of both vegetarianism and exercise. The
position of the American Dietetic Association on vegetarian diets provides
appropriate dietary guidance that should be considered in conjunction
with the information provided herein.
Vegetarianism does not necessarily affect energy needs, though energy
availability could be reduced slightly if a vegetarian has an extremely high
fiber intake. As with all athletes, monitoring body weight and composition
is the preferred means of determining if energy needs are satisfied. Some
people, especially women, may switch to vegetarianism as a means of
restricting energy intake to attain the lean body habitus favored in some
sports. Occasionally, this may be a step toward development of an eating
disorder. Because of this association, coaches and trainers should be
alert when an athlete becomes vegetarian, and ensure that appropriate
weight is maintained.
Studies consistently report that vegetarians have lower protein intakes
than omnivores. Although the protein quality of a vegetarian diet is
adequate for adults plant proteins are not as well-digested as animal
proteins. Thus, to adjust for incomplete digestion, an increase of about
10% in the amount consumed may be made. Accordingly, recommended
protein intakes for vegetarian athletes would be about 1.3 to 1.8 g/kg
body weight, using recommendations for athletes as a baseline.
Vegetarian athletes with relatively low energy intakes may need to
choose foods carefully to ensure that their protein intakes are consistent
with these recommendations. Vegetarian athletes may be at risk for low
intakes of vitamins B12 and D, riboflavin, iron, calcium, and zinc, because
many of these nutrients are high in animal products. Iron is a nutrient that
may be of particular concern to vegetarian athletes. Because of the lower
bioavailability of iron in plant-based diets, the iron stores in vegetarians
are generally lower than those of omnivores, despite total iron intakes that
are similar or even higher. When combined with data indicating that
exercise may increase iron requirements, it is possible that vegetarian
athletes, especially women, may be at greater risk of developing poor iron
status. Accordingly, it would be prudent for iron status to be monitored
routinely in female vegetarian athletes. Some foods contain substances
that block the absorption of iron in the intestine. Coffee, whole grains,
bran, legumes, and spinach all interfere with iron absorption and should
be combined with vitamin C to increase iron absorption.
Weight control and energy needs
An athlete’s daily energy intake provides for immediate energy needs (body
functions, activity and growth) as well as influencing body energy stores.
Energy stores play a number of important roles related to exercise
performance, since they contribute to size and physique (e.g. body fat and
muscle mass), function (e.g. muscle mass) and fuel for exercise (e.g. muscle
and liver carbohydrate).
Many athletes try to manipulate these factors towards the characteristics that
offer advantages to their sport. In most cases, the goals are to change body
weight, reduce body fat, increase muscle mass and optimize important fuel
Problems can occur when:
• the athlete is unable to identify goals that are both suitable for their sport,
and for their individual make-up
the athlete is unable to monitor the separate components of their goals
(for example, to distinguish changes in body fat from changes in total
body weight, or to see whether total energy intake provides for optimal
store of body fuels)
the athlete restricts energy intake to the level that interferes with the
body’s metabolic and hormonal function
Strategies for managing energy intake and energy balance:
• The athlete should individually manage their energy stores of body fat,
carbohydrate (muscle fuel) and protein (muscle mass) by managing
intake and expenditure of these nutrients separately.
• The athlete should eat to a plan that achieves their specific goals rather
than relying on appetite to guide energy intake. Advice from a sports
nutrition expert is often required to develop this plan.
• The athlete should have a number of separate bio-markers to monitor
their progress in achieving each of their energy related goals.
• Body weight is not a reliable or accurate indicator of energy balance.
Monitoring body weight is often a stressful activity for athletes, especially
when the information is misinterpreted or the outcome is manipulated.
• Serial monitoring of skinfold fat thicknesses, especially when undertaken
by a trained kinanthropometrist, can provide useful information about
changes in body fat stores
• Urinary ketones can provide a marker of inadequate carbohydrate intake
• Measurements of changes in muscle strength and endurance provide a
useful biomarker of muscle development
Although many athletes reduce their energy intake to assist with the loss of body
weight and body fat, it is harmful to restrict energy intake below levels that
interfere with healthy body function. There is good evidence from recent research
that when energy availability drops below a daily intake of 30 kcal (135 Kj) per kg
fat-free mass (FFM), there are substantial impairments of metabolic and
hormonal function, which affect performance, growth and health. In females, one
outcome of low energy availability is a disturbance of reproductive function and
menstrual regularity. Other problems are likely to occur in male athletes.
Example of low energy availability:
• 60 kg female with 20% body fat = 48kg FFM
• Daily energy intake is restricted to1800 kcal (7560 Kj)
• Cost of daily exercise (1 h/d) =500 kcal (2100 Kj)
• Energy availability = 1800-500 =1300 kcal (5460 Kj)
• Energy availability = 1300/48 or27 kcal/kg FFM (113 Kj per kg FFM)
Strategies for staying lean and trim:
• Assess portion sizes at meals to ensure that over-eating does not occur
due to habit or unnecessary hunger
• Use well-chosen snacks between meals to maintain fuel levels for training
sessions or to avoid excessive hunger. However, avoid snacking for
entertainment or comfort. Snacks can often be organized by saving part
of a meal for a later occasions, rather than by eating extra food.
• Use low-fat strategies in choosing foods and while cooking or preparing
Make meals and snacks more “filling” by including plenty of salads and
vegetables, by taking the higher-fiber option, and by including low
glycemic forms of carbohydrate.
A food record will help to identify the difference between an athlete’s
desired eating plan, and their actual intake. Many people are unaware of
the habits that sabotage their eating goals
Examples of incorporating low glycemic index carbohydrate foods into
• Enjoy rolled oats instead of Cornflakes for breakfast
• Replace white and wholemeal breads with wholegrain and multi-grain
• Add lentils and legumes to casseroles and pasta sauces
• Enjoy flavoured yoghurt as a snack
Special needs for weight conscious sports
The key nutritional interest of many athletes is to reduce body weight and
body fat. A low level of body weight and body fat often provides a benefit to
performance. In other sports involving subjective outcomes (e.g. gymnastics,
diving, body building), the athlete who is lean and trim is judged to have a
higher aesthetic appeal. Although certain body shapes and physiques are
held up as “de rigueur” for many sports, each athlete must be realistic in
setting targets for the weight and fat loss programs they undertake.
Challenges occur for the athlete whose training does not involve high energy
expenditure work – for example, the athlete who undertakes lengthy training
sessions that are primarily based on skill and agility. It is more difficult to
create the energy deficit needed to reduce weight and body fat when basal
energy needs are low to moderate. Restrictive eating and fad diets can lead
to dehydration and fuel depletion, marring training performance and
increasing the risk of injury and accidents, rather than achieving effective loss
of body fat.
In many combat sports (boxing, wrestling, martial arts), some strength sports
(weight lifting) and lightweight rowing, competition involves weight divisions
that attempt to provide a match between athletes of equal size and
performance. In such sports, athletes typically try to lose weight in the days
before the competition (and its pre-event weigh in), in order to qualify for a
weight division that is lighter than their habitual body weight and gain an
advantage over a smaller opponent. Acute strategies to “make weight”
expose the athlete to health and performance risks arising from dehydration,
fuel depletion, inadequate nutrient intake, and psychological stress.
Athletes will benefit from professional advice from an expert such as a sports
dietitian to set realistic goals for weight and fat loss attempts, and a suitable
long-term eating plan. The athlete in skill-based sports should seek their
coach’s input to introduce or increase aerobic workouts that can increase
overall energy expenditure without detriment to key training sessions. This
may include changes to lifestyle to increase incidental exercise or activity in
the day. Athletes who compete in weight division sports should settle for a
weight category that is close to the training weight that can be achieved with
a safe and healthy plan. Final “fine tuning” of weight prior to the event should
not involve changes of >1-2% body weight, and should be undertaken without
resort to extreme techniques of dehydration and fasting.
Athletes in weight conscious sports may be at higher risk of disordered eating
and eating disorders than other athletes or the sedentary population. It is
important that athletes who develop warning signs of such problems are
refereed at an early stage for expert team-based advice.
Diabetics and sports nutrition
Diabetes is caused by a deficiency (Type I) or a malfunctioning (Type II) of
insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas). Without insulin, glucose
cannot enter cells and stays in the bloodstream. Type I diabetes is treated
with insulin injections that help make cells receptive to glucose. Type II
Diabetes can be controlled with adjustments in diet and exercise.
Diabetic athletes routinely compete in athletic events from Iron Man triathlons
to professional football. With proper control and some basic routines, athletes
with diabetes can compete at the same intensity as anyone. New insulin
pumps and blood glucose monitoring devices make it easier for athletes to
monitor their response to exercise. While diabetes can be managed, there
are risks that require planning for training or competition. It’s important to
consult your doctor before starting an exercise program, so a complete risk
assessment can be performed and a safe training and competition schedule
can be designed.
Because exercise lowers the blood sugar levels and helps improve the body’s
use of insulin, an athlete often needs to reduce the insulin dose before
exercise. Exercise also increases the blood flow to the skin and muscle
tissue, and increases the amount of insulin in the blood stream and
stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood. It is important to reduce
the level of glucose in the blood prior to beginning exercise.
Diabetics should maintain a good balance of blood sugar (between 70 and
180 mg) during physical activity. Athletic performance is reduced if this
balance is off. Too much insulin can lead to hypoglycemia and too little may
cause hyperglycemia. Because some of the symptoms of the two conditions
may look like normal reactions to exercise (sweating and paleness), it is
important that a diabetic athlete (or a coach) is aware of the following
Symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia):
• decreased physical performance
• variable mood
The onset of low blood sugar can be prevented by eating or drinking food high in
carbohydrates. Extreme 188hiamine188emia may result in severe reactions
such as the inability to swallow or unconsciousness. In this case, a physician or
paramedic can inject 188hiamine188, which is a hormone that releases glucose
from the liver into the blood stream. After receiving 188hiamine188, the person
should soon regain consciousness.
Symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia):
• dry mouth
• frequent urination
• extreme thirst
Safety tips for diabetic athletes:
• Check your blood sugar levels before, after and every 20 to
30 minutes during prolonged exercise.
• If blood sugar is under 100 mg/Dl, eat grams of carbohydrate before you
• If blood sugar is excessive (over 250 mg/Dl for type 2 diabetes or over
200 mg/Dl for type 1, postpone exercise until you bring it down.
• Know the signs of 188hiamine188emia and be prepared with available
• Exercise 1 to 2 hours after a meal.
• Avoid exercise at times of peak insulin activity. Morning exercise is ideal.
People who have type 1 diabetes should avoid evening exercise, if
• Adjust your insulin dosage, if necessary. (Follow your doctor’s advice,
but this usually means reducing the dose of short-acting insulin before
• After prolonged or intense exercise, you may need extra carbohydrate
foods for up to 24 hours to refill muscle starch reserves. Beware of
• Drink plenty of fluids: about a pint 2 hours before exercise, and drink
after exercise to replace fluids lost in sweat.
• Pay attention to your feet. Wear proper shoes and socks.
• Avoid alcohol around the time of exercise (even the night before a
• Wear an ID band of some sort in case of emergency.
• Pay attention to your body, and become aware of your own pattern of
blood-glucose response to exercise.
Eating disorders and sports performance
Although many athletes initially experience an improvement in sports
performance with weight loss, this improvement is generally short lived if it
was due to a drastic reduction in food intake. A major decrease in food
consumption depletes energy and can be indicative of an eating disorder.
Lower plasma volume, impaired thermoregulation, and lower glycogen
storage are all associated with eating disorders and can lower the levels of
anaerobic and aerobic endurance.
In addition, lowered food intake also predisposes athletes to multiple micro
nutrient deficiencies that can lower athletic performance and increase the risk
of injury. This is evidenced when examining the abnormal menstrual patterns
that often accompany eating disorders. Females who have stopped
menstruating have lower levels of calcium in their bones, increasing their risk
for stress fractures. The menstrual abnormalities correlate to a negative
balance of energy and are also associated with lower resting-energy
expenditure, which is typically the result of a decreased metabolic rate and
Body composition can be a useful tool in helping the athlete and coach
understand the changes that are occurring as a result of training and nutrition
factors. Health professionals involved in obtaining body composition data
should focus on using the same technique with the same prediction equations
to derive valid comparative data over time. Care should be taken that body
composition values are used constructively as part of the athlete’s total
training plan. Ideally, the emphasis should be on a periodic (semiannually or
quarterly) monitoring of the athlete’s body composition to determine change
of both the lean and fat mass. Many athletes are sensitive about body fat, so
care should be taken to use body composition values in a way that enables
their constructive use in an athlete’s general training plan. Athletes suspected
of having an eating disorder should be quickly assessed and treated if
necessary. It is likely that helping young athletes understand appropriate
nutrition strategies for attaining a desirable body profile, weight, strength, and
endurance will help reduce future eating disorder risk.
ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS
6.32.1 Assessment methods
Assessment of nutritional status provides feedback to athletes for the
development of the dietary component of their training and competition
programs in order to improve or maintain desirable nutritional status and
improve performance. The assessment is made up of the following
Nutrition Questionnaire to evaluate dietary practices during training and
competition and a 24 hour dietary recall.
Body Weight & Diet History
Menstrual History (if applicable)
Dietary Supplement Use
Height, weight, bone mineral density and estimates of body composition
including fat mass and fat free mass
Indicators for immunological function included complete blood count with
Indicators for profiles of muscle included: creatine kinase, testosterone,
Indicators of profiles of iron status included hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean
corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and
serum ferritin. Indicators for additional nutritional biochemical assessment
included fasting glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, creatine, blood
urea nitrogen, etc.
6.32.2 Nutritional deficiency symptoms and signs
Symptom or Sign
Other Possible Causes
General Symptoms and
vitamins B1, B12 and
other B vitamins and
Many physical illnesses
cardiac failure, anaemia, chronic
fatigue syndrome and
Loss of appetite
Many chronic illnesses
Pica eating non-nutritive
General malnutrition and
possibly iron, calcium,
zinc, vitamins B1 –
thiamine, B3 – niacin, C
Normal in infants under 2 years
of age, pregnancy especially in
young women, mental illness
Loss of taste
Common cold, many nasal
Hypothyroidism, anaemia and
reduced cardiac output
Pale appearance due to
Iron, folate and vitamin
Excessive bleeding and
Carotenoderma – yellow
discolouration of the skin
Protein-energy and zinc
Dietary carotenoid excess
especially in women,
noticeable on the face and
Addison’s disease and
Muscle wasting e.g. clothes Protein-energy
appear too big, loss of limb
Loss of height and
excessive curvature of the
Calcium and vitamin D
Increasing age and diseaserelated osteoporosis
Itchy skin – pruritus
Many skin diseases, liver
Essential Fatty Acids or
Old age, skin conditions e.g.
