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Contents
Contents
Welcome...............................................................................................................................i2
Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES - Chair of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Programme overview.........................................................................................................i3
Prof Clyde Williams OBE, DSc (Hon), FBASES - Chair of the Scientific Programme Committee
Conference programme.........................................................................................................i4
Day 1 Parallel free communication sessions...........................................................................i6
Day 2 Parallel free communication sessions...........................................................................i8
Getting around St. George’s Park.........................................................................................i12
Exhibitor information...........................................................................................................i14
A to Z help guide..................................................................................................................i16
BASES Fellowships...............................................................................................................i19
Day 1
Invited keynote:
Sport England’s journey from sport development
to behavioural change...........................................................................i24
Invited symposium: Ready for Rio 2016? FUSION of evidence-based practice
and practice-based evidence to support Olympic
and Paralympic athletes.........................................................................i25
Invited symposium: Cutting edge approaches to behaviour changes...................................i26
Invited symposium: Physiological and nutritional aspects of bone health:
Implications for physical training...........................................................i27
Invited symposium: Sports psychology - a round table discussion........................................i28
Invited symposium: Ready for Rio - a biomechanical perspective.........................................i29
Invited symposium: Getting published - an insider’s point of view.......................................i30
Invited symposium: Some reflections on the Research Excellence Framework 2014..........i31
Invited symposium: Training load management during periods of intensive conditioning.....i32
Day 2
Invited symposium: The demands of elite Rugby Union: Player development
and player wellbeing..............................................................................i33
Invited symposium: Exercise programmes for cancer survivors: Putting evidence
into practice..........................................................................................i34
Invited keynote:
Bad science............................................................................................i35
Invited symposium: Carbohydrate requirements for athletes: From laboratory
to practice and back again.....................................................................i36
Invited symposium: Everything is good for you if it doesn’t kill you: Some different
perspectives on mental toughness in high performance settings..........i37
Invited symposium: Relevant foot and ankle biomechanics: Art, science or both?...............i38
Abstracts...............................................................................................................................1
The Programme and Abstracts booklet is published in association with Journal of Sports Sciences,
published by Taylor & Francis, and will be available as a supplement issue on the journal website at:
www.tandfonline.com/rjsp
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 1
i1
11/11/2015 11:08
Welcome
from Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES
Chair of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES
Scientific Programme
Committee
n
Prof Clyde Williams OBE,
DSc (Hon), FBASES (Chair)
n
Dr Peter Brown
English Institute of Sport
n
Dr Kevin Currell
English Institute of Sport
n
Dr Jason Gill FBASES
University of Glasgow
n
Dr Claire Hitchings
BASES conference organiser
n
Stafford Murray
English Institute of Sport
n
Prof Nanette Mutrie FBASES
University of Edinburgh
n
Dr Rich Neil
Cardiff Metropolitan University
n
Prof John Saxton FBASES
Northumbria University
n
Dr Ken van Someren FBASES
GSK Human Performance Lab
n
Dr Paul Worsfold
English Institute of Sport.
i2
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 2
On behalf of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, welcome to BASES
Conference 2015. We aim to deliver the most exciting, cutting-edge BASES Conference
since its inception in 1984.
Thank you to our conference sponsors, the GSK Human Performance Lab - a world-class
science facility focused on discovery and applied research. Thank you also to the event’s
associate sponsors, Perform at St. George’s Park. They are kindly providing delegate access
to the Perform Strength and Conditioning Gym as well as interactive tours of the Perform
sport science and medical facilities.
The event is packed with high quality content and insight, with an excellent variety
of topics and presentation formats. Chaired by Prof Clyde Williams OBE, FBASES, the
Scientific Programme Committee has selected expert speakers to deliver the most
important and impactful content. I extend a special welcome to our international speakers
Prof Kerry Courneya from the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada and
Dr Panteleimon Ekkekakis from lowa State University, United States of America.
BASES is delighted to return, by popular demand, to the prestigious St. George’s Park The FA’s state-of-the-art talent development centre. This world-class venue provides the
perfect space for you to meet friends and colleagues, learn new things and share ideas.
Opportunities for socialising and networking play a key part in this event. I hope you
will renew acquaintances and make new friends. To facilitate this, we have deliberately
scheduled plenty of breaks and extended lunch periods.
Day 1 will finish with a gala drinks reception sponsored by BASES and the Journal of
Sports Sciences. This event honours the retirement of Profs Alan Nevill and Edward Winter
FBASES who have announced their retirement from the Journal of Sports Sciences, which
is published on behalf of BASES. The conference dinner welcomes guest speaker Nigel
Walker, a former Welsh international high hurdler and rugby player, now working at the
English Institute of Sport as National Director.
Day 2 starts with various options depending on your energy levels and interest in
health and fitness. For the more energetic - delegates are invited to attend a group run
on Wednesday morning. An on-site gym and spa are available for all guests staying at St.
George’s Park overnight on Tuesday evening and there will be opportunities for delegates
to see Perform at St. George’s Park sport science and medical facilities.
I extend a sincere thank-you to all of our exhibitors. The Conference Hub will house the
exhibitors, refreshments and delegate social and networking activity, making it the place to
be at our flagship event.
Five prestigious awards are to be contested by presenters at this year’s conference.
These awards seek to reward outstanding contributions to sport and exercise sciences
by BASES members. We are very grateful to all the award sponsors - Cranlea, Human
Kinetics, Routledge and Sportesse. I take this opportunity to thank the following individuals
who have played a key role in BASES Conference 2015 - Dr Claire Hitchings, Prof Clyde
Williams OBE, FBASES, Jane Bairstow and Jane Gillott, as well as Jon Gordon, Adrian Eyre
and Liz Stenner from The Media Group.
Finally, thank you all for being part of BASES’ most important annual event. I hope you
take the time to share your extensive knowledge and wisdom with other delegates, enjoy
the experience and leave feeling inspired and energised.
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Programme overview
from Prof Clyde Williams OBE, DSc (Hon), FBASES
Chair of the Scientific Programme Committee
Welcome to BASES Conference 2015. After last year’s successful conference at St. George’s Park we have
adopted the same in-house organisation and planning, relying heavily on our Scientific Programme Committee
for their expertise, experience and wise counsel. The two-day programme includes themes and topics that
are of current interest and are making significant contributions to the ever increasing body of knowledge in
sport and exercise sciences. The programme adopts a wide range of delivery formats, including keynotes,
invited symposium, round-table discussions, as well as free communication and poster communications.
Our aim is to continue to provide an environment that encourages interaction between you and the
presenters as well as fellow delegates. We have again avoided scheduling BASES meetings, apart from the
BASES AGM, so as not to compromise the full two-day programme.
With the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics and Paralympics only months ahead of us and with the Rugby World
Cup just a few months behind us, we will have the privilege of hearing about how the translation of sport and
exercise science research contributes to the preparation of elite athletes for these world-class competitions.
‘Exercise is Medicine’ is a mission statement first promoted by the American College of Sports Medicine.
Our colleagues studying the links between physical activity and health contribute much of the evidence to
support the central role of exercise in promoting human well-being. They will share with us the results of
recent studies on physical activity and health and will include a session on the role of exercise during the
recovery from cancer.
This year’s programme will also include the opportunity to gain greater insight into the process of ‘getting
published’, which will certainly appeal to early career researchers. How our publications in particular and our
productivity in general was assessed during the Research Excellence Framework 2014 are questions that will
be addressed in the session on Reflections on the REF 2014.
We all recognise that a great amount of work goes into preparing free communication and poster
communications, in order to present as clearly as possible the essence and impact of recently completed
research. As is always the case at conferences, there is all too little time for questions following free
communication presentations. Nevertheless, presenters are only too willing to discuss their work, therefore
do take the opportunities to raise your questions not only during the designated ‘question times’ but also
during the breaks between sessions. Poster presentations provide particularly unique opportunities for
‘one-to-one’ engagement with fellow authors of new research. These personal discussions can give in-depth
insights into research studies that are rarely obtained from only reading published papers. Therefore, we
recommend the poster sessions to you as an efficient and effective way of updating your awareness of recent
research in your own and in a range of other related areas. At the very least do ensure that you have contact
details of authors so that you can initiate or follow-up discussions about research of mutual interest. Abstracts
of all presentations will be published in an online supplement of the Journal of Sports Sciences and so will be
available not only to delegates but also to the wider readership of the Journal.
Finally on behalf of the Scientific Programme Committee, we hope that you have a worthwhile and
enjoyable time during the next two days at St. George’s Park.
Prof Clyde Williams OBE,
DSc (Hon), FBASES
Abstract Reviewers
n
Prof Sue Backhouse FBASES
n
Dr David Broom FBASES
n
Dr Jenny Burbage
n
Dr Neil Clarke
n
Dr Stewart Cotterill
n
Dr Brendan Cropley FBASES
n
Prof Michael Duncan FBASES
n
Dr Emma Eyre
n
Dr Chris Harwood FBASES
n
Adam Hawkey
n
Dr Gerwyn Hughes
Session definitions
n
Dr Costas Karageorghis FBASES
n The
n
Dr Zoe Knowles FBASES
n
Dr Ian Lahart
n
Prof Lars McNaughton FBASES
n
Prof Mary Nevill
n
Dr Rich Neil
n
Dr Mike Price FBASES
n
Prof John Saxton FBASES
n
Dr Richard Thelwell FBASES
n
Prof Clyde Williams OBE,
DSc (Hon), FBASES.
exhibition in the Conference Hub will house companies exhibiting a range of products relevant
to sport and exercise sciences practice. It will provide excellent opportunities for delegates to examine
products and engage with suppliers.
n Parallel
free communication sessions. These comprise 10-minute presentations of new research
studies followed by questions, in a chaired session with other presenters. These parallel sessions
normally comprise five or six presentations in similar topic areas.
n Poster
presentations. Posters will be displayed in the Conference Hub and Sir Bobby Robson.
The lead author will be available at set times to discuss his/her work with delegates.
n Invited
symposium. The invited symposium will be presented by experts on each topic
to bring a collective view on areas of current interest in sport and exercise sciences.
n Invited
keynotes are plenary sessions that aim to bring world-leading insight on topics relevant to
sport and exercise sciences.
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 3
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11/11/2015 11:08
Conference programme
DAY 1 - TUESDAY 1 DECEMBER 2015
Session Code/Venue
07.30-08.45
Exhibitor set up
09.00
Registration and drinks
Conference Hub
10.10
Opening address - Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES, Chair of BASES
Sir Bobby Robson
10.20-11.20
Invited keynote: Sport England’s journey from sport development to behavioural change
Jennie Price • Chair: Prof Mary Nevill
D1.S1.
Sir Bobby Robson
This session will focus on Sport England’s innovative approaches to growing participation, using insight to inform its actions
and encourage behaviour change. It will feature the ‘This Girl Can’ campaign, celebrating active women up and down the
country who are doing their thing regardless of ability, appearance or judgement.
11.20-11.40
Exhibition and refreshment break
11.40-12.55
Parallel invited symposia
Conference Hub
Ready for Rio 2016? FUSION of
evidence-based practice and practicebased evidence to support Olympic and
Paralympic athletes
Cutting edge approaches to behaviour
change
Dr Emma Ross FBASES and Liz Sinton
• Chair: Prof Nanette Mutrie MBE, FBASES
• Chairs: Stafford Murray and Dr PeterBrown
Prof Susan Michie will present a method for designing effective
interventions, starting with a ‘diagnosis’ of the target behaviour
in context using a model of behaviour, COM-B. This links
to a framework for developing and evaluating interventions,
the Behaviour Change Wheel, which comprises nine
intervention functions and seven policy categories. Dr
Panteleimon Ekkekakis will (a) highlight the need to consider
pleasure as the third pillar of exercise prescriptions, besides
effectiveness and safety, (b) summarise current evidence on
the relationships between intensity, pleasure and adherence
and (c) present ways in which exercise sessions can be
restructured with the goal of promoting pleasure, based on
behavioural-economic principles.
Supported by GSK Human Performance Lab
The aim of this session is to demonstrate how in
elite sport science support, delivery of the trade is a
carefully crafted fusion between scientific knowledge
and experience at the coal face. There will be an
explanation of the planning of the applied practitioner’s
journey throughout the Olympic and Paralympic cycle
with detailed practitioner insight of applied sport science
FUSION.
D1.S2.1.
Sir Bobby Robson 1
Prof Susan Michie and
Dr Panteleimon Ekkekakis
D1.S2.2.
Sir Bobby Robson 3
12.55-14.00
Lunch, networking, exhibition and poster sessions
Conference Hub
14.00-15.30
Parallel free communication sessions
D1.S3.
15.30-15.50
Exhibition and refreshment break
Conference Hub
15.50-17.05
Parallel invited symposia
Physiological and nutritional
aspects of bone health:
Implications for physical
training
Dr Craig Sale and
Dr Julie Greeves
• Chair:
Prof Lars McNaughton FBASES
This session brings together evidence
from collaborative work on the effects
of exercise and nutrition on bone
health, applied to athletic and military
populations. The opening presentation
will address the physiological
responses of bone to arduous
training, followed by the application of
nutritional interventions to modulate
bone turnover with exercise.
D1.S4.1.
Sir Bobby Robson 1
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5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 4
Sports psychology - a
round table discussion
Ready for Rio - a
biomechanical perspective
Dr Brendan Cropley FBASES,
Dr Andrea Faull, Dr Kate Hays
and Dr Stephen D. Mellalieu
Dr Jon Wheat and
Dr Paul Barratt
• Chair: Dr Rich Neil
In this session prominent practitioners
offering psychological support in
sport will discuss their views on
contemporary themes, informed by
delegates. If you have any topics or
issues that you would like the panel
to consider then please contact
Dr Rich Neil - [email protected]
This session will discuss how
biomechanics is being utilised
to assess and enhance the
performance of our Olympic
athletics. Experts will discuss how
scientific theory and contemporary
innovative methods and
technologies are being implemented
in the applied world and the
challenges that this brings.
D1.S4.2.
Sir Bobby Robson 3
D1.S4.3.
Lecture Theatre
• Chair: Dr Paul Worsfold
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
17.10-18.00
Parallel invited symposia
Getting published - an
insider’s point of view
Prof Alan Nevill and
Jonathan Manley
• Chair: Prof Clyde Williams OBE,
DSc (Hon), FBASES
Sponsored by the Journal of Sport Sciences
The talk will provide researchers with
tips to help get their work published. It
will go on to provide some suggestions
as to how to maximise their work’s
impact once accepted. Finally, we
will encourage all researchers to
help contribute to the peer review
process by helping with reviewing and
eventually becoming members of the
Journal’s Editorial Board.
D1.S5.1. Sir Bobby Robson 3
Some reflections on the
Research Excellence
Framework 2014
Training load management
during periods of intensive
conditioning
Prof Lew Hardy FBASES
• Chair: Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES
Dr Carl Wells
• Chair: Dr Claire Hitchings
This presentation will provide a brief
overview of how REF 2014 worked in
practice, followed by some personal
reflections about how researchers and
units of assessments can best present
their research for REF purposes.
Supported by Perform at St. George’s Park
D1.S5.2. Sir Bobby Robson 1
D1.S5.3. Lecture Theatre
The sport science team at St. George’s
Park have gained considerable
experience and knowledge of providing
support within elite football, from the
National squads to professional clubs
and academies. A key component of
the sport science support is the effective
and structured management of training
load, specifically during periods of
intensive conditioning where the aim is
to accelerate improvements in physical
condition for gains in performance.
18.30-19.30
BASES Annual General Meeting
Graham Taylor Room
19.30
Gala drinks reception
Conference Hub
20.00 for
20.30
After-dinner speaker: Nigel Walker, introduced by Dr Ken van Someren FBASES, GSK Human Performance Lab
Conference dinner
Sir Bobby Robson
Ballroom
DAY 2 - WEDNESDAY 2 DECEMBER 2015
Session Code/Venue
08.00-09.30
BASES morning run (meet outside the main entrance)
Interactive tours of the Perform at St. George’s Park sport science and medical facilities
Registration and drinks
09.30-10.45
Parallel invited symposia
08.15
10.45-11.15
The demands of elite Rugby Union: Player
development and player wellbeing
Exercise programmes for cancer survivors:
Putting evidence into practice
Dr Scott Drawer and Dr Keith Stokes
• Chair: Dr Paul Worsfold
Prof Kerry Courneya and Dr Anna Campbell
• Chair: Prof John Saxton FBASES
This session will cover the landscape in which players develop
to become elite performers and identify processes designed
to maximise opportunities for development. The physical
demands of elite rugby will also be discussed in the context
of how training and playing load influences injury risk/player
availability, with evidence from the men’s and women’s game.
An expanding body of research supports the positive health
effects of exercise in cancer survivors. This session will
provide a concise overview of the field, before considering a
framework for research and key research questions for the
future. It will also explore practical considerations for exercise
programme design and implementation.
D2.S1.1. Sir Bobby Robson 1
D2.S1.2. Sir Bobby Robson 3
Conference Hub
Exhibition and refreshement break
11.15-12.30
Parallel free communication sessions
12.30-13.30
Lunch, networking, exhibitions and poster sessions
D2.S2.
How science, evidence and statistics can be twisted, rigged, distorted, hidden and ignored.
Invited keynote: Bad science - Dr Ben Goldacre • Chair: Dr Jason Gill FBASES
D2.S3.
Sir Bobby Robson
14.35
Closing address and award ceremony - Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES, Chair of BASES
Sir Bobby Robson
14.45-16.00
Parallel invited symposia
13.30-14.35
Carbohydrate requirements
for athletes: From laboratory
to practice and back again
Dr Graeme L. Close FBASES
and Dr James Morton
• Chair: Dr Kevin Currell
Recent research has suggested that high
carbohydrate availability during training
may be counter-productive for training
adaptations. Additionally, our work from
applied practice has also revealed unique
insights into the carbohydrate intakes of
elite athletes in real-world settings. We
will review our latest thinking on the
carbohydrate requirements of athletes
whilst suggesting that although research
informs practice, practice should also
inform research.
D2.S4.1. Sir Bobby Robson
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 5
Everything is good for you
if it doesn’t kill you: Some
different perspectives on
mental toughness in high
performance settings
Relevant foot and ankle
biomechanics: Art, science or
both?
Prof Lew Hardy FBASES
• Chair: Dr Rich Neil
In this lecture I will present some cases
that we have assessed at the Institute
of Motion Analysis & Research at the
University of Dundee that without the
extensive plethora of equipment that we
have, we would not have been able to
inform the clinical decision.
This presentation will present
evidence from research across a
number of domains that speaks to a
neuropsychological model of mental
toughness in which negative events play
a central role. Parallels will be drawn with
the post traumatic growth literature.
D2.S4.2. Lecture Theatre
Prof Rami J Abboud
• Chair: Adam Hawkey
D2.S4.3. Terry Venables Suite
i5
11/11/2015 11:08
Physiology and Nutrition
Chair: Prof Lars McNaughton FBASES
14.00-15.30, D1.S3.1. Sir Bobby Robson 1
Day 1
Parallel free
communication
sessions
14.00
D1.S3.1(1)
The physiological and perceptual responses to exercise using a
variable resistance swing
Mike Price, Sean Lowton-Smith & Doug Cartwright
14.15
D1.S3.1(2)
Dietary intakes differ across age groups in professional adolescent
rugby league and rugby union players
Deborah Smith, Ben Jones, Louise Sutton, Roderick King & Lauren Duckworth
14.30
D1.S3.1(3)
Nucleotide supplementation does not improve repeated sprint performance
Fui Yen Wong, Samuel Morris, Adam P. Sharples, David A. Low,
Mark A. Scott & Dominic A. Doran
14.45
D1.S3.1(4)
The effect of intermittent mechanical loading on acute bone remodelling
Will Evans, Eleanna Chalari, Massimiliano Ditroilo, Alan Nevill, Mark Fogarty & Grant Abt
15.00
D1.S3.1(5)
Expectancy effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on
1500 m running performance
Lisa Board, Rachael Dawe, Shane McNamara & Craig O’Connor
15.15
D1.S3.1(6)
Quantifying oxygen deficit and anaerobic energy expenditure
during high-intensity, interval training
Paul M. Smith & James Allen
Sport and Performance
Chair: Dr Emma Ross FBASES
14.00-15.30, D1.S3.2. Sir Bobby Robson 3
14.00
D1.S3.2(1)
Effect of hypoxia on joint-specific power production during maximal cycling
Owen Jeffries, Thomas Korff & Lee M. Romer
14.15
D1.S3.2(2)
The effect of competition and practice climate on cognitive performance during
moderate and high-intensity exercise. A bio-informational perspective
Mike Smith, Neil Clarke, Martin Cox & Michael Duncan
14.30
D1.S3.2(3)
The effects of hypohydration and hot environmental conditions on cognitive
performance following field hockey-specific exercise
Simon Cooper, Hannah Macleod & Caroline Sunderland
14.45
D1.S3.2(4)
Knowledge of the exercise end point alters pacing during simulated
rugby league match play
Thomas Mullen, Craig Twist & Jamie Highton
15.00
D1.S3.2(5)
Ineffective and effective coping strategies associated with
professional rugby union referees
Denise Hill, Ruth Senior & Tom Young
15.15
D1.S3.2(6)
The effect of contact type on internal and external demands during a
rugby league match simulation protocol
Jonathan Norris, Stephen Hughes, Jamie Highton & Craig Twist
Psychology 1
Chair: Dr Zoe Knowles FBASES
14.00-15.30, D1.S3.3. Lecture Theatre
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5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 6
14.00
D1.S3.3(1)
Do elite male cricket batsmen exhibit pre-delivery behavioural routines?
Adam Kelly, Marie Stopforth, Tim Holder & Oscar Mwaanga
14.15
D1.S3.3(2)
Good- versus poor-trial feedback in golf-putting: the role of self-efficacy and
intrinsic motivation across levels of task difficulty
Zara-Angela Abbas & Jamie S. North
14.30
D1.S3.3(3)
Can brief psychological skills training enhance competitive performance? Findings
of the BBC Science Lab psychological skills intervention study
Andrew M Lane, Peter Totterdell, Ian Macdonald, Tracey J. Devonport, Christopher J. Beedie,
Damian Stanley, Andrew Friesen & Alan Nevill
14.45
D1.S3.3(4)
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing for prospective imagery in golfers
Niall Falls & Jamie Barker
15.00
D1.S3.3(5)
The relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and coping
with injury in marathon runners
Gareth Jowett, Dale Forsdyke & Andrew Hill
15.15
D1.S3.3(6)
The moderation role of transformational leadership behaviours in the impairing
effects of personality traits upon training
Shuge Zhang & Stuart Beattie
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Psychology 2
Chair: Prof Nanette Mutrie FBASES
14.00-15.30, D1.S3.4. Terry Venables Suite
14.00
D1.S3.4(1)
Identity and critical moments in elite youth football
Tom Mitchell, Martin Littlewood, Mark Nesti & Dave Richardson
14.15
D1.S3.4(2)
Case conceptualisation and a neophyte practitioner: where do I start?!
Kotryna Grinkeviciute & Dave Collins
14.30
D1.S3.4(3)
“That’s the first time I’ve ever really been able to take the initiate as to what I
wanted”: the power of athlete self-representation through photography
Tracey Devonport
14.45
D1.S3.4(4)
The influence of body language and expected competency on gaze behaviour while
forming an initial impression of a tennis player
Richard Buscombe, Anita Potton, Lukas Volskis, Andrea Papageorgiou & Iain Greenlees
15.00
D1.S3.4(5)
Going alone: stress, coping and solo expeditions
Danny Golding, Gail Kinman & Steve Kozub
15.15
D1.S3.4(6)
The effect of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance
and mood in young adults
Kathryn Cook, Arthur Jones, Rebecca Jenks, Samantha Birch & Michael Duncan
Physical Activity for Health
Chair: Prof Michael Duncan FBASES
14.00-15.30, D1.S3.5. Graham Taylor Suite
14.00
D1.S3.5(1)
Sitting kills? Analysis of strength and dose-response effects for sedentary
behaviour and all-cause mortality
Stuart Biddle, Jason Bennie & Jannique Van Uffelen
14.15
D1.S3.5(2)
Preschool and parental influences on physical activity and fundamental
movement skills in preschool children from low socio-economic backgrounds:
a qualitative study
Clare Roscoe, Samantha Birch, Rob James & Michael Duncan
14.30
D1.S3.5(3)
South Asian children have increased body fat in comparison to
White children at the same body mass index
Emma Eyre, Michael Duncan & Alan Nevill
14.45
D1.S3.5(4)
Metabolic responses to breaking up sitting time
Nabeha Hawari, Iqbal Alshayji, John Wilson & Jason Gill
15.00
D1.S3.5(5)
Fat metabolism in response to feeding and exercise between West Africans
and European women
Iqbal Al-Shayji, Chukwudi Emeh, Laura Mccrimmon, Nabeha Hawari, John Wilson & Jason Gill
15.15
D1.S3.5(6)
Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a large representative
sample of third-level students in Ireland: the SASSI study
Marie Murphy, Neal Byrne, Catherine Woods, Ciaran Mcdonncha, Kyle Ferguson,
Alan Nevill & Niamh Murphy
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 7
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11/11/2015 11:08
Physiology and Nutrition
Chair: Prof Keith George FBASES
11.15-12.30, D2.S2.1. Sir Bobby Robson 1
Day 2
Parallel free
communication
sessions
11.15
D2.S2.1(1)
Which aspect of muscle performance exhibits the greatest diurnal variation?
Zulezwan A. Malik, Samuel A. Pullinger, Robert M. Erskin, Jos Vanrenterghe,
Ben J. Edward & Jatin G. Burniston
11.30
D2.S2.1(2)
Effects of timing of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate on recovery from
repeated sprints
Joshua S. Jackman, Ian Varley, Craig Sale & Phillip G. Bell
11.45
D2.S2.1(3)
Physical and cognitive observations during an Antarctic expedition
Ana Anton-Solanas, Barry O’neill, Tessa E. Morris & Joe Dunbar
12.00
D2.S2.1(4)
Short-term versus medium-term heat acclimation in tropically acclimated males:
performance and inflammation
Joshua H. Guy, Andrew M. Edwards, Glen B. Deakin, Catherine M. Miller & David B. Pyne
12.15
D2.S2.1(5)
The effect of nitrate supplementation on muscle contractile characteristics
following a high-intensity training bout
Ben Gibbons, Tom O’leary, John Jakeman & Martyn Morris
Psychology
Chair: Dr Tracey Devonport FBASES
11.15-12.30, D2.S2.2. Sir Bobby Robson 3
11.15
D2.S2.2(1)
Sporty people play fair … until it gets really competitive
John Perry & Peter Clough
11.30
D2.S2.2(2)
Development and validation of the Sport Supplement Belief Scale
Philip Hurst, Abby Foad & Damian Coleman
11.45
D2.S2.2(3)
Developmental assets predict self-reported physical activity in British adolescents
Martin I. Jones, George Thomas & John K. Parker
12.00
D2.S2.2(4)
The role of player-parent dyads in sports injury rehabilitation and the return to
competition of elite female youth soccer players
Adam Gledhill, Dale Forsdyke & Georgie Sutton
12.15
D2.S2.2(5)
Making a case for the importance of high-performance coach well-being
Abbe Brady
Sport and Performance
Chair: Prof Mary Nevill
11.15-12.30, D2.S2.3. Lecture Theatre
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11.15
D2.S2.3(1)
The effects of hypohydration on cognitive function in physically active males
Karah Dring, Simon Cooper, Ruth James, Robert Corney & Lewis James
11.30
D2.S2.3(2)
The validity and reliability of an amateur boxing conditioning and fitness test
Edward Thomson, Kevin Lamb & Ceri Nicholas
11.45
D2.S2.3(3)
Influence of team cohesion in sport in school-aged students: in relation to gender,
age and type of sport
Maria Espada-Mateos & Enrique Fradejas
12.00
D2.S2.3(4)
Between- and within-race variance in elite short-track speed skating: a new
approach to analyse group behaviour during competition
Marco J. Konings & Florentina J. Hettinga
12.15
D2.S2.3(5)
A retrospective analysis of the longitudinal development of physical qualities
associated with career attainment in academy rugby league players
Kevin Till, Ben Jones & Tom Geeson-Brown
BASES Conference 2015
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Physical Activity for Health
Chair: Prof Marie Murphy FBASES
11.15-12.30, D2.S2.4. Terry Venables Suite
11.15
D2.S2.4(1)
Physical fitness versus physical activity for cardiovascular health in adults
aged 50-80 years: which basket do we put our eggs in?
Michael Duncan, Mike Price & Sheila Leddington Wright
11.30
D2.S2.4(2)
Chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: two
conditions one exercise therapy
Peter Wright
11.45
D2.S2.4(3)
Cardiorespiratory fitness in post-adjuvant therapy breast cancer patients
Ian Lahart, George Metsios, Alan Nevill, George Kitas & Amtul Carmichael
12.00
D2.S2.4(4)
The anthropometric and fitness impact of twelve weeks
walking football: A pilot study
Josh Arnold, Stewart Bruce-Low, Luke Sammut & Matt Johnson
12.15
D2.S2.4(5)
Assessment of physical activity at high altitude: a comparison of the FitBit
Charge and Actigraph GT3x+ devices
James Denton, Rachael Dawe, Alice Fisher-Edwards, Stuart Dixon & Lisa Board
Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
Chair: Adam Hawkey
11:15-12:30, D2.S2.5. Graham Taylor Room
11.15
D2.S2.5(1)
The effect of knee pads on lower limb biomechanics during volleyball
Hannah Lawrie, Graham Arnold, Sadiq Nasir, Weijie Wang & Rami Abboud
11.30
D2.S2.5(2)
The relationship between three-dimensional spinal kinematics and shoulder
counter rotation during fast bowling in cricket
Billy Senington, Raymond Y. Lee & Jonathan M. Williams
11.45
D2.S2.5(3)
Changing pivoting technique reduces knee valgus moments
Paul Jones, Olivia Barber & Laura Smith
12.00
D2.S2.5(4)
Neuromechanical evaluation of lower-limb anticipatory postural adjustments
early after ACL reconstruction
Luca Laudani, Luciana Labanca, Antonino Casabona, Federica Menotti & Andrea Macaluso
12.15
D2.S2.5(5)
The effect of knee joint angle on the reliability of the maximal
isometric back squat
Gareth Nicholson & Athanassios Bissas
BASES Conference 2015
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BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
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Getting around
St. George’s Park
Hilton Hotel Main Entrance
Student transfer pick up and drop off
Breakout Rooms:
Howard Wilkinson Room
Graham Taylor Room
Terry Venables Suite
Lecture Theatre
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BASES Conference 2015
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Exhibitors
Poster boards
Conference Hub
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BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 13
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Exhibitor information
The Conference Hub will house refreshments, poster presentations and delegate social and
networking activity, making it the place to be at the flagship event of BASES. We are delighted
that the following exhibitors will be at the event.
The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences is
dedicated to promoting excellence in sport and exercise sciences.
Build your network and open doors to opportunities using the
largest sport and exercise science network in the UK. Continue your
CPD by attending BASES workshops, webinars and conferences.
Work collectively to enhance the profile and professionalism of sport
and exercise sciences. Stay up-to-date with the latest news, events
and careers opportunities with e-newsletters and The Sport and
Exercise Scientist. Obtain professional recognition through BASES
accreditation and Chartered Scientist Status.
www.bases.org.uk
The GSK Human Performance Lab (HPL) is the title
sponsor of BASES Conference 2015. The GSK HPL Expert
Community has been created to share the cutting-edge science
taking place at our facility aiming to push the boundaries of human
performance. We aim to share our discovery work, which is led
by real performance questions in elite sports, and to support the
progression of practice by converting this output into practical
information for practitioners working in sport and exercise.
By registering for the GSK Human Performance Lab Expert
Community, experts will have free access to HPL research and
development output, exclusive insights into our partnerships with
elite athletes and access to exclusive live and online events.
www.gskhpl.com/registration
A2Milk is an easy to digest cows’ milk. This is because it does not
contain A1 beta casein which some people struggle to digest. Come
and hear more about it at our stand.
www.a2milk.co.uk/health-professionals
Biosense Medical Ltd are the representatives in the UK and
Ireland for a variety of manufacturers, providing products and
solutions in the area of Biomechanics. These include but are not
limited to; Pressure Measurement devices from Tekscan Inc., wired
and wireless Surface EMG systems from Delsys Inc. and 2D/3D
image-based Motion Capture solutions from Simi GmbH. Our
experience and knowledge of these systems allows us to offer a
wide range of solutions to meet clinical and research requirements
with excellent after-sale product support. Visit our stand to discover
the latest news and developments from all our partners.
www.biosensemedical.com
Class Learning has been representing Jones & Bartlett Learning in
Europe since 1991. We understand how important it is for lecturers
and those in the academic field to keep up-to-date with the changing
face of sports science education and publish a wide range of
academic titles suitable for courses of varying levels. Visit our stand
for information about our range of new and bestselling titles.
www.classlearning.co.uk
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Since 1980, COSMED have been world-leading suppliers of Cardio
Pulmonary, Metabolic testing and Body Composition solutions to
Sports Science, Health, Professional Sport and Wellness. During
BASES Conference 2015, COSMED will introduce its new
generation wearable metabolic system, a new leap forward for
advanced and accurate metabolic testing in the field.
www.cosmed.it
Cranlea Human Performance Ltd is delighted to be supporting
BASES Conference 2015 at St. George’s Park. During the last
12 months we have continued to build relationships with our
key suppliers. Look out for exciting new products from Cortex,
Woodway, Lode, CorTemp, Hemocue and iCool. Keep up-to-date
with our latest offers through our website. We hope all delegates have
an enjoyable conference and look forward to catching up with you.
www.cranlea.co.uk
Equivital specialises in providing wireless physiological monitoring
and data management. Our flagship equivital LifeMonitor is a
multi-parametric monitor that has been designed specifically for
use in highly ambulatory real world environments, ensuring data
integrity and accuracy at all times. Our FDA approved and CE
marked equivital LifeMonitor is trusted and used by hundreds
of organisations and academic institutes throughout the world.
We bring the ability to measure and manage human data to the
professional and academic sports market.
www.equivital.co.uk
Over the past 25 years HaB Direct have established a reputation as
market leaders for innovative, quality and world-class performance
testing, monitoring and research products that perform including:
POWERbreathe K5 with Breathe-Link S/w, POWERbreathe Altitude
Systems (PBAS), HP Cosmos, MONARK, EKF, Fusion Sport,
Ganshorn, Zebris, Zephyr, Lactate Pro, Marpo, Tanita and more, all
supported by Industry Leading Customer Support.
www.habdirect.co.uk
Healthspan Elite® is the UK’s most comprehensive range of
competition safe, ‘gold standard’ vitamins and supplements. Working
closely with some of the country’s leading sports nutritionists the
range has been specifically developed to support the nutritional
requirements of athletes. Visit us at BASES Conference 2015 for
new product updates, the latest news from our partners and an
exclusive show promotion. Healthspan Elite® is committed to
providing the highest quality, best value, Informed-Sport vitamins
and supplements.
www.healthspanelite.co.uk
BASES Conference 2015
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At Human Kinetics, our mission is to produce innovative,
informative products in all areas of physical activity that help people
worldwide lead healthier, more active lives. We are committed to
providing quality informational and educational products in physical
activity and health fields that meet the needs of our customers.
www.hkeurope.com
Magstim proudly supply ANT Neuro eegosports, a highly durable
solution for researchers interested in the mechanisms underlying
cognitive processes and body motion. eegosports offers complete
freedom to collect high-density EEG data, bipolar EMG signals,
and a variety of physiological sensor data, wherever and whenever
required, with publish quality data in less than 15 minutes!
Recordings can be done in nearly any environment on nearly any
participant, even world-class athletes.
www.magstim.com
Nutritics provides an integrated platform where nutrition
assessment reports, energy intake and expenditure tracking, meal
planning and recipe analysis work hand in hand. Our extensive food
and supplements database, with built in sports nutrition guidelines,
allows you to create meaningful, evidence-based nutrition reports
and actionable plans for client success and wellbeing.
www.nutritics.com
Perform at St. George’s Park is an associate sponsor at
BASES Conference 2015. Perform combines cutting-edge
technology, research and elite sports science expertise to improve
the wellbeing and performance of not only elite athletes but also
the general population. Tours of the National Football Centre will
be offered to showcase the state-of-the-art facilities including the
BASES accredited Human Performance Laboratory, Functional
Rehabilitation Area, Hydrotherapy Suite consisting of Vario depth
pool and Hydroworx treadmill and Strength and Conditioning Gym.
www.spireperform.com/st-georges-park
Perform Better are the UK’s most innovative supplier of
Performance Monitoring and Training Equipment specialising in
meeting the needs of the professional sports market by providing
the latest and most cutting-edge equipment. We supply many of the
UK’s leading University sports science and strength and conditioning
departments in addition to all Premiership Football and Rugby
teams, NGBs and Institutes of Sport. We will have a number of
key products at BASES Conference 2015 including: Catapult GPS,
Optojump Next Jump system, Gymaware Power Testing system and
the Witty Timing system.
www.performbetter.co.uk
As a leading publisher in the field of Sports and Leisure, Routledge
proudly offers a wealth of highly-cited journal and books content
and primary research. Routledge journals dominate the Hospitality,
Leisure, Sport and Tourism category of the Social Sciences Citation
Index® as well as hosting a prestigious book publishing program.
To view our selection of books and journals just stop by our stand.
http://explore.tandfonline.com/sport
www.routledge.com/sport
S Oliver Associates has been exclusively supplying Eye Tracking
equipment and software since 1984. Our Mobile Eye has been
available since 2002 and the latest XG 60Hz model incorporates
many of the features and capabilities asked for by sport scientists
working with elite athletes.
www.s-oliver-associates.com
www.eyetracker.co.uk
Tracksys Ltd provide behavioural research solutions across a range
of disciplines in Universities and commercial organisations in the
UK and Ireland. Established in 1993, we provide research tools for
scoring behaviour, eye tracking, video tracking, motion analysis and
physiological measurements as well as a range of specialist hardware
and software.
www.tracksys.co.uk
UK Anti-Doping (UKAD) is the national organisation dedicated
to protecting a culture of clean sport. UKAD have recently formed
a strategic partnership with BASES to utilise the professional
expertise of the BASES membership and to promote and develop
an awareness of anti-doping amongst athlete support personnel.
The exhibition stand will include information on how to support
athletes to compete clean, including checking medications, the risks
of supplements and the testing procedure.
www.ukad.org.uk
Wattbike. Repeatable, reliable, measureable results. Wattbike is an
innovative training and testing tool, used by Olympic athletes, fitness
enthusiasts and sport scientists alike. It offers outstanding versatility
allowing you to perform any test. You can also be sure of your
results with independently verified accuracy of 2%. What’s more,
the Wattbike is factory calibrated, which means there is no need to
re-calibrate. Many sports science labs have already converted to the
Wattbike, come visit us to discover why you should too.
www.wattbike.com
Quintic Consultancy Ltd specialises in Premier Sports
Biomechanics Video Analysis Software, Sports Biomechanics and
Performance Analysis Consultancy. It is through our extensive
biomechanics consultancy and constant liaison in the fields of elite
sport, physiotherapy, podiatry and education that our three levels
of premier sports video analysis software systems have evolved. We
are attending the conference as it is a unique opportunity allowing
us to showcase our specific sports and exercise science analytical
software that is suitable for those attending the conference. It will
enable us to update people on our products and developments that
are due to be released soon.
www.quintic.com
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A to Z help guide
n Annual General Meeting (AGM).
This will take place on Tuesday 1 December 2015 at 18.30-19.30 at St. George’s Park in the
Graham Taylor Room.
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Activities and social. We have built in time for informal networking and a chance for delegates to
experience some world-class facilities offered at St. George’s Park:
• Gala dinner drinks reception: This is sponsored by BASES and the Journal of Sports Sciences to
recognise Profs Alan Nevill and Edward Winter FBASES who have announced their retirement
from the Journal of Sports Sciences. Appointed to the Advisory Board of the Journal in 1991, Alan
was promoted to Section Editor for Sport Performance in 1996 and became Editor-in-Chief in
2001. Under his stewardship the Journal has grown from having just 5 sections and 6 issues per
year, to its current size with 11 sections and 20 issues per year. The Journal will be moving to 24
issues per year starting in January 2016. The Journal’s Impact Factor has also reached an all-time
high of 2.246 ranked 19/81 (Sport Sciences) in Thomson Reuters Journal citation Reports. Edward
has contributed to the Journal since its inception in 1983 and was appointed Section Editor for
Sport Performance in 2004. Since then he has managed approaching 2,000 submissions. He has
made central contributions to Journal policies such as requirements for ethics approvals and
evaluations of statistical analyses. Moreover, he has written several editorials that highlight aspects
of effective writing and something that is particularly close to his heart: Principles and practices
of science. BASES and the Journal’s publisher, Taylor & Francis, would like to extend their warm
thanks to Alan and Edward for their outstanding contributions to what has become under their
leadership one of the leading scholarly publications in sport science.
• Morning run. For those feeling a bit more energetic, day two starts with an early morning run
around the beautiful grounds of St. George’s Park. If you want to take part bring your running kit and
meet Dr Claire Hitchings outside the main hotel entrance by the fountain at 08.15.
• Tour of St. George’s Park supported by Perfom. This is a chance for up to 60 guests to see
a little more of this world-class venue. Taking around 45 minutes the tour will leave from the
Conference Hub at 08.15. Guests will be shown key areas of the site. If you would like to take
part please let us know at the registration desk. If over subscribed those registered will be chosen
at random. We’ll announce the lucky attendees at the close of the final session on day one of
the conference. Remember that most of the venue is outside and it will be December, so bring
suitable clothing. You’re very welcome to bring cameras.
n
Awards. Five prestigious awards are available at this year’s conference. The BASES Annual
Conference awards seek to reward outstanding contributions to sport and exercise sciences by
BASES members.
• Human Kinetics Student Free Communication Presentation Award - One award of £100
Human Kinetics book vouchers for the best student free communication presentation made by a
BASES student or graduate member.
• Human Kinetics Student Poster Presentation Award - One award of £100 Human Kinetics book
vouchers for the best student poster presentation made by a BASES student or graduate member.
• Sportesse Sport and Exercise Science Free Communication Presentation Award - A £500
cash prize for the best free communication presentation on sport and exercise science made by a
BASES professional member.
• Routledge Recently Qualified Researcher Free Communication Presentation Award A prize of £500 (half cash/half book tokens) to the best free communication presentation given by
a recently qualified researcher (BASES member).
• Cranlea Poster Presentation Award - One award of a Polar Heart Rate Monitor for the best
poster presentation made by a BASES member.
Our thanks to the BASES Conference 2015 awards sponsors:
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BASES Fellowships. Individuals that have been awarded BASES Fellowships this year will be
recognised at the gala dinner. The award recognises esteemed professional achievement, skills,
knowledge and service to BASES and the sport and exercise science community.
Car parking is complimentary for all guests. There are approximately 350 spaces on site.
On arrival at the venue please follow signage directing guests towards the hotel for the
hotel car park.
Certificates of attendance will be emailed to delegates post-event following completion
of the conference evaluation.
Cash and payment. Please note there are no cash points at St. George’s Park although all
major credit and debit cards are accepted. The nearest cashpoint is located in Barton,
which is approximately a 10 minute drive.
Check in and check out. Delegates who have booked packages that are inclusive
of accommodation can check in to their rooms any time after 15.00. Delegates with
accommodation at St. George’s Park should check in at the hotel’s main reception.
Please ensure that you bring photo ID for check in. All delegates must check out of their
rooms on the morning of Wednesday 2nd December before the conference begins (09.30).
Cloakroom and left luggage. There will be a cloakroom in the Conference Hub available
for all guests - this will be accessible during registration, refreshment breaks, at the close of
each day and during the conference dinner.
First aid. The venue and organisers have qualified first aid staff members on hand to deal with
emergencies. Further assistance (including contacting the emergency services) will be provided.
Gym facilities. Guests staying at St. George’s Park have complementary access to the
Health Club and Spa including a 24-hour gym and a swimming pool, which closes at 23.00.
Day delegate guests do not have access to these facilities. Access to Perform at St. George’s
Park facilities is available to all delegates. Limited spaces can be reserved across two one
hour sessions. Day one: 17.00-19.00. Day two: 06.00-08.00. Day two: 17.00-19.00. Up to
ten delegates can attend each hour. Spaces should be reserved by contacting [email protected]
spireperform.com.
Help desk. If you require assistance or information you will be able to find a member
of the conference team on the BASES stand located in the Conference Hub who will be
happy to help you.
Internet/Wi-Fi access. The venue offers complimentary Wi-Fi for all conference delegates.
To access this select BT Open Zone network; the password is blue1234
Journal of Sports Sciences. All BASES Conference 2015 abstracts will be published in an
online supplement of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Free open access is available until 31
December 2015: www.tandfonline.com/rjsp. From 1 January 2016 onwards BASES members
can gain online access to the supplement and other issues of the Journal of Sports Sciences
by subscribing at the discounted rate of Regular - £70 and Student - £29.
Lunch and refreshments will be served in the Conference Hub during scheduled breaks,
these are included as part of your delegate fee. Lunch on both days will be a two course
finger buffet.
Reception. Hotel reception is open 24 hours and is located in the hotel lobby.
Registration. Conference registration is located in the Conference Hub and will be open
from 09.00 on Tuesday 1 December and Wednesday 2 December. On arrival for your first day
it is important that all delegates register here to collect their delegate bags containing the
Programme and Abstracts booklet.
Taxis. Alpine taxis are familiar with the venue. To book please call 01283 740 000.
BASES Conference 2015
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Travel directions and guidance (to and from the venue). Hilton and Hampton by Hilton at St.
George’s Park, St. George’s Park, Newborough Road, Needwood, Burton-upon-Trent, DE13 9PD.
• Access by car: From the North: Follow the M1 Motorway to Junction 28 and then take A38 to
Derby/Burton. Take the A516 signed for Uttoxeter, then join the A50 to Stoke on Trent. Leave
the A50 at the sign for the A515. Continue on the A515 until you reach the crossroads for the
B5234 (left turn - signed Burton B5017) Continue for approx 2 miles. The entrance to the St.
George’s Park hotel is on your left hand side. From the South: Exit the M1 at Junction 22 signed
Ashby/Coalville. Follow the A511 to Burton-upon-Trent. Follow the A5121 signs. Pick up the
B5017 signed Abbotts Bromley B5234. Continue onto the B5234. The entrance to the
St. George’s Park hotel is approximately 200 yards on your left hand side.
• Trains: Burton-upon-Trent is the closest train station (approximately 6 miles from
St. George’s Park). Lichfield Trent Valley (approximately 20 mins) and Derby stations
(approximately 30 mins) are also reasonably close by.
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Disclaimer. Full terms and conditions are available on the BASES Conference website. Please note
that the hotel and the organisers cannot be held liable for personal belongings or vehicles. Delegates
are responsible for the safety of their valuables and property at all times.
Power
to Perform
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Many sport science labs are already using the Wattbike for research and teaching.
Visit us at BASES to find out why you should too.
For more information please call 0115 9455450 or email [email protected]
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@wattbike
/wattbike
/wattbike
18/09/2015 10:00
BASES Conference 2015
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BASES Fellowships
The following individuals have been awarded BASES Fellowships this year. The award recognises
esteemed professional achievement, skills, knowledge and service to BASES and the sport and exercise
science community.
Prof Susan Backhouse FBASES
Sue is Head of the Centre for Sports Performance
at Leeds Beckett University and Professor of
Psychology and Behavioural Nutrition. She has been
an active member of BASES for nearly two decades
and has pioneered a research programme on the
social psychology of drugs in sport at Leeds Beckett University.
Her collaborative approach has founded links with internationally
renowned researchers and prominent sporting bodies, such as
the World Anti-Doping Agency, UK Anti-Doping, Rugby Football
Union and UK Athletics. In 2012 she was invited by the European
Commission to join their expert working group on doping prevention
and in 2014 she convened the BASES Clean Sport Interest group.
Dr Graeme Close FBASES
Graeme is a Reader in Applied Physiology & Sport
Nutrition at Liverpool John Moores University. His
research is focused upon vitamin D, the role of ROS in
exercise and ageing, and the effects of weight-making
on health and performance. He is accredited with the
United Kingdom Strength & Conditioning Association, BASES and Sport
and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr), and is currently the deputy
chair of the SENr. He is a former professional rugby player and was the
expert nutrition consultant to England Rugby for the 2015 World Cup.
He consults with several Super League Rugby League Clubs, he is the
lead nutritionist with British Ski & Snowboard and a nutrition consultant
to many European Tour Golfers.
Prof Bill Baltzopoulos FBASES
Bill is Professor of Biomechanics in the Division
of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences at Brunel
University London. He is the Director of the Centre
for Sports Medicine and Human Performance and
Director of Research in Life Sciences. He is the author
of the Isokinetic Dynamometry section of the BASES guidelines for
biomechanical assessment and the lead author of the BASES expert
position statement on assessment of muscle strength with Isokinetic
Dynamometry and the organiser of the BASES workshops in these
areas. He has served as Biomechanics Section Chair and member of
the BASES Executive Committee, Editor of the Biomechanics Section
of the Journal of Sport Sciences, deputy chair of sub-panel 26 in REF
2014 and member of the Sport-Related Studies sub-panel in RAE 2008.
Dr Tracey Devonport FBASES
Tracey is a Reader in applied sport and exercise psychology
based at the University of Wolverhampton. She has served
on The Sport and Exercise Scientist Editorial Advisory
Board and Strategic Management Team, developed and
delivered a BASES workshop, and co-produced a BASES
expert statement. She has sought to service the sport and exercise
science community through on-going applied research and dissemination.
However, since 2010 the arrival of a son, and then a daughter has
presented numerous challenges as regards managing professional and
personal commitments. In view of these experiences, she has recently
sought to champion sport and exercise science as a career option for
women within the remit of the Athena Swan initiative.
Dr Gary Brickley FBASES
Gary is based at the University of Brighton and has been
a BASES member since 1998. He has a PhD in exercise
physiology and an MSc in cardiology. He has worked
as a coach/physiologist for Paracyclists since 1998,
notably coaching multiple gold medallists Dame Sarah
Storey, Darren Kenny OBE and David Stone MBE over four Olympic
cycles. He is an active BASES member, presenting nationally and
internationally on his work in Paralympic cycling and cardiology. He
has supervised and reviewed many members through to accreditation
and continues to produce outstanding applied sport and exercise
scientists with his support work in cycling, swimming and triathlon.
Dr David Broom FBASES
David has served on two committees of the Division
of Physical Activity for Health and is on the Editorial
Advisory Board of The Sport and Exercise Scientist. He
has contributed to two BASES expert statements and as
BASES network rep he gives presentations to students
to encourage membership. He teaches on Physical Activity and
Health related courses and his research interests are predominantly
the effects of exercise on appetite, energy intake and gut peptide
hormones which has resulted in numerous peer reviewed publications
and supervision of doctoral students. He has presented at national and
international conferences including BASES, American College of Sports
Medicine and has been invited as a keynote speaker to conferences in
China and Thailand.
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 19
Dr Lance Doggart FBASES
Lance is Head of Sport at the University of St Mark
and St John in Plymouth. In 1996 he chaired the
organising committee for the 1999 BASES Student
Conference at the University of Wolverhampton.
He has contributed several book reviews for The
Sport and Exercise Scientist, co-authored on the BASES position
statements relating to Work Based Learning and Internships and was
a member of the review team for M level equivalence specific to
BASES accreditation. He is also a member of the task group for the
review of BASES accreditation and re-accreditation awards. Lance
has presented regularly at the BASES conference and has supported
colleagues and students in communicating their research and
obtaining BASES accreditation.
Dr Emma Ross FBASES
Emma is the Head of Physiology at the English Institute
of Sport. Her research expertise is central nervous
system function and exercise performance, particularly
neuromuscular fatigue and exercise in environmental
extremes. She joined BASES in 2001 as a student, and has
been an active member of the organisation ever since. She has been a
Supervised Experience supervisor and reviewer, part of the organising
committee for the Annual Conference, on the Editorial Advisory
Board for The Sport and Exercise Scientist, and has sat on The Sport
and Performance Division. Emma held academic roles prior to joining
the English Institute of Sport, receiving awards for excellence in both
teaching and research.
i19
11/11/2015 11:08
SCHOOL OF SPORT, HEALTH AND EXERCISE SCIENCES
22 -23 MarchBASES
2016
Student Conference 2016
From London to Rio and beyond:
The Race for Advancement
in Sport and Exercise Sciences
Follow us on
/BASESStuConf16
/BASESStudentConference2016 22/23
www.bases.org.uk/student-conference
i20
BU
Sports London Rio
280x215.indd
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TEXT V7.indd1 20
March 2016
From London to Rio
BASES Conference 2015
and beyond: The Rac
2015-09-23
PM
11/11/20154:28
11:08
2016
Rio
Race
4:28 PM
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 21
i21
11/11/2015 11:08
St. George’s Park Sports Science
As a provider of cutting edge sport science support
services, Perform at St. George’s Park provides
access to world leading sport science services and
facilities; encompassing physiological assessments,
conditioning programmes and hydrotherapy
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Lab based testing
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For more information about sports science services
please contact us on 01283 576333 or email
[email protected]
@PerformSGP
@StGeorgesPark
www.spireperform.com/st-georges-park
i22
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 22
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
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Two-day programme packed with world leading insight
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Present your research (free communication and poster sessions)
and gain a publication in the Journal of Sports Sciences
Rub shoulders with world leading experts
Open doors to opportunities via the largest UK sport and
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Engaging content including invited keynotes and symposia
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Five BASES re-accreditation credits per day
i23
11/11/2015 11:08
Speaker
Jennie Price
Sport England, UK
Jennie, a barrister by training, has
been at Sport England since April
2007. Under her leadership Sport
England has seen the number
of people regularly participating
in sport grow by 1.4m people
since London won the bid to host the Olympic and
Paralympic Games in 2012 and, most recently, she
has led the team that commissioned the ‘This Girl
Can’ campaign, which has received widespread
support and acclaim. Prior to joining Sport England,
she was the founding Chief Executive of WRAP
(Waste & Resources Action Programme).
Sport England’s journey from sport
development to behavioural change
Invited keynote, D1.S1
10.20-11.20, Sir Bobby Robson
Chair: Prof Mary Nevill
This session will focus on Sport England’s innovative approaches to growing
participation, using insight to inform its actions and encourage behaviour
change. It will feature the ‘This Girl Can’ campaign, celebrating active women
up and down the country who are doing their thing regardless of ability,
appearance or judgement.
Notes:
i24
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 24
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Ready for Rio 2016? FUSION
of evidence-based practice and
practice-based evidence to support
Olympic and Paralympic athletes
Invited symposium, D1.S2.1
11.40-12.55, Sir Bobby Robson 1
Chairs: Stafford Murray and Dr Peter Brown
The aim of this session is to demonstrate how in elite sport science support,
delivery of the trade is a carefully crafted fusion between scientific knowledge
and experience at the coal face. There will be an explanation of the planning of
the applied practitioner’s journey throughout the Olympic and Paralympic cycle
with detailed practitioner insight of applied sport science FUSION.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 25
Speakers
Dr Emma Ross FBASES
English Institute of Sport, UK
Emma joined the English Institute
of Sport in August 2013 from the
University of Brighton, where she
was a Senior Lecturer in Sport
and Exercise Physiology. She has
a first class honours degree in
Sport and Exercise Sciences, a Masters in Coaching
Science, a Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching and
Learning in Higher Education and a Ph.D.in Exercise
Neurophysiology. Alongside teaching undergraduate
and postgraduate students, she has led research
projects investigating the mechanisms of exercise
tolerance in heat and hypoxia, neuromuscular fatigue
and neural adaptations to training.
Liz Sinton
English Institute of Sport, UK
Liz is a Performance Lead for
the English Institute of Sport.
She works with Olympic and
Paralympic sports to help define
‘What it takes to win’ and align
sports science and medicine
provision to this to increase the probability of medal
success. Where performance questions arise she
works with the EIS research and innovation team
and the wealth of knowledge within the EIS network
to facilitate answers for sports. Previously she was
head of Strength and Conditioning for Bath National
Training Centre with British Swimming from the
Beijing to London Olympic Games and then worked
as a Technical Lead in the Institute based out of
Bisham Abbey. She has considerable experience in
the planning and delivery of Olympic and Paralympic
sport science to support medal success.
i25
11/11/2015 11:08
Speakers
Dr Panteleimon Ekkekakis
Iowa State University, US
Panteleimon studies the
relationship between exercise
intensity and pleasure, its
mechanisms and its implications
for exercise behaviour. The
methodological platform and
‘dual-mode’ theory he developed have become
literature standards. His research forms the
basis of guidelines by the American College of
Sports Medicine on assessing affective valence
and considering individual differences in intensity
preference and tolerance in exercise prescriptions.
He is the author of The Measurement of Affect,
Mood, and Emotion (Cambridge University Press,
2013), editor-in-chief of the Handbook of Physical
Activity and Mental Health (Routledge, 2013), and
co-editor of the Psychobiology of Physical Activity
(Human Kinetics, 2006).
Prof Susan Michie
University College London, UK
Susan is Professor of Health
Psychology and Director of the
Centre for Behaviour Change at
University College London. Her
research focuses on behaviour
change in relation to health and
how to translate evidence into practice. Topics
include prevention, adjusting to illness, providers’
behaviour, how to understand behaviour
change theoretically, and developing effective
interventions. She is Associate Editor of Annals
of Behavioral Medicine and of Implementation
Science. She holds over 25 research grants, has
published more than 300 journal articles and
recently the books ‘The Behaviour Change Wheel
Guide to Designing Interventions’ and ‘ABC of
Behaviour Change Theories’.
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5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 26
Cutting edge approaches to
behaviour changes
Invited symposium, D1.S2.2
11.40-12.55, Sir Bobby Robson 3
Chair: Prof Nanette Mutie MBE, FBASES
Prof Susan Michie will present a method for designing effective interventions,
starting with a ‘diagnosis’ of the target behaviour in context using a model of
behaviour, COM-B. This links to a framework for developing and evaluating
interventions, the Behaviour Change Wheel, which comprises nine
intervention functions and seven policy categories. Dr Panteleimon Ekkekakis
will (a) highlight the need to consider pleasure as the third pillar of exercise
prescriptions, besides effectiveness and safety, (b) summarise current evidence
on the relationships between intensity, pleasure and adherence and (c) present
ways in which exercise sessions can be restructured with the goal of promoting
pleasure, based on behavioural-economic principles.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Physiological and nutritional aspects
of bone health: Implications for
physical training
Invited symposium, D1.S4.1
15.50-17.05, Sir Bobby Robson 1
Chair: Prof Lars McNaughton FBASES
This session brings together evidence from collaborative work on the effects
of exercise and nutrition on bone health, applied to athletic and military
populations. The opening presentation will address the physiological responses
of bone to arduous training, followed by the application of nutritional
interventions to modulate bone turnover with exercise.
Notes:
Speakers
Dr Julie Greeves
HQ Army Recruiting and Training
Division, UK
Julie Greeves is Head of Research
in Occupational Medicine at HQ
Army Recruiting and Training
Division. She is responsible for
commissioning and conducting
research to reduce the risk of training injuries
(musculoskeletal, thermal) in soldiers and recruits.
Prior to taking up this role, Julie spent over 11 years
at QinetiQ investigating musculoskeletal health in
soldiers and aircrew. Her research interests are
the pathogenesis of stress fractures, mechanical
loading and bone health, and sex differences in
injury risk and physical performance. She is currently
Chief Investigator on a large research programme
investigating the role of vitamin D and iron status on
stress fracture risk and bone microarchitecture using
high resolution PQCT.
Dr Craig Sale
Nottingham Trent University, UK
Craig is a Reader in Applied
Physiology and Research
Coordinator of the Sport, Health
and Performance Enhancement
Research Centre at Nottingham
Trent University. He received his
doctorate from Liverpool John Moores University,
following the completion of his BSc and MSc
programmes at the same institution. Following
his studies he was a Senior Lecturer in Exercise
Physiology at the University of Chichester and then
a Senior Scientist at QinetiQ Ltd. He has spent the
last 15 years investigating the impact of exercise and
nutrition on health and performance in humans, with
a particular focus on the triggers for adaptations in
bone and muscle.
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 27
i27
11/11/2015 11:08
Speakers
Dr Brendan Cropley FBASES
Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
Brendan is a Principal Lecturer
in Coaching Science and Sport
Psychology at Cardiff Metropolitan
University. He is a Chartered
Scientist, and has been a BASES
accredited sport and exercise
scientist since 2007. During this time, he has worked
with elite and non-elite athletes and coaches in both
team and individual sport settings. His research
interests lie in professional practice, reflective practice,
and more recently mental health and well-being.
Dr Andrea Faull
University of Worcester, UK
Andrea is a Senior Lecturer in
Sport Psychology and Course
leader for BSc Sports Coaching
Science with Disability Sport at
University of Worcester. She
has over 10 years of experience
working with athletes ranging from Club to Olympic
standard. Her specialisms include working within
elite level sport (both able bodied athletes and those
with a disability) and she is currently supporting the
GB Women’s Wheelchair Basketball team on the
road to Rio. She is a BASES accredited sport and
exercise scientist and a BPS Chartered Sport and
Exercise Psychologist.
Sports psychology - a round table
discussion
Invited symposium, D1.S4.2
15.50-17.05, Sir Bobby Robson 3
Chair: Dr Rich Neil
In this session prominent practitioners offering psychological support in sport
will discuss their views on contemporary themes, informed by delegates. If
you have any topics or issues that you would like the panel to consider then
please contact Dr Rich Neil - [email protected]
Notes:
Dr Kate Hays
English Institute of Sport, UK
Kate is Head of Performance
Psychology for the English Institute
of Sport and has been working
as an applied sport psychologist
for the past 12 years Her primary
contracts have been with British
Diving and Harlequins Rugby Union team, working
within multidisciplinary teams and contributing to
Olympic medals and World Championship gold medal
winning performances in diving, and the 2011-2012
Premiership title, and the 2012-2013 LV Cup titles in
rugby. She has supported the diving team at several
National and International competitions including
the Olympic Games and World Championships,
and Harlequins at all domestic and international
competitions. She is a BPS Chartered Psychologist.
Prof Stephen Mellalieu
Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
Stephen is a Professor in Sport
Psychology at Cardiff Metropolitan
University. He has been a BASES
accredited sport and exercise
scientist since 1999. He is also a
registered Practitioner Psychologist
with the Health and Care Professions Council and a
BPS Chartered Sport and Exercise Psychologist. He
has consultancy experience in a number of Olympic
and Professional sports, and for the past 7 years has
been working predominantly within professional
rugby union.