Red scaly skin in lightexposed areas
Excessive sun-exposure in
red/fair haired individuals lightexposed areas
Old age, trauma and blood
Haemorrhage or redness
around hair follicles
Bleeding into a joint or
other unusual bleeding
Plugging of hair follicles
with keratin or coiled hairs
Various blood disorders
Fine downy hair on torso – Protein-energy. Typical of
Iron, vitamin B12, B2, B3
and possibly other B
Excessively hot drinks and oral
Cracking and peeling of
skin on the lips
Vitamin B2 – riboflavin
Excessive exposure to cold or
Cracking at the corners of
Iron, vitamin B2 –
Poorly fitting dentures, eczema
riboflavin possibly other B infection with candida albicans
Recurrent mouth ulcers
Iron, vitamin B12, folate
and possibly other B
Coeliac disease, Crohn’s
disease recurrent herpes and
Enlarged veins under the
tongue with microhaemorrhages
Smoking and old age
Smooth, shinny and sore
tongue: atrophic glossitis
Iron, vitamin B12 and
Head, Face and Neck
Scalp hair loss
Any scalp disease, alopecia
from other causes
Essential fatty acids and
Fungal infection of scalp
Redness at the sides of the Vitamin B2 –riboflavin,
vitamin B6 and zinc
Redness or cracking at the Vitamins B2 or B6
outer angle of the eyes
Iodine deficiency is likely if Adolescence, pregnancy and
goitre is present in > 20% various forms of thyroid disease
of population – endemic
Hands and Nails
Nails – brittle or flaking
essential fatty acids
Poor circulation and old age
Nails – upturned or spoon- Iron
Psoriasis or other diseases of
the nail bed
Carotenoderma – yellow
discolouration of the skin
noticeable on the palms
Protein-energy and zinc
Dietary carotenoid excess
especially in women,
Muscle pains and cramps
sodium, vitamin B1 and
vitamin D if there is
Muscle or neurological disease,
polymyalgia rheumatica and
Calf muscle pain after
Vitamin B1 – thiamine
Torn muscle, peripheral
vascular disease and myopathy
Excessive calf muscle
Vitamin B1- thiamine
Torn muscle, thrombosis
Walking with a waddling
Vitamin D and resultant
Osteoarthritis of the hips or
disease of the hip-girdle
Difficulty getting up from a
low chair or climbing the
stairs or weakness of
Vitamin D and resultant
Arthritis of the hips or knees,
diseases of the nerves or
Vitamin D – rickets in
Twitching of facial muscles Calcium and vitamin D if
when tapping on the facial hypocalcaemia or severe
nerve in front of the ear:
Paget’s disease and syphilis
Hypocalcaemia for other
Poor night vision
Zinc, vitamin A and
possibly vitamin B2 –
Old age and Sjogren’s
Irritable bowel syndrome,
diarrhoea and many other
Irritable bowel syndrome,
diverticulosis, cancer of the
Iron or folate
Various neurological disorders,
pregnancy, rheumatoid arthritis,
and renal failure
Burning feet syndrome
Vitamin B2 –riboflavin
Early peripheral neuropathy
Loss of balance when
standing upright with feet
together and the eyes
closed: Romberg’s test
Vitamin B12 and possibly
Many neurological disorders
affecting the cerebellum, spinal
chord or peripheral nerves
Loss of vibration sensation Vitamin B12 and possibly
in the lower limbs
Increasing age and peripheral
Peripheral neuropathy –
disordered sensation, pain
and or weakness in the
hands or feet
Vitamins B1, B12 and
Diabetes and many other
possibly B3, B6 and folate causes
and very rarely copper
surgery or excess zinc
ingestion). Relative lack of
essential fatty acids.
Unsteady movement or
walking (cerebellar ataxia)
Vitamin B1, vitamin E and Alcohol, hypothyroidism and
many neurological and inherited
Vitamins C, B1, B3, B6,
Mental illness, stress and as a
B12, folate, biotin and
consequence of physical illness
possibly the essential fatty
Alcoholism, deprcssion and
Iron, vitamins B1, B12,
folate and possibly
essential fatty acids
Depression, stress, lack of
sleep, alcohol, dementia,
anaemia, hypothyroidism and
many other diseases
Vitamin B1 – 194hiamine
and any deficiency
Coronary, valvular and
magnesium and any
Coronary, valvular and
FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY
Our nutritional status, health, physical and mental faculties depend on the
food we eat and how we eat it. Access to good quality food has been man’s
main endeavour from the earliest days of human existence. Safety of food is
a basic requirement of food quality. “Food safety” implies absence or
acceptable and safe levels of contaminants, adulterants, naturally occurring
toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an
acute or chronic basis. Food quality can be considered as a complex
characteristic of food that determines its value or acceptability to consumers.
Besides safety, quality attributes include: nutritional value; organoleptic
properties such as appearance, colour, texture, taste; and functional
Safety and effectiveness of food biotechnology
Genetically engineered food meets stringent safety standards and do not
differ from conventional foods in quality or safety
The benefits of biotechnology far outweigh the risks
Significant differences in nutrient content from its conventional counterpart or
the introduction of a known allergen must be identified by a special label
Pesticides and health concerns
00The prudent individual should avoid direct contact with pesticides
With produce, analyzed data shows that synthetic and naturally-occurring
pesticides are consumed at such low levels that they pose little threat to
Meat products may contain higher amounts of pesticides
Fish from contaminated waters may contain high levels of pesticides
Lower limits for pesticides in foods were implemented for children in 1999,
but full coverage is not due until 2006
Ways to reduce the pesticide content in the foods we eat
Avoid direct skin or breathing exposure to pesticides
Food preparation may reduce pesticide residues
Peeling fruits and vegetables helps
Eat less animal fat and seafood from contaminated waters
Buy fruits and vegetables locally and in season
Eat a wide variety of foods
Buy certified organic foods
Effect of food processing on food quality and safety
A potential health risk of food processing is the conversion of a healthful
food into a potentially harmful one
The major purpose of food processing is to prevent waste through
deterioration or spoilage
Food processing results in the loss of some nutrients, but not major losses
Food companies may enrich or fortify certain products before marketing
Some nutrients may be susceptible to loss through processing
Relatively stable nutrients
Less stable nutrients
o Vitamins A,D,E, B2, B6, and B12
Those that may be seriously depleted
o Vitamin B1
Both commercial and home processing of food will not necessarily lead to a
nutritionally inferior product
The major problem with food processing is the excessive use of highly
Unenriched white flour
Bacteria may be added unintentionally during commercial processing
Home food processing
Careful preparation of foods at home can minimize nutrient losses and
preserve the healthful quality
The major problem is food borne bacteria
o Caused by consuming bacteria contaminated food
Irradiation may eliminate or reduce bacteria and reduce the need
for many food preservatives
Care in preparation of food at home can prevent the spread of
Food additive safety
Purposes for the additives in the foods we eat
Preserve the food
Additives must be Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) to earn FDA
Dietary supplement safety
Many of them may be regarded as drugs in disguise
Reasons for the lack of research to document the effectiveness of plant
products or dietary supplements to improve health or sport performance
Herbal products cannot be patented
The possibility of negative results
Safeguards for the use of dietary supplements
Try changing your diet or life-style first
Check with a doctor first
Buy standardized products
Use only single ingredient supplements
Be alert to both positive and negative effects
Stop if you experience any problems
Why do some people experience adverse reactions to some foods
Does not involve immune system
Body lacks the appropriate enzyme to digest a portion of the food
Adverse immune response to a food
Allergens may be found in food or food additives
“If we are to make progress, we must not repeat history but make new
“Everyone thinks of changing the world but no one thinks of changing
The objective of risk management is to reduce different risks related to a preselected
domain to the level accepted by society. It may refer to numerous types of threats
caused by environment, technology, humans, organizations and politics. On the other
hand it involves all means available for humans, or in particular, for a risk management
entity (person, staff, organization). The main ISO standards on risk management include
Risk management is a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to a threat, a
sequence of human activities including: risk assessment, strategies development to
manage it, and mitigation of risk using managerial resources.
The strategies include transferring the risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing
the negative effect of the risk, and accepting some or all of the consequences of a
Some traditional risk managements are focused on risks stemming from physical or legal
causes (e.g. natural disasters or fires, accidents, ergonomics, death and lawsuits
This section provides an introduction to the principles of risk management. The
vocabulary of risk management is defined in ISO Guide 73, "Risk management.
In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the
greatest loss and the greatest probability of occurring are handled first, and risks with
lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled in descending order. In
practice the process can be very difficult, and balancing between risks with a high
probability of occurrence but lower loss versus a risk with high loss but lower probability
of occurrence can often be mishandled.
Intangible risk management identifies a new type of risk - a risk that has a 100%
probability of occurring but is ignored by the organization due to a lack of identification
ability. For example, when deficient knowledge is applied to a situation, a knowledge risk
materialises. Relationship risk appears when ineffective collaboration occurs. Processengagement risk may be an issue when ineffective operational procedures are applied.
These risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost
effectiveness, profitability, service, quality, reputation, brand value, and earnings quality.
Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the
identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity.
Risk management also faces difficulties allocating resources. This is the idea of
opportunity cost. Resources spent on risk management could have been spent on more
profitable activities. Again, ideal risk management minimizes spending while maximizing
the reduction of the negative effects of risks.
Principles of Risk Management
The International Standards Organization identifies the following principles of risk
Risk management should create value.
Risk management should be an integral part of organizational processes.
Risk management should be part of decision making.
Risk management should explicitly address uncertainty.
Risk management should be systematic and structured.
Risk management should be based on the best available information.
Risk management should be tailored.
Risk management should take into account human factors.
Risk management should be transparent and inclusive.
Risk management should be dynamic, iterative and responsive to change.
Risk Management should be capable of continual improvement
According to the standard ISO/DIS 31000 "Risk management -- Principles and
guidelines on implementation" , the process of risk management consists of several
steps as follows:
Establish the context
Establishing the context involves
1. Identification of risk in a selected domain of interest
2. Planning the remainder of the process.
3. Mapping out the following:
the social scope of risk management
the identity and objectives of stakeholders
the basis upon which risks will be evaluated, constraints.
4. Defining a framework for the activity and an agenda for identification.
5. Developing an analysis of risks involved in the process.
6. Mitigation of risks using available technological, human and organizational
After establishing the context, the next step in the process of managing risk is to identify
potential risks. Risks are about events that, when triggered, cause problems. Hence, risk
identification can start with the source of problems, or with the problem itself.
Source analysis Risk sources may be internal or external to the system that is
the target of risk management. Examples of risk sources are: stakeholders of a
project, employees of a company or the weather over an airport.
Problem analysis Risks are related to identified threats. For example: the threat
of losing money, the threat of abuse of privacy information or the threat of
accidents and casualties. The threats may exist with various entities, most
important with shareholders, customers and legislative bodies such as the
When either source or problem is known, the events that a source may trigger or the
events that can lead to a problem can be investigated. For example: stakeholders
withdrawing during a project may endanger funding of the project; privacy information
may be stolen by employees even within a closed network; lightning striking a Boeing
747 during takeoff may make all people onboard immediate casualties.
The chosen method of identifying risks may depend on culture, industry practice and
compliance. The identification methods are formed by templates or the development of
templates for identifying source, problem or event. Common risk identification methods
Objectives-based risk identification Organizations and project teams have
objectives. Any event that may endanger achieving an objective partly or
completely is identified as risk.
Scenario-based risk identification In scenario analysis different scenarios are
created. The scenarios may be the alternative ways to achieve an objective, or
an analysis of the interaction of forces in, for example, a market or battle. Any
event that triggers an undesired scenario alternative is identified as risk - see
Futures Studies for methodology used by Futurists.
Taxonomy-based risk identification The taxonomy in taxonomy-based risk
identification is a breakdown of possible risk sources. Based on the taxonomy
and knowledge of best practices, a questionnaire is compiled. The answers to
the questions reveal risks. Taxonomy-based risk identification in software
industry can be found in CMU / SEI-93-TR-6.
Common-risk Checking In several industries lists with known risks are
available. Each risk in the list can be checked for application to a particular
situation. An example of known risks in the software industry is the Common
Vulnerability and Exposures list found at http://cve.mitre.org.
Risk Charting This method combines the above approaches by listing
Resources at risk, Threats to those resources Modifying Factors which may
increase or decrease the risk and Consequences it is wished to avoid. Creating a
matrix under these headings enables a variety of approaches. One can begin
with resources and consider the threats they are exposed to and the
consequences of each. Alternatively one can start with the threats and examine
which resources they would affect, or one can begin with the consequences and
determine which combination of threats and resources would be involved to bring
Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their potential
severity of loss and to the probability of occurrence. These quantities can be either
simple to measure, in the case of the value of a lost building, or impossible to know for
sure in the case of the probability of an unlikely event occurring. Therefore, in the
assessment process it is critical to make the best educated guesses possible in order to
properly prioritize the implementation of the risk management plan.
The fundamental difficulty in risk assessment is determining the rate of occurrence since
statistical information is not available on all kinds of past incidents. Furthermore,
evaluating the severity of the consequences (impact) is often quite difficult for immaterial
assets. Asset valuation is another question that needs to be addressed. Thus, best
educated opinions and available statistics are the primary sources of information.
Nevertheless, risk assessment should produce such information for the management of
the organization that the primary risks are easy to understand and that the risk
management decisions may be prioritized. Thus, there have been several theories and
attempts to quantify risks. Numerous different risk formulae exist, but perhaps the most
widely accepted formula for risk quantification is:
Rate of occurrence multiplied by the impact of the event equals risk
Later research has shown that the financial benefits of risk management are less
dependent on the formula used but are more dependent on the frequency and how risk
assessment is performed.
In business it is imperative to be able to present the findings of risk assessments in
financial terms. Robert Courtney Jr. (IBM, 1970) proposed a formula for presenting risks
in financial terms. The Courtney formula was accepted as the official risk analysis
method for the US governmental agencies. The formula proposes calculation of ALE
(annualised loss expectancy) and compares the expected loss value to the security
control implementation costs (cost-benefit analysis).
Potential risk treatments
Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into
one or more of these four major categories:
Transference (outsource or insure)
Retention (accept and budget)
Ideal use of these strategies may not be possible. Some of them may involve trade-offs
that are not acceptable to the organization or person making the risk management
decisions. Another source, from the US Department of Defense, Defense Acquisition
University, calls these categories ACAT, for Avoid, Control, Accept, or Transfer. This use
of the ACAT acronym is reminiscent of another ACAT (for Acquisition Category) used in
US Defense industry procurements, in which Risk Management figures prominently in
decision making and planning.
Includes not performing an activity that could carry risk. An example would be not buying
a property or business in order to not take on the liability that comes with it. Another
would be not flying in order to not take the risk that the airplane were to be hijacked.
Avoidance may seem the answer to all risks, but avoiding risks also means losing out on
the potential gain that accepting (retaining) the risk may have allowed. Not entering a
business to avoid the risk of loss also avoids the possibility of earning profits.