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5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 28
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Ready for Rio - a biomechanical
perspective
Invited symposium, D1.S4.3
15.50-17.05, Lecture Theatre
Chair: Dr Paul Worsfold
This session will discuss how biomechanics is being utilised to assess and
enhance the performance of our Olympic athletics. Experts will discuss how
scientific theory and contemporary innovative methods and technologies are
being implemented in the applied world and the challenges that this brings.
Notes:
Speakers
Dr Paul Barratt
GB Cycling/English Institute of
Sport, UK
Paul is a Sports Biomechanist
with more than ten years of
experience at the cutting edge of
cycling science and technology.
Over two Olympic campaigns
with British Cycling, he has delivered innovative,
performance-impacting support to countless World
and Olympic champions across track, road, mountain
bike and BMX disciplines. During this period he has
been heavily involved in British Cycling’s outstanding
Research & Development program (‘The Secret
Squirrel Club’). He is a BASES accredited sport and
exercise scientist.
Dr Jon Wheat
Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Jon works on biomechanics
research and consultancy
projects in the Centre for Sports
Engineering Research at Sheffield
Hallam University. He has a keen
interest in the development of
biomechanics measurement systems for use outside
of the lab, in more representative settings. Jon has
worked on a wide range of projects designed to
understand and improve Olympic athletes in their
preparation for competition. A developing area of
research is the application of depth cameras in sport
and exercise biomechanics, performance analysis and
health contexts.
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 29
i29
11/11/2015 11:08
Speakers
Jonathan Manley
Routledge/Taylor & Francis/Journal
of Sports Sciences, UK
Jonathan entered books and
journals publishing in 1987
and joined Routledge/Taylor
& Francis in 2004. As Journals
Publisher he is responsible for
the development and strategy of Routledge’s
Sport, Leisure and Tourism Studies journals list.
He has worked with BASES and the editorial
team of the Journal of Sports Sciences for over 10
years during which time the Journal has grown
and confirmed its status as one of the leading
publications in the field. Routledge is a part of
Taylor & Francis Group, an international company
originating in the United Kingdom that publishes
books and academic journals. It is a division of
Informa plc, a UK-based publisher and conference
company.
Getting published - an insider’s
point of view
Invited symposium, D1.S5.1
17.10-18.00, Sir Bobby Robson 3
Chair: Prof Clyde Williams OBE, DSc (Hon), FBASES
The talk will provide researchers with tips to help get their work published.
It will go on to provide some suggestions as to how to maximise their
work’s impact once accepted. Finally, we will encourage all researchers to
help contribute to the peer review process by helping with reviewing and
eventually becoming members of the Journal’s Editorial Board.
Sponsored by the Journal of Sports Sciences
Notes:
Prof Alan Nevill
Wolverhampton University/Journal
of Sports Sciences, UK
Alan is the Research Professor in
the Faculty of Education Health
and Wellbeing, Wolverhampton
University (specialisation in
biostatistics associated with
health, sport and exercise sciences). He has
published over 300 peer reviewed academic
publications and his work has been cited over
12,000 times according to Google Scholar. He is
currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Sports
Sciences. Originally appointed to the Journal’s
Advisory Board in 1991, he was promoted to
Section Editor for Sports performance in 1996 and
became Editor in Chief in 2001. He also serves on
the Editorial Board of Paediatric Exercise Sciences.
i30
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 30
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Some reflections on the Research
Excellence Framework 2014
Invited symposium, D1.S5.2
17.10-18.00, Sir Bobby Robson 1
Chair: Dr Keith Tolfrey FBASES
This presentation will provide a brief overview of how REF 2014 worked in
practice, followed by some personal reflections about how researchers and
units of assessments can best present their research for REF purposes.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 31
Speaker
Prof Lew Hardy FBASES
Bangor University, UK
Lew is a Research Professor
at Bangor University. He has
published over 130 full length
research papers in peer reviewed
journals, plus numerous other
books, monographs, and articles.
He has supervised 35 PhD students to completion,
and he has research grant capture in excess of
£1 million. He was a member of sports science,
leisure and tourism sub-panel for the Research
Evaluation Framework in 2014, and for the Research
Assessment Exercises in 1996 and 2001. He
won distinguished contribution awards from the
Association for Applied Sport Psychology in 1996
and the British Psychological Society in 2011. He is a
BASES accredited sport and exercise scientist.
i31
11/11/2015 11:08
Speaker
Dr Carl Wells
Perform at St. George’s Park, UK
Following the completion of his
PhD investigating physiological
responses to soccer specific
exercise Carl worked full-time
in professional football for eight
years at both academy and first
team level. In August 2014 he took up his current
position as sport science lead with Perform at St.
George’s Park, managing the delivery of support and
conditioning services to professional football players
and elite athletes. A key role of these research and
career experiences has been the management of
training load to help ensure players receive sufficient
stimulus for adaptation without the development of
over-training and subsequent illness/injury.
Training load management during
periods of intensive conditioning
Invited symposium, D1.S5.3
17.10-18.00, Lecture Theatre
Chair: Dr Claire Hitchings
The sport science team at St. George’s Park have gained considerable
experience and knowledge of providing support within elite football, from the
National squads to professional clubs and academies. A key component of the
sport science support is the effective and structured management of training
load, specifically during periods of intensive conditioning where the aim is to
accelerate improvements in physical condition for gains in performance.
Supported by Perform at St George’s Park
Notes:
i32
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 32
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
The demands of elite Rugby Union:
Player development and player
wellbeing
Invited symposium, D2.S1.1
09.30-10.45, Sir Bobby Robson 1
Chair: Dr Paul Worsfold
This session will cover the landscape in which players develop to become
elite performers and identify processes designed to maximise opportunities
for development. The physical demands of elite rugby will also be discussed
in the context of how training and playing load influences injury risk/player
availability, with evidence from the men’s and women’s game.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 33
Speakers
Dr Scott Drawer
Liverpool John Moores University/
Liverpool FC, UK
Scott is the Athletic Performance
Manager at the Rugby Football
Union. He was appointed
in January 2013 with overall
responsibility for all performance
services across the men’s 15s player development
pathway (18s, 20s, Saxons), men’s 7s and
women’s 15s and 7s. Prior to this role, he led
the UK Sport Research & Innovation programme
for more than 10 years leading into the London
2012 Olympics and Paralympics. He completed
his degrees in Sports Science at Brunel University
College (Bsc), Loughborough (MSc, PhD) and
Nottingham Trent (PGCE).
Dr Keith Stokes
University of Bath, UK
Keith is a Senior Lecturer at
the University of Bath with
a background in exercise
physiology. His research focuses
on understanding sports injury
risk to inform the development
and delivery of preventative interventions. He
is responsible for delivering injury surveillance
programmes for the England Rugby (men and
women) and the English Premiership, as well as
men’s community rugby and schools rugby in
England, and is part of the team that carried out
the IRB (now World Rugby) Scrum Forces project,
which resulted in changes to the scrum Laws.
He is also co-founder and Network Editor of the
World Rugby Science Network.
i33
11/11/2015 11:08
Speakers
Dr Anna Campbell
Edinburgh Napier University
Anna is a Reader in Clinical
Exercise Science at Edinburgh
Napier University. She has 14
years of research experience in
the field of cancer survivorship
and exercise. Anna has published
24 papers and three book chapters on this subject
and is lead author on the BASES Expert Statement
on Exercise and Cancer. She is a member of the
Breast Cancer Campaign Research Gap Advisory
Group, NCRI Lifestyle & Behaviour Change
Subgroup and Macmillan Physical Activity & Cancer
Advisory Group. Anna is also Director of CanRehab
(www.canrehab.co.uk), a provider of training for
health and fitness professionals. She is currently
working with Macmillan to evaluate UK wide
community based exercise programmes for cancer
patients and survivors.
Exercise programmes for cancer
survivors: Putting evidence into
practice
Invited symposium, D2.S1.2
09.30-10.45, Sir Bobby Robson 3
Chair: Prof John Saxton FBASES
An expanding body of research supports the positive health effects of exercise
in cancer survivors. This session will provide a concise overview of the field,
before considering a framework for research and key research questions for
the future. It will also explore practical considerations for exercise programme
design and implementation.
Notes:
Prof Kerry Courneya
University of Alberta in Edmonton,
Canada
Kerry is a Professor and Canada
Research Chair in Physical Activity
and Cancer at the University of
Alberta in Edmonton, Canada.
He received his BA (1987) and
MA (1989) in Physical Education from the University
of Western Ontario (London, Canada) and his PhD
(1992) in Kinesiology from the University of Illinois
(Urbana-Champaign). He spent five years at the
University of Calgary before moving to the University
of Alberta in 1997. His research programme focuses
on physical activity and cancer survivorship including
how exercise may help survivors cope with cancer
treatments, recover after treatments, and extend long
term survivorship.
i34
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BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Bad science
Invited keynote, D2.S3
13.30-14.35, Sir Bobby Robson
Chair: Dr Jason Gill FBASES
How science, evidence and statistics can be twisted, rigged, distorted,
hidden, and ignored.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 35
Speaker
Dr Ben Goldacre
Bad Science, UK
Ben is an award-winning
writer, broadcaster, and
medical doctor who specialises
in unpicking scientific claims
made by scaremongering
journalists, government reports,
pharmaceutical corporations, PR companies and
quacks. He was trained in Medicine at Oxford and
London, and currently works as an academic in
epidemiology. He wrote the weekly Bad Science
column in the Guardian from 2003-2011. Bad
Science the book (4th Estate) has sold over half a
million copies worldwide, reached number 1 in the
paperback non-fiction charts, and is being published
in 31 languages. In his second book, Bad Pharma
(4th Estate, September 2012), he puts the global
pharmaceutical industry under the microscope, to
reveal flaws throughout the ecosystem of evidencebased medicine. In October 2014 he published his
collected journalism in a volume entitled I Think You’ll
Find It’s More Complicated Than That (4th Estate).
i35
11/11/2015 11:08
Speakers
Dr Graeme L Close FBASES
Liverpool John Moores University,
UK
Graeme is a Reader in Applied
Physiology & Sport Nutrition
at Liverpool John Moores
University, where he is the
programme lead for the
MSc in Sport Nutrition. His research is focused
upon vitamin D, applied nutrition in elite sport
and sarcopenia. Graeme is accredited with the
UKSCA, BASES and SENr as well serving on the
SENr executive board. Graeme is the Expert
Nutrition Consultant to England Rugby, the lead
nutritionist for British Ski & Snowboard and works
with European and US Tour golfers. Prior to his
academic studies, Graeme was a professional
rugby league player.
Dr James Morton
Liverpool John Moores University,
UK
James is a Reader in Exercise
Metabolism at Liverpool John
Moores University and has
published over 70 papers in
sports physiology, nutrition
and metabolism. He is also the sports nutritionist
to Team Sky, Liverpool Football Club and a range
of professional boxers. His particular research
and applied interest is manipulating carbohydrate
availability to help athletes maximise training
responses, performance and manage weight.
i36
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 36
Carbohydrate requirements
for athletes: From laboratory to
practice and back again
Invited symposium, D2.S4.1
14.45-16.00, Sir Bobby Robson
Chair: Dr Kevin Currell
Recent research has suggested that high carbohydrate availability during training
may be counter-productive for training adaptations. Additionally, our work from
applied practice has also revealed unique insights into the carbohydrate intakes
of elite athletes in real-world settings. We will review our latest thinking on the
carbohydrate requirements of athletes whilst suggesting that although research
informs practice, practice should also inform research.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Everything is good for you if it
doesn’t kill you: Some different
perspectives on mental toughness
in high performance settings
Invited symposium, D2.S4.2
14.45-16.00, Lecture Theatre
Chair: Dr Rich Neil
This presentation will present evidence from research across a number of
domains that speaks to a neuropsychological model of mental toughness in
which negative events play a central role. Parallels will be drawn with the
post traumatic growth literature.
Speaker
Prof Lew Hardy FBASES
Bangor University, UK
Lew is a Research Professor
at Bangor University. He has
published over 130 full length
research papers in peer reviewed
journals, plus numerous other
books, monographs, and articles.
He has supervised 35 PhD students to completion,
and he has research grant capture in excess of
£1 million. He was a member of sports science,
leisure and tourism sub-panel for the Research
Evaluation Framework in 2014, and for the Research
Assessment Exercises in 1996 and 2001. He
won distinguished contribution awards from the
Association for Applied Sport Psychology in 1996
and the British Psychological Society in 2011. He is a
BASES accredited sport and exercise scientist.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 37
i37
11/11/2015 11:08
Speaker
Prof Rami J Abboud
University of Dundee, UK
Rami has been actively involved
and played an instrumental role
in the development, progress
and resulting successes of the
Department of Orthopaedic &
Trauma Surgery at the University
of Dundee since joining the department in 1988.
As a graduate in Electrical Engineering from
the American University of Beirut in 1988, he
continued his postgraduate studies and obtained
an MSc and PhD in Biomedical and Rehabilitation
Engineering at the University of Dundee in 1989
and 1995 respectively. He has been a member
of the Editorial Committee of the International
Foot Journal since 1998 and the Foot and Ankle
Surgery since 2009. He is a regular reviewer to
over 15 peer-review journals. In January 2013,
Professor was appointed the Editor-in-Chief of the
Foot. His dedication towards teaching, research
and training was recognised in 2011 by the award
of a rare accolade, Honorary Fellow, of the Royal
College of Surgeons of England which was formally
recognised at the College’s Awards Ceremony on
18th January 2012.
i38
5488_BAS_CONF DOC TEXT V7.indd 38
Relevant foot and ankle
biomechanics: Art, science or both?
Invited symposium, D2.S4.3
14.45-16.00, Terry Venables Suite
Chair: Adam Hawkey
In this lecture I will present some cases that we have assessed at the Institute
of Motion Analysis & Research at the University of Dundee that without the
extensive plethora of equipment that we have, we would not have been able
to inform the clinical decision.
Notes:
BASES Conference 2015
11/11/2015 11:08
Journal of Sports Sciences
VOLUME 33 . SUPPLEMENT 1 . DECEMBER 2015 . ISSN 0264-0414
CONTENTS
pages
Day 1. Free Communications – Physical Activity for Health
1–4
Day 1. Free Communications – Physiology and Nutrition
5–8
Day 1. Free Communications – Psychology (Session 1)
9–12
Day 1. Free Communications – Psychology (Session 2)
13–16
Day 1. Free Communications – Sport and Performance
17–20
Day 1. Posters – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
21–24
Day 1. Posters – Physical Activity for Health
25–31
Day 1. Posters – Physiology and Nutrition
32–40
Day 1. Posters – Psychology
41–43
Day 1. Posters – Sport and Performance
44–59
Day 1. Posters – Teaching and Learning
60–60
Day 2. Free Communications – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
61–64
Day 2. Free Communications – Physical Activity for Health
65–67
Day 2. Free Communications – Physiology and Nutrition
68–71
Day 2. Free Communications – Psychology
72–74
Day 2. Free Communications – Sport and Performance
75–77
Day 2. Posters – The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Expert Statements
78–80
Day 2. Posters – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
81–84
Day 2. Posters – Physical Activity for Health
85–93
Day 2. Posters – Physiology and Nutrition
94–100
Day 2. Posters – Psychology
101–105
Day 2. Posters – Sport and Performance
106–119
Index
120–125
Journal of Sports Sciences, 2015
Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s1–s4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110311
Day 1. Free Communications – Physical Activity for Health
5
D1.S3.5(1). Sitting kills? Analysis of
strength and dose–response effects for
sedentary behaviour and all-cause
mortality
STUART BIDDLE*, JASON BENNIE &
JANNIQUE VAN UFFELEN
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Victoria University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@stuart_biddle
The past decade has seen a huge increase in research
addressing sedentary behaviour – too much sitting
rather than too little exercise. A key issue to address
is whether large amounts of sitting have real deleterious effects on health. A key health indicator in
epidemiology is all-cause mortality and several
large-scale studies have addressed this outcome for
sedentary behaviour. The aim of the present study,
therefore, was to use two of Hill’s classic criteria for
judging whether any effect of sedentary behaviour on
all-cause mortality can be considered causal –
strength of effect and dose–response relationships.
A hybrid review-level methodology was used combining an analysis of systematic reviews and primary
studies located in these reviews. Initial searches for
systematic reviews reporting links between sedentary
behaviour and all-cause mortality yielded 386
records which, when judged against eligibility criteria, left 8 reviews and 19 primary studies for analysis. Two primary studies were excluded as they
addressed physical activity rather than sedentary
behaviour, leaving 17 studies for analysis. One
study received two ratings for different behaviours,
hence the unit of analysis is 18 studies. Of the 17
papers selected, 6 were from the United States, 3
from Australia, two each from Canada, Spain and
UK, and one each from Japan and Norway. Most
used large-scale self-reported population data.
Assessments included total sitting time as well
screen or TV use. Comparisons included analysing
across several levels of the behaviour to a comparison
of highest versus lowest. All were adult samples, but
some focussed on middle-aged and older age groups
only. Based on Hill’s definitions, criteria were drawn
up to judge the strength of effect and dose–response
relationships at the level of primary studies. The
results are depicted using a traffic light system, with
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
green showing evidence for causality for the criterion
analysed, amber inconclusive or mixed evidence for
causality and red no evidence for causality (either
evidence of no effect or no evidence reported). For
strength of effect, 13 studies (72%) were rated green
and 5 amber. Comparison across studies is difficult
due to the varied methods adopted. For dose–
response relationships, 6 were rated green, 9 amber
(50%) and 3 red. Of the three studies rated red, two
did not test for dose–response and one found no
effect for TV viewing. Overall, there is evidence for
an effect of sedentary behaviour on all-cause mortality, but the association regarding dose–response is
less clear.
D1.S3.5(2). Preschool and parental
influences on physical activity and
fundamental movement skills in
preschool children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a qualitative
study
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CLARE ROSCOE*, SAMANTHA BIRCH,
ROB JAMES & MICHAEL DUNCAN
Coventry University
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@clare_roscoe
Physical activity (PA) levels of children attending
different preschools have been reported as varying
greatly, with the characteristics of the preschool
influencing a child’s PA level (Pate, Pfeiffer,
Trost, Ziegler, and Dowda, 2004, Pediatrics, 114,
1258–1263). Parents and teachers have been
known to overestimate the PA levels that children
complete and this may place a decreased importance on encouraging and supporting PA in preschool children (Tucker, 2008, Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 23, 547–558). Settings with
greater space and opportunities for outdoor play
and PA are required, as a lack of space is a major
cause of being overweight for 10–40% of children
in developed countries (Blair, Wood, and Sallis,
1994, Preventive Medicine, 23, 558–559). Mastery
of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) is a prerequisite to functioning on a daily basis
(Venetsanou and Kambas, 2011, Physical
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Education and Sport, 9, 81–90); they provide the
building blocks for future motor skills and PA.
Failure to achieve mastery in these skills could
prevent preschool children from participating in
PA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate nursery staff’s and parents’ perceptions of
preschool children’s PA, in relation to the environment, facilities, play and barriers to PA. With
institutional ethics approval, focus groups were
conducted in four preschools, with the inclusion
of parents and staff of 3- to 5-year-old children
(n = 17, parents = 10, staff = 7) from North
Warwickshire, England. Thematic analysis (Braun
and Clarke, 2006, Qualitative Research in
Psychology, 3, 77–101) was used to identify key
themes and subthemes from the transcripts.
Emergent themes included outside exercise, outdoor equipment, the responsibility of PA, lack of
exercise, modern lifestyles, time, cost, health and
safety concerns of staff and staff training.
Differences were apparent between preschools
when discussing measurement of PA and FMS,
PA at home, space in the settings and staff training. The findings suggest that preschools provide
good opportunities for PA and FMS, especially for
preschoolers from low socio-economic backgrounds. However, the results also highlighted a
need for more extensive training of staff in relation
to PA and FMS opportunities. To increase PA and
FMS in preschoolers, interventions are required
which continue with the current levels of PA in
preschools, combined with parental involvement to
deliver PA, through encouraging indoor and outdoor activities and participating in less sedentary
activities in the home environment. Interventions
also need to provide staff training to support settings to deliver PA and FMS to preschool
children.
D1.S3.5(3). South Asian children have
increased body fat in comparison to
White children at the same body mass
index
EMMA EYRE1*, MICHAEL DUNCAN1 &
ALAN NEVILL2
Coventry University; 2Wolverhampton University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
emma_eyre2
Nutrition, 64, 23–9; WHO, 2004, Lancet, 363,
157–62). However, supporting evidence for the
use of separate BMI cut-points for identifying obesity prevalence in South Asian children is lacking.
Therefore, this study examined the influence of
ethnicity on body fatness in children. Following
ethical approval, body fat (BF%) was assessed
from two skinfold sites (SF: triceps and subscapula) and using a leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analyser (BIA) in 194 children (112 White,
82 South Asian, 77 males, 117 females) aged
8.47 ± 0.50 years (mean BMI = 17.73 ± 3.23 kg
· m−2) from Coventry, UK. Height (m) and body
mass (kg) were assessed from which BMI (kg ·
m−2) was calculated. WC was also assessed.
ANCOVA identified significant BF% differences
between ethnic groups (SF: P > 0.001; BIA:
P < 0.001) and gender (SF: P < 0.001; BIA:
P = 0.10), with a significant covariate, BMI (SF:
P < 0.001; BIA: P < 0.01). Therefore, for a given
BMI, South Asian children and females had significantly increased BF% (SF: 2.45%, P < 0.001;
1.70%, P < 0.01, respectively and BIA: 4.23%,
P < 0.001; 1.53%, P = 0.01, respectively) compared to White children and boys. The prediction
model including ethnicity, gender and BMI
explained 80.1% of variance in SF BF% and
80.6% of BIA BF%. No significant ethnic differences were found for WC, or ethnicity by gender
interactions for any of the assessments of BF
(P > 0.05).The findings identify ethnic and gender
differences in BF%. Specifically, the findings suggest that South Asian children and girls have
increased BF% for the same BMI as age-matched
White children and boys. BMI cut-points may
need to be lowered for South Asian children in
order to examine the true relationship between
obesity and increased risk of disease. Therefore,
further research should establish ethnic specific
equations for predicting fatness in South Asian
children.
D1.S3.5(4). Metabolic responses to
breaking up sitting time
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NABEHA HAWARI1*, IQBAL ALSHAYJI1,2,
JOHN WILSON1 & JASON GILL2
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For determining obesity in adults, ethnic specific
body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference
(WC) cut-points are advised at lower values (Qiao
and Nyamdorj, 2010, European Journal of Clinical
1
University of Glasgow; 2The Public Authority for
Applied Education and Training
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Sedentary behaviour (i.e. sitting) is associated
with a number of adverse health consequences,
independent of physical activity (Wilmot et al.,
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2012, Diabetologia, 55, 2895–2905). In addition,
it has been observed that individuals who regularly interrupt sedentary time have lower body
mass index and waist circumferences than those
who habitually engage in prolonged periods of
uninterrupted sedentary time, independent of
total time spent sedentary (Healy et al., 2011,
European Heart Journal, 32, 590–559). This may
be mediated by the effects of regularly interrupting sedentary time on metabolic rate and substrate utilisation, but this has not been tested
experimentally. The objective of the present
study was to, therefore, test the independent
effect of frequency of interruptions to sedentary
time on metabolic rate and substrate utilisation,
as well as postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride responses. With institutional ethics
approval,
10
overweight/obese
men
(age
33 ± 13 years; body mass index 28.3 ± 3.0 kg ·
m−2; mean ± SD) each participated in three
experimental trials in random order, with an
interval of 7 days. In all trials, participants arrived
after an overnight fast and consumed a test breakfast (8 kcal/kg body weight, with 37% energy from
fat, 49% from carbohydrates and 14% from protein) and, 4 h later, an identical test lunch.
Expired air and blood samples were taken fasted
and for 8 h postprandially. In one trial (sitting),
participants sat continuously throughout the
observation period; in the prolonged standing
trial, participants stood still for 15 min every
30 min; in the intermittent standing trial, they
stood for 1.5 min, 10 times every 30 min.
Energy expenditure during the 8-h observation
period was 2980.5 ± 77.9 kJ in the sitting trial,
3301.2 ± 111.7 kJ in the prolonged standing trial
and 3597.4 ± 139.5 kJ in the intermittent standing trial (results all mean ± SEM; P < 0.001
between all trials). Fat oxidation was significantly
higher than the sitting trial (38.4 ± 2.7 g) in the
intermittent standing (45.5 ± 3.0 g, P = 0.006),
but not in the prolonged standing (41.0 ± 2.9 g)
trial. Carbohydrate oxidation was significantly
higher than the sitting trial (64.1 ± 5.9 g) in
both the intermittent (86.1 ± 5.5 g) and the prolonged (78.4 ± 5.6 g) (P < 0.05 for both) standing trials. There were no significant differences in
the postprandial glucose, insulin or triglyceride
responses between the trials. Thus, these data
indicate that frequency of sedentary breaks influences energy expenditure and substrate utilisation, independent of total time spent sedentary.
This provides a potential explanation for the independent effect of frequency of sedentary breaks
on indices of adiposity observed in large epidemiological studies.
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D1.S3.5(5). Fat metabolism in response 250
to feeding and exercise between West
Africans and European women
IQBAL AL-SHAYJI1,2*, CHUKWUDI
EMEH1, LAURA MCCRIMMON1, NABEHA
HAWARI1, JOHN WILSON1 & JASON
GILL1
University of Glasgow; 2College of Health Sciences, The
Public Authority for Applied Education and Training,
Kuwait
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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1
Rates of obesity and diabetes in the Black population in
the UK are substantially higher than the rates observed
in the White population. This risk may, partly, be
mediated by differences in metabolism between the
two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study
was to investigate the metabolic responses to a standard meal and exercise between White European
(WE) and Black West African (BWA) women. With
institutional ethics approval, 9 WE and 12 BWA
women participated in the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age
(33 ± 12 years WE vs. 32 ± 8 years BWA, P = 0.76)
(mean ± SD) and body mass index (23.6 ± 5.2 vs.
25.5 ± 6.1 kg · m−2, respectively, P = 0.44); the WE
women were slightly but not statistically fitter (maximal oxygen uptake, V_ O2max 36.0 ± 11.1 vs.
30.6 ± 4.8 ml · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.15). Participants
arrived fasting and consumed a standard breakfast (8
kcal/kg body weight; 37% energy from fat, 49% from
carbohydrates and 14% from protein). This was followed by a 3-h postprandial observation period, 1-h
treadmill walking at ~50% V_ O2max and then 3-h postexercise observation. Expired air samples were collected every 15 min throughout the trial. Energy
expenditure and substrate utilisation were calculated
by indirect calorimetry. BWA women had significantly
lower energy expenditure than their WE counterparts
while fasted (0.054 ± 0.004 vs. 0.068 ± 0.005 kJ · kg−1 ·
min−1, respectively (mean ± SEM), P = 0.03, effect
size 0.95), postprandially (0.064 ± 0.003 vs.
0.076 ± 0.005 kJ · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.047, effect size
0.86) and post-exercise (0.065 ± 0.003 vs.
0.078 ± 0.004 kJ · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.03, effect size
0.93). No significant difference was detected in energy
expenditure during exercise (0.295 ± 0.015 vs.
0.358 ± 0.038 kJ · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.11, effect size
0.71). Also, BWA women showed significantly lower
fat oxidation while fasted (0.70±0.09 vs. 1.07 ± 0.12
mg · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.02, effect size 1.02), during
exercise (2.44 ± 0.27 vs. 4.01 ± 0.64 mg · kg−1 · min−1,
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P = 0.02, effect size 0.98) and post-exercise
(0.89 ± 0.08 vs. 1.33 ± 0.11 mg · kg−1 · min−1,
P = 0.005, effect size 1.16) than WE women. No
significant difference was observed in fat oxidation
postprandially (0.81 ± 0.08 vs. 0.96 ± 0.15 mg · kg−1
· min−1, P = 0.34, effect size 0.43). There was no
significant difference between the two groups in carbohydrate oxidation. These results suggest that this
lower energy expenditure and fat oxidation may contribute to the observed increased obesity risk seen in
the population of Black African descent.
D1.S3.5(6). Self-reported physical
activity and sedentary behaviour in a
large representative sample of thirdlevel students in Ireland: the SASSI
study
MARIE MURPHY1*, NEAL BYRNE2,
CATHERINE WOODS3, CIARAN
MCDONNCHA4, KYLE FERGUSON1,
ALAN NEVILL5 & NIAMH MURPHY2
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Ulster University; 2Waterford Institute of Technology;
Dublin City University; 4University of Limerick;
5
University of Wolverhampton
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@MH.Murphy
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Although physical activity (PA) levels of children and
adults across Europe are well established, there is
little information specifically on engagement in physical activity and sedentary behaviour (SB) by thirdlevel students. The purpose of the Student Activity
and Sport Study Ireland (SASSI) was to determine
the levels of participation in sport, PA and SB, determinants and correlates of this participation and associations with other health-related behaviours by
third-level students in Ireland. As part of the study
and with institutional ethical approval, a representative sample of 9197 students from 31 of the 42
higher education institutions in Ireland completed
an online survey during a timetabled class between
October and December 2014. PA data were collected using the previously validated International
Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) tool
embedded with in the survey (International
Physical Activity Questionnaire, 2005, www.ipaq.ki.
se). Respondents categorised as “high” active were
deemed to meet minimum physical activity require
ments. (Bauman et al., 2009, International Journal for
Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 21).
Domain-specific sitting was measured using an
instrument assessed for gender-specific test–retest
reliability and validity (Marshall et al., 2010,
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(6),
1094–1102) modified to include “while studying”
and “while using a smartphone/tablet”. Data was
weighted for gender and level, year and mode of
study to ensure the sample was representative of
the higher education population in Ireland. Mean
(±SD) age, self-reported height, weight and BMI of
male and female respondents, respectively, were 21.
55 (5.6) years, 1.79 (±0.1) m, 76.3 (±14) kg, 23.8
(±4.3) kg · m·2 and 1.7 (±0.1) m, 63.3 (±12) kg and
23.3 (±4.5) kg · m·2. Using BMI classifications, the
majority of respondents (65% of males, 67% of
females) were classified as healthy weight with 23%/
18% and 7%/8% of males/females classified as over
weight and obese, respectively. Using IPAQ, 66.7%
of respondents (73% male, 60.2% female) meet the
current PA guidelines. On weekdays, over 70% of
respondents spent more than 7 h (420 min) per day
sitting while at weekends there were lower levels of
self-reported SB with 56% spending over 7 h sitting
per day. There were no significant differences in selfreported SB between males and females. The results
suggest that the student population is more active
than the general population, but a sizeable minority
fail to meet current PA guidelines. SB levels are
similar to the non-student population and are likely
to represent a future challenge for higher education
institutions as the health effects of uninterrupted
sitting emerge.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s5–s8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110312
Day 1. Free Communications – Physiology and Nutrition
D1.S3.1(1). The physiological and
perceptual responses to exercise using a
variable resistance swing
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MIKE PRICE*, SEAN LOWTON-SMITH
AND DOUG CARTWRIGHT
Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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The development of exercise modes which enable
body mass supported exercise may be beneficial for
maintenance of aerobic fitness during injury rehabilitation. This study determined the physiological and perceptual responses to exercise using a prototype variable
resistance swing. Following Institutional ethics
approval, 12 healthy males (age 23.4 ± 4.1 years,
height 179 ± 5 cm, mass 74.5 ± 9.9 kg) volunteered
to participate. All were involved in a range of sports at
least twice a week. None was accustomed to swingtype exercise and undertook full familiarisation.