Involves methods that reduce the severity of the loss or the likelihood of the loss from
occurring. Examples include sprinklers designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of
loss by fire. This method may cause a greater loss by water damage and therefore may
not be suitable. Halon fire suppression systems may mitigate that risk, but the cost may
be prohibitive as a strategy.
Modern software development methodologies reduce risk by developing and delivering
software incrementally. Early methodologies suffered from the fact that they only
delivered software in the final phase of development; any problems encountered in
earlier phases meant costly rework and often jeopardized the whole project. By
developing in iterations, software projects can limit effort wasted to a single iteration.
Outsourcing could be an example of risk reduction if the outsourcer can demonstrate
higher capability at managing or reducing risks.  In this case companies outsource only
some of their departmental needs. For example, a company may outsource only its
software development, the manufacturing of hard goods, or customer support needs to
another company, while handling the business management itself. This way, the
company can concentrate more on business development without having to worry as
much about the manufacturing process, managing the development team, or finding a
physical location for a call center.
Involves accepting the loss when it occurs. True self insurance falls in this category. Risk
retention is a viable strategy for small risks where the cost of insuring against the risk
would be greater over time than the total losses sustained. All risks that are not avoided
or transferred are retained by default. This includes risks that are so large or
catastrophic that they either cannot be insured against or the premiums would be
infeasible. War is an example since most property and risks are not insured against war,
so the loss attributed by war is retained by the insured. Also any amounts of potential
loss (risk) over the amount insured is retained risk. This may also be acceptable if the
chance of a very large loss is small or if the cost to insure for greater coverage amounts
is so great it would hinder the goals of the organization too much.
Many sectors have for a long time regarded insurance as a transfer of risk. This is not
correct. Insurance is a post event compensatory mechanism. That is, even if an
insurance policy has been effected this does not mean that the risk has been
transferred. For example, a personal injuries insurance policy does not transfer the risk
of a car accident to the insurance company. The risk still lies with the policy holder
namely the person who has been in the accident. The insurance policy simply provides
that if an accident (the event) occurs involving the policy holder then some
compensation may be payable to the policy holder that is commensurate to the
Some ways of managing risk fall into multiple categories. Risk retention pools are
technically retaining the risk for the group, but spreading it over the whole group involves
transfer among individual members of the group. This is different from traditional
insurance, in that no premium is exchanged between members of the group up front, but
instead losses are assessed to all members of the group.
Create a risk management plan
Select appropriate controls or countermeasures to measure each risk. Risk mitigation
needs to be approved by the appropriate level of management. For example, a risk
concerning the image of the organization should have top management decision behind
it whereas IT management would have the authority to decide on computer virus risks.
The risk management plan should propose applicable and effective security controls for
managing the risks. For example, an observed high risk of computer viruses could be
mitigated by acquiring and implementing antivirus software. A good risk management
plan should contain a schedule for control implementation and responsible persons for
According to ISO/IEC 27001, the stage immediately after completion of the Risk
Assessment phase consists of preparing a Risk Treatment Plan, which should document
the decisions about how each of the identified risks should be handled. Mitigation of
risks often means selection of security controls, which should be documented in a
Statement of Applicability, which identifies which particular control objectives and
controls from the standard have been selected, and why.
Follow all of the planned methods for mitigating the effect of the risks. Purchase
insurance policies for the risks that have been decided to be transferred to an insurer,
avoid all risks that can be avoided without sacrificing the entity's goals, reduce others,
and retain the rest.
Review and evaluation of the plan
Initial risk management plans will never be perfect. Practice, experience, and actual loss
results will necessitate changes in the plan and contribute information to allow possible
different decisions to be made in dealing with the risks being faced.
Risk analysis results and management plans should be updated periodically. There are
two primary reasons for this:
1. to evaluate whether the previously selected security controls are still applicable
and effective, and
2. to evaluate the possible risk level changes in the business environment. For
example, information risks are a good example of rapidly changing business
If risks are improperly assessed and prioritized, time can be wasted in dealing with risk
of losses that are not likely to occur. Spending too much time assessing and managing
unlikely risks can divert resources that could be used more profitably. Unlikely events do
occur but if the risk is unlikely enough to occur it may be better to simply retain the risk
and deal with the result if the loss does in fact occur.
Prioritizing too highly the risk management processes could keep an organization from
ever completing a project or even getting started. This is especially true if other work is
suspended until the risk management process is considered complete.
It is also important to keep in mind the distinction between risk and uncertainty. Risk can
be measured by impacts x probability.
Enterprise risk management
Main article: Enterprise Risk Management
In enterprise risk management, a risk is defined as a possible event or circumstance that
can have negative influences on the enterprise in question. Its impact can be on the very
existence, the resources (human and capital), the products and services, or the
customers of the enterprise, as well as external impacts on society, markets, or the
environment. In a financial institution, enterprise risk management is normally thought of
as the combination of credit risk, interest rate risk or asset liability management, market
risk, and operational risk.
In the more general case, every probable risk can have a pre-formulated plan to deal
with its possible consequences (to ensure contingency if the risk becomes a liability).
From the information above and the average cost per employee over time, or cost
accrual ratio, a project manager can estimate:
the cost associated with the risk if it arises, estimated by multiplying employee
costs per unit time by the estimated time lost (cost impact, C where C = cost
accrual ratio * S).
the probable increase in time associated with a risk (schedule variance due to
risk, Rs where Rs = P * S):
o Sorting on this value puts the highest risks to the schedule first. This is
intended to cause the greatest risks to the project to be attempted first so
that risk is minimized as quickly as possible.
o This is slightly misleading as schedule variances with a large P and small
S and vice versa are not equivalent. (The risk of the RMS Titanic sinking
vs. the passengers' meals being served at slightly the wrong time).
the probable increase in cost associated with a risk (cost variance due to risk, Rc
where Rc = P*C = P*CAR*S = P*S*CAR)
o sorting on this value puts the highest risks to the budget first.
o see concerns about schedule variance as this is a function of it, as
illustrated in the equation above.
Risk in a project or process can be due either to Special Cause Variation or Common
Cause Variation and requires appropriate treatment. That is to re-iterate the concern
about extremal cases not being equivalent in the list immediately above.
Risk management activities as applied to project management
In project management, risk management includes the following activities:
Planning how risk management will be held in the particular project. Plan should
include risk management tasks, responsibilities, activities and budget.
Assigning a risk officer - a team member other than a project manager who is
responsible for foreseeing potential project problems. Typical characteristic of
risk officer is a healthy skepticism.
Maintaining live project risk database. Each risk should have the following
attributes: opening date, title, short description, probability and importance.
Optionally a risk may have an assigned person responsible for its resolution and
a date by which the risk must be resolved.
Creating anonymous risk reporting channel. Each team member should have
possibility to report risk that he foresees in the project.
Preparing mitigation plans for risks that are chosen to be mitigated. The purpose
of the mitigation plan is to describe how this particular risk will be handled – what,
when, by who and how will it be done to avoid it or minimize consequences if it
becomes a liability.
Summarizing planned and faced risks, effectiveness of mitigation activities, and
effort spent for the risk management.
1. ^ "Committee Draft of ISO 31000 Risk management", International Standards
2. ^ Dorfman, Mark S. (2007). Introduction to Risk Management and Insurance (9th
Edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-224227-3.
3. ^ Roehrig, P (2006) Bet On Governance To Manage Outsourcing Risk. Business
• ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002 (2002). Risk management -- Vocabulary -- Guidelines
• ISO/DIS 31000 (2009). Risk management -- Principles and guidelines on
• Crockford, Neil (1986). An Introduction to Risk Management (2nd ed.),
Woodhead-Faulkner. ISBN 0-85941-332-2.
• Alberts, Christopher; Audrey Dorofee, Lisa Marino (March 2008). "Mission
Diagnostic Protocol, Version 1.0: A Risk-Based Approach for Assessing the
Potential for Success". Software Engineering Institute. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
Alexander, Carol and Sheedy, Elizabeth (2005). The Professional Risk
Managers' Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Current Theory and Best
Practices, PRMIA Publications. ISBN 0-9766097-0-3.
Borodzicz, Edward (2005). Risk, Crisis and Security Management. New York:
Wiley. ISBN 0-470-86704-3.
Flyvbjerg, Bent (August 2006). "From Nobel Prize to Project Management:
Getting Risks Right" (PDF). Project Management Journal (Project Management
Institute) 37 (3): 5–15. http://flyvbjerg.plan.aau.dk/Publications2006/NobelPMJ2006.pdf. Retrieved on 26 May 2008.
Gorrod, Martin (2004). Risk Management Systems : Technology Trends
(Finance and Capital Markets). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-40391617-9.
Stoneburner, Gary; Goguen, Alice and Feringa, Alexis (July 2002). Risk
Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. Gaithersburg, MD:
Ward, Dan; Quaid, Chris (March/April 2007). "The Pursuit of Courage, Judgment
and Luck" (PDF). Defense AT&L (Defense Acquisition University): 28–30.
http://www.dau.mil/pubs/dam/03_04_2007/war_ma07.pdf. Retrieved on 26 May
United States Environmental Protection Agency (April 2004). General Risk
Management Program Guidance, United State Environmental Protection Agency.
Standards Association of Australia (1999). Risk management. North Sydney,
N.S.W: Standards Association of Australia. ISBN 0-7337-2647-X.
IRM/AIRMIC/ALARM (2002). A Risk Management Standard. London: Institute of
Risk Management. http://www.theirm.org/publications/PUstandard.html.
DEVELOPING TOP LEVEL ATHLETES
Watched world-class athletes – tremendous abilities and skills.
Watched the results of Olympic and other world-class competition.
Majority of medals and records are obtained by the athletes of a small number of
Those countries have developed systematic and comprehensive programs for
the quality of coaching determines the quality of the training environment.
the commitment of the coach to top achievement or realistic goals sets the tone
the time a coach has available depends on the degree he can be paid for his
the number of athletes a coach must train influence the quality of the training.
the number of responsibilities, other than coaching, a coach must undertake such
as fund raising and administration, detracts his/her ability to coach successfully.
having special talent, strong motivation, and a willingness to work extremely
hard, are all characteristics of the successful athlete
finding such individuals, and encouraging them to pursue their talent to the fullest
are often major challenges – TID must be implemented
In countries that have a limited human resources, facilities etc, sports
administration may need to concentrate limited resources on only a few sports.
Facilities and Equipment
the lack of facilities and equipment is a limiting factor to sport development.
many Olympics athletes have been successful despite sub-standard facilities and
equipment because of their high motivation and commitment.
some suggestions which may be of help in improving facilities and equipment;
clearly identify your facility or equipment needs, give priority
try to make your sports need known to school officials, to community
officials or politicians, to businessmen etc.
join with other sports or community groups to develop a plan or
strategy to achieve your needs.
consider whether corporate support may be available to provide
equipment or clothing under conditions that are reasonable.
consider entering sponsorship or licensing agreement for goods or
cash, in return for corporations using your Olympic symbols or official
approach specific International Sports Federations to determine if they
can assist in providing assistance in designing sports facilities, or
consider training for periods of the year in existing facilities in other
locations in order to improve the quality of training.
be sure you know all available training facilities or possibilities in your
community, if you cannot get in there, get helps from somebody.
Often, staging major games or competitions creates an opportunity for
government to provide facilities and equipment.
enough time away from school or work to train – top level athletes may have to
spend more than three hours a day in serious training, seven days a week.
adequate rest and diet
access to medical and physiotherapy support when needed
continual stimulation and encouragement which creates a positive training
environment and shows support for the aspirations of the athlete.
Funds may be needed;
to pay for travel and competition expenses
to pay athlete educational expenses
to compensate for time off from work
to provide adequate coaching or access to facilities
there must be good planning and a fair degree or administrative support – ideally,
the coach should coach, the athlete train, and the administrators do all the rest.
administrative support could include handling correspondence, travel
arrangements, fund raising, arranging training facilities, contact with media,
promotion, meetings and so on.
competition, at the right level and frequency, is essential for the development of
Competition provides a focal point for training, and an important motivation for
Competition provides the ultimate test, where all the factors such as skill,
physical conditioning, knowledge, motivation and strategy sre tested together.
Careful evaluation of the results of competition can allow a coach to pinpoint
weaknesses or strengths, and to adjust training if necessary.
PLANNING AN INTERNATIONAL SPORT COMPETITION
opportunity for athletes to meet and compete with other athletes at a
For coaches and trainers to share ideas, knowledge and experiences.
Competing abroad can also be an upsetting experience if the tour
members are not prepared for all the new experiences and adjustments
that they must face.
It is important to plan ahead, organized and planned for in advance.
Chief de Mission
The duties of the CdM are:
to supervise the co-ordination of clothing, equipment, finances,
transportation and scheduling
to coordinate all efforts to meet the needs and desires of the athletes,
coaching staff and trainers and to minimize problems (at least in players’
to act as liaison between Organization Committee and the sports team
to head the team delegation and fulfill all protocol functions while on tour
What to Expect
other teams or individuals that have travelled overseas or travelled to the
country you are going to
the Ministry of External Affairs
books and resources in the library
Malaysia Consulate and Embassy in that country or area you are going to
Questions to Ask
organization committee of the competition
training and competition schedules and facilities
certain customs and laws of the country
For the best flights and best available rates, you must know:
the size of your group
your budget for airfare
date of departure and return
nearest airport to where you will be staying
the baggage limits (weight restrictions, number allowed for person, extra
the special arrangements for equipment that is to be shipped separately,
how long it will take
how much it will cost
where to pick it up
when and how to transport it
what arrangements will you have to make with customs
o need a current passport
o leave plenty of time for passport approval
o manager should record all passport numbers and names and keep
them separately from the passport
o passport lost or stolen, contact Malaysia Embassy
o need to know the nearest Malaysia Embassy, who to contact, and let
them know you’re coming before you leaving
o some foreign countries require an entrance visa
o find out how long the visa is good for, and if it will allow to bring in any
medication or drugs required for the team and all the special needs
o check what the airline policy covers and add what extra coverage you
will need while away
o it is good idea to have extra insurance for valuables such as cameras
and special equipment
May be required when entering or returning from the country you are
Find out what is necessary and what is recommended.