Following 5 min of resting data collection, participants
undertook 4 min of exercise at the lowest (<5 W) and
greatest resistance settings (~40 W). Participants maintained their angle of swing at 70° to the vertical by
using a visual feedback system. Expired gases were
continuously monitored using a breath-by-breath system (Metamax, 3b) with minute ventilation (VE) oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production
and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) subsequently
calculated. Earlobe blood samples were taken for the
analysis of blood lactate concentration at rest and at the
end of both exercise stages (Biosen, C_Line) along
with heart rate (Polar beat). Ratings of perceived exertion for the arms, legs and cardiorespiratory effort were
taken at the end of each stage (RPE; Borg Scale).
Participants also undertook an incremental exercise
test for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on a
motorised treadmill (Woodway, Desmo) with data
recorded for the swing tests pre and post exercise.
Cardiorespiratory and blood lactate data were analysed
using one-way, repeated measures ANOVA and perceptual data using paired t-tests. Heart rate, VO2, VE,
RER and blood lactate increased from rest (all
P < 0.001; ES = 0.812 – 0.992) and between exercise
stages, whereas RER was not different between stages
(P = 0.434; ES = 0.862). When expressed relative to
VO2max, each exercise stage represented 37 ± 8 (range
32–55%) and 45 ± 9 %VO2max (range 33–61%),
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
respectively. RPE for the arms, legs and cardiorespiratory effort were all greater in the second exercise stage
(all P < 0.001; ES = 0.43 – 0.83). In conclusion,
exercise on the current prototype provides a low-tomoderate aerobic training stimulus in a young active
population. Without the ability to provide a greater
range of resistance settings, and thus exercise intensities, the prototype swing in its current form may be
suited to lower fitness groups or those with lower
aerobic capacity such as children or the elderly.
D1.S3.1(2). Dietary intakes differ
across age groups in professional
adolescent rugby league and rugby
union players
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DEBORAH SMITH*, BEN JONES, LOUISE
SUTTON, RODERICK KING AND
LAUREN DUCKWORTH
Leeds Beckett University
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*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@DebbieRuthSmith
During adolescence, energy demands are higher
than at any other stage of life due to growth and
maturation. Demands are magnified for an athlete
due to additional energy and nutrient requirements
for optimal participation in sport. To date, dietary
intakes have not been quantified for professional
adolescent UK rugby league (RL) and rugby union
(RU) players. Therefore, this study aims to investigate dietary intakes of RL and RU players across
different age groups. Following institutional ethics
approval, 91 male professional adolescent rugby
players completed a 4-day semi-quantitative diet
diary (weighed where possible, household measures
and pictures) during respective pre-seasons, to investigate differences in absolute energy and fluid intake,
and absolute and relative to body mass carbohydrate,
protein and fat intake. Participants were categorised
as under 16 years (U16; RL, n = 23, age
15.6 ± 0.2 years, height 1.75 ± 7.1 m, body mass
75.2 ± 2.0 kg and RU, n = 31, age 15.8 ± 0.1 years,
height 1.81 ± 7.3 m, body mass 83.9 ± 2.2 kg) and
under 19 years (U19; RL, n = 14, age
18.0 ± 0.1 years, height 1.78 ± 3.2 m, body mass
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85.3 ± 2.3 kg and RU, n = 23, age 18.1 ± 0.2 years,
height 1.84 ± 7.6 m, body mass 93.0 ± 2.8 kg).
Although no differences were observed by code
(i.e. RU vs. RL), a significant effect for age was
observed, whereby U16s consumed significantly
less (2995 ± 774 vs. 3366 ± 658 kcal; P = 0.013,
ES = −0.6), protein (150 ± 53 vs. 207 ± 49 g;
P < 0.001, ES = −1.1) and fluid intake
(3137 ± 1015 vs. 4221 ± 1323 ml; P < 0.001,
ES = −0.9). Protein intake relative to body mass
(1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.5 g.kg; P = 0.002,
ES = −0.7) was also lower for U16s than U19s.
There were no differences in absolute or relative fat
(109 ± 33 vs. 112 ± 30 g; P = 0.629, ES = −0.1;
1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 g; P = 0.276, ES = −0.2) or
carbohydrate (390 ± 108 vs. 431 ± 106 g; P = 0.069,
ES = −0.4; 5 ± 1.5 vs. 4.9 ± 1.4 g; P = 0.857,
ES = −0.1) intakes between age groups. This study
demonstrates that dietary intakes of adolescent rugby
players do not differ between codes, and U19s consumed more energy, protein and fluid than U16s.
Although body mass increased with age, relative
intakes only increased for protein. It is unknown if
other variables (i.e. physical activity level) affect
greater energy intakes for U19s. As no sport-specific
nutrition recommendations are currently available,
this study provides comparative data for practitioners
working with rugby players of this age.
D1.S3.1(3). Nucleotide
supplementation does not improve
repeated sprint performance
FUI YEN WONG*, SAMUEL MORRIS,
ADAM P. SHARPLES, DAVID A. LOW,
MARK A. SCOTT AND DOMINIC A.
DORAN
Liverpool John Moores University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is characterised by
short-duration high-intensity exercise bouts interspersed with brief recovery periods. During RSA, a
proportion of the purine and pyrimidine nucleotide
pool is rapidly degraded and exits the muscle potentially compromising performance. Nucleotide loss
may be ameliorated either via the purine salvage or
via de novo synthesis pathways, both of which are
slow and metabolically costly. Exogenous nucleotide
supplementation has been reported to improve running time to exhaustion after sub-lingual delivery
(Ostojic et al., 2013, Nutrients, 5(11), 4776–4785).
No data exists on the effect of nucleotides upon RSA
performance. We investigated the effects of 30-day
oral nucleotide supplementation at three dose levels
on RSA performance. With institutional ethics
approval, 43 active male participants (age
22.7 ± 4.0 years; VO2max 49.2 ± 6.4 ml ⋅ kgˉ1 ⋅
minˉ1) were assigned to one of four groups using a
double-blind, cross-sectional minimisation of difference design: placebo ([PL] n = 11), low dose ([LD]
840 mg · day‒1, n = 8), moderate dose ([MD] 1680
mg · day‒1, n = 12) and High dose ([HD] 2520 mg ·
day‒1, n = 12). All participants completed a VO2max,
RSA familiarisation and RSA assessment at baseline
and post 30 days supplementation. The RSA protocol consisted of four sets of 6 x 35 m sprints (15 s
active recovery between sprints) with a 5-min interset recovery. Each sprint was automatically timed
(Brower Timing, USA), and heart rate (HR) (Polar
s610, Finland) and blood lactate were determined
via rapid assay (Arkray, Japan). Data acquired
included sprint times(s), fatigue index, HR (b ⋅ min−1
) and blood lactate (mmol ⋅ L−1). Statistical analysis was undertaken with a four-way mixed ANOVA
(SPSS V.21, USA). Data indicated no main effect or
interaction pre to post nucleotide supplementation,
respectively, upon all variables. Sprint performance:
PL 6.1 ± 0.5 vs. 6.1 ± 0.6s; LD 5.9 ± 0.5, vs.
5.9 ± 0.6s; MD 6.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.1 ± 0.7s; HD
6.1 ± 0.6 vs. 6.1 ± 0.5s (P > 0.05). Fatigue Index:
PL 14.0 ± 7.0% vs. 14.9 ± 8.9%; LD 14.6 ± 5.4%
vs. 13.8 ± 6.5%; MD 12.1 ± 6.3% vs. 12.4 ± 8.5%;
HD 12.7 ± 7.5% vs. 14.7 ± 7.5% (P > 0.05). Lactate
(mmol ⋅ L−1): PL 10.9 ± 1.9 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; LD
11.9 ± 2.0, vs. 11.0 ± 2.5; MD 11.4 ± 2.1 vs.
13.2 ± 3.0; HD 11.6 ± 2.5 vs. 13.0 ± 2.2 (P >
0.05). HR (b ⋅ min−1): PL 172 ± 11 vs. 170 ± 12;
LD 167 ± 10.0, vs. 167 ± 9.0; MD 168 ± 11.0 vs.
167 ± 13.0; HD 167 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 11 (P > 0.05).
Data suggest that nucleotide supplementation at
varying dose concentrations do not improve RSA
performance, physiological or lactate responses.
The result must be considered in light of nucleotide
bioavailability levels achieved with oral delivery systems; other mechanisms of delivery need to be considered if performance improvement is the desired
outcome.
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D1.S3.1(4). The effect of intermittent
mechanical loading on acute bone
remodelling
WILL EVANS1*, ELEANNA CHALARI1,
MASSIMILIANO DITROILO1, ALAN
NEVILL2, MARK FOGARTY1 AND GRANT
ABT1
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University of Hull; 2University of Wolverhampton
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@willevans1985
D1.S3.1(5). Expectancy effect of dietary
nitrate supplementation on 1500 m
running performance
Intermittent exercise such as soccer has been
reported to be more osteogenic than continuous
exercise (Krustrup et al., 2010, Scandinavian
Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport, 20, 58–71).
However, the mechanisms responsible have not been
established. The alternating high and low mechanical loads interspersed with periods of rest might
allow the mechanostat to resensitise, enhancing the
osteogenic potential (Turner, 1998, Bone, 23,
399–407). However, given the mean exercise-torest ratio in soccer is less than 6 s and rest periods
of less than 9 s are not effective in rodents, the
optimal exercise-to-rest interval remains unclear.
Our aim was to investigate the effect of varying
degrees of intermittent exercise on acute bone remodelling, as measured by biochemical bone turnover
markers. With institutional ethics approval, 12
healthy males (mean age 23 (4) years, height 179.6
(4.4) cm, body mass 79.7 (7.0) kg) completed one
control protocol (no exercise), and three 45-min
intermittent running protocols (5 s intervals [5 s],
20 s intervals [20 s] and 80 s intervals [80 s])
matched for total distance and mean speed, using a
Force 3 non-motorised treadmill. The study followed a randomised crossover design. Venous
blood samples were collected at the same time of
day following a 12-h fast at BASE, 1 h, 2 h and 24
h post-exercise. Carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTx) and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (P1NP) were used as markers of
bone resorption and formation, respectively. Data
are expressed as percentage change from BASE and
were analysed using a two-way univariate repeated
measures ANOVA with 95% confidence intervals
and Cohen’s d reported. At 1 h post-exercise, the
mean difference (MD [95% CI]) for CTx was significantly higher for 5 s (MD = 22.9% [6.8, 39.0],
P = 0.002, d = 2.6), 20 s (MD = 24.1% [8.0, 40.1],
P = 0.001, d = 2.8)] and 80 s (MD = 23.3% [7.2,
39.0], P = 0.001, d = 2.5) compared to control. At 2
h post-exercise, only the 5 s protocol was significantly higher than control (MD = 19.6% [4.2,
34.6], P = 0.006, d = 1.3). There was no significant
condition by time interaction for P1NP. The results
confirm that bone remodelling is stimulated acutely
by weight-bearing exercise. Moreover, the elevated
concentration of CTx at 2 h for the most intermittent protocol suggests that highly intermittent exercise results in prolonged bone turnover compared to
less intermittent exercise.
LISA BOARD*, RACHAEL DAWE, SHANE
MCNAMARA AND CRAIG O. CONNOR
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University of Sunderland
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Dietary nitrate, in the form of beetroot juice (BR), has
been shown to enhance sport performance although
contradictory findings are emerging. The efficacy of
BR on middle-distance running performance is
sparse. The efficacy of a supplement may be influenced by expectations, or beliefs. No BR supplementation study has investigated an expectancy effect.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact
of expectancy on 1500 m running performance following BR supplementation. The design included a
traditional randomised control trial (RCT) and a
within-subject, balanced-placebo Latin square design
trial. Ethical approval was granted by the University of
Sunderland.
Eight
trained
athletes
(age,
21.13 ± 0.64 years; V̇ O2max, 48.5 ± 8.19 ml . kg−1
. min−1) voluntarily participated. Each completed an
incremental exercise test to maximal exhaustion
(V̇ O2max), a baseline 1500 m run and six experimental 1500 m treadmill runs with a 7-day recovery period between each trial. Participants ingested either
2 x 70 ml (0.6 g nitrate) of BR or 2 × 70 ml placebo
BR juice (placebo), 2.5 h prior to each experimental
trial. Participants were informed that they may be
given either BR juice or placebo BR juice to ingest
during trials. The Latin square expectancy trials were
manipulated as follows: BB (told BR, given BR); BN
(told BR, given placebo); NB (told placebo, given
BR) and NN (told placebo, given placebo). As two
trials required deception, on completion of all trials,
participants were fully debriefed about the true nature
of the study in accordance with recommended guidelines. Time to complete the 1500 m run was
recorded. Heart rate (fc), RPE and velocity were
monitored every 250 m. Performance time is presented as a per cent change (Δ) from baseline. A
one-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed
no significant BR or expectancy effect on performance (RCT; BR, Δ0.6 ± 5.8%; placebo,
Δ0.0 ± 3.5%; BB, Δ−0.6 ± 8.4%; BN,
Δ0.2 ± 7.6%; NB, Δ−0.5 ± 9.0% and NN, Δ
−4.8 ± 12.0%, P = .488). No significant differences
in HR and RPE were observed. Individual variations
in responses to BR and expectancy were noted. To
conclude, BR supplementation did not improve
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1500 m running performance. A negative expectancy
should be avoided.
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D1.S3.1(6). Quantifying oxygen deficit
and anaerobic energy expenditure
during high-intensity, interval training
PAUL M. SMITH* AND JAMES ALLEN
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Cardiff Metropolitan University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
paulie-m-smith
High-intensity, interval training is a popular modality of exercise that is capable of conferring significant
improvements in cardiovascular fitness. However,
due to logistical challenges and the use of both
anaerobic and aerobic energy pathways, it is difficult
to accurately establish the full extent and nature of
energy expenditure (EE) using this exercise modality. This study set out to quantify the relative contribution of anaerobic, aerobic and total EE during
an acute bout of high-intensity, interval training
employing upper body exercise. Having gained institutional, ethical approval, and having obtained individual written informed consent, six men (mean
[±SD] age of 21 (2) years, mass 77.9 (6.7) kg and
stature 1.81 (0.05) m) completed several exercise
tests using an electrically braked arm crank ergometer. An initial graded exercise test established
peak aerobic power (Wpeak). On a separate day, two
6-min exercise tests were performed at relative exercise intensities of 40% (moderate) and 80% (heavy)
Wpeak to establish steady-state VO2. Thereafter, a
high-intensity, interval training session was completed, which consisted of thirteen 2.5-min intervals
of exercise. The first and all other odd-numbered
intervals were completed at 40% Wpeak; the remaining six intervals were performed at 80% Wpeak. The
quantification of an anaerobic component of EE was
calculated as the cumulative O2-deficit (litres of VO2
equivalent, l) observed throughout each high-intensity interval. Subsequently, this information was
reported as a percentage of total aerobic EE (VO2,
l) measured during each high-intensity interval. All
data were collated and analysed using a one-way,
repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc,
Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. All subsequent
values are reported as mean (±SD). The average
values of work-related VO2 (i.e. that measured
above zero watts) during the 6-min steady-state transitions performed at 40% and 80% Wpeak were 1.40
(0.15) and 2.56 (0.41) l · min−1. The average anaerobic component across all six intervals was 21.5%
(5.1) of the average aerobic EE. The highest value of
anaerobic energy expenditure was 34.2% (3.0) and
observed during the first high-intensity interval. The
contribution of anaerobic EE reduced significantly
thereafter (P < 0.05) to 23.1% (2.4) in the second
and 19.3 (1.7) % during the third high-intensity
interval. Thereafter, the anaerobic EE component
remained stable at 18.7% (2.0), 17.1% (1.8) and
16.7% (2.5) during the fourth, fifth and sixth interval, respectively (P > 0.05). Total anaerobic EE
component measured during all six, high-intensity
intervals equated to 129.1% (30.1) of the average
aerobic EE measured during the six, high-intensity
intervals. The results from this study demonstrate
that a considerable anaerobic component to EE
exists during high-intensity, interval training.
Therefore, total EE will be significantly underestimated if an anaerobic component is completely disregarded. It is possible that this additional, anaerobic
component of EE is, in part, responsible for the
favourable adaptations observed in conjunction
with medium-to-long-term, high-intensity, interval
training, including improvements in submaximal
performance capacity, as well as noticeable increments in VO2max.
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Day 1. Free Communications – Psychology (Session 1)
D1.S3.3(1). Do elite male cricket
batsmen exhibit pre-delivery
behavioural routines?
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ADAM KELLY *, MARIE STOPFORTH ,
TIM HOLDER3 & OSCAR MWAANGA1
1
Southampton Solent University; 2London College or
Fashion; 3University of Central Lancashire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Pre-performance routines have been widely
researched within closed self-paced skills, with
behavioural routines consistently being highlighted
as highly important within elite athlete populations.
Cohn (1990, The Sport Psychologist, 4, 301–312)
suggested that pre-performance routines could
also benefit athletes in more open, externally
paced, anticipation-based sporting skills, such as
batting in baseball. Further to this, Cotterill
(2011, Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2,
81–91) suggested that elite cricket batsmen exhibit
certain behaviours, which may be part of a routine;
however, no empirical evidence exists to identify
whether routines are present. Therefore, this
exploratory study aimed to establish whether elite
male cricket batsmen utilise a pre-delivery behavioural routine. After receiving ethical approval
from Southampton Solent University, this study
conducted observational analysis of the participants
performing during a first-class competitive cricket
match. All 22 male participants (mean age = 27.32,
s = 6.19) were professional cricketers with first-class
and international experience ranging from 1 to
20 years (mean experience = 8.3 years). A total of
1071 deliveries were recorded during the match
and observed by two independent observers on
separate occasions. Both observers followed the
same criteria for coding behaviours, with an interobserver agreement of 93%. Behavioural routines
were analysed through selective coding, which
took place from the point the batsmen took his
stance until his last independent movement prior
to the shot. Each participant’s behavioural routine
was established by analysing their behavioural
sequence over their first five deliveries. This behavioural routine was then compared to all deliveries
received by that participant, with consistency being
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
presented in a percentage of deliveries where this
behavioural routine was exhibited. Findings
revealed that elite cricket batsmen exhibited their
pre-delivery behavioural routine for 63.75% of
deliveries. Eighteen of the 22 participants exhibited
their pre-delivery behavioural routine over 50% of
the time. Furthermore, nine participants exhibited
the same alteration, altering their final behaviour
from shuffling of both feet to a small step forward.
This alteration occurred on 102 separate occasions.
These findings come in a skill which is externally
paced and anticipation based, therefore represent
behavioural routines being utilised in a different
skill type than previously researched. However,
further research is required to establish whether
these behaviours are consciously engaged with or
developed
through
positive
reinforcement.
Therefore, further research should aim to understand why elite cricket batsmen are exhibiting
these routines and what function they serve.
D1.S3.3(2). Good- versus poor-trial
feedback in golf-putting: the role of
self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation
across levels of task difficulty
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ZARA-ANGELA ABBAS1* & JAMIE S.
NORTH2
1
University of Roehampton; 2St. Mary’s University,
Twickenham
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
When feedback (knowledge of results; KR) is provided after more accurate (KR-good) compared to
less accurate (KR-poor) trials, self-efficacy (Saemi
et al., 2012, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13,
378–382), intrinsic motivation (Badami et al.,
2011, Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 82,
360–364) and motor learning (Chiviacowsky and
Wulf, 2007, Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport,
78, 40–47) are significantly enhanced. The aim of
the present study was to incorporate measures of
both self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation to examine
the effects of feedback after relatively good and poor
performance attempts, in both simple and difficult
motor tasks. With institutional ethical approval, 30
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participants (M age 29.68 years, SD = 9.36) were
assigned to a KR-good (n = 10), KR-poor (n = 10)
or KR-neutral (control) condition (n = 10) in which
they putted a golf ball into a target hole at distances
of 2 m (easy task) and 5 m (difficult task) from
behind an opaque screen. All participants received
KR on three trials in each of five six-trial blocks, but
were not informed on which trials they would receive
feedback. KR-good participants received feedback
on their three most accurate trials, KR-poor participants on their three least accurate trials and KRneutral participants on a pre-decided random three
trials in each block. The KR informed participants of
the specific attempts they were receiving feedback
on, the degree of error from the target as well as
the direction of the error. Measures of self-efficacy
and intrinsic motivation were recorded after each
test phase, and learning was inferred from both
immediate (24 h) and delayed (1 week) retention
tests. Participants in the KR-good group showed
increases in self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation
(P < .01), as well as more accurate and consistent
putting performance (P < .05) from pre-test to
immediate retention for both easy and difficult
tasks. These effects persisted after 1 week and
became more pronounced for the difficult task.
Such findings add to the converging evidence on
the motivational effects of knowledge of results and
suggest a mediating role of self-efficacy and intrinsic
motivation on motor learning. This has important
applied implications for practitioners as it suggests
providing knowledge of results after more accurate
compared to less accurate performances may be
more motivating for learners and lead to more effective learning.
D1.S3.3(3). Can brief psychological
skills training enhance competitive
performance? Findings of the BBC
Science Lab psychological skills
intervention study
ANDREW M. LANE1*, PETER
TOTTERDELL2, IAN MACDONALD2,
TRACEY J. DEVONPORT1,
CHRISTOPHER J. BEEDIE3, DAMIAN
STANLEY1, ANDREW FRIESEN1 & ALAN
NEVILL1
1
2
University of Wolverhampton; University of Sheffield;
Aberystwyth University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Andylane27
3
A question athletes often ask themselves is “How can
I perform better?” One option available is to teach
athletes how to use psychological skills. A growing
trend in clinical, educational and health psychology
is to offer online support. In these areas of application, demand for support outstrips the availability of
psychologists/therapists. With over 3 billion internet
users, effective online support could help bring sport
psychology services to a mass population. The present study developed an online intervention package
to help athletes perform better and regulate emotions. The aim of the present study was to investigate
the effects of the following 1 of 12 different interventions on performance and changes in emotion.
Following ethical approval from the institution of
the first author, an online intervention package was
developed with information being delivered in video
clips by former Olympic gold medallist Michael
Johnson. Three different intervention techniques
(intervention groups) were used: imagery, self-talk
and “if-then” planning. Each technique was directed
towards one of four foci: an outcome goal, a process
goal, an instructional goal or arousal-control. A 13th
group acted as a control group. The intervention
package was supported and promoted by BBC Lab
UK (https://ssl.bbc.co.uk/labuk/experiments/com
pete/). Participants (N = 44,742) completed a brief
emotion scale (Jones et al., 2005, Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology, 27, 407–431) 1 min before com
pleting an online performance task. The perfor
mance task required participants to find 36 numbers
in sequence from a randomly allocated 6 x 6 grid of
numbers. Participants completed the performance
task four times: (1) practice, (2) baseline, (3) follow
ing an intervention and (4) after repeating the same
intervention. On completion, participants received
feedback on performance and detailed explanations
of the interventions used. ANOVA revealed that
participants completed the task significantly (P < .
001) faster for each round with an 8.93% improve
ment in performance over the four trials of which
there was a 7.19% improvement after following the
intervention for the first time. ANCOVA results
demonstrated that improvements in completion
times were significantly faster among participants
that followed imagery-outcome (P = .036), imagery
process (P = .017) and self-talk process (P = .028) in
comparison to other interventions and the control
group. In terms of emotions, happiness and ener
getic mood increased, and fatigue and anxiety
reduced after following a self-talk outcome interven
tion (all P < .01). We suggest online interventions
could offer not only a useful method of teaching
psychological skills to the masses, but via increased
data capture availability, but also ways to test their
effectiveness.
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D1.S3.3(4). Eye movement
desensitisation and reprocessing for
prospective imagery in golfers
NIALL FALLS* & JAMIE BARKER
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Staffordshire University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Research demonstrates that athletes can experience
mental images of poor performance with immediate
and detrimental effects (Hanton, Mellalieu, and
Hall, 2004, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5(4),
477–495; Nordin and Cumming, 2005, The Sport
Psychologist, 19, 1–17). In addition, imagery of feared
future experiences may be linked to performance
anxiety (Engelhard et al., 2012, Journal of
Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 158–167). Eye
movement
desensitisation
and
reprocessing
(EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic intervention used
in disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), with beneficial effects in traumatised and
anxious athletes (Graham and Robinson, 2007,
Journal of Swimming Research, 17, 1–9). This study
sought to explore the efficacy of EMDR in altering
the effect of prospective imagery, and whether
addressing such imagery would reduce cognitive
and somatic anxiety. A single-case, staggered multiple baseline design was used. Following Institutional
ethical approval, four amateur golfers (age 15–62
[M = 44.5; SD = 20.4]) with handicaps between 3
and 14 (M = 6.5; SD = 3.87) completed the CSAI2R assessing cognitive and somatic anxiety (CA &
SA) and the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES)
(Deeprose and Holmes, 2010, Behavioural and
Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(02), 201–209) before
competitive rounds as baseline, and during intervention and follow-up following three EMDR sessions
(32–63 days; M = 50.25; SD = 10.56). Six weeks
later, a social validation questionnaire was completed. Data indicated all participants experienced
reduction in impact of prospective imagery on
IFES, with effect sizes of −2.87 (large) (t
(7) = 4.35; P = .003; 95% CI [6.83, 23.07]),
−0.11, −0.59 (small) and −1.07 (medium), respectively. Golfer 1 reported a reduction in both CA
(ES = 4.17; large) (t(7) = 5.12; P = .001; 95% CI
[3.42, 9.28]) and SA (ES = 1.41; medium); golfer 4
reduced SA (ES = 2.06) (t(8) = 2.52; P = .036; 95%
CI [.387, 8.78]) and CA (ES = 0.79). Social validation data indicated that EMDR had helped all four
deal with imagery, with three reporting they still used
EMDR techniques, noting improvements in psychological approaches. EMDR may reduce the impact
of prospective imagery in golfers, potentially
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improving associated cognitive and somatic anxiety,
appearing to have good social validity. EMDR warrants further exploration in other sports, particularly
use in situ, self-administration and performance
enhancement schedules.
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D1.S3.3(5). The relationship between
multidimensional perfectionism and
coping with injury in marathon runners 255
GARETH JOWETT*, DALE FORSDYKE &
ANDREW HILL
York St. John University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@jowser_g
Yearly incidence of injury in marathon runners has
been reported to be as high as 92.4% (Lopes, Junior,
Yeung, and Costa, 2012, Sports Medicine, 42,
891–905). When marathon runners encounter an
injury, they employ strategies to cope with the setback. These coping strategies differ in the extent to
which they are adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive
coping has been associated with better adherence to
injury rehabilitation programmes, injury acceptance
and thinking positively (Podlog, Heil, and Schulte,
2014, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of
North America, 25, 915–930). In contrast, maladaptive coping has been linked to elevated psychological
distress (Cumming, Smith, Grossbard, Smoll, and
Malina, 2012, International Journal of Sports Science
and Coaching, 7, 515–526). Consequently, identifying psychological factors that might influence the
extent to which different coping strategies are
adopted by marathon runners is an important goal
for sport researchers. One such factor previously
linked with coping in sport is multidimensional perfectionism (Hill, Hall, and Appleton, 2010, Anxiety,
Stress & Coping, 23, 415–430). Therefore, the aim of
this study was to examine the relationships between
multidimensional perfectionism and coping with
injury in marathon runners. Following institutional
ethical approval, 156 marathon runners (100 males
and 56 females, mean age = 39.60 years,
SD = 9.94 years) completed the Multidimensional
Perfectionism Scale Short Form (Cox, Enns, and
Clara, 2002, Psychological Assessment, 14, 365–373)
and an adapted injury-specific version of the Brief
COPE (Carver, 1997, International Journal of
Behavioral Medicine, 4, 92–100). Multiple regression
analyses revealed that self-oriented perfectionism
predicted higher levels of adaptive coping (B = .12,
SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 to .20, β = .28, P < .05). In
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contrast, socially prescribed perfectionism predicted
higher levels of maladaptive coping (B = .12,
SE = .04, 95% CI = .05 to .20, β = .32, P < .05).
The findings suggest that marathon runners
who pursue self-imposed perfection are more likely
to employ coping strategies which help them
effectively manage their injuries. In contrast, marathon runners who pursue perfection imposed by significant others are more likely to adopt coping
strategies that may hinder their ability to manage
injury. Therefore, in order to help marathon runners
cope better with injury, practitioners may wish to
explore interventions designed to reduce the perceived necessity to pursue externally imposed
perfectionism.
D1.S3.3(6). The moderation role of
transformational leadership behaviours
in the impairing effects of personality
traits upon training
SHUGE ZHANG* & STUART BEATTIE
Bangor University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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High-quality training is an essential component for
peak athletic performance (Hardy, Jones, and
Gould,
1996,
Understanding
Psychological
Preparation for Sport, Chichester, UK: John Wiley
& Sons). However, recent research has shown that
certain athlete personalities (e.g. extroversion and
neuroticism) may have a negative impact on training behaviours (Woodman, Zourbanos, Hardy,
Beattie, and McQuillan, 2010, Journal of Applied
Sport Psychology, 22, 183–197). The present study
aimed to investigate how transformational leadership behaviours may moderate the relationship
between personality and training behaviours. With
institutional ethics approval and participants’ consent, 121 males (mean age 20.6 years, s = 2.7) from
five University teams (handball, lacrosse, basketball, hockey and football) completed the study. At
the end of a training session, participants completed
the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (Gosling,
Rentfrow, and Swann, 2003, Journal of Research in
Personality, 37, 504–528); the Differentiated
Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow,
Smith, Hardy, Arthur, and Hardy, 2009, Journal of
Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 395–412) and the
Quality of Training Inventory (Woodman et al.,
2010, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22,
183–197). All variables were z-scored at the team
level. Moderated hierarchical regression revealed
four significant interactions between transformational leadership and athlete personality upon training behaviours. (1)High-performance expectations
moderated the relationship between extraversion
and distractibility (R2 = .21, ΔF(1, 95) = 9.70,
β = −.18, P < .05). (2)High-performance expectations moderated the relationship between extroversion and quality of preparation (R2 = .14, ΔF(1,
95) = 6.26, β = .23, P < .05). (3) Individual consideration moderated (marginally) the relationship
between neuroticism and coping with adversity
(R2 = .21, ΔF(1, 95) = 9.70, β = .18, P = .07). (4)
Inspirational motivation also moderated the relationship between neuroticism and coping with
adversity (R2 = .27, ΔF(1, 95) = 12.86, β = .27,
P < .01). To conclude, the results show that the
transformational leadership behaviour of high-performance expectation protects against the negative
effects of athlete extraversion upon distractibility in
training and improves quality of preparation.