Plan to have vaccinations to all those travelling, ensuring plenty of time
for adjustment and recovery.
certain countries may restrict what you may bring into the country and
what restrictions exist in bringing back items
be sure to record serial numbers of all equipment and valuables such as
cameras, with your customs office before or as you are leaving.
do not take letters of gifts of unknown contents for ‘friend’ to people in the
country you are visiting you will be punished according to their
What Else to Take
List all tour members and passport numbers, should have 3 – 4 copies
complete travel itinerary
complete schedule of events and timing
o take full amount required for use during trip
o take typed document showing full generic name
o register medication with officials in charge of competition
o get medical clearance to bring drugs into the country if necessary
Clothing and Equipment
full medical kit should be packed
team uniforms – playing, warm up, formal
practice gear – anticipating extremes of weather
leisure and formal wear – suitable to dress standards of the host country
nylon laundry bag for each person
personal supplies to last the full trip
own special equipment – don’t assume it will be provided
video equipment to record team performance
those wearing glasses, should bring an extra pair
official letterhead, carbons, papers and pens
masking tapes and markers
non-electric alarm clock
long extension cord
country’s flag and tape recording of national anthem
international driver’s license
maps of city and area
extra non-perishable food
Find out the exchange rate and set up a liaison with a bank in the country
you are visiting
Take money in travellers cheques
Take some small currency for use on arrival for taxis, tipping etc
Have an international recognized credit card
Caution: some countries will not allow you to purchase their currency until
in the country and will not allow you to take their currency out of that
Before you go, have a briefing session with athletes and coaches,
host country situation – religious, political, custom, culture, economic etc
adjustment – time zone, climate, food and water etc
the expected code of conduct – sportsmanship, friendship, etc
identify any security precaution
express any team rules – disciplines
public relations – language, dressing etc
press interview – identify questions to expect and how to respond to the
identify any technical matters concerning training and competition that
should be known before arrival
Equipment and Baggage
each piece of baggage should be clearly marked
be sure to know how many pieces were checked
camera and film should be carried in hand luggage
ensure that arrangement have been made for transportation of baggage
as well as team
double check that nothing is left behind when moving on, leave a
forwarding address with the hotel
organize an opportunity for the media to interview the team prior to
have a team handbook ready with data and photos of each athlete
prepare press releases as required
have media contact telephone or telex numbers so you can transmit
attend all meetings, receptions and ceremonies given in your honour
remember you are representing your country
be a good sport – gracious if you lose, non-patronizing even if clearly
expect to be self-reliant and plan that way
other countries may operate at a faster or slower pace of life
keep your sense of humour, be forewarned and attempt to adapt
relationships and goals are important – remember everyone is there to
help the athletes
have shared goals so you can focus on the objectives of the trip rather
than its distracting elements
standardized routines before competition so the athletes have some
familiarity and security even in a foreign country
you may need an interpreter but one may not always be with you. Try to
learn a few key phrases. Those of the host country will likely be more
responsive because you have made an effort. Don’t let the language
barrier dampen your positive attitude.
When You Return
prepare press release or an interview opportunity for the media to review your
thank-you notes should be written to all who helped you – be sure to obtain their
addresses before you return home
evaluation of trip by coaches, managers, and possibly athletes
reports written for your sport governing body
Topic: Coaching Development and Presentation Skills
1. The Need for Trained Coaches
The most essential requirement in developing top level athletes is the availability of a
world –class coach. If coaching is highly knowledgeable , motivated, intense,
sensitive to individual needs and successful in solving problems, the training
environment should generate much success for athletes.
2. How to Organize a Coach Development Program.
Firstly, the teams must identify their needs very specifically. Which level of
expertise is needed and how many coaches are required over a period of time.
What resources and facilities are available to train them and are the existing
training plans efficient.
Identify other quality coaches and sport associations in your area who can help
you with your planning.
When you have established your needs, you can starts to establish a plan.
Training coaches is a long term project requiring a systematic approach . The
plan must be flexible and sensitive to ever changing needs to the coaches.
3. Characteristics of a coach training program includes:
provided different level of experience. The first level are very basic and towards
individuals to become involved and to be reasonably competent in working with
coaches training relate to three needs: sport specific techniques, coaching theory
and practical experience.
sport specific knowledge includes subjects such as techniques, strategy, and
Theoretical knowledge includes subject areas such as psychology, physiology,
principles of training, athletic injuries, diet and so on.
certification for accomplishing a certain level is important in motivating training
and in identifying accomplishments.
Coaching programs should encourage the development of more coaches and
4. Review the Possible Opportunities for Training Coaches:
Having sport specific clinics.
Having sport coaching theory clinics.
Having apprentices programs where a promising junior coach works and trains
with a senior level coach.
having physical training program in higher institutions.
Having practical experiences training in sports industries.
access to coaching literature and references
organise monthly seminars .
5. Establish your Plan
determine the amount and type of knowledge required at each level.
resources must be established at each level.
set up a training program to develop competent instructors.
set up a structure to offer the courses.
recognize the coaches who successfully compete a specific level by some
form of certification.
6. Characteristics of Coaching Candidates:
intelligent and highly motivated.
interested in along term involvement with sport.
prosses teaching skills.
have excellent interpersonal relationships.
have the necessary time.
are practical, problem-solving types.
ideally, have training in physical education, or extensive experience in sport.
7. Hiring Foreign Coaches:
The quickest way of achieving quality coaching is to import expert.
Advantage to hiring foreign coaches
Disadvantage of hiring foreign coaches.
8. Should Coaches be Paid?
9. The Relationship Between Coaches and Others.
7.0 Presentation Skills
The material of your presentation should be concise, to the point and you are able
to present an interesting presentation.
At the end of the lesson, participants should be able to:
1. Understanding presenters’ personal skills.
2. Preparation needed for good presentation.
presenters’ personal skills .
Preparation needed for good presentation.
7.3.1 Presenters’ personal skills .
The following presenter’s personal skills are just as important for delivering good
Your voice- how you say it is as important as what you say..
Body language: your body movements express what your attitudes and thoughts
Appearance: first impressions influence the audience’s attitudes to you. Dress
appropriately for the occasion.
7.3.2 Preparation needed for good presentation.
Make the list of these two things as your starting point:
Decide the objectives of the talk.
What are the main points you wish to deliver.
Making the presentation
Greet the audience
Tell the audience what you are going to tell them.
Then tell them.
At the end tell them what you have told them.
Keep to the time allowed.
Speak clearly. Don’t shout or whisper.
Don’t rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural.
Deliberately pause at key points.
Avoid jokes unless you are a natural expert.
To make the presentation interesting, change your delivery, but not to obviously,
eg. Speed or pitch of voice.
Look at the audience as much as possible, but don’t fix on an individual.
Stand in apposition where you obscure the screen.
Avoid moving about too much.
Keep an eye on the audience’s body language.
Purpose of having public speaking.
It govern the content and style of presentation and have the following purposes:
Informative: summarise problems, describe plan, reports the progress of the team.
Instructional: giving instruction to the athletes or team.
Persuasive: persuade audience or team members.
7.3.2 How to be a Good Public Speaker
Did you ever notice how the audience love public speakers that seem to be born
with the public speaking ability.
We come across politicians and recall our old college professors who knew how
to keep us stupefied with their words.
Nonetheless, most people are terrified when they are asked to address a group
even if their good at making speeches.
Anyone can be an excellent public speaker with proper rehearsal. In this day of
technology and information, even the burden of composing the speech can be
relieved since a variety of experts provide free online content.
7.3.3 Ways to Control Public Speaking Anxiety
The 4 key suggestions here will do much alleviate the problem and assist anyone
to control and overcome public speaking anxiety:
Thorough preparation! There is no short-cut. If you have carefully researched
your material so you are convinced it is worth delivering, and you firmly believe
your audience needs to hear it, and you have practiced and practiced the
delivery, you can stand up in front of an audience with confidence!
Control nervousness by taking deep breaths to relax the body. Concentrate on
your message and the things you have prepared to present to your audience
rather than on your nervousness. Use positive speech, even in your own
thoughts. Instead of saying to yourself, "Boy, do I feel nervous", which only
reinforces the feeling, say, "My adrenaline is pumping and I'm going to use it to
deliver an unforgettable presentation!"
To increase confidence and combat uncertainty use visualization techniques.
These can be VERY effective. Running through the whole presentation including
the approach to the speaker's stand the initial pause, the first few sentences,
over and over again in your mind, will create great confidence.
End result visualization
Include the end result in your visualization exercise. See yourself having
successfully concluded an excellent presentation with the applause of the
audience in your ears. See the smiles, hear the compliments afterwards and
make them real in your mind.
Measurement is the collection of information on which a decision is based on.
Evaluation is the use of measurement in making decision. Measurement and
evaluation are interdependent concepts. Evaluation is a process that uses
measurements, and the purpose of measurement is to collect information for
7.3.4 Organise and deliver your content effectively
Factors that you could consider in preparing your public speaking are as follows:
Planning your public speaking well.
Knowing your content well.
Analysing your audience.
Knowing the venue and presentation room.
Knowing the time allotted
Writing and outline of your delivery.
Deciding on the appropriate style of delivery.
7.3.5 Analysing your Audience
To succeed in your public speaking, you need to know your audience. An
audience analysis can help you to know:
The background information of the audience.
Reasons for attending
Expected number of audience.
7.3.6 Prepare and use effective visual aids for delivery.
Practice using your aids to ensure their successful integration into the content of
If you are using objects, such as model, for the visual aids, practice describing or
explaining the actual objects or inventions.
You must know what to do with them, how and what to explain and how long you
need to demonstrate the objects.
Well prepared and skilfully used visual aids can reinforce your major points and
they enable message retention among the audience.
Example of visual aids:
Other kinds of visual aids.
Things to Consider
When preparing to speak publicly, you must concentrate on the people and
consider ways to hold their interest in listening to you to the end. Listen to
yourself during rehearsal.
To improve your ability, record the length of your speech, set spots in advance,
where you can change your tone, your speed and rhythm and plan your speech.
How you walk in and the first three minutes of your public speech can make a
lasting impression on your crowd.
The degree of confidence and calmness you portray will directly affect the impact
Begin on a strong note and hold the people attention. Have an opening
statement to grip your crowd.
Don't look tense, even if you are late, but portray a calm posture and attitude.
To wrap up this short article on speaking in public we can make two more quick
o prepare well in advance. Make sure you have all the information you'll
need and practice your public speech ahead of time. Try speaking into a
full length mirror; you'll begin to notice things about posture and hand
movements you may not have picked up on previously.
o Here's something else that has helped me also; tape or video record your
speech. Once done watch or listen to yourself and take notes. If you try
this once per day leading up to the big day you'll appear as a polished
speaker, even though you might be shaking in your boots.
7.3.8. Handle question and answer sessions
When you finish your presentation, invite questions from your audience.
Techniques to handle question and answer sessions are as follows:
Always repeat questions posed to your audience
Look at questioner when answering the questions
Your response to the question should be short and to the point
After the question and answer session, remember to close your presentation with
a strong note and a ‘thank you’.
However, if you do not know the answer:
You say it or tell the audience that you will get back to it.
You can offer to discuss it further afterwards
Ask for the questioner’s contact number or e – mail.
This topic is to explore the overall concept of coaching practice from sports media
perspective which related to team preparation (training and competition) and
reflection in coaching. This topic also will be discussed the relationship media
system with the several components in reporting such as gives opinions, criticism,
interviewing, story outline, creative and originality.
Able to understand and mastering the media role from the coaching perspective.
1. Able to gives reporting through highly professionalism, value and behavior in the
2. Socially work with responsible as a coach in the sports media perspective.
3. Able to think creatively and critically into sports media from coaching perspective.
4. Effectively communicate and work as a team in term of reporting in the coaching
7.2.1 Coach Report:
Oral and Writing Reporting by the Coach news paper, radio, television, video
conferencing, web conferencing and press conference.
7.2.2 The Coach Viewed:
Outlets viewed themselves more as cheerleaders for his/her team.
The coach also should be protected their players/athletes from negative publicity
The coach should sensitive and responsive to the media / spectators feedback.
7.2.5 Provides Ammunition:
The coach essentially provides a lot of ammunition, which they should, treats
sports media as entertainment.
The overall content in this topic is related to the components of sport media. The
application on developing and maintaining the skills of reporting to the media in the
coaching context will provide the behaviour coaching value to fit them into social
environment, enjoy and committed with their team/athletes.
What is a problem?
A problem is an obstacle which makes a difficult to achieve a desired goal, objective or
purpose. It refers to a situation, condition or issue that is yet unresolved.
7.5.4 Steps in Problem Solving Process
Define the problem
Consider the consequences
Implement and evaluate solution
7.5.5 Strategies to Resolve Problems
Consultation or collaboration.
7.5.6 Steps To Problem solving Techniques.
Define the problem.
Look at potential causes for the problem.
Identify alternatives for approach to resolve the problem.
Select an approach to solve the problem.
Plan the implementation of the best alternatives(this is your action plan)
Monitor implementation of the plan.
Verify if the problem has been resolved or not.
Decision Making in sports.
The decision making process requires information to be gathered and then interpreted in
order to make a correct decision, often under pressure. The difficulty presented to the
coach is to ensure that in the pressure situation of a game or contest , the athletes make
the correct decisions in which skills to use when faced with the appropriate cues.
Definition of decision making
The process of mapping the likely consequences of decision, working out the the
importance of individual factors and choosing the best course of action to take. It
involves in gathering opinion, judgment , considerations that results in reaching a
Steps Influencing to Effective Decision Making
One of the most practical decision making techniques can be summarized in those
simple decision making steps:
Identify the purpose of your decision.
Identify the principle to judge the alternatives.
Brainstorm and list different possible choice.
Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences.
Determine the best alternative.
Put the decision into action.
Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps.
The man who never alters his opinion is like standing water ,and breeds
reptiles of the mind. – William Blake
“Never break four things in life, TRUST, RELATIONS, PROMISE and HEART because when they
break, they don’t make noise but pains a lot “
Pembentukan & Kesepaduan Pasukan (Team Building &
Ujian & Pengukuran Dalam Psikologi Sukan (Test & Measurement
in Sport Psychology)
Rancangan dan Aplikasi Program Latihan Mental dalam latihan
(Plan and Application of Mental Skills Program in training)
1. Team Building and Cohesion
Team Building In Sport
If everybody can find a way to put their personal aside for the benefit of the
team, ultimately they will gain for themselves in the long run. But I think what
often happens is people think have to take care of themselves first and the
team second. Then the infrastructure breaks down and nobody‘s accountable.
You have to sacrifice yourself for the good of the team, no matter what role
you play on the team-whatever you‘re playing 30 minutes or two minutes a
game (Mark Messsier as quoted in Miller, 2001, p. 152). As this quote by
Mark Messier illustrates, the importance of cohesion in sports team is
recognized by even those who are best known for their individual prowess.
Because it is critical for group development group maintenance, and the
group‘s collective pursuit of its goals and objectives, cohesion has been
identified as the most important small group variable (see Golembiewski,
Hilles, & Kagno, 1974). Consequently, at the core of any team building
program is the expectation that the intervention will produce a more cohesive
group. Coaches, either alone or with the help of a sport psychologist,
invariably seek ways to build an effective team. It‘s not enough for the coach
to proclaim to his or her charges, let‘s act like a team. Consequently, coaches
or sport psychology specialist often engage in what is known as team
building. As Carron and Haussenblas (1998) noted, team building can be
defined as team enhancement or team improvement for both task and social
purpose. Thus, it would seem prudent for coaches to foster team building so
that athletes may have meaningful experiences that ultimately may lead to a
greater sense of unity and cohesiveness. However, sport is not the only
physical activity domain which team building has been shown to be effective.