Further, by providing inspirational consideration
and inspirational motivation, allows athletes who
have high level of neuroticism cope more effectively
with adversity.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s13–s16, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110315
Day 1. Free Communications – Psychology (Session 2)
D1.S3.4(1). Identity and critical
moments in elite youth football
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TOM MITCHELL *, MARTIN
LITTLEWOOD2, MARK NESTI2 AND
DAVE RICHARDSON2
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University Centre Doncaster; 2Liverpool John
Moores University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@tom_mitch3
The importance of developing a strong, flexible,
clear sense of self in order to make the best of
one’s talents has previously been reported in professional football contexts (Nesti and Littlewood, 2010,
Critical Essays Applied Sport Psychology, Leeds:
Human Kinetics). It is particularly important before
inevitable crises or critical moments arise. In the case
of youth soccer players, these critical moments could
be associated with deselection, injury or receiving a
berating from coaches in front of their peers (Nesti,
Littewood, O’Halloran, Eubank, and Richardson,
2012, Physical Culture and Sport, 56, 23–32). There
is little information on this subject area in youth
team footballer and, as a result, the aim of this
study is to better understand how players’ experiences of a professional football environment and
culture have served to shape their identity and how
this allows them to cope with critical moments faced
over a competitive playing season. With institutional
ethical approval, an English Championship football
club served as the case study. More specifically, four
players (two youth team players, one development
squad player and one senior professional) were chosen to be interviewed three times over the course of
one season. Interviews and subsequent content analysis procedures were employed to create lower order
themes, higher order themes and general dimensions. All players cited that long-term exposure to
football club culture has helped to shape their identity. Players faced a range of critical moments
throughout a competitive season, including constant
insecurity, a change of manager, poor performance
and deselection. Having a clear sense of identity
provided players with a platform for resilience and
perseverance throughout such critical moments.
Strategies to ensure players have a clear sense of
identity and meaning that transcends professional
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
football need to be developed and employed in
order for the players to have the best possible platform not only for career progression but also for
inevitable career exit.
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D1.S3.4(2). Case conceptualisation and
a neophyte practitioner: where do I
start?!
KOTRYNA GRINKEVICIUTE1* AND
DAVE COLLINS2
The University of Edinburgh; 2University of Central
Lancashire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
coach_kotryna
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The case conceptualisation process within applied
sport psychology has been described as a “missing
bridge” between needs analysis and intervention
implementation (Poczwardowski, Sherman, and
Henschen, 1998, The Sport Psychologist, 12,
191–207). It aims at helping a practitioner to collect
data, organise and conceptualise the athlete’s issues
and tailor an intervention to meet their specific
needs (Gardner and Moore, 2005, The Sport
Psychologist, 19, 430–445). The conceptualisation
process itself is aided by a number of factors, including athlete’s needs analysis, practitioner’s philosophy, professional judgment and decision-making
(PJDM), past experience, knowledge of an athlete
and expertise (Martindale and Collins, 2012, The
Sport Psychologist, 26, 500–518). Unfortunately,
there are few clear guidelines on how and when a
practitioner should engage in the case conceptualisation process as different methods and frameworks
are currently available, such as the Multilevel
Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCSSP; Gardner and Moore, 2004, The Sport
Psychologist, 18, 89–109) or simpler concept mapping exercises. Therefore, the aim of this presentation is to introduce and reflect on a neophyte
practitioner’s case conceptualisation process when
working with a national level male swimmer coming
back after an injury. After following the needs analysis process, the practitioner engaged in the case
conceptualisation process to guide her PJDM and
ensure evidence-based practice. The importance of
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the case conceptualisation process for successful
intervention will be discussed in light of the limited
knowledge, resources and experience commonly
possessed by neophyte practitioners. This dynamic
process should be used as one of the methods to
ensure quality standards across the discipline, guide
neophyte practitioner’s PJDM in early career stages,
provide foundations for further development of professional skills and implement a successful athletecentred intervention.
D1.S3.4(3). “That’s the first time I’ve
ever really been able to take the initiate
as to what I wanted”: the power of
athlete self-representation through
photography
TRACEY DEVONPORT*
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University of Wolverhampton
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@TJDevonport
Research suggests that media portrayals of female
athletes often represent a (hetero)sexualised, trivialised and marginalised account of their sporting
participation (Kane, LaVoi, and Fink, 2013,
Communication & Sport, 1, 1–30). Conversely,
male athletes are often represented in powerful
and active poses in the sporting context, reflecting
a very different idea of what an (male) athlete can
be (King, 2007, International Review for the Sociology
of Sport, 42, 187–199). The aim of the present study
was to examine how high-performance athletes
choose to be represented through photography.
This offers insight into the messages athletes wish
to convey through self-representation. With institutional ethical approval, 16 athletes (11 females, 5
males; mean age = 20.5, SD = 6.1) with a minimum of national representative honours took part
in the present study. Sports include football, rugby,
swimming, tennis, cricket, athletics, archery and
judo, with representation from athletes with a disability. Participants took part in an individual photo
session and were given control over where the
photo was taken, attire, equipment and pose. An
interview was then undertaken with participants to
identify favoured images and the meaning participants felt/hoped the photos present to others.
Finally, athletes were asked to provide a title to
accompany their favoured image that symbolised
the message they wished to convey to others.
Open coding of interview data revealed five key
emergent themes. These were the desire to (1) present a positive role model, (2) capture an authentic
image, (3) show good technique, (4) promote
aspirational goals and hard work, and (5) encourage
participation in sport. These findings triangulated
with photographic data, where analysis revealed all
participants chose to be represented in athletic
attire, typically kit associated with their highest
representative honours. With one exception, participants selected poses that facilitated easy recognition of their sport, often selecting images
demonstrating good technique. The titles athletes
chose to accompany their favoured photo most
commonly made reference to goals and aspirations.
Participants typically referred to themselves as role
models, and aware of their potential contribution to
the sporting patterns of mass participation, male
and female participants expressed similar desires
for self-representation as athletes. This is in contrasts to historical media portrayals of male and
female athletes. The findings of the present study
suggest that rather than seeking to emphasise difference, emphasis of sport and exercise marketing
campaigns should be placed on similarity to help
promote equality of representation in sports media.
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D1.S3.4(4). The influence of body
language and expected competency on
gaze behaviour while forming an initial
impression of a tennis player
RICHARD BUSCOMBE1*, ANITA
POTTON1, LUKAS VOLSKIS1, ANDREA
PAPAGEORGIOU1 AND IAIN
GREENLEES2
1
University of East London; 2University
Chichester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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of
The early judgements made of others have consequences for the perceiver and the person being
judged (Higgins and Bargh, 1987, Annual Review of
Psychology, 38, 369–425). A person’s appearance
provides immediate information on which judgements can be based (Pendry and Macrae, 1996,
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3,
250–257). Currently, no objective evidence exists
to indicate where a perceiver’s gaze fixates when
encountering a performer and how this varies based
on (1) player’s gender, (2) appearance and (3) reputation. All the participants (N = 107; M age = 26.6,
SD = 5.2) had normal or corrected normal vision
and reported experience of playing tennis at a recreational level. Ethical clearance was obtained from the
lead author’s institution. The participants viewed
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one of six video sequences comprising (1) description of the protocol, (2) control player, (3) reputational information (positive, negative, neutral) and
(4) target player (positive or negative body language). The target player approached the net post,
removed their racket and walked to the baseline.
Positive body language required eye contact with
the camera, head up, shoulders back and a wide
stance. Negative body language saw gaze fixed
towards the ground, shoulders rounded and a narrower stance. Reputational information included the
player’s recent win/loss record and improvement/
decrease in playing rating. An Applied Science
Laboratories eye tracking system with a 60 Hz sampling rate was calibrated resulting in gaze position
error rates of less than 1°. The videos were displayed
on a 19-inch monitor with a resolution of
1024 × 768 and a refresh rate of 85 Hz with supporting chinrest to stabilise the head. Number of fixations, location of fixations and duration of fixations
for (1) the head and shoulder, (2) trunk and hip, (3)
right arm (racket arm), (4) left arm, (5) racket, (6)
right leg and (7) left leg were recorded. Data from
the first 5 s after the player came in to view was
analysed. ANOVA revealed fewer fixations (P
=.005), for a shorter total duration (P =.012) and
contributing a smaller percentage of the total look
time (P =.023) on the head region in the neutral
expectancy condition for a female displaying negative body language. This pattern was repeated when
observing a male player but in the positive body
language condition. The results indicate that the
gender of the athlete being observed interacts with
prior held information (expectancy) and immediately observable cues (body language) to determine
where a player looks when they first see an opponent
in tennis.
D1.S3.4(5). Going alone: stress, coping
and solo expeditions
DANNY GOLDING*, GAIL KINMAN AND
STEVE KOZUB
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University of Bedfordshire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Expeditions often involve challenge, risk and uncertainty. While there may be numerous motives for
such undertakings, unaccompanied journeys in the
form of solo expeditions may present a particular
significance to those that have the tenacity and desire
for optimal and intense experiences. (Devonport,
Lane, and Lloyd, 2011, Wilderness & Environmental
Medicine, 22, 333–337). Using a framework based on
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transactional models of stress (Lazarus and
Folkman, 1984, Stress, Appraisal and Coping, New
York: Springer), the research project used a detailed
case study which aimed to examine stress appraisal
and coping processes. Further, the research explored
meaning making and growth consequential to coping
with solo ventures. The study involved a 35-year-old
male adventurer seeking to conduct a challenging
solo expedition at the limit of his experience. The
journey lasted for 10 days and was located in a major
European mountain range in late spring. A qualitative methodology was adopted using ecological
momentary assessment techniques in the form of a
written diary and experiential real-time recordings.
In addition, two semi-structured interviews were
conducted during the journey followed by a subsequent interview 12 weeks after the completion of the
expedition. The data was analysed using combined
inductive and deductive thematic analysis having
received institutional ethical approval prior to data
collection. The findings indicated that the hazardous
terrain, weather fluctuations and temporal uncertainties were considered to be highly taxing and at
times dangerous, resulting in mental and physical
fatigue. Complete self-reliance meant that decisionmaking and mistakes became amplified, increasing
the emotional intensity of the experience. While
emotions varied considerably, during the most
stressful episodes the participant acknowledged
fear, anger, anxiety and worry. Emergent themes
indicated that rationalising, self-rebuke, routine,
refocusing and rest were used to cope with the considerable demands of the journey. The intensity of
the experience and the challenges unique to solo
travel were perceived to be motivational and even
serious threats were ultimately considered to be
worthwhile challenges. The participant recognised
that such experiences are both significant and meaningful, indicating stress-related growth and enhanced
self-belief. While this area remains underresearched, this case study contributes towards
understanding the complex processes involved in
unaccompanied journeys. It provides useful insights
for the adventure community in planning such
undertakings by identifying proactive coping and
giving further support for meaning-making stress
models.
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D1.S3.4(6). The effect of an acute bout
of aerobic exercise on cognitive
performance and mood in young adults
KATHRYN COOK*, ARTHUR JONES,
REBECCA JENKS, SAMANTHA BIRCH &
MICHAEL DUNCAN
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Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Kathryn_Cook1
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It has been recognised that exercise may have a
positive impact on cognitive performance; however,
the effects may vary depending upon exercise mode,
intensity and duration (Chang et al., 2012, Brain
Research, 1453, 87–101). Depending upon the type
of cognitive performance measured, effects may be
observed during, immediately post and for a sustained amount of time following exercise
(Lambourne and Tomporowski, 2010, Brain
Research, 1341, 12–24). As links exist between
mood and cognitive function independent of exercise (Mitchell and Phillips, 2007, Neuropsychologia,
45, 617–629), it is also important to measure fluctuations in mood state as a consequence of exercise
in such studies. The majority of previous research
has focused on children, adolescents and older
adults; therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of aerobic exercise
on mood and cognitive function of young adults.
With institutional ethics approval, 12 healthy
young adults (3 males, 9 females; mean age
19.8 ± 0.9 years) volunteered to participate in the
study, which employed a counterbalanced cross-over
design. Participants completed the Stroop colourword task (Stroop 1935, Journal of Experimental
Psychology, 18, 643–662) 20 min after three different
activity conditions: control (20 min sitting), low
(20 min cycling at 40% heart rate reserve) and high
(20 min cycling at 70% heart rate reserve). Each
condition was completed a week apart and at the
same time of day. Mood was measured using the
Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Mood Scale (Bond
and Lader, 1974, British Journal of Medical
Psychology, 49, 275–279) immediately before activity
and again immediately prior to the completion of the
Stroop task. No significant differences were found in
reaction time or error in the Stroop task performance
between the three conditions. However, the results
demonstrated that in the high exercise condition,
participants were significantly less calm following
the exercise bout (P < 0.01, d = 2.06). In addition,
alertness in the high exercise condition was significantly greater than contentedness (P < 0.01,
d = 1.58) and calmness (P < 0.01, d = 0.69) post
exercise. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between calmness and the number of
mistakes made in the Stroop task (P = 0.013) in the
high exercise condition. No significant differences in
mood were found in the control or low conditions.
The results suggest that an acute bout of aerobic
exercise at a higher intensity affects both mood and
cognitive function in young adults. As elements of
mood and cognition are governed by common brain
regions
(Mitchell
and
Phillips,
2007,
Neuropsychologia, 45, 617–629), further research is
required to investigate whether exercise and mood
may interact to influence cognitive function.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s17–s20, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110316
Day 1. Free Communications – Sport and Performance
D1.S3.2(1). Effect of hypoxia on jointspecific power production during
maximal cycling
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OWEN JEFFRIES
LEE M. ROMER2
2
*, THOMAS KORFF &
1
St Mary’s University; 2Brunel University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@0o0_jay
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The relative contribution of lower limb muscle
groups changes throughout sustained, high-intensity
cycle exercise (Sanderson and Black, 2003, Journal
of Sports Sciences, 21, 191–199). This suggests that
exercise-induced fatigue is muscle group specific.
We asked whether the additional muscular stress
associated with hypoxia would alter the muscle specificity of fatigue. With institutional ethics approval,
nine male cyclists (mean ± SD VO2max 61.2 ± 3.8 ml
· kg−1 · min−1) pedalled to the limit of tolerance at a
fixed work rate (60% of the difference between
VO2max and gas-exchange threshold: 306 ± 14 W)
and fixed cadence (88 ± 2 rpm) in two conditions:
normoxia (FIO2 0.21, SaO2 95 ± 1%) and hypoxia
(FIO2 0.15, SaO2 85 ± 2%). Pedal forces, joint kinematics and surface EMG activity were recorded
throughout exercise. Joint action powers (hip extension, hip flexion, knee extension, knee flexion, plantar flexion and dorsi flexion) were derived using
inverse dynamics. Neuromuscular activation (gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and soleus) was quantified using EMG
root mean square (EMGRMS). For both conditions,
data were averaged over the first, middle and final 30
s of the corresponding hypoxia trial to allow for
isotime comparisons. Data were also averaged over
the final 30 s of the normoxia trial to enable endexercise comparisons. Exercise time was reduced in
hypoxia versus normoxia (4.1 ± 0.2 vs. 10.1 ± 1.1
min, P < 0.05). Hip extension power increased
throughout exercise in normoxia, whereas knee
extension power decreased. The changes in endexercise joint action powers were reduced in hypoxia
versus normoxia (113 vs. 127% for hip extension, P
< 0.05; 92 vs. 87% for knee extension, P < 0.05),
but were relatively well preserved at exercise isotime
(P > 0.05 for middle and final 30 s). Gluteus
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
maximus and biceps femoris EMGRMS increased
throughout exercise in both conditions. The
increases in end-exercise EMGRMS were similar in
both conditions, but were elevated in hypoxia versus
normoxia at exercise isotime (P < 0.05). In conclusion, time-dependent changes in joint action powers
during sustained, high-intensity cycle exercise are
relatively well preserved in hypoxia. Rates of rise in
electromyographic activity for selected muscles of
the lower limb are increased in hypoxia, presumably
to ensure the maintenance of joint action power
distribution. The results suggest that joint power
distribution is a robust property of cycling and is
largely independent of arterial hypoxaemia. The
increased muscular stress associated with hypoxia
appears to require a disproportionate increase in
hip-extensor activity to maintain a normal coordinative pattern.
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D1.S3.2(2). The effect of competition
and practice climate on cognitive
performance during moderate and
high-intensity exercise. A bioinformational perspective
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MIKE SMITH*, NEIL CLARKE, MARTIN
COX & MICHAEL DUNCAN
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Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@cu_msmith
The relationship between exercise intensity and
cognitive performance has been explained from a
uni-dimensional perspective in the form of an
inverted-U (McMorris et al., 2011, Physiology &
Behavior, 102, 421–428). However, a recent metaanalysis failed to fully support this proposal suggesting that further research is required (McMorris
et al., 2015, Physiology & Behavior, 141,180–189).
This study examined the effects of “in-event”
changes in exercise intensity on cognitive performance (Pontifex et al., 2009, Psychophysiology, 46,
379–387). Following approval by the University
Ethics Committee, 14 physically active adults (9
males and 5 females, mean age ± SD = 21 ± 2
years), completed two incremental running
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exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived
practice) in a counterbalanced order. Performance
_ 2max and
measures were recorded at rest, 70% VO
_
90% VO
2max. Salivary cortisol, resting systolic
blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure
(DBP) were taken pre- and post-competition/practice instructions. During exercise, Rating of
Perceived Exertion (RPE) (6–20 scale), heart
rate, blood lactate, cognitive and somatic anxiety
and self-confidence intensity and direction scores
and cognitive performance were recorded. The
results indicated that SBP significantly increased
pre to post instructions in both the practice (P =
0.05) and the competition (P = 0.001) conditions.
Heart rate post instructions (P = 0.0001), at 70%
_ 2 max (P =
_ 2max (P = 0.001) and 90% VO
VO
0.0001) was significantly higher in the competitive
condition compared to the practice condition.
Increase in salivary cortisol (P = 0.044) and RPE
was significantly higher in the competitive condition compared to the practice condition (P =
0.023). There was no change in blood lactate (P >
0.05) between conditions. Cognitive anxiety intensity
was significantly higher in the competition compared
_
to the practice condition, at both 70% and 90% VO
2max (P = 0.001). Scores for cognitive anxiety direction were significantly more debilitative in the competitive condition compared to the practice condition
(P = 0.013). Cognitive performance (i.e. visual
discrimination) response times were significantly
_ 2max (P =
smaller at rest compared to 70% VO
_ 2max (P = 0.002) and at 70%
0.001) and 90% VO
_VO 2max compared to 90% VO
_ 2max (P = 0.04) in the
competitive condition. This study found that cognitive performance is more negatively affected when
physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are at
their highest in the competitive condition. The
results can be explained using the Catastrophe
Model (Fazey and Hardy, 1991, British Journal of
Psychology,
82,
163–178;
Lang,
1979,
Psychophysiology, 16, 495–512.
D1.S3.2(3). The effects of
hypohydration and hot environmental
conditions on cognitive performance
following field hockey-specific exercise
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SIMON COOPER*, HANNAH MACLEOD
& CAROLINE SUNDERLAND
Nottingham Trent University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
It has previously been suggested that heat exposure
and hypohydration have negative effects on cognitive
performance (Baker et al., 2007, Medicine and Science
in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1114–1123), which may
impact on sporting performance. Therefore, the aim
of the present study was to examine the independent
effects of heat stress and hypohydration on cognitive
performance in elite female field hockey players.
Following ethical approval, eight healthy unacclimatised elite field hockey players (age: 22.0 ± 3.0 years;
height: 1.68 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 63.1 ± 6.0 kg;
VO2max: 54.6 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1) with 2–3 years
experience of international field hockey participated
in the study. Following familiarisation, participants
completed four experimental trials: two in hot environmental conditions (33.3 ± 0.1°C, 59 ± 1% RH),
with and without ad libitum water intake (HF,
HNF), and two in moderate environmental conditions (16.0 ± 3.0°C, 53 ± 2% RH), with and without
ad libitum water intake (MF, MNF). Following 60min exposure to the environmental conditions (hot
or moderate), participants rested for 60 min in ambient conditions before completing the Field Hockey
Intermittent Treadmill Protocol (FHITP, MacLeod
and Sunderland, 2012, Journal of Sports Medicine and
Physical Fitness, 52, 351–358) in the relevant environmental conditions (hot or moderate). A battery of
cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop
test and Sternberg paradigm) were completed at
baseline and following the FHITP. Data were analysed in R using four-way repeated measures
ANOVA (heat × hydration status × time × test
level) and significance was accepted as P < 0.05.
On the visual search test, participants were faster
overall in the heat (1218 vs. 1305 ms, P = 0.003),
but upon further analysis this was only on the more
complex level (1941 vs. 2104 ms, P = 0.001), whereas
response times on the baseline level were unaffected
(P = 0.982). Response times were also quicker in the
heat on the Sternberg paradigm (463 vs. 473 ms,
P = 0.024), though this effect was not different
between test levels (P = 0.062). Heat exposure also
enhanced accuracy across the trial on the complex level
of the Sternberg paradigm (by 1.9%, P = 0.004),
whereas accuracy remained unchanged across the
trial in the moderate environment. There was no effect
of environmental temperature on Stroop test performance, or an effect of hydration status on any of the
markers of cognitive performance (all P > 0.05).
Overall, the findings suggest that in elite field hockey
players exposure to heat enhances response times and/
or accuracy on a battery of cognitive function tests.
However, hypohydration (by 2% body mass) does
not appear to affect cognitive performance in elite
field hockey players.
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D1.S3.2(4). Knowledge of the exercise
end point alters pacing during
simulated rugby league match play
THOMAS MULLEN*, CRAIG TWIST &
JAMIE HIGHTON
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University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@tmullen_sport
The duration of an exercise bout has a marked
impact on players’ pacing profiles during elite
rugby league matches (Waldron et al., 2013,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and
Performance, 8, 157–164). However, the influence
of knowing the exercise duration on pacing during
team sports remains unknown. Accordingly, the aim
of this study was to examine the effect of manipulated understanding of the exercise end point on
pacing profiles during simulated rugby league
match play. After institutional ethical approval, 13
male rugby players (age = 22 ± 3 years, stature =
1.77 ± 0.02 m, body mass = 82.7 ± 8.0 kg, predicted
_ 2max = 54.0 ± 4.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1) performed
VO
three trials, in a randomised order, of the same rugby
league match simulation protocol (RLMSP-i). All
trials consisted of 2 × 23 min exercise bouts, but
with different instructions provided to the participant before each. Participants were (i) informed
they would perform 2 × 23 min bouts (control trial
[CON]), (ii) were not aware of the duration of the
RLMSP-i (unknown trial [UN]) or (iii) told they
would perform only 1 × 23 min bout (deception
trial [DEC]). Movement distance and speed (via a
global positioning system device), and blood lactate
concentration were measured during all trials, with
session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) recorded
immediately after the protocol. Repeated measures
ANOVAs, with post-hoc paired samples t-tests were
conducted. Maximum sprint speeds were significantly lower during the UN trial (P < 0.05) compared to CON and DEC. An “end-spurt” in sprint
speed was observed at the end of bout two in CON
(23.5 ± 1.5 km · h−1, P < 0.05) and the end of bout
one in DEC (23.8 ± 1.6 km · h−1, P < 0.05), with
none apparent in UN. This coincided with a peak in
blood lactate concentration at the end of bout two in
CON (5.6 ± 3.0 mmol · L−1, P < 0.05), and at the
end of bout one for DEC (5.7 ± 2.0 mmol · L−1, P <
0.05), with no significant changes throughout the
UN trial (P < 0.05). The sRPE for DEC (7.0 ±
1.6) was significantly higher than CON (5.6 ± 1.7)
and UN (4.8 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). These results suggest
that an individual’s understanding of the exercise
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end point alters their adopted pacing strategy and
associated pattern of physiological exertion during a
simulated rugby league match. This has implications
for practitioners when informing players of their
exercise duration in team sports that involve multiple
interchanges during a match.
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D1.S3.2(5). Ineffective and effective
coping strategies associated with
professional rugby union referees
DENISE HILL*, RUTH SENIOR & TOM
YOUNG
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University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@psychskills
This study extends the work of Neil et al. (2013, Sport
and Exercise Psychology Review, 9, 22–41) by exploring
the psychological characteristics of rugby union officiating excellence. More specifically, it aimed to
examine the sources of stress, appraisal mechanism,
emotional response and coping strategies associated
with optimal and unsuccessful (i.e. choking) rugby
union refereeing performance under pressure. A
transcendental phenomenological approach was
adopted (see Giorgi and Giorgi, 2008, In J. A.
Smith (Eds.), Qualitative Psychology: A Practical
Guide to Research Methods (pp. 26–52), London:
Sage) in order to address the aims of the study.
Accordingly, after ethics approval was gained from
the lead author’s Institution, seven professional
rugby union referees (i.e. from the National Panel of
Match Officials) completed individual semi-structured interviews in which their experiences of performing under pressure were considered in detail.
The study revealed that the importance/context of
match, interpersonal conflict, self-presentational concerns, expectations, unfamiliarity and overload were
the main sources of stress the elite referees were
required to cope with before and during games. The
latter two stressors (i.e. unfamiliarity and overload)
were noted to hold the most potential to effect refereeing performance detrimentally, for they tended to
elicit a threat appraisal and negative emotional affect
which were difficult to manage. It was identified that
the problem- and emotional-focused coping strategies
of mental preparation, adopting a task/process focus,
emotional control, acceptance, ownership, reflection
and informational social support were effective in
managing the stressors experienced by the referees.
Whereas avoidance coping, misplaced/inappropriate
impression management and reactive control of
others were identified as ineffective coping strategies
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which often led to under-performance and choking
under pressure. Accordingly, the study offers a number of evidence-based recommendations that can
inform the work of those supporting the development
of rugby union referees.
D1.S3.2(6). The effect of contact type
on internal and external demands
during a rugby league match simulation
protocol
JONATHAN NORRIS*, STEPHEN
HUGHES, JAMIE HIGHTON & CRAIG
TWIST
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University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@jontynorris
Physical contact is a fundamental component of
rugby league that alters the internal and external
responses to intermittent running (Mullen,
Highton, and Twist, 2015, International Journal of
Sports Physiology and Performance, doi: 10.1123/
ijspp.2014-0609). Different methods can be used to
replicate physical contact in a testing and training
environment. Therefore, this study examined how
the type of physical contact influences the internal
and external demands during and after a simulated
rugby league match. With institutional ethics
approval, 11 male university rugby league players
(mean age 21.8 years, s = 1.3; body mass 86.4 kg,
s = 6.9; stature 186.5 cm, s = 7.4; predicted V̇ O2max
47.9 ml · kg−1 · min−1, s = 2.1) performed two
randomised trials of a rugby league movement simulation protocol (RLMSP-i; Waldron, Highton, and
Twist, 2013, International Journal of Sports Physiology
and Performance, 8, 483–489) using a soft (~35 kg)
tackle bag (BAG) and a weighted (~75 kg) tackle sled
(SLED) to replicate contact demands. Locomotive
rate, sprint speed, summated heart rate and RPE
were analysed over the total simulation.
Countermovement jump (CMJ) was also measured
before and immediately after each trial. Sprint
speed into contact was faster during BAG (16.1
km · h−1, s = 1.5) compared to SLED (14.8 km ·
h−1, s = 1.1; ES ± 90% CI: 1.03 ± 0.92). However,
there was less high-intensity running during BAG
(mean 1278 m, s = 112) compared to SLED (mean
1308 m, s = 120; ES ± 90% CI: −0.23 ± 0.35).
SLED increased time that heart rate was between
90% and 100% HRpeak (mean 12:58 min:s, s =
13:21) compared to BAG (mean 6:44 min:s, s =
8:06; ES ± 90% CI: −0.41 ± 0.48) and resulted in a
higher RPE (mean 15.5, s = 1.9) than BAG (mean
14.8, s = 1.8; ES ± 90% CI: −0.34 ± 0.26). Larger
(ES ± 90% CI: 0.60 ± 0.69) decrements in CMJ
were also observed during SLED (mean 5.9%, s =
4.9%) compared to BAG (mean 2.6%, s = 5.4).
Changing the type of contact subtly alters the internal and external demands during a rugby league
match simulation protocol. Using a standard soft
tackle bag results in a faster sprint speed to contact,
but also reduces overall high-intensity running.
Conversely, a heavier tackle object increases the
internal load and results in greater lower limb neuromuscular fatigue as reflected by the decrease in
CMJ performance.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s21–s24, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110318
Day 1. Posters – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
D1.P01. The influence of force plate
striking on lower extremity kinematics
during sprinting
5
IAN BENTLEY*, STEVE ATKINS,
CHRISTOPHER EDMUNDSON, JOHN
METCALFE & JONATHAN SINCLAIR
University of Central Lancashire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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The analysis of kinetics and kinematics in a laboratory setting generally requires the participants to
make foot contact with an embedded force plate.
Natural running/sprinting gait may be altered to
ensure contact with the device, such deliberate striking is known as targeting (Challis, 2001, Journal of
Applied Physiology, 17, 77–83). When participants
adjust their gait to target the force plate, the resulting
data may be compromised (Sinclair, Hobbs, Taylor,
Currigan, and Greenhalgh, 2014, Journal of Applied
Biomechanics, 30, 166–172). To the researcher’s
knowledge, no studies have investigated how sprinting across a force plate may affect the kinematics of
the lower extremities. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the influence of force plate
targeting on three-dimensional kinematics of the
lower extremities and participants’ subjective perceptions during sprinting. *With institutional ethical
approval, 13 participants (10 males and 3 females)
(age: 26.2 ± 3.8 years; mass: 76.5 ± 8.9 kg; stature:
174.8 ± 8.2 cm) (mean ± SD) volunteered to take
part in this investigation. Participants sprinted 6 m in
two conditions: (1) over an embedded force plate
and (2) uninhibited to the side of the force plate
without concern for striking it. Stance phase threedimensional kinematic parameters (hip, knee and
ankle) were extracted for analysis: angle at footstrike, angle at toe-off, peak angle during stance,
range of motion (foot-strike to toe-off during stance)
and the relative range of motion (the angular displacement from foot-strike to peak angle). After the
testing session, the participants were asked to rate
their subjective comfort in each condition (10-point
Likert scale). The results indicated a number of significant kinematic differences at the hip and knee
joints in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes
(P < 0.05). Interestingly, the force plate striking
condition led to reduced hip and knee flexion at
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
foot-strike (P < 0.05) as well as significantly lower
peak flexion (P < 0.05). Lower extremity alterations
of this nature are associated with a reduced stride
length (Sinclair, Richards, Taylor, Edmundson,
Brooks, and Hobbs, 2013, Sports Biomechanics, 12,
272–282). Force plate targeting had less impact on
the ankle joint, at which only the sagittal plane range
of motion was significantly different between conditions (P = 0.045). The subjective responses revealed
that participants felt more comfortable during the
normal sprint condition compared to the force
plate striking condition (P = 0.014). In conclusion,
it is recommended that researcher’s undertaking
similar testing procedures interpret the results with
caution. Further research is necessary to investigate
the impact of additional coaching cues on targeting
when sprinting across a force plate.
D1.P02. A comparison of lower limb
injury risk factors between males and
females
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KIRSTY EVANS* & GARETH
NICHOLSON
Leeds Beckett University
70
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
Females are 2–10 times more likely to suffer an
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear than their
male counterparts (Russell et al., 2005, Journal of
Athletic Training, 41, 166–171). Despite the apparent
gender difference in injury occurrence, ambiguity
still exists regarding the underlying mechanisms,
with most studies investigating only one or two
potential factors. Hence, the purpose of this study
was to investigate the effects of gender on a host of
lower limb injury risk factors. Following institutional
ethical approval, six male (21.0 ± 3.16 years,
181.4 ± 3.79 cm, 91.0 ± 5.44 kg) and six female
(20.33 ± 0.82 years, 166.18 ± 6.61 cm,
68.02 ± 4.61 kg) (mean ± SD) participants completed two testing sessions separated by at least 48 h.