Research by Carron and Spink (1993) and Spink and Carron (1993) have
shown that a team-building intervention program can have a substantial
impact on perceptions of cohesiveness as well as on individual adherence
behavior. In short, the group has a substantial stabilizing influence on its
membership. Given that 50% of adults who initiate an exercise program drop
out within the first 6 months (Dishman, 1994), this seems as important area
for intervention. Owing to its distinct nature, the implementation of teambuilding interventions in sport and exercise setting is indirect. The
coach/leader is generally the primary arbitrator of group goals, individual
roles, and leadership style. As a consequence of this, all of these setting
become more indirect as they must be filtered through the coach/leader in
each instance. One approach to team-building intervention adopted by Carron,
Spink, and Prapavessis (Carron & Spink, 1993) involved the use of a fourstage process comprising an introductory stage was to provide the
coach/leader with a brief overview of the general benefits of group cohesion.
For example, in team building with sport teams, the relationship between
perceptions of cohesiveness and enhanced team dynamics was discussed
(Prapavessis,, Carron & Spink, 1993).The conceptual stage was used to
accomplish three purposes: (a) to facilitate communication with the
coaches/leader about complex concepts (e.g, groups, cohesiveness); (b) to
high light the interrelatedness of various components of the team building
protocol and; and (c) to identify the focus for possible interventions (Carron &
Spink, 1993). The purpose of the practical stage was to have coaches/leaders,
in an interactive brainstorming session, generate as many specific strategies as
possible to use for team building in their group. This was thought to be
desirable for three reasons. First, coaches/leader differs in personality and
preferences; therefore a strategy that might be effectively implemented by one
coach/leader might not be by another. Second, groups differ, and
coaches/leaders are the individuals most familiar with their groups. An
intervention strategy that might be effective in one group might be ineffective
in another. Finally, de Charm‘s (1976) origin-pawn research has shown that
motivation is enhanced when individuals given greater control over personal
behavior. Thus, coaches and exercise leaders are likely to be motivated to
employ various team-building strategies because (a) they are given the
opportunity to participate in the brainstorming session, and (b) they have
control over which strategies they use with their team or class. Research by
Carron and Spink (1993) and Spink and Carron (1993) in the exercise domain
provide a good illustration of the type of activities characteristic of the
practical stage. Carron and Spink encourage fitness instructors to develop
specific strategies to use in their classes. Table 8-2 contains examples some of
the specific team-building strategies identified by fitness leaders in the
practical stage, as well as suggested strategies for coaches of sport teams. In
the intervention stage, the team-building protocol were introduced and
maintained by the coaches or exercise leaders in order to increase the level of
task cohesiveness of the groups. One team-building intervention that was
implemented in a sport setting used elite male soccer teams (Prapavessis et al.,
1996). The coaches involved in the team-building intervention attended a
workshop 2 weeks before the beginning of the season, at which the specific
strategies for implementing a team-building program were established.
Throughout the preseason and then during 6 weeks of the season, the coaches
emphasized the team-building strategies. Perceptions of cohesiveness were
assessed in the preseason and after 8 weeks. No differences in cohesiveness
were found, however, between the team-building, attention-placebo, and
control conditions. One possible explanation advanced to account for these
results was that many sport coaches inevitably engage in team-building
strategies on their own. That is, they establish goals and objectives, work to
ensure conformity to group norms, facilitate role clarity and role acceptance,
and so on. Also, in sport teams, cohesion is an inevitable by-product of group
processes (e.g., communication), an evolving group structure (e.g.,
development of roles) and group outcomes (e.g., winning/losing). Thus, a
team-building program in a sport team would most likely combine in an
interactive way with ongoing concomitants of cohesion. The lack of research
in sport on the impact of team building in sport might wish to consider the
athletes‘ opinions on collective areas of concern (i.e., targets for teambuilding strategies). For example, a needs assessment could reveal that team
members understand and accept their roles and are well aware of the team‘s
goal and objectives but perceive group cooperation to be minimal. Also, the
inclusion of selected high status members of the team (captain, co-captains,
highly skilled athletes) in implementing the team-building program could then
be designed around this feedback. In this regard, Yukelson (1984) presented
nine effective ways to enhance coach athlete communication systems and
team harmony in sport teams:
Open communication channels by providing opportunities for the athlete
input. Communication is a group process, and mutual trust and respect
are essential in order to keep the channels open.
Develop pride and a sense of collective identify within the group by
setting out realistic team, individual, and subunit goals. Feeling of pride
and satisfaction develop when individuals and groups attain challenging
but realistic goals.
Strive for common expectations on what types of behavior are
appropriate. An organizational philosophy should specify not only the
desired objectives the group is striving to achieve but also the strategy,
operating procedures, or means to reach these goals as well.
Value unique personal contributions by emphasizing the importance of
each of the roles that are necessary for group performance.
The leader of an organization provides the team with the direction and
encouragement it needs, and the athletes carry out their responsibilities to the
best of their abilities. Key elements to achieve success;
Recognize excellence by rewarding exceptional individual performance.
If realistic objectives are set out and each individual clearly understand
his or her role, the outstanding execution of that role should be
recognized to enhance feelings of pride and commitment in the group and
Strive for consensus and commitment by involving the total team in goalsetting activities.
Use periodic team meetings to resolve conflicts. Many explosive
situations can be resolved by encouraging open communication within
Stay in touch with the formal and informal leaders in the team. The team
members with high prestige and status are not only a barometer for
assessing the group‘s attitudes and feelings; they also are effective agents
for implementing necessary changes.
Focus on success before discussing any failures. A positive group climate
is developed if the positive aspects of group and individual performance
are highlighted before errors and omissions are discussed.
Communication – Clear communication of expectations, responsibilities and
guidelines promotes team work
Knowledge and Skills – The members of the organization bring a variety of
abilities, training and interests to the job. Members share their knowledge
with each other in order to benefit the entire team.
Productivity – The overall effectiveness of getting things done
Quality – It is the agreed upon standard for performance, which is unique
for every team.
Safety and Security – Attention to working conditions, procedures, and
safety and security regulations.
Teamwork – It is measured by how well a group of people work together to
achieve a common goal.
Strategies for Building Team Harmony
Get to know your colleagues
Give positive feedback to your colleagues whenever you get the chance
Give 100 percent effort, and work hard on your weaknesses
Both negativism and positivism are highly contagious
Resolve conflicts as quickly as possible
Get your attitude and disposition right before going to work
Don‘t be a loudmouth or show-off
Go out of your way to help your colleagues whenever you can
Be fully responsible for yourself
Be your own best igniter
Communicate clearly, honestly, and openly with your boss
Don‘t forget to have fun
This component is to make sure that every member of the team realizes his
role I the team is vital for team success. We will focus on three areas :
The team will gather in a scrum like situation. The captain will give words
of encouragement followed by team members pledging to give their best.
Slogan or battle cry
A word of prayer before commencing their physical warm up.
Heart to heart talk (I like you because...)
Sharing my Strengths
Team Problem Solving Activities
Team Cohesion Activities
2. Test and Measurement in Sport Psychology
The aims of psychological testing are:
Diagnosis and prescription
Selection FPR team membership or special activities
Determination of status for grades
Aiding of skill learning
Determination of method effectiveness
Aiding of research
Construction of norms and scoring scales
Psychological Assessment Tools
Mental Performance Inventory (MPI)
Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS)
Competitive State Anxiety Inventory -2R (CSAI-2R)
Profile of Mood State (POMS)
Mental Performance Inventory (MPI) - The mental performance inventory is a
specially designed questionnaire to help you get a clearer idea of your mental
strengths and weaknesses relative to the following 7 variables:
Visual and imagery control
Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) -This is a 64-item inventory to measure
psychological behaviors of athletes during competition as well as practice. Eight
variables are measured relative to competition and practice behaviors. The eight
Competitive State Anxiety Inventory – 2R (CSAI-2R) - This is a 17 items
measuring somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence among athletes
in competitive setting.
Profile of Mood States (POMS) - This questionnaire contains 24 simple mood
descriptors, such as angry, energetic, nervous, and unhappy. Respondents indicate
whether they have experienced such feelings on a 5-point scale (0 = not at all, 1 =
a little, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = extremely). It measure the following
PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS)
Gender: M / F
Sport: _______________________________Event / Position:
Number of years you have involved in this sport:__________
Below is a list of words that describe feelings. Please read each one carefully. Then tick
in the box that best describe HOW YOU FEEL RIGHT NOW. Make sure you answer
Moderately Quite a bit
I feel jittery
I am concerned that I may not do as well in this
competition as I could
I feel self-confident
My body feels tense
I am concerned about losing
I feel tense in my stomach
Not at all
Competitive State Anxiety Inventory – 2 Revised (CSAI-2R)
Name ____________________________________ Age ___________
Gender M / F
Event / Position
Number of years you have involved in this sport _________Today’s date
Direction: A number of statements that athletes have used to describe
theirfeelings before competition are given below. Read each statement and then
cir le the appropriate number to the right of the statement to indicate how you feel
RIGHT NOW – at this moment. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not
spend too much time on any one statement, but choose the answer which
describes your feelings RIGHT NOW.
I’m confident I can meet the challenge
I am concerned about choking under pressure
My heart is racing
I’m confident about performing well
I’m concerned about performing poorly
I feel my stomach sinking
I’m confident because I mentally picture myself
reaching my goal
I’m concerned that others will be disappointed with
My hands are clammy
I’m confident of coming through under pressure
My body feels tight
Test of Performance Strategy - This questionnaire measures performance
strategies used by athletes in various sport situations. Because individual athletes
are very different in their approach to sport, we expect the responses to be
different. We want to stress, therefore, that there are no right or wrong answers.
All that is required is for you to be open and honest in your response.
Each of the following items describes a specific situation that you may encounter in your
training and competition. Please circle how frequently these situations apply to you in the
following 1-5 scales.
Strongly disagree neutral agree
I talk positively to myself to get the most
out of competition
My emotions keep me from performing
I usually perform without consciously
thinking about it
I usually set personal performance
I imagine competitive routine before I do
I can increase my energy to just the
I am able to relax if I get too nervous
I say things to myself to help my
My emotions get out of control under the
I don‘ t think about performing much, I
just let it happen
I set very specific goals
I rehearse the feel of performance in my
I do what needs to be done to get
My self-talk is negative
I find it difficult to relax when I am too
I can manage my self-talk effectively
When something upsets me, my
I perform on `automatic pilot‘
I set specific result goals for myself
I rehearse my performance in my mind
I psych myself up to get ready to
I have thoughts of failure
When the pressure is on, I know how to
I say specific cue words or phrases to
myself to help performance
When I make a mistake, I have trouble
getting my concentration back on track
I play/perform instinctively with little
I evaluate whether I achieve my
I can visualize competition going exactly
the way I want it
I can raise my energy level when
I keep my thoughts positive
When I need to, I can relax to get ready
Scoring Sheet Performance Strategies During Competition
Test of Performance Strategies (Training)
Directions: Each of the following items describes a specific situation that you
may have encountered in your competition. Think back to the prime of your
career, read each statement, and circle the appropriate number to the right of
the statement to indicate how you usually felt.
During training ….
Strongly disagree neutral agree
I set realistic but challenging goals
I have trouble controlling emotions
when things are not going well
I seem to be in a flow
I use practice time to work on
I talk positively to myself to get the
most out of practice
I imagine watching myself as if
on a video replay when I visualize
My attention wanders while training
I have trouble raising my energy if I
I have very specific goals
I am frustrated and emotionally
upset when practice does not go
My movements and skills seem to
flow (happen) naturally
I practice relaxation techniques at
I motivate myself to train through
concentration during long practices
I practice increasing my energy
during training sessions
I set goals to help me use practice
When things are going poorly, I stay
in control of myself emotionally
I am able to allow whole skill or
movement to happen naturally
without concentrating on each part
of the skill
Relax myself to get ready
I say things to myself to help my
I rehearse my performance in my
Focus attention effectively
I have difficulty increasing energy
level during workouts
I don‘ t set goals for practices, I just
go out and do it
I lose my focus when I perform
I don‘ t think about performing much
just let it happen
I practice a way to relax
Manage self-talk effectively
When I visualize my performance, I
imagine what it will feel like
I am able to control distracting
thoughts when training
I practice a way to energize myself
Scoring Sheet Performance Strategies During Competition
Goal setting 1
Ideal Performance State (IPS)
Athletes can‘t control whether they get into flow but they can set the stage to
make it more likely to happen through Mental Skills Training (MST). Ideal
performing state refers to attributes or qualities we want athletes to develop in
order to be mentally ready for training and competition. Ideal Performance
State (IPS) is the ability to play one‘s best in any situation, particularly when
encountering problems, adversity or failure. IPS is a constellation of all the
ideal attributes combined in a way that brings out the best in performers when
they have the most at stake. The coach can make use of the IPS form in order
to monitor the athlete‘s performance and make sure the ideal mental
A positive environment is characterized by :
Strong team identity
There are at least five ways to assist in the development of a positive
Plan for long term involvement in sport
Offer multiple incentives
Develop team harmony
Plan for long Term Involvement in Sport
When you plan for long term involvement in sport, you are also taking steps
to give athletes a sense of personal satisfaction. For sport to be personally
satisfying it must continuously change expand and progress. Athletes might
experience personal satisfaction in sport by:
Continually improving their performance level
Contributing as a leader in the organization
Becoming more self-directed and depending less on coaches.
Offer Multiple Incentives - There are various ways of offering multiple
incentives such as recognize achievement in areas other than performance:
Effort – put forth in training and competition
Skill development – improving skill and rate on improvement
Task execution – supportive behavior such as attendance and punctually.
Work volume – the amount of work completed.
Performer interaction – positive relationship among team members.
Coaches should also use social acceptance, recognition, responsibility,
advancement, or growth within the sport as incentives.
Set Goals - When you encourage athletes and coaches to set goals to exchange
thoughts, aspirations and idea, you are developing a positive environment. In
addition, the goals provide direction for the team.
Both team and individual goals can be used to deal with discipline issues.
Focusing on goals, rather than on an athlete‘s violation avoids accusation,
reduces the chances that the athlete will get defensive and gives the athlete a
chance to explain his or her side of the story. In using this approach, you
Focus on team goals
Discuss the means of attaining these goals
Described how the athletes has been neglecting on violating these goals
Develop Team Harmony - Team harmony refers to positive interpersonal
relationship among team mates. It is characterized by effective
communication, respect for one another, a feeling of closeness, a friendly
atmosphere, mutual acceptance and mutual encouragement. For team harmony
to develop, athletes must appreciate and understand one another,
communicating honestly and sharing ideas, philosophies and goals is the first
step in developing team harmony. The following strategies may be used to
develop team harmony.