During visit one, the participants performed maximal contractions (×3) of an isokinetic knee extension/flexion exercise on a Cybex dynamometer at
velocities of 0.52 rad · s−1 and 4.19 rad · s−1. On
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the second visit, maximal bilateral and unilateral
countermovement (×3) and drop jump (×3) trials
were performed on a force platform (Kistler,
1000 Hz) with lower-body kinematics being concurrently recorded in the frontal plane using a highspeed video camera (Fastec TS3-39, 100 Hz).
Independent t-tests examined gender differences in
performance (P < 0.05) and Pearson’s correlations
(two-tailed) examined relationships between isokinetic performance and lower-body jumping kinematics. Females (4.77° ± 14.20°) displayed
significantly greater knee valgus on landing from a
bilateral drop jump than males (−15.82° ± 10.49°,
P < 0.05). Importantly, knee valgus during the
stance phase of the drop jump displayed a significant
negative correlation with concentric hamstring-toquadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) at 0.52 rad · s−1
(r = −0.60, P < 0.05). There was a tendency for
females (51.83 ± 6.85% and 53.83 ± 6.85%) to display lower H:Q ratios than males (56.83 ± 55.42%
and 58.17 ± 10.07%) at 0.52 rad · s−1 and 4.19 rad ·
s−1, respectively; however, this was not statistically
significant. Furthermore, there were no significant
differences in leg dominance between males and
females (P > 0.05). Despite the higher knee injury
incidence in females, significant differences were
only observed between males and females in landing kinematics during jumping tasks. Present findings suggest that knee joint kinematics adopted by
females may be partially explained by quadricepsdominant characteristics. Although the link
between knee joint kinematics and ACL injuries
requires further investigation, the present findings
highlight that examination of two-dimensional
knee joint kinematics during jumping assessments
may provide a useful means of identifying potential
injury risk factors for coaches working in an
applied setting.
D1.P03. Effects of ankle bracing on
ground reaction forces during cricket
bowling and cricket-specific sprinting
and agility performance measures
ADAM HAWKEY1,2*, COURTNEY
WILKINSON1, ASHLEY RICHARDSON1,
IAN GIBBS2 & GRAHAM ARNOLD2
73–94). While previous research has reported a
reduction in injury risk with the application of a
semi-rigid ankle brace (Hawkey et al., 2012, Journal
of Sports Therapy, 5(1), 33–40), there is limited
research into the effects of ankle bracing on ground
reaction forces (GRFs) during bowling and on
cricket-specific performance. Therefore, the current
study was designed to investigate the effects of wearing ankle braces on both GRF and performance in
cricket. Following institutional ethics approval, 20
male university cricket players (age 20 ± 2.5 years,
height 1.78 ± 0.2 m, mass 75 ± 5 kg; Mean [SD])
performed three trials, in both braced (Aircast A60)
and non-braced conditions, in each of two cricket
performance tests: 20 m sprint (simulating a single
run between the wicket) and an adapted 505 agility
test (imitating a turn at the wicket), in accordance
with Hawkey et al. (2009, Journal of Sports Sciences,
27(4), S137). A paired samples t-test reported a
statistically, but not practically, significant difference
(P < 0.001) between the 30 m sprint times in the
braced (3.33 ± 0.26 s) and non-braced
(3.32 ± 0.26 s) conditions. However, no significant
difference (P = 0.29) was found between the agility
times for the braced (2.38 ± 0.1 s) and non-braced
(2.36 ± 0.1 s) conditions. Of these 20 participants,
six bowlers then delivered an over (six balls), with
the foot of their supporting leg contacting a force
platform during ball release, in both braced (Aircast
A60) and non-braced conditions. An independent
samples t-test revealed no significant difference
between the vertical (P = 0.418), anterior-posterior
(P = 0.181) and the mediolateral (P = 0.830) GRFs
in the braced and non-braced conditions. The
results show no reduction in GRF with the application of an ankle brace, possibly due to the linear
nature of the bowling action. However, the non-significant effect on cricket-specific performance, which
is comparable to the results of previous cricket-based
research (Hawkey et al., 2009, Journal of Sports
Sciences, 27(4). S137), suggests that cricketers may
benefit from wearing ankle braces to reduce the
potential risk of an ankle injury.
D1.P04. Gender differences in patellar
tendon kinetics during running
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JONATHAN SINCLAIR* & PAUL JOHN
TAYLOR
Abertay University; 2University of Dundee
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@a_hawkey
University of Central Lancashire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The ankle joint is the most common injury site in
cricket (Fong et al., 2007, Sports Medicine, 37(1),
It has been shown that 19.4–79.3% of all who participate in recreational running activities will suffer
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from a chronic pathology over the course of 1 year
(Van Gent et al., 2007, British Journal of Sports
Medicine, 41, 469–480). Female runners are known
to be at increased risk from chronic injuries in relation to males, with the knee being the most common
injury site (Robinson and Nee, 2007, JOSPT, 37,
232–238). There is currently a paucity of information regarding the influence of gender on the loads
experienced by the patellar tendon during running.
The aim of the current investigation was, therefore,
to determine whether female recreational runners
exhibit distinct patellar tendon loading patterns in
relation to their male counterparts. Twelve male (age
26.55 ± 4.11 years, height 1.78 ± 0.11 m, mass
77.11 ± 5.06 kg) and 12 female (age
26.67 ± 5.34 years, height 1.67 ± 0.12 m, mass
63.28 ± 9.75 kg) runners ran over a force platform
which operated at 1000 Hz, at 4.0 m . s−1. Ethical
approval was granted by the author’s institution.
Lower limb kinematics were collected using an
eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system
which operated at 250 Hz. Patellar tendon loads
were examined using a predictive algorithm,
whereby the knee extensor moment was divided by
the patellar tendon moment arm (Janssen et al.,
2012, Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 45,
927–934; Herzog and Read, 1993, Journal of
Anatomy, 182, 213–230). Sex differences in patellar
tendon loads were examined statistically using independent samples t-tests. The results indicate that
peak patellar tendon force (male = 6.49 ± 2.28
and female = 7.03 ± 1.35 BW) and patellar tendon
loading rate (male = 92.41 ± 32.51 and
female = 111.05 ± 48.58 BW . s−1) were significantly
higher in female runners. On the basis that patellar
tendon pathology is considered to be a function of
excessive tendon loading, the current study indicates
that female runners may be at increased risk of
patellar tendon pathologies.
D1.P05. Influence of footwear
temperature on the kinetics and
kinematics of running
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JONATHAN SINCLAIR*, SARAH JANE
HOBBS & HANNAH SHORE
University of Central Lancashire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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The most frequently utilised material for running
shoe midsoles is a copolymer called ethylene-vinyl
acetate. Like most polymers, ethylene-vinyl acetate
exhibits viscoelastic properties (Knauss et al., 2008,
Mechanics of Polymers: Viscoelasticity (pp. 49–96),
s23
Springer). It has long been established that the
mechanical properties of most polymers are highly
temperature dependent (Dib et al., 2001, Journal of
Sport Medicine, 15, 172–176); at lower temperatures,
the materials become less elastic, whereas the opposite occurs at higher temperatures. As such, it has
been proposed that the cushioning characteristics of
running shoes may differ in different environmental
temperature conditions. The aim of the current
investigation was to examine the effects of cooled
footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running
in comparison to footwear at normal temperature.
Twelve participants (age 21.45 ± 2.98 years, height
1.66 ± 0.06 m, mass 60.87 ± 4.37) ran at 4.0 m ·
s−1 ± 5% in both cooled and normal temperature
footwear conditions over a force platform (1000 Hz).
Ethical approval was granted by the author’s institution. Two identical footwear were worn, one of
which was cooled for 30 min. Lower extremity kinematics were obtained using a motion capture system
(250 Hz), and tibial accelerations (1000 Hz) were
measured
using
a
tri-axial
accelerometer.
Differences between cooled and normal footwear
temperatures were contrasted using paired samples
t-tests. The results showed that midsole temperature
(P = 0.004) and deformation (P = 0.001) were significantly reduced in the cooled footwear. In addition, instantaneous loading rate (P = 0.02), peak
tibial acceleration (P = 0.01) and tibial acceleration
slope (P = 0.007) were significantly greater in the
cooled footwear. Finally, peak eversion (P = 0.02)
and tibial internal rotation (P = 0.01) were also
shown to be significantly larger in the cooled footwear condition. This study indicates that running in
cooler footwear places runners at greater risk from
the kinetic and kinematic parameters linked to the
aetiology of injuries.
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D1.P06. The effect of a real-time gaitretraining programme on knee angle
and ground reaction forces in a group
of recreational runners
LOULIA HADJIIOANNOU, ANDREW
BARNES*, SEAN CLARKSON &
JONATHAN WHEAT
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Sheffield Hallam University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Gait-retraining using real-time visual feedback is
an effective intervention for modifying factors associated with overuse injuries in runners (Noehren
et al., 2011, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45,
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691–696). Decreased knee flexion at initial contact
has been associated with increased vertical loading
rates, an identified risk factor for tibial stress fracture
(Milner et al., 2006, Medicine and Science Sports
Exercise, 38, 323–328). Therefore, the aim of this
study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a gaitretraining programme designed to increase the knee
flexion angle at initial contact. Following institutional ethics approval, eight injury-free recreational
runners (five females and three males; mean ± SD:
age 24 ± 6.5 years) with an initial knee contact angle
lower than 12° at initial screening were recruited. In
a pre-test, participants completed five trials of overground running on a 16 m runway at a self-selected
speed (mean speed 2.8 m · s−1, SD = 0.5) while
force plate data (1000 Hz) and sagittal plane video
(100 Hz) were captured. Participants then completed six 15-min treadmill-based gait-retraining sessions, over 2 weeks. Running at a self-selected speed,
participants received real-time visual feedback on
knee angle via a bespoke system comprising a
Microsoft Kinect and custom-written software. The
system encouraged participants to maintain an initial
knee contact angle of greater than 16°, with feedback
gradually removed over the last three sessions. Post
intervention, the overground testing protocol was
repeated. The effect of the intervention on knee
angle at initial contact, peak knee angle during
stance, average and instantaneous vertical loading
rates was assessed using paired samples t-tests and
Cohen’s d effect sizes. Knee flexion at initial contact
increased from 8.0° ± 2.8° pre to 19.4° ± 2.0° post
retraining (P < 0.001, d = 4.7), while maximum knee
flexion increased from 39.2° ± 3.1° to 48.6° ± 4.7°
following the intervention (P < 0.001, d = 2.3). Both
average vertical loading rate and instantaneous vertical loading were reduced following the gait-retraining programme with reductions of 30% (P < 0.001,
d = 1.2) and 25% (P < 0.001, d = 1.1), respectively.
The results showed that the six-session intervention
was successful in altering knee kinematics and reducing vertical ground reaction forces, suggesting gaitretraining to be an effective means of reducing injury
risk. The real-time feedback system is low cost and
portable, offering scope for the use of gait-retraining
outside of the laboratory in the clinic or home.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s25–s31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110320
Day 1. Posters – Physical Activity for Health
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D1.P07. Reliability of rehabilitative
ultrasound to capture abdominal
muscle thickness in different body
positions at inhalation and exhalation
CHERYL BARFORD1*, IAIN FLETCHER1,
JOANNA RICHARDS1 & NICHOLAS
SCULTHORPE2
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University of Bedfordshire; 2University of West Scotland
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@BarfordCheryl
A delay in transversus abdominis (TrA) activation
in anticipation of postural adjustments has been
implicated in incidences of chronic lower back
pain (CLBP) (Hodges, 2001, Experimental Brain
Research, 141, 261–266). However, measuring
TrA activity is problematic as it lies deep within
the abdominal cavity. Rehabilitative ultrasonic
imaging (RUSI) is a non-invasive method which
has been used to assess TrA morphology and function (Koppenhaver et al., 2009, Australian Journal
of Physiotherapy, 55,153–169). Few studies have
investigated TrA thickness with external oblique
(EO) and internal oblique (IO) in different positions with respiration controlled. Therefore, the
aim of the study was to assess the reliability of
RUSI to capture EO, IO and TrA thickness variations of an asymptomatic population while adopting differing positions and controlling respiratory
phase. Based on evidence within the review by
Koppenhaver et al. (2009) and with institutional
ethics approval, 21 participants (9 males, 21 + 1
years; 1.65 + 6 m; 67.9 + 5.4 kg; 13 females, 21 +
1 years, 1.76 + 4 m; 59.8 + 7.3 kg) were randomly
assigned the order of positions to adopt (standing
[STND], sitting [SIT], crook lying [CL] and
supine lying [SL]) using latin square design. A
DU 7LS linear probe was placed lateral to the
linea alba and optimised for image quality. Three
images of TrA, IO and EO were captured at inhalation (IN) and exhalation (EX) in each position
using the Mindray M7 (10 MHz). TrA, EO and
IO thickness measurements were standardised
using an on-screen calliper placed 0.01 m lateral
to the anterior abdominal fascia (AAF). Intra-rater
(sonographer) reliability revealed coefficient of
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
variations (CoV) for TrA (0.19–3.86%) thickness.
Measurement reliability of muscle thickness
revealed CoV for TrA (0.01–3.65%), IO (0–3%)
and EO (0.1–4.3%). All CoV values were low;
below the 10% recommended by Atkinson and
Nevill (1998, Sports Medicine, 26, 217–238). TrA
and IO were significantly thicker in all positions at
EX (P < 0.05) with largest mean differences (MD)
seen in the SIT position at EX for TrA (P < 0.05;
MD = 0.095; 95% CI = 0.053 to 0.136) and
STND at EX for IO (P < 0.05; MD = 0.087;
95% CI = 0.036 to 0.138). There were no significant differences in EO thickness. RUSI is a reliable
tool to measure TrA, IO and EO muscle thickness.
Only STND elicited statistically significant greater
IO thickness than SL, but future studies should
control the phase of respiration and body position
as all positions indicated notional differences that
should be considered in future investigations.
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D1.P08. Body fat: association with
sedentary behaviour among public
servants
JULIANE BERRIA*, GISELI MINATTO &
EDIO LUIZ PETROSKI
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Federal University of Santa Catarina
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
High body fat is associated with other co-morbidities; therefore, identifying individuals showing this
outcome and associated factors are important for the
promotion of interventions for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse the
association between high body fat and sedentary
behaviour among public servants. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with
611 technical-administrative servants (331 women
and 280 men; mean age 45.07 years) of a federal
university in southern Brazil. Body weight, height,
triceps, subscapularis, supra-iliac and calf skinfold
thickness were measured to calculate body density
according to equation for Brazilian adults (Petroski,
2011, In E. L. Petroski (Ed.), Antropometria: técnicas
e padronizações (pp. 125–143), Várzea Paulista, SP:
Fontoura) and subsequently body fat percentage (BF
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%) (Siri, 1961, In J. Brozek and A. Henschel (Eds.),
Technics for Measuring Body Composition (pp.
223–244), Washington, DC: National Academy of
Sciences and National Research). Servants with BF
% above average and very high were considered with
high body fat. Sedentary behaviour was self-reported
by questionnaire in the following domains: commuting (active: on foot or by bicycle; underactive: car,
bike or bus), time sitting at work, and TV and computer time during the week and weekend (<3 h or ≥3
h). Data were analysed using logistic regression, with
adjustment for age and significance level of 5% was
adopted. Of servants with high body fat, 48.5% were
men and 51.5% women. For females, servants little
active in the commuting domain were more likely to
have high body fat (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.10,
4.95), in the crude analysis, compared to those
with active commuting; however, adjusting by all
sedentary behaviours and age, this association was
not maintained. For males, no association was
found. The results suggest that other lifestyle variables of servants should be investigated in order to
identify other behaviours that might be influencing
the amount of body fat.
D1.P09. Acute exercise and appetiteregulating hormones in overweight and
obese individuals: a meta-analysis
JESSICA A. DOUGLAS1,2*, KEVIN
DEIGHTON3, JAN M. ATKINSON4,
DAVID J. STENSEL1,2, VAHID SARISARRAF5 & GREG ATKINSON4
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2
Loughborough University; The Leicester-Loughborough
Diet, Lifestyle & Physical Activity Biomedical Research
Unit; 3Leeds Beckett University; 4Teeside University;
5
University of Tabriz, Iran
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
In lean individuals, acute aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity suppresses plasma acylated ghrelin
and increases blood concentrations of glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY).
Evidence for the effects of exercise on appetite
regulatory hormones in overweight and obese individuals has yet to be synthesised. A better understanding of these effects would help elucidate the
general role of exercise in appetite regulation and
weight control. Therefore, the purpose of this
meta-analysis was to systematically review and
quantify the effects acute exercise has on acylated
ghrelin, total PYY, total GLP-1 and insulin in
overweight and obese individuals. The potential
of body mass index (BMI) to act as a moderator
for acylated ghrelin was also explored. The review
was registered with PROSPERO database
(CRD42014006265). Research databases were
searched through January and June 2014. For
inclusion, studies were required to have made
comparisons of acylated ghrelin, total PYY, total
GLP-1 or insulin concentrations during exercise
and rest in overweight or obese participants.
Standardised mean differences (SMD), and associated standard errors, in acylated ghrelin, total
PYY, total GLP-1 and insulin area-under-thecurve (AUC) concentrations between resting and
exercise trials were estimated and synthesised
using a random effects meta-analysis model taking
into account the crossover nature of study designs.
In a pooled sample of studies on normal weight,
overweight and obese participants, BMI was
selected as the predictor in a meta-regression for
the acylated ghrelin outcome. A total of 740 articles were screened, with six published studies
identified for inclusion in the review. Seventythree participants were included in the meta-analysis, of which 57 were males and 16 females.
Study mean BMI ranged from 27.7 to 32.7 kg .
m−2 (mean: 30.6 kg . m−2). Exercise was found to
have a moderate suppressing effect on acylated
ghrelin AUC concentration, with a pooled SMD
of −0.34 (95% CI: −0.53 to −0.15). The pooled
SMD tended to be small for AUC concentrations
of total PYY (0.10, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.31), GLP1 (−0.03, 95% CI: −0.18 to −0.13) and insulin
(−0.14, 95% CI: −0.52 to 0.25). The suppressing
effect of exercise on acylated ghrelin AUC concentration was reduced when BMI was used as a
moderator in the meta-regression; with a pooled
regression slope of −0.04 SMD per 1 kg . m−2
increase in BMI (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.00). This
evidence synthesis indicates that overweight and
obese individuals express a moderate reduction in
acylated ghrelin after exercise, but effects on total
PYY, GLP-1 and insulin were small.
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D1.P10. Examining the effects of BMI
and habitual physical activity on
postural sway in British children
MICHAEL DUNCAN1*, ELIZABETH
BRYANT2, MATTHEW HILL3, MIKE
PRICE1, SAMUEL OXFORD1 & EMMA
EYRE1
Coventry University; 2Middlesex University; 3University of
Northampton
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*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@mikedunky
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Despite the association between physical activity (PA)
and postural sway being observed in adults (D’Hondt
et al., 2011, Clinical Biomechanics, 26, 84–89), the
impact of PA and other factors, such as obesity, on
children’s postural sway is not fully understood. The
present study examined the effects of PA and obesity
(via body mass index [BMI]) on postural sway in a
sample of 8- to 11-year-old children while controlling
for BMI and habitual PA. Fifty-nine children (24
boys and 35 girls, mean age ± SD = 10.0 ± 0.8
years) underwent sway assessment using computerised posturography using a force platform (Kistler
Force Plate 9281B, Kistler Instruments, Switzerland)
following institutional ethics approval. Subsequently,
95% confidence ellipse sway area, sway path length,
anterior/posterior (AP) sway, medio/lateral (ML)
sway displacement and average sway velocity of the
centre of pressure were determined. Each participant
performed six trials alternatively with eyes open (EO)
and eyes closed (EC). BMI (kg / m−2) was determined from height and mass using a SECA
Stadiometre and weighing scales (Seca Instruments,
Ltd., Germany). Weight status (normal weight [NW]
vs. overweight/obese [OW/OB]) was determined
using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria (Cole et al., 2000, BMJ, 320, 1240–1246). Of
the sample, 17% were classified as overweight/obese.
PA was determined using sealed pedometers (New
Lifestyles, NL-2000, USA, Average daily/steps =
14,386 ± 9272). Data from a series of two-way (gender) analysis of covariance controlling for BMI and
average daily steps indicated no differences in ML
sway and 95% ellipse sway areas between EO and
EC conditions (both P < .05). Both AP sway
(P = .038) and average sway velocities (P = .012)
were significantly greater in EC compared to EO
condition. PA was not significant as a covariate.
There were no differences between gender groups in
any analysis (all P > .05). BMI was a significant
covariate for sway velocity in EO (P = .0001,
β = −.163) and EC (P = .0001, β = −.160) conditions, indicating that as BMI increased, sway velocity
decreased. When data were reanalysed comparing NW
versus OW/OB, there were significant main effects for
weight status for sway velocity in EO (P = .019) and
EC (P = .018) conditions. Mean ± SD of sway velocity
was 4.9 ± 1.1 cm / s−1 versus 3.8 ± 1.3 cm / s−1 and 5.3
± 1.1 cm / s−1 vs. 4.2 ± 1.3 cm / s−1 for NW and OW/
OB children in EO and EC conditions, respectively.
These results suggest that PA is not associated with
sway variables but sway velocity was significantly
greater for NW children.
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D1.P11. Muscle activation and force
production for a novel resistance
training approach in trained males,
suitable for space flight and microgravity environments
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JAMES FISHER*, JAMES STEELE &
DAVID JESSOP
Southampton Solent University
*Corresponding author: james.fi[email protected]
jpfisheruk
Muscular strength and hypertrophy are products of
mechanotransduction resulting from motor unit and
muscle fibre recruitment. Current protocols for
resistance training in space flight are hindered by
size, mass, noise, vibration and cost, and potentially
still lack efficacy. Infimetric (INF) training enables
muscular recruitment tension using the contralateral
limbs and thus does not require external mechanical
loading. The purpose of the present study was to
examine the muscle activation and force output for
INF resistance training compared to traditional
resistance training with a view towards the practicality of INF use in micro-gravity environments.
Following ethical approval, and employing a
within-subject design, 12 healthy, resistance-trained
males (mean age = 24 ± 5 years, stature = 1.80 ±
0.08 m, body mass = 79.3 ± 7.8 kg) (mean ± SD)
performed a one-repetition maximum bench press
(BP) and three maximal INF tests at differing
elbow joint angles (INF45°, INF90°, INF135°).
Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to
assess peak muscle activation of the pectoralis
major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles. Peak force output for each condition was also measured; for the BP condition using
acceleration taken by a tri-axial accelerometer
attached to a barbell, and for the INF conditions
force data were taken using two force transducers
within the INF training device. Significant effects
by condition were found with planned comparisons
revealing statistically significant differences for muscle activation for TB in addition to peak force
between BP and INF45, INF90 and INF135
(P < 0.05). Analyses revealed similar muscle activation for PM and AD for BP and INF conditions
(P > 0.05). The results suggest that the present
INF training exercise could be an efficacious method
of recruiting motor units and thus catalysing muscle
fibre adaptations in strength and hypertrophy for the
PM and AD. Due to the nature of the INF contraction, TB activation was limited compared to the BP
condition
where
elbow
extension
allowed
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significantly higher TB activation. This likely
resulted in higher peak forces for BP, as a result of
the larger involved musculature, compared to INF
testing angles. In application, the INF method
allows multiple exercises and thus muscles to be
trained, and this preliminary study suggests that
INF might be a suitable training method to improve
strength and hypertrophy, or retain muscle function
and physiology during space flight.
D1.P12. Assessing the feasibility of a
reduced-exertion, low-volume, highintensity interval training protocol: a
pilot study
MATTHEW HAINES*
University of Huddersfield
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Divergence between the evolutionary design of our
genome and lifestyle triggers cardiometabolic disease, including diabetes mellitus. Various iterations
of low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT)
can improve risk factors in a manner considered
more time-efficient than traditional exercise guidelines. However, the intensity of HIT may present
another barrier to participation. Reduced-exertion
HIT has shown beneficial effects with relatively low
ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in healthy young
participants (Metcalfe et al., 2011, European Journal
of Applied Physiology, 112, 2767–2775). The aim of
this study was to replicate this finding to assess feasibility for a larger trial using diabetic patients. With
institutional ethics approval, 11 recreationally active
participants (3 females, 8 males; age 22.3 ± 7.3
years; stature 1.73 ± 0.1 m; mass 71.9 ± 13.6 kg;
BMI 23.8 ± 2.2 kg · m−2) (mean ± SD) took part in
an HIT intervention consisting 10 min of cycling at
60 W interspersed with 2 × 10–20 s cycling sprints
against a braking force equal to 7.5% of body weight.
The number of sprints increased over the course of
the intervention (2 × 10 s in week 1; 2 × 15 s in
weeks 2–3 and 2 × 20 s in week 4). A warm-up (3
min at 30–60 W) and cool down (3 min at 30 W)
were also included. Participants performed this
activity two to three times per week, resulting in a
total duration of exercise per week of 20–30 min.
RPE was reported immediately after completion of
each HIT session. Whole blood fasting glucose, peak
oxygen uptake and body composition were also measured before and after the 4-week intervention. HIT
resulted in higher average RPE values (17 ± 1) than
those reported by Metcalfe et al. (~13 ± 1). VO2peak
was increased post-intervention (49.27 ± 9.17 ml ·
kg−1 · min−1 [95% CI 43.11–55.43]) compared to
baseline (48.27 ± 9.23 ml · kg−1 · min−1 [95% CI
42.07–54.47]) (P = 0.02). However, fasting glucose
and body composition were not different. The
results suggest that short-duration (4 weeks)
reduced-exertion HIT can improve aerobic capacity.
However, the intensity of the protocol might be
intolerable for most people, presenting a significant
barrier to exercise for less fit patients with conditions
such as diabetes. The volume–intensity relationship
of HIT could be considered ad infinitum; however,
the acceptability of the activity to those for whom the
intervention is intended needs consideration.
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D1.P13. Making sense of how and why
physical activity interventions work
KEVIN HARRIS
Southampton Solent University
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Interventions making use of physical activity and/or
sporting mechanisms to elicit changes in health and
physical activity behaviour are in abundance.
However, to what extent there is a solid evidence
base behind such interventions is open to significant
debate (Coalter, 2010, International Review for the
Sociology of Sport, 45, 295–320). A key problem at
the heart of this debate concerns the inability of such
interventions to articulate how and why they work
for certain people within certain circumstances
(Pawson and Tilley, 1997, Realistic Evaluation, Sage
Publications). In addition, questions emerge surrounding the role that practitioners have in driving
monitoring and evaluation (M and E work). M and
E generally involves practitioners and/or independent consultants collecting information in the form
of evidence to track changes in programmes and
demonstrate outcomes/impacts. These outcomes
may be physical, psychological or social. This presentation aims to move the debate forward by
exploring the crucial role of practitioner involvement
and accountability in the M and E process. This
research draws upon a participatory approach, training a sample of student sport development practitioners in M and E techniques within their
curriculum at Southampton Solent University. In
particular, the production of an evaluation framework which embeds “realistic” evaluation techniques
(Pawson and Tilley, 1997) was trialled with the
practitioners who were monitoring and evaluating
their own physical activity projects in the local community. A capacity-building framework consisting of
action-learning
sets
and
workshops
was
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implemented to train and work with the practitioners
to competently understand how and why their interventions achieved certain outcomes. This was then
tested (following ethical approval) via a series of
mixed methods to identify practitioner reflexivity,
praxis and engagement within the process to make
sense of how change manifests itself in physical activity interventions. It is argued that the implementation of “realistic” techniques may enable a deeper
understanding of the mechanisms that facilitate positive or negative outcomes in physical activity/behaviour change interventions.
D1.P14. Effect of a home-based
pulmonary rehabilitation programme
on physical activity in patients with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
ELIZABETH HORTON1*, KATY
MITCHELL2, VICKI JOHNSONWARRINGTON2, LINDSAY APPS2 &
SALLY SINGH2
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Coventry University; 2University Hospitals of Leicester
NHS Trust
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@EHortonCov
Daily physical activity (PA) is low in patients with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
and physical inactivity is associated with poorer
prognoses (Waschki et al., 2011, Chest, 140(2),
331–342). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) aims to
increase PA and exercise capacity. However,
uptake to PR is low, dropout rates are higher
than desired and the availability of programmes is
limited (Spruit et al., 2014, European Respiratory
Journal, 43(5), 1326–1337); there is also a lack of
choice in treatment options. We developed a manual-based home PR programme for patients with
COPD (SPACE for COPD; Self-management
Programme of Activity, Coping and Education)
and aimed to assess the effectiveness of this novel
intervention on PA in comparison to PR. With
National Research Ethics Service approval, 51
patients with COPD (mean (s): age 68 (7) years;
BMI 27 (5) m · kg−2; FEV1% predicted 48% (20))
were consented as part of a larger randomised
controlled trial. Twenty-five patients were allocated PR, which included 14 two-hour sessions of
exercise and education and a home walking programme. Twenty-six patients were allocated the
SPACE for COPD programme, including a 1-h
induction at hospital, an individual walking
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programme completed at home and two telephone
calls. Patients wore the SenseWear Pro2 armband
monitor for 5 days during waking hours at baseline
and 7 weeks following the intervention. Paired and
independent t-tests were used to analyse withinand between-group differences. There were no differences between groups in PA at baseline. At 7
weeks, there was no significant change in any PA
measure in the PR group. However, a significant
mean improvement (mean change, 95% CI) was
seen in step count (1074 (289–1708) counts, P =
0.008), sedentary time (−46 (−86 to −11) min,
P = 0.013) and time over three metabolic equivalent of task (MET) in 10 min bouts (28 (9–48)
min, P = 0.006) in the SPACE for COPD group.
Between-group difference in the change in scores
(mean, 95% CI) were significantly better in the
SPACE for COPD group compared to the PR
group for daily steps (1463 (280–2645) counts,
P = 0.020), sedentary time (−52 (−102 to 2)
min, P = 0.039) and time over three METs in 10
min bouts (32 (11–54) min, P = 0.006). Although
numbers were small in this trial, the lack of
improvement in PA in the PR group was unexpected and does not reflect previously published
data. However, the improvements seen in the
SPACE for COPD group suggest that it shows
potential to be offered as an alternative option to
hospital-based PR.
D1.P15. Role of sexual maturation and
socio-economic status in association
with the cardiorespiratory fitness and
body adiposity in girls
GISELI MINATTO1*, THIAGO F. SOUSA2,
WELLINGTON R. G. CARVALHO3,
ROBERTO R. RIBEIRO4, KEILA D.
SANTOS4, MICHAEL DUNCAN5 & EDIO
L. PETROSKI1
Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2State
University of Santa Cruz, Brazil; 3Federal University of
Maranhão, Brazil; 4College Assis Gurgacz, Brazil;
5
Coventry University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Cardiorespiratory fitness is considered an important
marker of health from childhood and adolescence.
The low level of cardiorespiratory fitness is
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associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors
and the metabolic syndrome in young people as
well as the increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. The aim of this study was to estimate the
prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its
association with excess body adiposity in girls. This
cross-sectional
epidemiologic
study
(ethical
approval n° 131/06) with 1223 girls (aged 10–17
years), sampled from public schools in Cascavel/
PR, Brazil, in 2006, examined sexual maturation
(pre-pubescent, pubescent, post-pubescent) using
self-evaluation of breast development of Tanner,
self-evaluated socio-economic status (SS) (high,
low), obtained by questionnaire, and body adiposity
(BA), determined using Slaughter equation %BA =
0.546 (triceps + subscapular skinfolds) + 9.7
(>35 mm) and %BA = 1.33 (triceps + subscapular
skinfolds) – 0.013 (triceps + subscapular skinfolds)2
– 2.5 (<35 mm). Adiposity was then classified as
“high” or “normal” using Fitnessgram criteria. The
20-m shuttle run test was employed as a measure of
cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness
considered “low” when it has not reached the minimum criteria for health according to age and sex of
Fitnessgram. Data analysis employed logistic
regression, with a significance level of P = 0.05.