Use a specific discussion starter.
A sample questionnaire could be used as a discussion starter.
Have athletes fill out the forms individually and then facilitate the sharing of
responses in a group.
The discussion should lead athletes to see how they depend on one another.
Team slogans or sayings - Another way to highlight interdependence is to have
athletes come up with a team slogan or saying. Here is one way to develop such a
The team divides into groups of 3 or 4
Each group develops a slogan
Each group present slogan to entire team
Athletes discuss the value of each slogan
The team develops one slogan that combines the strengths of each group‘s
The process is more important than the slogan. It is discussion and sharing that
leads to team harmony.
Reciprocal Teaching - This technique provides athletes with an effective way to
coach one another. It transfers the responsibility for instruction to athletes. The
role of the coach is to guide positive interactions among athletes. Reciprocal
teaching facilitates the development of effective communication and mutual
It is important to practice reciprocal teaching systematically otherwise feelings
may get hurt, and discord may occur. Athletes must adopt attitudes of cooperation, appreciation, responsibility and interdependence.
Communicate effectively - Effective communication is both a product of and a
contributor to a positive environment. Athletes should be encouraged to:
Encourage one another during practice and competition
Achieving excellence in Sports
Mental Skills Training has been approached from a variety of perspectives
and has been studied as a cognitive process, as an educational aid, as a
diagnostic or therapeutic tool, in conjunction with the various forms of altered
states of consciousness. Coaches and researchers have come to realize the
importance of the function of the brain in planning and controlling skills.
They have noted that the mind is a virtually untapped reservoir in terms of its
relationship to and control over many bodily functions and processes. Hemery
(1990) states that your state of mind directly affects how you perform. Your
body responds to your thoughts. If you are aiming for peak performance you
want to be in a state of readiness: mentally and physically you want to be
neither too tense nor too relaxed.
Implementing Mental Skills Training
Most athletes have developed core mental skills to a sufficient degree that
they can function well in day to day situations or even in low- level
competitive events. But when confronted with more demanding, pressure
packed situations, they may falter. This can be most frustrating to athletes and
their coaches because they know they have the potential to perform well.
Not recognizing that the performance problems are due to a lack of mental
skills, coaches may encourage athletes to work even harder on their physical
skills. A gymnast may spend extra time on an apparatus. A basketball player
may spend extra time shooting free throws after practice. Distance runners
may pound their bodies even harder, sometimes to the point of overtraining.
Indeed, some performance problems might stem from physical issues, such as
inadequate training or poor biomechanics. However, in many cases inadequate
mental skill could be the cause.
A coach who does not know how to help athletes develop the necessary
mental skills usually does one of three things, tries to support the athletes with
empathy and encouragement, select another athletes who may be less talented
physically but can perform better under pressure, or aggravates the problem
by placing more pressure on the athlete to begin performing up to his or her
capability. The alternative of course is to capitalize on advance in sport
psychology. Coaches from all sports are increasing recognizing that athletes
can learn and improve the mental skills needed to achieve excellence in sport.
Rather than leaving mental skills development to chance these essential skills
by incorporating MST into their athletes training program.
Does Mental Skills Training (MST) Work?
The idea that mental skills training can improve performance is not new. Even
before the growth of sport psychology, some athletes were using MST
technique. Today‘s coach recognizes that even small adjustment may have a
huge impact on competitive outcomes. For example in sport where time is a
factor, a fraction of a second can make the different between a first and last
place finish between a great and subpar performance. Mental skills training
may be what it takes for athletes to shave that fraction of a second. The record
breaking performances of the future will be achieved not by athlete who only
training harder physically, but by those who also train smarter mentally.
Research evaluating the effectiveness of MST programs draws the same
conclusion: mental training can improve performances across a wide variety
of sports. In fact, as many as 85% of the studies conducted to evaluate MST
showed positive performance effects (Greenspan & Feltz 1989; Meyers,
Whelan & Murphy 1996; Vealey 1994, Weinberg & Comar 1994). In general,
he consensus of sport psychology research, coaches and athletes is that mental
skills training can enhance performance.
What Are Mental Plans?
Pioneered applied sport psychology by Terry Orlick (1986), mental plan
involves a series of systematic, individualized strategies designed to build
mental skills into an athlete‘s game. Mental plans help athletes develop
maintain or regain their flow mind-set so that they can remain mentally tough
during the ebb and flow of competition and play their best. Mental plans are a
means of implementing mental training tools and skills so that your athletes
become more systematic in their mental, as well as physical, approaches to
practice and competition.
Mental plans designed to prepare athletes for practice and competition (mental
preparation plans) consist of steps to help them reach the mental state needed
to perform their best. Athletes move deliberately through the steps – which
might include goal setting, self-talk, imagery, energization, or any other
mental training tool or skill – in an order that helps them personally create a
flow mind-set. Mental plans for use during practice and competition include
steps designed to maintain a flow mind-set and reach critical goals. Athletes
also need to develop mental plans to help them get back on track when things
go wrong in practice or competition. Mental plans should become routines
that your athletes follow to combine mental and physical skills in order to
enhance performance. They differ from the inflexible and impractical
superstitious ritual that many performers blindly follow. Such rituals control
the athlete and prompt repeated robotic behavior that cannot enhance
performance (e.g., put left sock on before right, or jersey before shorts; never
step on lines when walking to or from the mound; always warm up with the
same partner), whereas athletes are in control of mental plans and can be use
them to realistically promote better performance. Mental plans are based on
sound research and theory and are designed to help performers promote,
sustain, and regain a flow mind-set. They enhance automaticity and mental
toughness, thus helping athletes perform optimally in pressure-packed
competitive situations. Mental plans are athletes‘ blueprints for excellence.
Critical Mental Situations in Sport
Identifying mental distractions in sport - An analysis and study of mental
distractions in sport is vital so that athletes are not derailed in achieving
optimum performance. The coach must be able to help the athletes identify the
internal as well as the external distractions affecting athletes during
An exercise or activity must be done in order to identify the distractions and
minimize their influence on performance. This activity is further reinforced by
suggesting coping measures to the distractions faced in competition. Examples
of distraction in sports:
Unable to sleep
Thinking of former loss
Lack of confidence
Fear of failure
Off-site pre-competition strategies
A pre competition strategy contains all the behaviors which need to be
performed prior to the commencement of the competitive performance. The
central feature of the strategy is preparation for all circumstances so that a
player‘s attentional control is maintained towards goal achievement.
Normal planned routine prior to arriving at the competition venue is
categorized as the off-site pre competition strategies.
Factors to be considered during this phase of competition should include:
Events of the day
Control of activation
Method of eliminating anxiety and negative thoughts
On-site Pre-competition Strategies
The interval between arriving at the competition site and starting the
competition is crucial. At this time, athletes are susceptible to the influence of
minor events. The primary concerns at this site are completing preparations,
controlling emotions and focusing thoughts.
At the competition site, the activities preferred should constitute competition
preparation. The amount of time for doing that is planned. The preparation for
competition should be planned, practiced and predictable (planning and
The activities at this stage should focus on task relevant factors and to deny
any distractions. Pre-competition activities include:
Determine when to report to the coach
Using positive self-talk
The purpose of a competition strategy is to develop sufficient information and
mental activation to consume totally the time of the competition. The
opportunity for distractions to occur is minimized if a proper attentional focus
is achieved. The activities at this stage include:
Concentration on task relevant factors
A major potion of any competition strategy should involve concentration on
the technical aspects of the activity, such as:
Other relevant tasks
Studies have shown that actions are accelerated when an individual thinks of selfcommands. If a player wants to be fast in action, then he should think fast word
while performing. If a player wants to be strong, then he should think strong
words at the appropriate time. Thus, the assertion that ―how you think is how
Think of performance as a number of moods‘ or performance quality such as
speed, strength, balance, stability, agility, persistence or power.
Use strong words to control mood of actions in performance. Some common
cue words are listed below:
: Crush, solid, force, squash, powerful and muscle
Power (force) : Heave, smash, blast, bang, and explode
: Fast, alert, whip, flick, jab, smack, thrust and dash.
: Press, pressure, drive,drag,smother,and continue.
: Solid, firm, anchored, rigid, block, and hard.
Positive Self-statements - These are positive statements which encourage the
player to continue with the performance. Positive self-statements should be used
at critical times in a performance when fatigue is increasing, during a session of
lost points and during a monotonous period.
Segmentation - In sport which spans a long duration such as hockey, football,
marathon running, and distance swimming, it is difficult for players to be flexible
and to adjust to situational tactics if the final outcome is the only goal.
Segmentation is a strategy to avoid fatigue and boredom by breaking into phases,
parts, sets, ends, etc.
Benefits of a competition strategy.
Cope with pain
Cope with fatigue
Recover from a loss of concentration
Types of Mental Plans
The role of mental plans is to develop, maintain and regain a flow mind-set.
Mental preparation plans help performers create a flow mind-set before
practice and competition. Mental performance plans help athletes maintain
their flow mind-set while practicing and competing. And mental recovery
plans help competitors regain their emotional composure and get back into a
flow mind-set when they‘ve been taken out of their game.
Mental preparation plans help your athletes warm up mentally by using a
structured routine to promote a flow mind-set that will enable them to practice
and play at their best. Most athletes find it helpful to integrate their best. Most
athletes find it helpful to integrate their warm-up into their physical one, thus
readying their mind and body together. Preparation plans include a basic plan
for ideal conditions and a backup plan for use when the warm-up is
constrained by time or circumstance. Your athletes‘ mental preparation plans
should be designed like a pilot‘s preflight checklist-to be worked step by step.
Preparation plans for practice and competition should be quite similar, with
changes made only in those steps that must differ based on the situation. This
continuity helps athletes seamlessly transfer skills from practice to
Mental Performance Plans
Mental performance plans are used during practice and competition to help
athletes perform their best by maintaining and using their flow mind-set. They
typically include a standard mental performance plan for use when things go
well and backup mental performance plans to cover several common
contingencies when problems occur or when the standard plan proves
ineffective. Standard mental performance plans focus on athletes‘ goals for
practice or competition and on action plans for attaining them. These plans are
usually tailored to one of three main categories of competition: races or
routine, self-paced tasks, and interactive sports. For races and routines,
standard mental performance plans focus on developing specific strategies to
maintain a flow mind-set during each major segment of the event. Self-paced
task (e.g., golf, field events, archery, basketball free throws and tennis and
volleyball serves) are repetitive, and athletes should construct and automate
pre-performance and between-performance routine that will happen, standard
mental performance plans should focus on strategies for anticipated critical
points the contest (e.g., last 3 minutes of the game, or first play after a timeout) or for reacting to specific good or bad performance trends (e.g., after a
turnover, or a run of point) plans can be devised for interactive sports with
breaks in the action, such as tennis and American football. Backup mental
performance plans emphasize overcoming specific problems that regularly
arise, or adjusting goals to get the most out of practice or competition in the
face of trouble. Problems in practice might include sluggishness due to lack of
sleep, a lack of focus, or a coach‘s bad mood. Problems in competition might
include a large early deficit, an unruly crowd, of fallout from a key mistake.
Backup mental performance plans help athletes forge ahead even when
conditions are not optimal.
Mental Recovery Plans
Backup mental performance plans address recurring or predictable problems;
mental recovery plans help you recover from unexpected or uncommon
setbacks where you become emotionally flustered and get taken out of your
game. Mental recovery plans don‘t necessarily allow performers to completely
return to form, but they do help them make the best difficult situations and
perform as well as circumstances allow. A mental recovery plan is a simple
routine designed for the wide range of unexpected practice and competitive
situations that occasionally catch competitors off guard and cause them lose
composure (e.g., distracting nonsport problems, controversial officiating
decisions, trash talking by opponents, or stupid mistakes of their own). Mental
recovery plans are general in design to provide a standard coping routine that
can be used regardless of the problem that caused the loss of composure.
Developing Thinking Players
Tactics - This is the ability to use specific strategies in a match to give
your team an advantage:
Strength and weaknesses of the opposition
Strength and weaknesses of your team
For a tactic to be successful:
Your players understand the reason for such a tactic
The players involved understand the specific roles they must play
your players is capable of fulfilling the role required to use the tactic
Tactics can be applied to many situations in the game such
At an individual level
To a group level
To the team as a whole
When your team has possession
When the opponent has possession
At the restarts or in open play
In particular areas of the pitch
During particular phases of the game
Examples of tactics
Reduce players effectiveness by using man to man marker
Force the ball to a particular part of the pitch
Stopping the play when the opposition have the ball
Placing high pressure on a particular opponent
Forcing a particular opponents to drag one way
Using overhead into a specific zone of the ground
Closing off a game
Using very wet conditions to advantage
Using a psychological weakness of an opponent to your advantage
Match Plan - A match plan is like a blueprint of what you would like to happen in
a game. Contents of match plan:
The style of play required for the match
Specific tactics and strategies
Set price discussion making sure all players are clear of their involvement
Pointers to a Match Plan:
Predicting what will occur in match is very difficult. However with good
planning the match can be orchestrated in an effective way
Be realistic when setting up a match plan
Should be given at least 2 hours before match
Allow for creative thinking and on filed decisions.
Match Plan - Use of video
Able to watch the movements (with the ball / off the ball) of a talented
players, to plan a tactic to close off the player
Better prepared to attack or defend pc
Attacking patterns of opponents
Defensive positions of opponents
Better understanding of opponents patterns
Analysis of competitive situation
Mental Warm Up
Sport and exercise psychologists have long studied the causes and effects of
arousal, stress and anxiety in the competitive athletic environment. Many
professional managers and coaches are interested in the physiological and
psychological benefits of warm up. We are traditionally used to the physical warm
up as a means of physical and mental readiness prior to competition.
In order to perform at peak level, you want to be in a state physically. it is highly
evident that a good physical warm up often regulates the physical and
physiological signs associated with activation or arousal of the body. It is the
mental components which have yet to be addressed effectively prior to
Sit comfortably in a relaxed position with your back straight, your legs
apart, your feet flat on the floor
Inhale slowly and deeply through your nose as you expand your abdomen
Hold your breath for a count of 10 second
Exhale slowly through your nose, pull your abdominal muscles in as you
push all the air out of your lungs
Now slowly inhale again and repeat the sequence practice this for 2-3
Self Talk - The feeling of being positive during competition can determine the rate
of success or failure. Examples of positive statements.
I am a strong and fluid athlete
I am as good as any other athlete at the competition today
I am confident and ready
I am in control and focused
Enjoy training and competing
I am successful and winning
Imagery - Imagery refers to the process of seeing yourself on a screen in your
mind‘s eye, consciously evoking and guiding thoughts in which you appear
towards a specific and successful conclusion.
Now imagine yourself on the site where you are going to perform, See yourself
performing different skills with accuracy and precision. See how aggressive and
energetic you feel out there. You feel so confident and in control. Your passes
are accurate and you feel physically fit as you fight for ever opportunity that
arises. See yourself encouraging your teammates with positive words and
praises. Everybody is giving their 100% out there and enjoying it.
The Mental Skills Training Approach
We‘ve discussed the importance of psychology factors and the benefits
associated with MST but have yet to describe mental skills training approach that
provided the foundations for the rest of the book. MST is the systematic and
consistent use of mental training tools – goal setting, imagery, relaxation and
energization, and self-talk, to build the mental skills, or psychological attributes
that coaches want their athletes to have - motivation , energy, management,
attention, stress management, and confidence. The fundamental premise behind
MST is that using mental training tools or techniques can enable athlete to
develop the desired mental skills (see figure 3.2). Stated another way, mental
skills are the end products we are trying to achieve to enhance mental toughness
and create a flow state of mind. Mental training tools are the methods used
develop athletes‘ mental skills (Vealey 1988).
Table 3.1 illustrates a few of the potential applications of each mental training
tool and how it affects several mental skills. For example athletes who find it hard
to maintain motivation during off-season training can use goal setting to provide a
sense of direction and purpose in their workouts. Goal setting may also help
them develop other mental skills. As they make progress toward attaining their
goals, their self-confidence increased. During the season they may begin to set
goals to improve not only their physical skills but also their mental game. As they
become proficient at goal setting, their personal goals become the standards by
which they evaluate success and failure. Setting goals based on improvement
and skill mastery – rather than judging success and failure exclusively in term of
winning and losing-may help dissipate some of the pressure athletes feel when
Table 3.1 Using the Four Mental Training Tools to Develop A athletes‘ Mental
Setting realistic but challenging short-term goals provides a sense of direction,
thereby increasing motivation as reflected in increased effort and persistence
Challenging, realistic goals help athletes get into their optimal energy zone and direct
that energy to the task at hand.
Effective goals direct athletes attention to what they need to focus on to succeed
Although striving to win is important, focusing on winning can create excessive
stress. When athletes perceive the challenge not as winning but as achieving their
own realistic set performance goals, the challenge will always be near the athletes
present skill level and will create on optimal skill challenge balance
Consistent goal attainment raises self-confidence
Teaching athletes to image themselves attaining their goals help raise their
By imagining previous strong performances, athletes can identify their optimal energy
levels and strategies for getting into an effective energy zone prior to performing
Using imagery effectively requires the ability to focus on desired images and thus can
be used to develop attentional skills
Imagery can be used to help athletes manage competitive stress. Athletes are less
likely to experience elevated stress if they have imagined themselves dealing
effectively with obstacles and unanticipated events that create stress
RELAXATION AND ENERGIZATION
Learning to energize when feeling flat and developing the ability to relax when over
aroused can help build motivation
Relaxation and energization technique can help athletes consistently enter and stay
in their attention to the task at hand. Relaxation and energization techniques help
athletes improve their concentration skills
Learning to purposefully relax when experiencing stress can help athletes manage
their emotions. And energizing techniques can be used when athletes feel that lowlevel stress is preventing them from getting into their ideal mental state for performing
By learning to control their energy levels through relaxation and energizing athletes
will develop a sense of control which in turn enhances self-confidence
Athletes can use self-talk to help motivate themselves
Self-talk can either raise or lower energy. Athletes can use effective self-talk
strategies to reach their ideal mental state before competing
Focusing on task relevant cue words can help athletes focus their attention or regain
focus if they are momentarily distracted
Stress level is strongly influenced by athletes perception and interpretations of event
that happen before and during competition. Athletes can use self-talk to develop a
outlook on event that normally result in elevated stress
Positive self-talk can be used to raise self-confidence, whereas negative self-talk can
Periodization Approach To Mental Training.
Periodization refers to the process of dividing the yearly training plan into periods
and phases. A periodization approach to mental training refers to integrating
mental training into yearly training plan in such a way that the mental training
objectives are compatible with the objectives of the other training components. It
does not make sense, for example, for a basketball team to emphasize precompetition preparation and competition strategies at the start of the seasonplayers are mainly building general fitness. The conceptual model presented
supports a periodization approach to mental training. In this process, athletes first
learn a basic mental skill such as relaxation (in a quiet darkened room). Then
they learn how to adapt it to a sport (for instance, taking a penalty kick, using a
brief breathing technique to relax before each kick in practice).
Finally, athletes develop a strategy for using relaxation in a game situation (using
progressive relaxation before a game, taking centering breaths as they walk on
to the field, then shaking out their legs just before the kick). The coach must be
aware of the different focus during each phase of the training period.
The General preparatory phase focuses on the evaluation of mental skills
as well as learning basic mental skills
• The Specific preparatory phase will focus on adapting and practicing
mental skills in sports-specific situation and to maintain basic skills
• The Pre competition phase will develop and practice focus plan, use focus
plan in simulations and maintain basic mental skills
• The Competition phase will evaluate and refine focus plan, use mental
skills to prepare for specific opponents and competitions, use mental skills
for stress management
• The Transition phase will focus on the use of mental skills to aid
regeneration and lower stress, maintain fitness and prevent staleness
through recreational activities.
In addition to improving performance, MST can be a great tool for increasing
athletes‘ enjoyment and enhancing their ability to find satisfaction and fulfillment
in their demanding sport activities. Training can be difficult and athletes may
experience excessive stress or struggle with the pressure of competition.
Learning mental skills can help athletes handle competitive stress and feel selfconfident, thus enhancing both their performance and enjoyment of their sport. If
one of the tenets of your coaching philosophy is for athletes to enjoy their sport
experiences, MST can help.
Strong Life Skills
Mental skills training also facilitate athletes‘ personal development. Mental
training lends itself well to a philosophy aimed at athletes‘ growth and
development-physical, mental, social, moral and emotional. In fact, mental
training is training in life skills such as learning how to set goals, how to handle
pressure and criticism and how to stay focused on the task at hand. These skills
can enhance sport performance but they can also improve performance in any
achievement area – school, music, theater, or career. Those who believe deeply
in the value of sport often claim that it can help teach young people how to
become leaders to be more self-confident, to develop better interpersonal skills
and to exercise self-discipline. But these potential benefits of sport participant do
not happen automatically coaches must structure athletes sport experiences to
help athletes gain these psychological benefits. Mental training provides a
framework for the development of athletes‘ life skills.
Chart the Mental Skills Training in your periodization plan. Explain why
you choose these skills in your training.
Plan a short term and long term mental training for your athletes.
“When I meet a man I never think of race, colour and religion but I feel that I have
met another member of my human family”
“If we cannot love the person whom we see, how can we love God, whom we cannot
Augmented Feedback in Learning
Retention and Transfer of Learning
Conditions of Practice
Facilitating Learning and Performance
1. Augmented Feedback in Learning
Feedback is that class of sensory information that is movement related, and it
can classified into two basic categories (intrinsic to the task ) and augmented
(supplementary to the task). Tow major classes of augmented feedback are
Knowledge of Performance (KP), and Knowledge of Results (KR), which is
information about verbal post movement information about performance
outcome. Much research suggests that information about performance is the
single most important variable for motor learning (except for practice it
self).Information about the learner’s movements (KP) can be given through
videotape replays, recordings of the force-time characteristics of the
movement (kinetics), or representations of the movement trajectories
(kinematics); and all these appear to be best when it precisely specifies
information which is critical for movement efficiency and that cannot be
obtained from other sources of feedback.KR precision refers to the accuracy
with which the KR is given. Performance improves with increases in precision
up to a point, with no further increases in performance thereafter. Presenting
combinations of qualitative and quantitative KR, based upon a goal related
band with of correctness, has both strong applied and theoretical merits. Early
research indicated that the relative frequency of KR (the percentage of trials
on which KR was given) was irrelevant for learning, whereas the absolute
frequency (the number of KR presentations given) was the critical
determinant. More recent data using transfer designs contradicts this position,
indicating that both are clearly important. Trials on which no KR is given
appear to contribute to learning in the task, but not as much as the KR trials
do. The trials-delay and summary-KR procedures, in which the KR for a given
movement is separated from the movement by other trials, were shown to
produce detrimental effects on motor performance, but positive effects on
learning. Augmented feedback appears to have several possible mechanisms
for enhancing learning. It acts as information. It acts to form associations
between movement parameters and resulting action. And it acts in a
motivational role. Augmented feedback also has guidance property that can
A learner can receive various kinds of sensory information during skill
But, Augmented, Extrinsic feedback about errors provided by the
instructor is one of the more important sources of information
Instructors often present feedback verbally (telling individuals what they
did correctly and incorrectly), but they can also present feedback in other
forms, such as visually (video replays).
Instructional feedback is best when it is simple and when it refers to only
one movement feature at a time, particularly when that feature deals with
something that the learner controls.
Extrinsic Feedback can Serve the following simultaneous functions:
Energize individuals and increase their motivation .
Reinforce learners for correct performance or discourage incorrect
Provide learners with information about the nature and direction of their
errors and suggest ways of correcting them
Make learners so dependent on the feedback that their performance
suffers when the information in withdrawn
2. Kinematic Feedback and other Feedbacks
Athletes can gain information about many aspects of their own
movements through various sensory channels
These forms of information are inherent to the normal execution of a
Sometimes the performer knows that something has gone wrong before
the movement is even completed
In many situations, this inherent feedback requires almost no evaluate at
all (e.g. missed the ball in softball)
But other aspects of inherent feedback are not so easily recognizable, and
perhaps the performer must learn to evaluate them (gymnast)
It would certainly seem reasonable to think of videotape replays as a
powerful mode in which to present KP
From a motor skills viewpoint, replays will contain a record of many of
errors made, and the individual can detect these directly and attempt to
correct them on the next trial
Video replays should probably be augmented by an instructor who can
pick out the important details and can instruct the learner to ignore the
Feedback about kinematics involves various measures derived from
movement such as position, time, velocity, and patterns of coordination
Effectiveness of kinematics feedback depends on the nature of the task
Biological process (e.g., blood pressure, breathing rate, EMG) are
measured electronically and used as feedback
Kinetic Feedback is about the force characteristics of a movement (e.g.,
starting block for sprinter)
Descriptive Feedback – Feedback that describes the errors made during
the performance of a skill
Example: You performed 5 out of 10 hits correctly
Conveys relatively little useful information
Prescriptive feedback provides learners with information they can use to
make more effective corrections in their subsequent movements
Example: In the next hit, you need to swing the bat faster
Prescriptive feedback is more useful to learners than descriptive feedback.
Give one example each of learning a skill in your sport to Compare
Descriptive Feedback and Prescriptive Feedback to the learners.
3. Retention and Transfer of Learning
To understand how the motor system is structured so that skills can be
produces “on demand” and practical because usually much time and effort
have gone into the learning of the skills
Motor memory is the persistence of the acquired capability for
A skill has been learned if and only if it can be retained relatively
If we can still perform a skill after not having practiced it for a year,
then we have a memory of the skill
Memory is the capability for performance, not a place where that
capability is stored
Refers to the loss of such capability
Loss of memory and is a concept of theoretical rather than a
behavioral, level of thinking
Retention and Transfer
Retention refers to the persistence of lack of persistence of the
performance, is considered at the behavioral level rather than at the
It might tell us whether or not memory has been lost
Retention test usually involves retesting subjects on the same task or
Transfer test has subjects switching to different tasks or conditions
Absolute Retention, a measure of retention based on the level of
performance on the retention test
Different Score, most common relative-retention score taking the
difference between the performance level at the end of the originallearning session and the beginning of the retention test
Percentage Score, the difference score divided by the amount of change
in performance and multiplied by 100 from the original-learning trials
Transfer of Learning
Whether practicing a task would produce benefits or losses ( or neither
for another task). Example : Badminton to Tennis, Squash to
Badminton; Gymnastic to Break Dance)
Transfer experiments ( 2 groups, Group A-Task A + B, Group B – task
Positive Transfer – The gain in capability on one task as a result of
practice or experience on some other task.
Negative Transfer – The loss in capability for one task as a result of
practice or experience in some other task
4. Conditions of Practice
Attempts to understand the many variables that determine the
effectiveness of the conditions of practice.
The most important condition is the Amount of Practice
More learning will occur if there are more practice trials
In structuring the practice session, the number of practice attempts should
Deliberate practice in terms of “activities” that have been specially
designed to improve the current level of performance
Deliberate practice requires effort and is not inherently enjoyable
Individuals are motivated to practice because practice improves
Pre-practice Considerations - Factors that have been shown to operate
before the practice session begins:
Motivation for learning
Important that people be motivated to learn a motor task in order for
maximally effective learning to occur
If the motivation level is too low, people might not be sufficiently
motivated to practice at all; or no learning would be the result.
Making The Task Seem Important
It is important that the learner see the task as one that is desirable to
A person might be much more interested in learning the skills after
seeing them performed by role models in world-class competition.
Performers try to attain goals that are set before they begin practicing
“Do your best” goals are not as effective as other types of goals
Specific, difficult goals produce better performance than either no
Short-term goals and a combination of short-term and long-term goals
facilitated performance as compared to long-term goals only
Verbal Information - To give a person some sort of “idea” or image of the
task to be learned, videotapes, verbal instructions, and demonstration are
Most common ways to give students on initial orientation to the new
skill is through verbal instruction
Instruction can also provide useful and important information about the
Instruction can emphasize the ways in which one can recognize one’s
Give the learner exposure to the stimuli that will be experience in the
One important way to facilitate learning is to demonstrate the skill so
the learners can directly observe the elements of the action
Use videotape or photos of skilled performers
Distribution of Practice
Massed practice means put things together, running work periods very
close together with either no rest at all or very brief rest intervals in
Distributed practice means spacing these intervals of work apart with
longer periods of rest
Given constant periods of work, short rest periods depress performance
relative to longer rest periods
The longer the rest period, the better performance
Continuous practice would likely cause muscular fatigue to develop, and
this fatigue could be expected to depress performance
Another factor that has been shown to effect learning is the amount of
variability in a practice sequence
Many task have variability inherent to them (open skills)
This effect is not so obvious, especially when the task involves Closed
One way to obtain on indication of the effect of practice variability is to
assess retention performance, after a period of time
The effects of practice variability seem to depend on the nature of the
College women profited from practice variability much more than college
Mentally practicing a skill (i.e., imagining performing it, without any
associated overt actions) can be shown to produce large positive
transfer to skill in the actual task
Part Versus Whole Practice
A very common techniques for teaching motor skills is to break them
down into smaller parts, to eliminate the burden of repeating the
simpler parts of the entire task
This would be seem to be an effective procedure when the task is very
complex and cannot be grasped as a whole
If practice is given on the part, it would certainly transfer highly to the
whole task, as the part would seem to be identical to one element of
The “traditional” methods of continuous drill on a particular action (i.e.,
practicing one skill repeatedly until it is correct) are probably not the most
effective way to learn
Practicing a number of tasks in some nearby randomized order will be the
most successful means of achieving the goal of stable learning and
Principles of Practice Specificity
We should attempt to match those conditions in acquisition practice
with those expected
Distributed-practice conditions were better for retention than massed
In relation to the contextual interference effect, random practice
produces better retention performance than blocked practice
You are the coach teaching Receiving Skill to the new under 16 boys
Group 1 – Blocked Practice (one feeder, toss ball up, 60 trials)
Group 2 – Random Practice (3 sub-groups, one toss ball up (20 trials),
one throwing (20 trials), one hitting the ball to receiver (20 trials).