The proportion of low cardiorespiratory fitness
was 51.3%, associating with all study variables
(P < 0.001). In the crude analysis, girls with high
body fat were more likely to have low cardiorespiratory fitness compared to those with normal adiposity (RC = 2.76; 95% CI = 2.17; 3.52). After
adjustment for sexual maturation, this association
remained with 1.85 times greater effect (IC 95% =
1.39; 2.46). Subsequent adjustment for SS resulted
in the effect becoming 1.94 times greater (IC 95%
= 1.45; 2.61). Approximately half of the girls evaluated showed low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness
for health, which was associated with excess body
adiposity, regardless of confounding factors. The
results of this study suggest that effective public
health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups such as girls from low
socio-economic status groups.
D1.P16. Analysis of different
rehabilitation structures in England
and Germany
545
KERSTIN RECKMANN1* & PETER
WRIGHT2
1
University of Oldenburg; 2Chemnitz University of
Technology
*Corresponding author:
KerstinReck[email protected]
Increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases in
European countries and the resulting financial burden on health systems demand a comprehensive
analysis of rehabilitation programmes in order to
optimise existing resources, particularly considering
exercise components. (World Health Organisation,
2012, The European Health Report). However, with
regard to different structures of health systems in
Europe, international comparisons are still few.
This study, therefore, analysed German and
English health structures and the legal requirements
for cardiac rehabilitation (CR), and investigated the
implementation exemplified in a German and
English setting. Main objectives were structure,
duration and contents of exercise referral schemes
(ERS). A tripartite approach was used: First, a data
base screening was undertaken. Additionally, a literature search was conducted to obtain information
on the health systems, primarily on the basis of
official websites of NHS England and the German
government. Second, observations of exercise referral classes were ascertained and third, guideline
interviews with three patients and one expert were
conducted in each exemplified setting and evaluated with a qualitative content analysis. Outcomes
for England show a wide range of regional variations of CR due to the federal structure of the NHS.
CR is a four-phase process usually running 8–12
weeks with one or two exercise sessions per week
and long-term maintenance. Costs are covered by
the NHS, but small supplementary payments from
patients are normally applied. Participation rates
are low with regional variations. German CR is a
nationwide standardised process with three phases,
according to the WHO. Costs are mainly covered
by statutory health insurances and pension funds.
The right and compulsion to participate in rehabilitation programmes are defined by law, therefore
participation rates are high. CR usually starts with
full-time inpatient or outpatient programmes for 3
or 4 weeks, followed by exercise sessions once or
twice a week, lasting between 6 and 36 months.
The outcomes of this study suggest that a compulsory participation in ERS in England should be
discussed, adequately supported by the necessary
admin and legal structures to improve participation rates. Furthermore, a different set-up of
sessions for cardiac patients in rural areas should
be considered – this could include mixed groups
with different medical conditions in order to have
sufficient patient numbers to run these exercise
classes and for social interacting and adherence
reasons.
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D1.P17. Development of a technologyenabled behaviour change intervention:
assessment of interest and capability in
technology among a cardiovascular
(CVD) population
CATHERINE WOODS1*, DEIRDRE
WALSH1, ROSELIEN BUYS2, VERONIQUE
CORNELISSEN2, ANNE GALLAGHER3,
HELEN NEWTON4, NOEL MCCAFFREY1,
BRONA FURLONG1, DAVID
MONAGHAN1, NOEL O’CONNOR1 &
KIERAN MORAN1
1
Dublin City University; 2KU Leuven; 3Mater
Misericordiae University Hospital; 4Beaumont Hospital
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Effective cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can significantly
improve mortality and morbidity rates in relation to
cardiovascular disease; however, uptake of traditional community-based long-term CR is very low.
Physical Activity Towards Health (PATHway) will
provide tailored rehabilitation programmes through
an internet-enabled sensor-based home platform
that allows remote participation. It utilises current
behaviour change theory such as the COM-B model
from Michie et al. (2011, Implementation Science, 6,
1–32) combined with innovative technology solutions to facilitate cardiovascular disease patients in
better self-management. Through this mHealth solution (mobile-based or wireless technology–enabled
delivery of health care), PATHway will incorporate
core components of CR including physical activity,
nutrition, medication adherence and smoking
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cessation among others. This will be achieved
through creating individual patient profiles with
recommended goals and targeted information for
the individual on key areas. The purpose of this
study was to assess the level of interest and use of
technology by individuals living with cardiovascular
disease in the community, in order to inform the
design of a technology-enabled CR programme.
Ethical approval was granted for this study. A technology usage questionnaire based on a previous
study investigating the role of technology and
mHealth in a CVD population was used by Dale
et al. (2014, Journal of Personalised Medicine, 4,
88–101) to ascertain the current level of technology
use. This was a structured quantitative questionnaire
including open-ended questions for participant feedback. All patients attending a Dublin-based Phase
Four community cardiac rehabilitation programme
(Medical Exercise [MedEx] Research Cluster,
Dublin City University) were recruited (N = 67;
66.2 years, SD = 8.55, males = 76.1%, females =
20.9%). Technology usage was high with 60% of
participants owning a smartphone and 85% accessing the internet (54% of whom access it every day).
Participants endorsed the idea of technology-enabled
CR, indicating that they found the idea “appealing.”
As high as 79% were interested in receiving ongoing
CR support via their smartphones, and 79% were
interested in receiving CR via the internet. It was
found that 52% of patients found the idea of a virtual
rehabilitation class appealing. This study provides
descriptive data which supports the patient need for
a technology-enabled behaviour change intervention,
specifically through the provision of an internetenabled sensor-based home exercise platform that
allows remote participation in CR exercise
programmes.
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Journal of Sports Sciences, 2015
Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s32–s40, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110321
Day 1. Posters – Physiology and Nutrition
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D1.P18. The interaction of
physiological and psychological
measures in response to nutritional
support provided throughout the
course of a 100-mile ultramarathon
attempt
RUSS BEST1,2*, BENJAMIN BARWICK1,
ALICE BACKHURST1, NICOLAS
BERGER2 AND JULIE SPARROW1,2
1
Full Potential Performance Ltd; 2Teesside University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@SimplyRussBest
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Nutrition recommendations for ultramarathons are
varied; however, it has been deemed impractical to
attempt to meet the energetic demand of such
events, instead focusing on carbohydrate provision,
avoidance of hyponatraemia (Burke, 2002,
International Journal of Sports Nutrition and
Exercise Metabolism, 12, 490–494) and prevention
of gastrointestinal disturbances, common during
ultramarathon running (Stuempfle and Hoffman,
2015, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1–8). The participant (Male, 41 years, 168 cm, 66 kg, Marathon
PB: 2:56:49, 5.5 years running experience, average
training volume 40 miles per week) had previous
ultra-distance race experience. Nutritional support
was provided, and psycho-physiological measurements were collected at 9 checkpoints throughout
the 100-mile race attempt. Nutritional support
aimed to attenuate physiological and psychological
symptoms experienced during the attempt, with a
view to aiding completion of the event, whilst also
acquiring data to inform subsequent ultramarathon
performances. Ethical approval was granted by
Teesside University. Blood glucose was assessed
via finger-prick sampling and a portable analyser
(iHealth Labs, CA, USA), with rating of perceived
exertion (RPE) assessed using a CR10 scale (Borg,
1998, Borg’s Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales,
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics). Body weight
(BW) was recorded at the start and at each checkpoint thereafter, with ΔBW calculated as the difference from previous recording; 100 mm Visual
Analogue Scales were used to assess the
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
participant’s perceptions of freshness, hunger,
motivation, pain and thirst. Nutritional intake was
recorded based on client recall and direct provision of beverages and foodstuffs and was later
analysed using specialised software (Microdiet,
Downlee Systems Ltd., Derbyshire, UK).
Correlation coefficients and accompanying magnitude-based inferences were calculated between the
variables and distance completed (78 miles); 90%
confidence intervals are also reported (Hopkins,
2007, Sport Science, 11, 16–20). Blood glucose
(r = −0.08; ±0.58) and RPE (−0.09; ±0.58)
demonstrated trivial correlations. Small correlations were noted for ΔBW (−0.14; ±0.58) and
thirst (0.23; ± 0.56), with a large correlation
observed in hunger (0.66; ±0.39). Pain (0.85;
±0.22), motivation (−0.89; ±0.17) and freshness
(−0.89; ±0.16) reported very large correlations
with distance completed. Throughout the attempt
772 g of carbohydrate was consumed at an average
rate of 43.5 g · h−1. The results indicate that
nutritional support mildly attenuated the physiological effects of an ultramarathon attempt, although
this was not limited to factors pertaining to nutrition. It is strongly suggested that further consideration be given to meeting psychological demands
of ultra-endurance activity in order to successfully
complete an ultramarathon.
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D1.P19. Montmorency tart cherry
extract supplementation with no pre75
exercise loading phase has no effect on
recovery of muscle function or soreness
following downhill running
SAM BLACKER AND ALISTAIR
SAMPSON*
80
University of Chichester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@sam_blacker
Downhill running causes exercise-induced muscle
damage (EIMD), characterised by decreased forceproducing capability of muscle (i.e., muscle function) and increased muscle soreness. Food extracts
rich in polyphenols and antioxidants, such as
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Montmorency tart cherry extract (MTCE), enhance
recovery from EIMD when supplementation starts
~5–10 days prior to exercise and continues during
recovery (e.g., Howatson et al., 2010, Scandinavian
Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(6),
843–852). The effect of omitting pre-exercise supplementation and only supplementing during recovery has not been investigated. Therefore, the
purpose of this study was to examine the effect of
MTCE supplementation provided only during
recovery after downhill running on m. quadriceps
femoris function and soreness. With institutional
ethics
approval,
seven
male
participants
(mean ± SD; age = 20.83 ± 1.06 years, stature =
1.78 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 73.81 ± 7.09 kg) completed three experimental sessions: (1) Maximal running velocity (MRV) assessment and familiarisation;
(2 & 3) In each session, 4 × 8 min bouts of downhill
running (−10% gradient) at 80% MRV separated by
2 min. Using a double-blind, randomised crossover
design, participants consumed 2 g of MTCE or
placebo in 500 ml of flavoured water, 0.5, 24 and
48 h after running. Immediately-pre, immediatelypost, 24 and 48 h after running, participants rated
soreness and performed three maximal voluntary
contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors. Prerunning (baseline) and during running measurements were analysed using a paired t-test.
Differences in MVC force and soreness between
conditions over time were analysed using a twoway repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was set a priori P < 0.05 with Bonferroni
correction for multiple comparisons. There were
no differences between MTCE and PLA for heart
rate during running (174 ± 14 vs.174 ± 12
beats ∙ min−1, P = 0.938) or pre-running MVC
force (597 ± 107 vs. 611 ± 95 N, P = 0.674) or
soreness (4.1 ± 0.69 vs. 3.3 ± 2.5, P = 0.325).
There was a main effect for MVC force over time
(P = 0.014) but no main effect for condition
(P = 0.543) or interaction effect (P = 0.482) with
MVC force decreasing below pre-running values
similarly for both conditions at 0 (−105 ± 25 N,
P = 0.006) and 24 h (−31 ± 9 N, P = 0.015) and
returning to baseline at 48 h (P = 0.606). There was
a main effect for soreness over time (P < 0.001) but
no main effect for condition (P = 0.076) or interaction effect (P = 0.089) with soreness elevated
from pre-running similarly for both conditions at 0
(8.6 ± 1.3, P = 0.001), 24 (8.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.001)
and 48 h (4.6 ± 0.6, P < 0.001). In conclusion,
consuming 2 g of MTCE supplement for 48 h after
downhill running only (i.e., no pre-exercise loading) did not effect recovery of m. quadriceps femoris
function or soreness.
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D1.P20. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia,
a natural testosterone booster, on
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muscular force production and
anaerobic power
KAI QUIN CHAN1*, CLAIRE ELISABETH
STEWART1, ASHRIL YUSOF2, SAREENA
HANIM2, AND NEIL CHESTER1
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Liverpool John Moores University; 2University of Malaya,
Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]@2013.ljmu.ac.uk
Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known herbal supplement in South East Asia, believed to improve
sporting performance and strength in humans
(George et al., 2013, Journal of Sports Medicine &
Doping Studies, 3, 2; Hamzah and Yusof, 2003,
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 464–470).
Eurycomanone, the active ingredient, is also claimed
to boost testosterone levels in animal models (Low
et al., 2013, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 149(1),
201–207). The aim of this study was to assess the
ergogenic properties of EL in relation to muscular
force production and anaerobic power. The study
was a matched, double-blind, placebo-controlled
design; participants were supplemented with 600
mg · day−1 EL or placebo (maltodextrin) for 8
weeks. Following institutional ethical approval, 22
males (mean age = 22.8 years, s = 3.7; stature =
1.79 m, s = 0.08; body mass = 77.3 kg, s = 7.3)
(mean ± SD) were recruited, matched according to
body mass and assigned to treatment (n = 11) and
placebo (n = 11) groups. Three laboratory visits were
scheduled throughout the 8-week protocol. Exercise
performance tests to assess peak muscle force production (Isokinetic dynamometry at 60° · s−1 and
240° · s−1), anaerobic power (Wingate test) and
body
composition
were
performed.
Supplementation of EL resulted in no significant
changes (P > 0.05) in peak muscle force production
for quadriceps (EL: 211.5 ± 27.8 N · m vs. Placebo:
209.7 ± 34.5 N · m) and hamstrings (EL: 126.2 ±
24.4 N · m vs. Placebo: 135.1 ± 22.3 N · m) at
60° · s−1. Also, no differences (P > 0.05) in peak
muscle force production were evident at 240° · s−1
for quadriceps (EL: 136.6 ± 23.1 N · m vs. Placebo:
130.9 ± 19.7 N · m) and hamstrings (EL:
86.4 ± 11.7 N · m vs. Placebo: 98.5 ± 15.7
N · m). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in
anaerobic power (EL: 902.4 ± 254.4 W vs.
Placebo: 841.0 ± 259.7 W), lean mass (EL:
66.9 ± 6.5 kg vs. Placebo: 67.4 ± 5.3 kg) or
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percentage body fat (EL: 10.2 ± 3.8% vs. Placebo:
10.1 ± 4.5%). The results suggest that EL supplementation, in the current dosing regimen, is insufficient to impact on muscular force production,
anaerobic power and body composition in young
men, assumed to be eugonadal. Investigation of
alternative EL dosing regimens on sports performance in hypogonadal participants is warranted.
Studies to challenge the reputed mechanisms of EL
supplementation are also necessary.
D1.P21. The effect of pre-cooling on
cognitive performance during exercise
in the heat
NEIL CLARKE*, MICHAEL DUNCAN,
MIKE SMITH AND JOANNE HANKEY
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Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Clarke_ND
Rising core temperatures appear to negatively affect
exercise and cognitive performance. Pre-cooling has
been reported to attenuate the increase in core temperature and improve exercise performance. However,
information regarding the effects of pre-cooling on
cognitive function is limited. Therefore, this study
investigated the effects of pre-cooling on cognitive performance during exercise in the heat. Following ethical
approval and familiarisation, eight male recreational
runners (mean ± SD age: 28 ± 6 years; height:
1.76 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 72.6 ± 12.5 kg; V_ O2 max :
53 ± 6 ml · kg−1 · min−1) completed 90 min of treadmill running at 65% V_ O2 max in the heat (32.4 ± 0.9°C
and 46.8 ± 6.4% r.h.) on two occasions in a randomised, counterbalanced crossover design. On one
occasion, the participants underwent a pre-cooling
manoeuvre by means of water immersion
(20.3 ± 0.3°C) for 60 min prior to exercise. The
second session involved remaining seated for 60 min
in a laboratory where ambient temperature and relative
humidity were 20.2 ± 1.7°C and 60.2 ± 2.5%, respectively. Rectal temperature (Trec) and mean skin temperature (Tskin) were monitored throughout the
protocol. At 30-min intervals throughout the exercise
protocol participants performed a visual discrimination
task (Moore et al., 2012, Journal of Sports Sciences, 30,
841–850) and a measure of coincidence anticipation
timing (CAT) using a Bassin anticipation timer
(Model 35575, Lafayette Instrument Company,
USA). All variables were assessed using a two-way
analysis of variance with repeated measures. An alpha
level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Effect sizes using partial eta squared (η2P ) were also
calculated. Following pre-cooling, Trec (P = 0.04; η2P
= 0.48) was moderately lower and Tskin (P = 0.03; η2P
= 0.75) lower to a large extent at 0 and 30 min of
exercise. However, a large increase in Trec (P < 0.001;
η2P = 0.92) and Tskin (P < 0.001; η2P = 0.85) was
observed as a consequence of running in the heat
during both trials. Visual discrimination was moderately more accurate at 60 and 90 min of exercise
following pre-cooling (P = 0.06; η2P = 0.40), although
only trivial differences were observed for response time
(P = 0.98; η2P = 0.00). During the measurement of
anticipation timing, only trivial differences in absolute
error were observed between conditions at stimulus
speeds of 3 mph (P = 0.66; η2P = 0.03) and 7 mph
(P = 0.76; η2P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results
suggest that pre-cooling moderately improves visual
discrimination accuracy, but provides only trivial
effects on coincidence anticipation timing when exercising in the heat. The effect of pre-cooling on cognitive performance during exercise in the heat may
therefore have different effects depending on the nature of cognitive task.
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D1.P22. Comparison of Rhodiola rosea
and beetroot juice on exercise
performance in the heat
RHIANNON HODGES1,2* AND SAUL
CUTTELL1,2
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1
University of Northampton; 2Moulton College
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@rhiannon_hodges
Improving exercise performance in heat is becoming increasingly essential with sporting events such
as the Olympics occurring in hotter climates.
Exercise performance in heat using a number of
dietary supplements has been investigated with
inconclusive results. Dietary nitrates and Rhodiola
rosea have been shown to improve exercise performance in thermoneutral conditions (De Bock,
Eijnde,
Ramaekers,
and
Hespel,
2004,
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise
Metabolism, 14, 298–307; Cermak, Gibala, and Van
Loon, 2012, International Journal of Sport Nutrition
and Exercise Metabolism, 22, 64), yet little is known
of the effectiveness of such supplements on exercise
performance in the heat. As these supplements are
easy to use, they may offer an alternative to body
cooling methods which can be cumbersome and
expensive. Therefore this study’s’ aim was to investigate if Rhodiola rosea or beetroot juice improved
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cycling time trial performance (10 km) in heat compared to a placebo. The study was approved by
Moulton College board of ethics. Seven male participants were randomly selected and asked to cycle a
10-km time trial on a cycle ergometer, with the
weighting set at 60% of their VO₂max in 30–35°C
dry heat on three separate occasions, at the same
time of day, at least 7 days apart. The participants
were asked to consume Rhodiola rosea (350 mg),
beetroot (70 cl) or a placebo (70 cl). Time to complete trial, blood pressure (BP), blood lactate
(BLac) VO₂, rate of perceived exertion (RPE),
core body temperature (Typ) and heart rate (HR)
were measured pre, during and post trials. Post
time trial BLac was significantly lower after consuming beetroot compared to placebo (9.7 ± 1.2 vs.
13.21 ± 4.42 mmol) (P = 0.05); post time trial systolic
BP was lower in the beetroot group compared to placebo (143.43 ± 22.92 vs. 165.57 ± 23.43 mmHg)
(P = 0.001). There was a trend for beetroot to lower
Typ over time trials compared to placebo and Rhodiola.
There were no significant differences between groups in
time trial completion time, VO₂, RPE or HR throughout trials and Rhodiola did not have any significant
effect. Lowered BLac observed in the beetroot group
may be due to decreased BLac production through
more efficient aerobic metabolism. Therefore, dietary
nitrate supplementation may have the potential to
enhance athletic performance in a heat stress environment and could possibly be used in combination with
other modalities such as body cooling.
D1.P23. The impact of hydration status
on bioelectrical impedance analysis in
the assessment of body composition
DANIELLE HODSON1,2*, DOMINIC
SHAW2, LEWIS FALL2 AND DAMIAN
BAILEY2
1
Coventry University; 2University of South Wales
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@danni_556
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Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been suggested as a technique for measuring body composition and is measured via an electrical impedance to a
low current. BIA has been suggested to be effected by
water and electrolyte content, which are altered in
different states of hydration. Research has highlight
that hydration status affects the reliability of BIA as a
tool for the assessment of body composition (O’Brien,
Young and Sawka, 2002, International Journal of
Sports Medicine, 23, 361–366). The aim of the study
was to assess the impact of hydration status on the
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BIA. With university ethical approval, 19 physical
active males (mean age 21 years ± 1 (SD); stature
1.78m ± 6) attended the laboratory on three separate
visits, in three states of hydration (normal hydration
(no intervention), hyper-hydrated (consume 1.5 L of
water every 2 h from 1 pm the previous day) and
dehydrated (no fluid intake from 1 pm the previous
day)), order was randomly assigned. On each visit
BIA (BC-418, Tanita), was performed after a midflow urine sample. The urine samples were frozen at
−80°C and later analysed for urine osmolality was
conducted to determine actual level of hydration.
Urine osmolality was performed using an Advanced
Micro Osmometer (Vitech Scientific Ltd, Sussex) by
the same experimenter in accordance to the manufacturer instructions. Significance was established at an
alpha level of P < 0.05 and values were reported as
mean ± SD. All data were analysed using independent t-test. Measurements of urine osmolality
(mOsm · kg−1), body mass (BM; kg), body fat (BF;
%) and total body water (TBW; kg) were assessed in
each hydration state. There was a decrease (P < 0.05)
in urine osmolality from normal hydration to hyperhydration (708 ± 215 vs. 422 ± 230 mOsm · kg−1)
with increases (P < 0.05) between normal hydration
to dehydration (708 ± 215 vs. 871 ± 184
mOsm · kg−1) and hyper-hydration to dehydration
(422 ± 230 vs. 871 ± 184 mOsm · kg−1). However,
there was no change (P > 0.05) in TBW (52 ± 6,
53 ± 6, 52 ± 6 kg) or BF (17 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 7 vs.
17 ± 6%) following normal hydration, hyper-hydration or dehydration. In addition, there was no change
(P > 0.05) in BM (89 ± 17, 88 ± 15, 87 ± 15 kg)
between the three states of hydration. The results
indicated that BIA is a robust tool against hydration
status when assessing body composition. In conclusion, hydration status does not need to be monitored
when using BIA for body composition analysis.
D1.P24. Effect of an acute dose of
omega-3 fish oil following exerciseinduced muscle damage
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JOHN JAKEMAN1*, BRANDON
WOOLLEY2, DANIELLE LAMBRICK3,
JOHN BABRAJ4 AND JAMES FAULKNER5
1
Oxford Brookes University; 2Massey University;
University of Southampton; 4Abertay University;
5
Winchester University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@jrjakeman
3
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a shortterm, debilitating condition, which is particularly
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prevalent following strenuous or unaccustomed physical activity. Numerous strategies have been used in
order to facilitate recovery from EIMD, and recently
attention has been given to the possibility that omega-3
fish oils may be beneficial for recovery, because of the
anti-inflammatory effects of the fatty acids DHA and
EPA. While the majority of studies have considered the
effects of chronic (7 days or greater) omega-3 supplementation on recovery from EIMD, few have investigated the efficacy of chronic supplementation. The
purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled
study was to examine the effect of two fish oil supplements, one relatively high in DHA and one relatively
high in EPA as a recovery strategy taken acutely following EIMD. With local ethics committee approval, 27
physically active males volunteered for the study, and
completed 100 plyometric drop jumps to induce muscle damage. Perceptual (perceived soreness) and functional (isokinetic muscle strength at 60° and 180° · s−1,
squat jump performance and countermovement jump
performance) indices of EIMD were recorded before,
and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the damaging protocol. Immediately after completing the damaging protocol, volunteers ingested a placebo, a low-dose EPA
fish oil (low) or a high-dose EPA fish oil (high) at a
dosage of 1 g · kg−1 body mass. Results indicated that
there was a significant main effect of time on all indices
measured (P <0.01), but no group or group × time
interactions on any variable (P > 0.05), except isokinetic muscle function at 60° · s−1 (P < 0.05). Isokinetic
muscle function at 60° · s−1 decreased by 13.9% and
15.9% in the placebo and low group respectively, while
only decreasing 6.1% in the high group 1 h after damaging exercise. Isokinetic muscle function at 60° · s−1
was worse 24 and 48 h after muscle damage in both the
low (7.5% and 8.6%) and placebo groups (7.6% and
7.6%, respectively) in comparison with the high group,
recovering steadily in each group until the end of the
study. Smaller differences were observed in the other
measures, and while not statistically significant, there
were trends towards amelioration in muscle damage in
the high group only, with large effect sizes observed in
these conditions. These findings indicate that an acute
dose of high EPA omega-3 fish oil supplement may
facilitate recovery from EIMD, possibly due to a more
potent anti-inflammatory effect of EPA.
D1.P25. The reliability of transcranial
magnetic stimulation in the
determination of voluntary activation
of the knee extensors
RACHEL MALCOLM1*, SIMON COOPER1,
JONATHAN FOLLAND2, CHRIS TYLER3,
RICCI HANNAH4 AND CAROLINE
SUNDERLAND1
1
Nottingham Trent University; 2Loughborough University;
University of Roehampton; 4University College London
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
3
The use of electrical stimulation (ES) provides an
estimate of peripheral voluntary activation (VA),
whereas transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),
a more recent discovery, provides an estimate of
cortical VA. VA refers to a notional level of drive
to a muscle group; however, the reliability of the
TMS technique in the determination of cortical VA
is yet to be established. Therefore, the purpose of
this study was to determine the inter-day and intraday reliability of TMS in the determination of maximal cortical VA of the knee extensor muscles.
Following institutional ethical approval, 27 male
participants (age: 23 ± 4 years; height:
1.79 ± 0.07 cm; weight: 74.5 ± 10.9 kg; BMI:
23.14 ± 2.38) completed two familiarisation sessions and three main experimental trials.
Following the familiarisation sessions (which were
7 days apart), Trials 1 and 2 were 7 days apart and
Trials 2 and 3 were 1 h apart, to assess both the
inter-day and intra-day reliability of the TMS technique. The interpolated twitch technique was used
to determine maximal cortical VA using TMS
superimposed on submaximal and maximal contractions (55%, 70%, 85% and 100% MVC) performed on a custom-built dynamometer. The interday and intra-day reliability were assessed using
paired sample t-tests, systematic error, 95% limits
of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficient
(ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). Maximal
cortical VA was not different inter-day
(94.2 ± 4.1% vs. 93.4 ± 4.6%; P = 0.056) or
intra-day (93.1 ± 5% vs. 92.9 ± 4.5%;
P = 0.453). Systematic error and the 95% limits
of agreement for maximal cortical VA were −0.78%
(−4.92%, 3.36%) for inter-day and −0.28%
(−4.12%, 3.57%) for intra-day. ICC and CV values
demonstrated high levels of reliability inter-day
(ICC = 0.927, CV = 2.32%) and intra-day
(ICC = 0.953, CV = 2.19%). Results indicate that
the TMS technique reliably estimated maximal cortical VA of the knee extensors both inter-day and
intra-day. The use of both an inter-day and intraday design supports the use of this technique in
research which may require repeated measures during acute and chronic protocols and designs.
Therefore, TMS can be used in order to reliably
estimate the extent to which output from the motor
cortex influences muscle fatigue during lower body
exercise.
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D1.P26. Internal and external
responses to a linear versus a
multidirectional team sport training
simulation protocol
CHELSEA OXENDALE*, GRACE SMITH,
CRAIG TWIST AND JAMIE HIGHTON
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University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@ChelseaOxendale
Team sport athletes perform numerous high-intensity
actions such as accelerations, decelerations and directional changes during both training and match-play
(Dellal et al., 2010, Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 24, 3219–3226). Understanding the impact of
these movements on an individual’s internal and external load might be important to understand training
response. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was
to examine the internal and external responses to a
linear (LIN) and a multidirectional (MD) team sport
training simulation protocol over the same total distance. After ethical approval, eight team sport players
(age = 19.4 years, s = 0.8, stature = 180.1 cm, s = 11.0,
mass = 76.2 kg, s = 11.0, VO2max = 44.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1,
s = 4.0) were recruited for the study. Using a randomised crossover design, participants completed the LIN
and MD 3–7 days apart. Each protocol consisted of 8 ×
175 m bouts of intermittent sprinting (105 m) and
jogging (70 m) with 120 s of rest between bouts.
Movements were captured using a 10 Hz global positioning system device. Measurements of VO2, heart rate
(HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were
assessed during each protocol and blood lactate concentration (BLa) immediately after. Between-trial differences were determined via magnitude-based
inferences based on effect sizes. Distance covered at
high intensity (mean = 568.3 m, s = 61.6 cf. 130.9 m,
s = 71.3; ES = 6.6) and mean velocity (11.5 km · h−1,
s = 0.6 cf. 9.8 km · h−1, s = 0.34; ES = 3.4) were most
likely higher during the LIN, compared to the MD.
Conversely, accelerations (51.2, s = 20.7 cf. 7.3,
s = 3.5; ES = 3.0) and decelerations (37.3, s = 17.7 cf.
4.8, s = 5.8; ES = 2.5) performed were most likely higher
during the MD. The MD elicited a very likely higher HR
(170.5 b · min−1, s = 9.9 cf. 161.6 b · min−1, s = 12.4;
ES = 0.8), a possibly higher RPE (16.1, s = 0.6 cf. 14.8,
s = 1.1; ES = 1.4) and a likely higher BLa
(11.0 mmol · L−1, s = 3.6 cf. 9.0 mmol · L−1, s = 2.8;
ES = 0.6) compared to the LIN, whereas mean VO2
(2006.7 ml · min−1, s = 616.8 cf. 2029.2 ml · min−1,
s = 431.1; ES = 0.0) was similar. Increasing the number
of directional changes performed during intermittent
running increases the physiological and perceptual
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load during team sport activity, despite lowering the
overall mean velocity.
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D1.P27. The impact of technical error
of measurement on somatotype
categorisation
HELEN RYAN-STEWART*, STEWART
COTTERILL AND SIMON JOBSON
560
University of Winchester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@HJRyan82
Technical error of measurement (TEM) is the statistical representation of repeatability of measurement
within anthropometric measurement. Intra-tester
TEM can be used to calculate 95% confidence intervals for anthropometrical measures, and for calculations in which these measures are used, such as
somatotype. Somatotype is a numerical description of
human physique calculated using various anthropometric measures (Carter, Ross, Duquet, and Aubry,
1983, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 26
(S1), 193–213). The calculation requires a number of
skinfold, girth and breadth measurements alongside
stretch stature and body mass measurements to categorise participants in one of four main groups: endomorph,
mesomorph,
ectomorph,
balanced.