Questions for discussion:
Which group of practice resulted in better performance during
Which type of practice resulted faster learning after one training
Catching Stone (Male vs. Female)
Blocked Practice & Random Practice
5. Facilitating Learning and Performance
To design an effective plan of instruction, practitioners must know something
Experiences of learners
The underlying mechanisms of human performance
The learning goal and target context
Table 1: Checklist for Diagnosing a Learning Situation
Task (Target skill)
Stage of learning
Goal(s) of Learning
Discrete, serial or
Motor or cognitive
Closed or open
Presence or absence of
Error detection and
Speed accuracy tradeoff
Risk of injury
Table 2: Checklist for Designing the Learning Experience
Knowledge of results
Stage of learning
Transfer of learning
Error detection practice
Amount of feedback
Consistent and varied
Type of feedback
Program or parameter
6. Applying the Principles of Skill Learning
Suppose you are a coach teaching a tennis team. If you are teach your
players to serve in tennis.
1. How do you determine if they are actually learning what you are taught
2. What will you look for to assess their progress in learning to serve?
3. How can you be certain that what you are observing is the result of
learning and not just luck?
A solid understanding of the principles and process underlying skill learning
and of the factors successful practitioners consider when diagnosing,
designing, and assessing a person’s learning experience. However, the best
way to evaluate your comprehension of this information is to see how well you
can apply it in providing instructional assistance for an actual learner
(athletes). How do you think you might respond to the challenge? How well
can you diagnose a learning situation? How well can you design a learning
experience? How effectively can you assess that experience? What type of
rational and research documentation might you offer in support of your
Based on your own sport and refer to the components of the conceptual
model of motor performance (Table 1). Identify those components that
might be relevant for skill learning in your sport. Once you have identified
the factors that are relevant to your chosen skill, decide how you might
design the learning experience, in other words, determine the instructional
options listed in Table 2 that might promote the most effective goal
achievement for your athletes. You might want to make several
photocopies of this table on which to make notes as you proceed with this
task. The following are questions you might consider in designing the
How will I establish communication with the athletes?
What types of outcome, performance, and process goals do we need
Will I need to assist the athletes in managing arousal? If so, how?
Will attention focus be an issue? If so, how might I promoter an optimal
What types of practice do I need to provide?
How might I go about structuring practice?
How might I go about providing feedback?
Assessing the learning experience – The final piece of the working
strategy pertains to assessment. If we can evaluate improvement in skill
learning accurately, we will be able to provide the athletes with helpful
information about achievement as well as feedback about possible
adjustments to make performance even better.
Thinking good thoughts, precede good actions.
“ If you judge people, you have no time to love them”
of sports injury (1 hour)
Rehabilitation is defined as the process of restoration of the injured
athlete to full function as required by the sport.
10.1.2 Components of Rehabilitation
a) Muscle Conditioning
c) Neuromuscular Control
d) Functional Exercises
e) Sports Skills
f) Correction of Abnormal Biomechanics
g) Maintenance of Cardiovascular Fitness
*Integration of Individual Components into a progressive rehabilitation program
Stages of rehabilitation
a) Initial Stage: (from onset of injury to full, pain-free ROM)
RICE Treatment & Electrotherapy – for pain relief and minimising
swellingIsometric Exercises, followed by Active and Passive ROM
exercises – to improve ROM and activate and strengthen muscles;
Type of activity, duration, Frequency, Intensity and complexity
depends on pain-free ROM. Start with non-weight bearing (NWB)
exercises and progress to partial and finally full weight bearing (FWB)
– incorporate proprioceptive exercises for stability and improves
strength Resistance exercises with theraband / light weights – helpful
in strengthening and endurance training.
*Photos – Isometric exercises, passive ROM, balance board, light
b) Intermediate Stage:
Prerequisites: Ability to resume activities of daily living, much
improved ROM and reasonable strength. Increase in frequency of
active and passive ROM and initiate stretching exercises and joint
mobilisation – to promote flexibility (realignment of scar
tissue)Progressively increase the load & repetitions through the painfree ROM using free-weights, pulleys, theraband, tubing, exercise
devices (exercise bike, treadmill, hydrotherapy, stair-climber)– to
increase strength, power and endurance ; Progress to more
closed kinetic chain exercises – to promote weight bearing exercises
Introduce more difficult proprioceptive and balance exercises
progressively; Lower limb exercises: supervised walking, jobbing,
striding and agility Upper limb exercises: supervised wiping
exercises, ball balance exercises, wobble board exercises; Start
sports specific activities without using affected limb: e.g. stationary
shooting (basketballer with lower limb injury), footwork for badminton
*Other treatment modalities e.g. joint mobilisation, RICE,
electrotherapy and massage therapy may be utilised to promote
c) Advance Stage: (commencement of functional activities related to
sport until return to play) Prerequisite: good strength and endurance
with full flexibility and ROM; able to do proprioceptive, agility and
functional exercises without adverse effects; Muscle conditioning
specific to activity of sports: power for sprinters and weight lifters (high
load, low repetitions); endurance for distance runners or swimmers
(low load, high repetitions); Fast-speed isotonic exercises and
functional plyometric exercises; Progressive through a sequence of
functional activities required for the sport: jogging, striding, bounding,
agility skills of increasing complexity intensity and volume. Ball and
racquet skills: stroke, lob, jab, smash; Identify biomechanical
abnormality and technique faults (video analysis). Participate in
between 70-90% normal training load. Introduce more sports specific
d) Return to play:
If an injured athlete returns to play prematurely
a) injury may be recurrent or chronic
b) injury may worsen
c) May predispose to other injuries
An injured athlete may return to play once the following criteria has
been fulfilled – completed specified duration of healing and supervised
rehabilitation program; no persistent swelling and pain-free ROM;
adequate strength and endurance, good flexibility, proprioception and
balance; adequate cardiovascular fitness; regained skills, psychological
mindset and training form for sports, corrected biomechanical anomaly
Medical Conditions in athletes (2 hours)
10.2.1 Asthma and Exercise Induced Asthma
Bronchial Asthma: An attack of persistent cough, wheezing (high pitched
breathing), chest tightness or pain; may worsen with physical exercise;
Athletes with “Exercise induced asthma” has an asthma attack during or
after physical exercise. May be triggered especially in the cold; during
Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds or flu), exposure to allergens and
Require physical assessment and spirometry to determine severity and
treatment options for good control. Treatment with Inhalers require TUE
Exemption and oral corticosteroids and bronchodilators are not allowed.
Oral Leukotriene Antagonists (Singulair) may be used as an alternative
which does not require Anti-Doping notification. Treatment of chronic
upper airway disease (e.g. Allergic Rhinitis and Chronic Sinusitis) has
been shown to be beneficial.
Return to play: if the athlete can breathe comfortably without asthma symptoms.
10.2.2 Gastrointestinal Problems
Endurance runners often suffer from abdominal cramps and diarrhoea
during prolonged moderate intensity exercise. This may be due to
delayed gastric emptying time, diminished blood flow to the large
intestine, reduced absorption of fluid during exercise. Other symptoms
are heartburn, nausea, bloating, flatulence, rectal bleeding.Treatment:
Reduce training load and anti-diarrhoeal medication.
10.2.3 Athlete’s Hematuria
Prolonged running may also predispose to hematuria due to reduced
blood supply to the kidneys and increased renal parenchymal permeation.
Symptoms usually resolves itself with reduced training load or rest.
However, the athlete will need to be examined by a doctor to rule out
other medical conditions.
10.2.4 Menstrual Problems
Female athletes who suffer from dysmenorrhoea (period pain) may be
offered options of timing of menses before or after a competition event.
The athlete should consult a doctor at least 1 month before the event to
ensure that intervention with oral contraceptive pills could be attempted.
Endurance athletes may occasionally suffer from amenorrhoea (delayed
period) due to hormonal changes associated with increased ‘mileage’
(duration of training). Prolonged periods of amenorrhoea should be
treated to prevent osteoporosis. Such athletes should also be referred to
the doctor and nutritionist if the Female Athlete’s Triad (amenorrhoea,
anorexia, osteoporosis) is suspected.
10.2.5 Skin Infections
Skin infections (e.g. tinea infection, impetigo, viral warts, herpes simplex)
are common amongst athletes in contact sports (e.g. rugby, soccer,
wrestling). Athletes with such conditions should be adequately treated
and symptom free before return to play.
10.2.6 Sudden Cardiac Death
Sudden cardiac death is an uncommon occurrence collapse and death in
athletes during exercise due to various causes. Atheltes who are < 35 yrs
old may have structural congenital heart lesion (hypertrophic
cardiomyopathy). Athletes > 35 yrs old may collapse due to Coronary
Arterial Disease. Other causes are heart valve structural problems or
disease or arrhythmia.
10.2.7 Contraindications to sports
In certain medical conditions, participation in sports may predispose the
athlete to further harm and danger. It is the responsibility of the coach to
identify situations that may put the athlete at risk and act accordingly. The
coach must consult the Medical Officer if the athlete has the following
a) Absolute Contraindications
Sensory: Detached Retina, Severe hearing loss (tympanic perforation),
severe myopia, Seizure disorder (depends on sport), Concussion;
Brachial Plexus Injury;
Spine: Spondylosis, Spondylolisthesis, Cervical Spine Instability, Cervical
Stenosis, Herniated Disc with Cord Compression;
Abdominal: Enlarged liver or spleen, Active hepatitis, Inguinal hernia;
General Illnesses: Acute Febrile Illness, Uncontrolled Diabetes, Severe
and Moderate Hypertension,
Cardiovascular: Coronary Arterial Disease, Valvular Heart Disorders,
Pulmonary: Pneumothorax, Hemothorax, Tuberculosis,
Blood disorder: Hemophilia & bleeding tendencies; severe anaemia;
Skin: Herpes Simplex, Measles, Chicken Pox, viral warts, tinea infection
*NB: while active skin lesions, no direct skin contact or mat activities like
wrestling (herpes gladiatorum), gymnastics, martial arts;
Single Organ: Eye, Ear, Kidney, testicle (for contact sports)
b) Relative Contraindications
Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, hyperthyroidism, anaemia; impetigo;
10.2.7 Prevention of Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases can be transmitted during sporting activity. Modes of
transmission in athletic settings include
Food & Water Borne
10.2.7.1 Person-to-Person Contact: e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B, Herpes Simplex,
Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Candidal infection; Viral warts; Taenia Infection;
a) Vaccination (if applicable)
b) Safe sex: single partner, barrier methods (condom), avoid
c) precautions of contamination from wounds (gloves, wound
d) personal hygiene
10.2.7.2 Food & Water Borne: Acute Gastroenteritis; Typhoid, Hepatitis A,
Drinking boiled water
Hygienic food preparation and food handling
Vaccination (if applicable)
10.2.7.3 Airborne / Droplet: Haemophilus Influenza A and B (flu), Coxsackie
Vaccination (if available)
Avoid contact with ill athlete
Hand washing and Personal Hygiene
10.2.7.4 Vector Bourne: Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Malaria, Yellow Fever;
Insect repellent and larvicide (e.g. Abate)
Long-sleeve attire and mosquito netting
Malaria prophylaxis: Malarone or Mephaquin tablets
Vaccination: Yellow fever
10.3 Medical Preparedness for competition and travel (1 hour)
10.3.1 Pre-event preparation
Sports injuries and medical emergencies can be prevented with adequate
preparation before the sporting event. The role of a coach is essential in ensuring
that the risk of such injuries and emergencies are minimised.
Role of coach:
Ensure that athlete undergoes pre-participation medical examination and identify
athletes with medical conditions
Determine suitability of return to play for injured athletes
Identify nutritional supplements and medication used by athletes and inform
Medical Officer and notify Anti-Doping Agency (MASDOC)
Appoint Medical Personnel responsible for the team
Inform injury risk and medical conditions
Prepare first-aid box, taping kit and coolman (Ice box)
Identify medical facilities and support (include referral) available at the event
Identify time for food intake, warm-up, cool-down and rest
*Coaches are advised to undergo training for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Basic
10.3.2 Event Coverage
a) Identify medical facility and person-in-charge at the venue
b) Ensure that Medical Personnel is present during warm-up and cool-down
c) Ensure that athletes are well-hydrated
d) Ensure that open wounds are covered with wound dressing
e) Tape injured parts before warm up and ensure tape is removed after cooldown
f) Ensure that protective devices are properly applied by athletes
g) Accompany injured athlete to hospital (if medical personnel is not available)
10.3.3 Preparation for travel
a) Pre-participation medical examination to certify fitness of participation and to
identify risk of injury and medical conditions
b) Vaccination of team members (at least 2 weeks prior to travel)
c) Briefing of team members
d) Planning of duration of stay before competition to prevent jet-lag
e) Sleep hygiene during travel: adjust to time of destination, avoid alcohol intake,
carbonated drinks and fatty foods
f) Prepare medical first-aid kit, taping kit and coolman (ice box)
g) Arrange for Insurance Coverage during travel and competition
*NB: Some insurance policies do not cover for participation in competitive sports
11. ASPECTS OF JET LAG – DIET WHILE TRAVELLING
One aspects of team preparation prior to touring overseas is the ability to cope with jet
lag and finding suitable programs to ensure the hockey players are able to perform to the
best of their ability in the shortest recovery time. Jet Lag program which mainly relates to
diet, sleep patterns and passive exercise while are travelling, which are of benefit to the
11.1 Recommended Programme before Departure
a) No caffeine – i.e coffee , tea
b) No coke, also diet coke
c) No chocolaté, Mars bars etc.
d) Less Salt
e) Reduce Alcohol drinks.
11.2 During Flight.
a) As above – before depature.
b) No carbonated drinks.
c) Little cocentrated orange juice
d) Less Calories – don’t eat everything that is put in front of you on the plane –
avoid excessive peanuts etc.
e) Drink lots of fluid – mineral water – Not carbonated.
f) No Alcohol drinks.
11.3 Other Points to Remember on the Plane.
a) Walk around every 1- 2 hours.
b) Stretching exercice – Hamstrings, quads etc.
c) Back flexibility exercise after sitting and sleeping for a long time.
d) Ankle and foot mobility exercises.
Explanation of all the intellectuals of the world do not equal the experience of one