Somatotype categorisation is determined when the
main rating is more than one-half unit higher than
the other two. If all ratings are within one unit of
each other the somatotype category is balanced. The
aim of this study was to assess the impact of TEM at
different technical skill levels (experimenter [ISAK
Level 3 Accreditation] – L3; Level 2 ISAK post-course
profile limits – L2; and Level 1 ISAK post-course
profile limits – L1) on somatotype categorisation.
Following approval from the University ethics committee, 56 healthy male participants (mean ± standard
deviation; age = 26 ± 10 years, stature =
180.9 ± 7.1 cm and body mass = 80.1 ± 12.9 kg)
were measured using standard ISAK anthropometric
procedures and their somatotype calculated using the
Heath-Carter anthropometric equations (Carter, 1996,
Anthropometrica, p. 156). Average L3 TEM was 2.3%
for skinfolds and 0.2% for all other measures.
Allowable post-course profiles limits for ISAK Level
2 and 1 accreditation are 5.0% and 7.5%, respectively,
for skinfolds and 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively, for all
other measures. These percentages were used alongside the group mean values to calculate 95% confidence intervals for each technical skill level. Mean 95%
confidence intervals for endomorphy were 0.28 (L3),
0.55 (L2) and 0.82 (L1); mesomorphy were 0.18 (L3),
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0.05 (L2) and 0.07 (L1); and ectomorphy were 0.01
(L3), 0.70 (L2) and 1.04 (L1). Since somatotype is
normally categorised by a dominant category being
one-half unit higher, both level 2 and level 1 error
could lead to mis-categorisation in endomorphy and
ectomorphy. These results indicate that the endomorphy and ectomorphy calculations are most susceptible
to error, and that the greatest error will occur in categorising these somatotypes. This emphasises the
importance of good technical skills when measuring
anthropometric measures involved in somatotype calculation, in particular those involved in calculating
endomorphy and ectomorphy.
D1.P28. The validity and reliability of
continuous-wave near-infrared
spectroscopy for the assessment of leg
blood volume during an orthostatic
challenge
KEERON STONE1*, SIMON FRYER1,
MICHAEL MCCLUSKEY1, TERENCE
RYAN2 AND LEE STONER3
1
2
University of Gloucestershire; East Carolina University;
Massey University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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During an orthostatic challenge blood pooling in the
small vessels of the legs reduces central venous return.
This phenomenon can be assessed by measuring total
haemoglobin (tHb) using near-infrared spectroscopy
(NIRS). If valid and reliable, assessments of blood
volume accumulation during an orthostatic challenge
would be a useful test of integrative cardiovascular
control. Continuous-wave NIRS (cw-NIRS) is particularly suited to a range of settings because it is relatively cheap and portable. However, cw-NIRS
assumes homogenous tissue optical properties,
which may impact the validity of assessments, particularly during perturbations which may alter optical
properties. The current study assessed tHb in the
soleus and gastrocnemius during a 10 min 70° headup tilt test. The purpose was to: (1) compare assessments obtained from cw-NIRS to the criterion spectrally resolved NIRS (sr-NIRS); (2) determine the
between-day reliability of soleus assessments
obtained from cs-NIRS and sr-NIRS; and, (3) compare the between-day reliability for sr-NIRS assessments obtained from the soleus (standard assessment
site) to the gastrocnemius (alternative). With institutional ethical approval, 15 non-smoking healthy
adults (mean age = 25.5 years, s = 4.6; stature =
181.2 cm, s = 5.1; body mass = 79.5 kg, s = 12)
were tested on three different mornings in a fasted
state, separated by a maximum of 7 days. At rest,
during and following the head-up tilt test, tHb was
measured at the medial soleus of the dominant and
non-dominant leg using cw-NIRS (Portalite, Artinis
Medical Systems) and sr-NIRS (Oxiplex TS, ISS
Inc.), respectively. For assessment site comparison,
tHb was measured at the gastrocnemius on the nondominant leg using sr-NIRS. A three-way repeated
measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect
for assessment site (P = .012). There was no difference in the magnitude (area under the curve) of
soleus tHb response between cw-NIRS (783 µM,
s = 224) and sr-NIRS (806 µM, s = 299) assessments
during the tilt (P = .619). Magnitude of sr-NIRS tHb
response was significantly lower in the gastrocnemius
(678 µM, s = 254) than the soleus during the tilt
(P = .003). Intra-class correlation coefficient values
for cw-NIRS (0.72–0.75) and sr-NIRS (0.91–0.97) at
the soleus were close to or above the 0.75 criterion in
both the supine and tilted positions, indicating very
good to excellent between-day reliability. sr-NIRS
derived intra-class correlation coefficients for the gastrocnemius (0.95–0.98) were highly comparable to
those of the soleus. cw-NIRS is a valid tool for assessing skeletal tissue tHb response to an orthostatic
challenge and demonstrates acceptable between-day
reliability. The gastrocnemius presents a practical
alternative measurement site given that it can be
located more easily in general populations.
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D1.P29. Effectiveness of a
commercially available guarana
supplement on subjective measures in
elite rugby players: A case study
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EMMA TESTER*, DEBORAH SMITH AND
BEN JONES
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Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
In rugby union guarana products are receiving
increased attention as typically the caffeine content
of guarana extract is thought to be higher than that of
coffee. Caffeine intake of 6 mg · kg−1 BM (body
mass) is thought to improve high-intensity intermittent activity; however, few commercially available
guarana products meet these guidelines. This study
aims to assess change in subjective measures in elite
rugby union players following guarana supplementation. Following institutional ethics approval four
male elite rugby union players (age =
28 ± 2.0 years; stature = 1.90 ± 8.0 m; body mass
= 109.3 ± 5.7 kg) completed a field-based training
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session on three occasions. In a randomised crossover single-blind design participants were randomly
assigned to placebo (PLA), low dose (LD; 16.5 mg
[0.15 ± 0.01 mg · kg−1 BM]) and product recommended dose (RD; 33 mg [0.3 ± 0.02 mg · kg−1 BM]).
Subjective measures of alertness, energy and concentration were obtained via visual analogue scales and
rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured
using the Borg scale. Measures were taken pre
(0 h), mid (1 h) and post training (2 h), and the
change between time points was calculated. Dietary
intake for the 24 h prior to each trial and daily wellbeing were recorded to ensure consistency. PLA
exhibited a significantly greater overall improvement
in alertness compared to LD and RD (P = 0.038,
PLA [2.30 ± 1.13], LD [0.68 ± 1.37], RD
[1.33 ± 0.97]) with the greatest increase occurring
at 0–1 h. Similarly, PLA also exhibited a significantly
greater overall improvement in concentration compared to LD and RD (P = 0.039; PLA [2.95 ± 1.38],
LD [−0.35 ± 1.78], RD [2.63 ± 1.44]) with the
greatest increase occurring at 1–2 h. Large effects
were observed between PLA and LD; 2.13 ± 1.11,
all other differences were unclear. The LD trial
exhibited the greatest attenuation in RPE compared
to PLA and RD (P = 0.022; PLA [8.25 ± 1.26], LD
[5.52 ± 0.50], RD [6.75 ± 0.96]) with the greatest
impact occurring at 1–2 h. Large effects were
observed between PLA and LD; 3.13 ± 1.20, all
other differences were unclear. When considering
the effectiveness of guarana on subjective perceptions of performance, similar to caffeine it exhibited
a peak response at 1–2 h. However, the placebo trial
demonstrated the greatest influence on alertness,
energy and concentration. Therefore, the use of
guarana does not appear effective at improving subjective perceptions of performance, although the LD
was associated with a better attenuation of RPE. The
limited effectiveness of guarana on subjective measures may be due to current recommendations being
impractical when dealing with populations of a
higher body mass. Therefore, further research
should assess the effectiveness of higher dose
products.
D1.P30. Total serum
25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is
independently linked with haematocrit
and mean corpuscular haemoglobin
concentration in elite athletes
JOSHUA TODD1*, SHARON MADIGAN2,
L KIRSTY POURSHAHIDI1, EMEIR
MCSORLEY1, EAMON LAIRD3, MARTIN
HEALY4 AND PAMELA MAGEE1
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University of Ulster, Northern Ireland; 2Irish Institute of
Sport, Ireland; 3Trinity College, Ireland; 4St James’s
Hospital, Ireland
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
There is growing evidence that vitamin D is involved
in numerous processes beyond skeletal health, some
of which may be important for athletic performance
(Todd et al., 2015, Sports Medicine, 45, 213–229).
Observational findings have revealed a positive correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)
concentration and red blood cell parameters in the
general population. It is suggested that this biologically inactive form of vitamin D may exert effects on
red cell structural integrity and iron metabolism
through direct and indirect mechanisms. However,
no such relationship has been investigated in athletes
and it is unknown if the relationship is affected by
variables such as sex or sport discipline. Therefore,
the aims of this study were to determine if 25(OH)D
concentration was a significant predictor of red cell
parameters, in a cohort of elite athletes, and to investigate differences in 25(OH)D concentration
between sport discipline and sex. Ethical approval
was obtained from the University of Ulster
Research Ethics Committee (REC/13/0235) and
the study was conducted according to the guidelines
laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki. A total of
86 athletes, cricketers (n = 26), boxers (n = 19) and
rugby players (n = 41), were recruited between
November 2013 and May 2015. Blood samples
were analysed for total serum 25(OH)D using liquid
chromatography-tandem
mass
spectrometry
(Chromsystems Ltd.) and full blood counts were
measured in whole blood (Sysmex, KX21-N).
Adjusted calcium, ferritin, creatinine and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were quantified
by clinical biochemistry (Cobas 3000, ILab 650).
Using linear regression, total serum 25(OH)D concentration was identified as a significant positive
predictor of haematocrit (n = 58, β = 0.336,
P = 0.007) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (n = 60, β = 0.242, P = 0.035) after
adjustment for sex. Overall, 85% of athletes
exceeded the 50 nmol · L−1 cut-off for vitamin D
sufficiency. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni post
hoc test revealed significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations in cricketers compared to both boxers
and rugby players (86.1 ± 13.8 vs. 71.7 ± 20.3 and
63.1 ± 20.2 nmol · L−1, P = 0.034 and P = 0.001,
respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher 25
(OH)D concentrations were observed in male compared to female athletes (82.2 ± 16.4 vs.
62.1 ± 20.1 nmol · L−1, P = 0.001). Contrary to
reports from studies of collegiate athletes, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of vitamin D
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sufficiency, indicating that requirements for vitamin
D supplementation may vary according to the athlete’s competitive level. These results also suggest
that 25(OH)D concentrations are implicated in
determining haemoglobin concentration within red
blood cells and their concentration within the total
blood volume. Whether vitamin D supplementation
influences these measures remains to be elucidated.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s41–s43, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110322
Day 1. Posters – Psychology
D1.P31. A qualitative exploration of
young people’s accounts of autonomysupportive sports coaching climates
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ABBE BRADY* & DENISE M. HILL
University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@abbebrady
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Autonomy-supportive (A-S) coaching behaviours
have been associated with the fulfilment of athletes’
psychological needs (i.e. competence, autonomy
and relatedness) and positive behavioural, emotional and performance outcomes (Alvarez et al.,
2012, Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6,
166–179). Whilst large-scale survey research has
been the main method used to generate such
knowledge, it is unable to provide population-specific accounts of what autonomy supportiveness
means to athletes. Accessing the first-hand accounts
of athletes’ experience of A-S coaching behaviours
is essential if researchers are to appreciate the personalised and contextualised nature of this concept.
This information can then inform practice to ensure
coaches provide A-S climates that satisfy athletes’
psychological needs across situational and personal
contexts. Thus, the purpose of the present research
was to explore young people’s personal accounts of
A-S coaching behaviours and its fulfilment of their
basic psychological needs. Following institutional
ethical approval, athlete and parental consent was
obtained. Six sport-specific focus groups were conducted involving 32 young athletes (aged 11–17
years; 21 males and 11 females) in the sports of
athletics, football, golf, netball, rugby and swimming. Focus groups ranged in duration between
40 and 75 min and recorded data were transcribed
verbatim to facilitate thematic content analysis
aligned to identifying coach behaviours associated
with the satisfaction or thwarting of basic psychological needs. Key findings demonstrated that whilst
there were many shared perceptions of desirable
coaching behaviours and their positive associations
with competence, autonomy and relatedness, there
were also chronological distinctions. No gender
differences were identified. Across the cohort
young people acknowledged that to offer an A-S
environment, the coach should prioritise fun/
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
enjoyment and develop a mastery climate which
reinforces effort and self-development rather than
performance outcomes. Moreover, high-quality
feedback should be provided that is informational,
constructive and task-orientated. However, it was
noted that whilst adolescent athletes (>15 years)
valued increased ownership of their training and
performance, this was not the case for the younger
athletes (<15 years) who preferred an instructional
coaching style. However, in both cases, the satisfaction of psychological needs was achieved only if the
athletes trusted the coach, and so were able to
assume personal responsibility and accept instructions, respectively. A key recommendation is that
researchers and practitioners (such as coaches and
sport psychologists) recognise the existence of
subtle differences among young athletes by age in
routes to supporting the achievement of psychological needs.
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D1.P32. Reliability of a battery of
cognitive function tests in an adolescent
population
SIMON COOPER1*, STEPHAN
BANDELOW2, JOHN MORRIS1 & MARY
NEVILL1
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Nottingham Trent University; 2Loughborough University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
“Cognitive function” is a term used to describe a
variety of brain-mediated functions and processes
and thus broadly refers to the functioning of the
brain. Cognitive function consists of a number of
sub-components (e.g. memory, attention, perception and executive function), which can be
assessed using a range of cognitive function tests.
However, there are only very limited data regarding the reliability of such cognitive function tests in
adults (e.g. Siegrist, 1997, Journal of Psychology,
131, 299–306) and the reliability in an adolescent
population has not been previously reported.
Therefore, the purpose of the present study was
to determine the reliability of a battery of cognitive
function tests in an adolescent population. The
data presented here are pooled from a number of
studies, each of which was granted approval from
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the first author’s institutional ethical advisory committee. Following familiarisation, 69 adolescents
(36 males and 33 females; age 12.8 ± 0.6 years,
height 156.5 ± 8.0 cm, body mass 47.0 ± 10.3 kg)
completed a battery of cognitive function tests
consisting of the Stroop test (assessing executive
function), Sternberg paradigm (assessing working
memory) and visual search test (assessing perception). The tests were completed 30 min following a
controlled breakfast on two occasions, separated
by 1 week. The reliability of the response times
on each of the tests was assessed using paired
samples t-tests, systematic error, 95% ratio limits
of agreement (rLoA), the intraclass correlation
coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation
(CV). Response times on each of the cognitive
function tests did not differ between the two trials
(Stroop test: 946 ± 178 ms vs. 938 ± 188 ms,
P = 0.322; Sternberg paradigm: 640 ± 84 ms vs.
641 ± 82 ms, P = 0.955; visual search test:
1008 ± 161 ms vs. 1025 ± 180 ms, P = 0.142).
The systematic error and rLoA were -1.0%
(-12.9%, 11.0%) for the Stroop test, 0.1%
(-16.6%, 16.8%) for the Sternberg paradigm and
1.4% (-17.1%, 19.9%) for the visual search test.
ICC and CV values demonstrated high reliability
for each test (Stroop test: ICC = 0.976,
CV = 4.32%; Sternberg paradigm: ICC = 0.888,
CV = 6.02%; visual search test: ICC = 0.915,
CV = 6.68%). The results demonstrate that the
battery of cognitive function tests employed
(Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm and visual search
test) are reliable and can thus be used in studies
examining changes in cognitive function among
this population.
D1.P33. Referees: can they take the
heat?
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NADIA GAOUA1,2*, RITA DE OLIVEIRA1 &
SEBASTIEN RACINAIS2
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London South Bank University; 2Aspetar, Qatar
Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha,
Qatar
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Heat exposure is particularly debilitating for human
performance, adversely impacting both physiological
and cognitive performance. The aim of this project
was to investigate the effect of hot exposure on cognitive performance. A series of experiments were
performed under both hot (HOT: 50°C, 30% RH)
and control (CON: 24°C, 30% RH) conditions,
with varied exposure times ranging from 15 min
to 4 h 30 min. Under different levels of thermal
strain, subjects completed both simple and complex
memory; attention and executive function tasks
(CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd,
Cambridge, UK) inside an environmental chamber.
Central (Tcore) and skin (Tskin) temperatures were
continuously recorded. Subjective measures of thermal comfort (TC) and thermal sensation (TS) were
also registered. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was
also recorded over the frontal lobe for theta (3–7
Hz) and total alpha (8–12 Hz) power analysis. The
results indicate that there was an impairment in
working memory with heat exposure (P < 0.05)
without alteration in attentional processes.
Hyperthermia had no impact on reaction time and
accuracy of responses in simple tasks; however,
impulsivity increased during tasks that required sustaining attention over prolonged periods of time (F
(2, 30) = 6.61, P < 0.01). Significant increases in
Tcore beyond 38.7°C were associated with impaired
complex cognitive task performance (P < 0.05). In
addition, rapid and substantial variations in Tskin of
~3°C, independent of any change in Tcore, had a
similar detrimental effect on complex cognitive
tasks. Total theta power in HOT (2.19 ± 0.18) was
higher than that in CON (1.97 ± 0.09, P = 0.04).
Prior to task engagement, theta power was higher in
HOT (2.08) than in CON (1.68). During the simple
cognitive task (OTS-4), theta power in HOT (2.19)
remained higher than that in CON (1.97); however,
during the complex task (OTS-6), theta power in
HOT (2.27) was similar to that in CON (2.24).
Total alpha power (F = 4.69, P = 0.048,
Greenhouse-Geisser, d = 0.34) decreased from baseline to task engagement. Our results show that
impairments in cognitive function with passive
hyperthermia are task dependent and suggest that
exposure to a hot environment is a competing variable to the cognitive processes. Practical applications
related to refereeing and mitigating strategies are
discussed.
D1.P35. Imagery vividness as a
predictor of imagery use in highly
skilled golfers
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JOHN K. PARKER1*, LUKE THOMPSON1,
MARTIN I. JONES2 & GEOFF P. LOVELL3
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University of Gloucestershire; 2University of Exeter;
University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
3
Imagery is a covert rehearsal technique and a key
psychological attribute among skilled golfers
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(Hellstrӧm, 2009, Sports Medicine, 39, 845–855).
Imagery vividness relates to an images lifelikeness
and is influential when predicting the function imagery serves. However, minimal research attention
has explored this association in samples of highly
skilled golfers. Therefore, the aim of our study was
to measure the extent imagery vividness predicted
the five functions of imagery use in a sample of
elite-level golfers. Following institutional ethical
approval, 96 highly skilled golfers (Myears = 28.23,
s = 11.62) voluntarily consented to participate in this
study. Golf handicaps were all recognised by The
Council of National Golf Unions and ranged
between 4 and 5 (1.38 ± 2.73). We performed hierarchical multiple regression analyses on self-report
scores using the Sport Imagery Questionnaire – golf
(Gregg and Hall, 2006, Journal of Applied Sport
Psychology, 18, 363–375) and Vividness of
Movement Imagery Questionnaire – 2 (Roberts
et al., 2008, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,
30, 200–221). Based on Hall, Rodgers, & Barr
(1990, Sport Psychologist, 4, 1–10) observation that
athletes participating in closed-skill sports benefit
most from kinesthetic imagery, we entered kinesthetic imagery followed by internal, then external
visual imagery into the model. To avoid type 1
error, probability levels were set at P = 0.01. Of the
five functions of imagery use, only the cognitivespecific function returned a significant result with
29% of its variance attributable to the vividness of
kinesthetic imagery (ΔR2 = .290, F(1, 95) = 39.83,
P = .001, b = .-35, β = .-55, P = .001). Vividness of
internal and external visual imagery did not add
significantly to the models result. Our investigation
provides evidence of the importance of developing
the vividness aspect of a golfer’s imagery ability. The
vividness of kinesthetic imagery appears to play an
important role in the functions of imagery use
adopted by golfers for the purposes of rehearsing
physical skills (e.g. correcting swing technique).
Practitioners may wish to consider that imagery
vividness is trainable and consequently design beneficial exercises to facilitate improvements in this
aspect of imagery ability (see Zapala et al., 2015,
Journal of Motor Behavior, 47, 312–317). Finally,
continued research is needed to explicate whether
these results hold for players with golf handicaps
outside the rage adopted for this study (e.g. >5).
D1.P36. Penalty shootouts in women’s
soccer: the influence of kicking order,
kick number and positional role
245
KIRSTIE PARRIS*, ELIZABETH
PUMMELL & JAMES BROUNER
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Kingston University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
In soccer, one of the methods of determining the
winning team in the case of a draw during a major
tournament is the penalty shootout, in which two
teams take kicks from the penalty spot alternately.
The winning team scores the best of five, or the
shootout turns to sudden death if teams are drawn
after each taking five kicks. There are several factors
which may increase stress and impact performance
in high-pressure situations such as the penalty shootout, including which team takes the first penalty, and
the playing position of the individual taking the kick.
Some of these factors have been investigated within
men’s penalty shootouts with conflicting results (e.g.
Apesteguia and Palacios-Huerta, 2009, American
Economic Review, 100, 2548–2564; Depken et al.,
2012, International Journal of Sport, 7, 213–231).
However, this research is not based entirely on soccer and there has been very little consideration for
women’s sport (Jordet et al., 2007, Journal of Sports
Sciences, 25, 121–129; Apesteguia and PalaciosHuerta, 2009, American Economic Review, 100,
2548–2564). The aim of this study, therefore, was
to investigate the influence on penalty kick outcome
of the following variables during women’s major
soccer league tournaments: kicking order, penalty
kick number and the positional role of the penalty
taker. Fifteen penalty shootouts were analysed from
women’s domestic, European and international soccer tournaments between 1999 and 2014. The outcome of each shot was notated using a scaled scatter
plot of the soccer goal. The procedure was conducted with ethical approval from Kingston
University. The results were analysed via MannWhitney U test and revealed that teams taking their
penalties second won significantly more of the penalty shootouts compared to teams taking the kick
first (P < 0.05). Whilst not significant, penalty
shots become less successful towards the latter stages
of the shootout, and the positional role of the player
demonstrated a trend with defenders scoring 74.4%
(43 penalties) of penalties taken whilst midfielders
and attackers scored 68.4% (76 penalties) and
62.2% (45 penalties), respectively. This study, therefore, suggests that there is an advantage in women’s
soccer for teams taking their penalties second, and
further research is required to examine the mechanisms through which kicking order influences kick
outcome. Future research should also examine the
effects of positional role and kick number in a larger
sample. The results are discussed in relation to
research on coping with pressure and choking, and
implications for intervention are highlighted.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s44–s59, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110324
Day 1. Posters – Sport and Performance
D1.P37. Previous dynamic and ballistic
conditioning contractions can enhance
subsequent throwing performance
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THEODOROS M. BAMPOURAS1* &
JOSEPH I. ESFORMES2
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University of Cumbria; 2Cardiff Metropolitan University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Previous muscle activity can potentiate subsequent
muscle performance, a phenomenon known as postactivation potentiation (Tillin and Bishop, 2009,
Sports Medicine, 39, 147–166). Although the effect of
heavy load dynamic and plyometric conditioning contractions on enhancing subsequent explosive performance acutely has been examined (Esformes,
Cameron, and Bampouras, 2010, Journal of Strength
and Conditioning Research, 24, 1911–1916), little
information exists for using a ballistic activity as conditioning contraction. The purpose of this study was
to determine whether throwing performance could be
enhanced if preceded by heavy dynamic or ballistic
conditioning contractions. Following institutional
approval, 11 male, competitive rugby players (mean
± SD: age 21.0 ± 1.1 years; body mass 91.3 ± 10.2 kg;
height 1.80 ± 0.04 m) performed a ballistic bench
press throw (BBPT) at 40% of 1RM (pre-BBPT)
followed by a 10-min rest and one set of three repetitions of either (a) bench press at ~85% of 1RM
(dynamic) or (b) BBPT at 30% of 1RM (ballistic),
on separate days and in counterbalanced randomised
order. After a 4-min rest, another BBPT (postBBPT) was performed. Peak power (Ppeak), maximum force (Fmax), maximum distance (Dmax), peak
velocity (Vpeak), rate of force development (RFD),
force at peak power ([email protected]) and velocity at peak
power ([email protected]) were measured using a linear position transducer. Friedman’s test was employed to
examine for differences within each variable, followed
by Wilcoxon’s test when significant differences were
identified. Significance level was set at 0.05.
Significant differences were revealed for ballistic
Dpeak (0.20 ± 0.05 m and 0.25 ± 0.05 m for preand post-BBPT, respectively, P < 0.05), and for
both interventions’ Vpeak (ballistic 1.1 ± 0.4 and
1.2 ± 0.3 m · s−1, dynamic 1.0 ± 0.5 and 1.3 ± 0.2
m · s−1 for pre- and post-BBPT, respectively,
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
P < 0.05) and [email protected] (ballistic 1.0 ± 0.4 and
1.2 ± 0.2 m · s−1, dynamic 0.9 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.2
m · s−1 for pre- and post-Biotechnology and
Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC),
respectively, P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that
ballistic conditioning contractions can improve subsequent throwing performance, while performance
improvements that relate to velocity can be enhanced
by both ballistic and dynamic contractions. Although,
on this occasion, the change in velocity was not sufficient to cause a change in power or indeed a shift of
the power curve (Cormie, McBride, and McCaulley,
2009, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,
23, 177–186), future studies should explore different
loads and rest intervals, as power-curve changes have
been shown to be of great importance in monitoring
and performance.
D1.P38. Visual disorders are prevalent
in two groups of high-level sports
people
BRENDAN BARRETT1*, ALICE
CRUICKSHANK1, ALEX MANKOWSKA1,
JON FLAVELL1, NATHAN BEEBE1,
SIMON BENNETT2, JULIE HARRIS3 &
JOHN BUCKLEY1
University of Bradford; 2Liverpool John Moores
University; 3University of St Andrews
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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It has been claimed that excellent vision (“eyesight”)
may contribute to elite sporting performance, particularly in sports with fast-moving targets (Sillero, Refoyo,
Lorenzo, and Sampedro, Perceptual and Motor Skills,
2007, 104, 547–561). However, while vision is clearly
important in sport, claims that better vision contributes
to elite sporting potential have not been well supported
(Barrett, 2009, Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 29,
4–25) . We have received funding from a UK Research
Council (BBSRC) to examine this issue and here we
present results of standard eye examinations conducted with high-level sports players. We examined
prevalence of visual problems amongst two groups
of high-level players, and assessed whether eye
examinations are accessed at recommended
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intervals. Twenty players from a Super-League
Rugby League team and 24 high-level cricketers,
representing the best players from several universities in the north of England, participated. With
institutional ethical approval, we gathered visual
acuity measures in the habitual state (i.e., with
optical correction, if worn when playing sport).
We also determined the presence and extent of
any refractive error (e.g., myopia) and the quality
of co-operation between the eyes. Fifteen (62.5%)
cricketers and 12 rugby players (60%) did not
attend for regular eye examinations. Eleven cricketers (~46%) and six rugby players (30%) had not
attended in the past 2 years, and five cricketers
(21%) and four rugby players (20%) had either
never had an eye examination or the last exam
was >10 years ago. Ten cricketers (42%) and five
rugby players (25%) exhibited a significant visual
issue. Surprisingly, seven cricketers (~29%) and
three rugby players (15%) had refractive disorders
which could impact upon vision in the field, and
which were either uncorrected or were only partially corrected. Our findings agree with results in
US Olympic-level athletes (Laby, Kirschen, and
Pantall, 2011, Eye & Contact Lens, 37, 116–122)
where ~48% had not had a recent eye examination
and 25–33% of athletes had never had an examination. Even amongst high-level players, arrangements are not in place for routine eye examination.
Visual disorders serious enough to affect performance in the field may be prevalent amongst
high-level sports players in general, and these
may go undetected. One possible interpretation of
our findings is that excellent vision is not a prerequisite for high-level sporting performance; however, such a claim would need to be tested by
correcting visual anomalies among elite and aspiring athletes. Our ongoing research aims to understand the significance of not only basic visual
problems, but also the contribution that highlevel visual processing skills may make to sporting
prowess.
D1.P39. The effect of acute beetroot
juice ingestion upon running economy
and maximal exercise performance in
elite International standard runners
LAURENCE BIRDSEY1*, NATALIE
WILLIAMS1,2, VANESSA DAVIES1 &
FELICITY HARES1
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Sport Wales Institute; 2University of Swansea
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*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@laurencebirdsey
Ingestion of nitrates, through concentrated beetroot
juice (BR), can improve performance in competitive
male cyclists (Lansley et al., 2011, Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(6), 1125–1131);
however, limited evidence exists on the effect of
nitrates on economy and performance in elite athletes
(Peeling et al., 2015, International Journal of Spot
Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(3), 278–284.).
This study therefore had two aims: firstly to establish
whether there was an effect of BR on sub-maximal
running economy (RE) and performance of a maximal test to exhaustion (TTE) in elite athletes.
Secondly, to identify those individuals who respond
positively to BR. With institutional ethical approval, 6
international standard athletes (5 male and 1 female)
performed a sub-maximal and maximal test with or
without prior consumption 2.5 h beforehand of two
BR shots (Beet-It sport, James White Drinks Ltd,
Ipswich, UK) in a randomised, repeated measures
design. Testing was separated by 7–10 days and athletes were asked to refrain from eating nitrate-rich
foods the day before or day of testing. Both speed
and time were blinded from athletes during the maximal test. Measurements included expired gas analysis, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, blood
lactate and belief in BR improving performance. At
16 km · h−1 and velocity equating to anaerobic threshold (AT), energy cost of running was significantly
reduced (P = 0.04 and 0.02) with a moderate effect
size (mean reduction = 2.8%, ES = 0.65 at 16 km · h−1
and 2.5%, ES = 0.79 at AT), whilst RE was significantly reduced (P = 0.05) at AT with a moderate
effect size (64.6 ± 2.0, 95% CI: 62.5–66.6 and
63.1 ± 1.9, 95% CI: 61.1–65.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1 for
control and BR, ES = 0.79). The peak rate of oxygen
consumption (VO2peak) was significantly reduced
(P = 0.02) following BR ingestion with a trivial ES
(mean reduction = 1.3%, ES = 0.15), with no change
in TTE, velocity at VO2peak or resting systolic blood
pressure. At sub-maximal speeds, three athletes
showed a positive response following BR ingestion
improving RE by 2.4–5.9%, two of which also ran
for 40 s longer during the maximal test (0.5 km · h−1
faster). Belief was strong throughout the group; however, two athletes had very little belief and had the
smallest effects. Individual responses of elite athletes
vary and BR may have a positive, negative or positive
placebo effect upon RE and performance. Testing the
effectiveness of BR should be encouraged; however, if
athletes currently use BR and have very strong belief
then should not be discouraged from use.
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D1.P40. Session rating of perceived
exertion and the relationship/interaction
on perceived recovery in elite football
players
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SAUL CUTTELL1*, JORDAN HARVEY1,
FLORENCE KINNAFICK2 & KYLE
GENNER1
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Moulton College; 2University of Northampton
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@SaulCuttell
Training below optimal levels can cause failure to
achieve both physical and psychological adaptation,
whilst training above optimal levels can lead to
overtraining. Therefore, it is vital that athletes and
coaches have valid and reliable methods to monitor
training and recovery. Session ratings of perceived
exertion is a method used for monitoring training
load in athletes, which requires the athlete to subjectively rate the intensity of their prior training
session (Wallace et al., 2008, Strength and
Conditioning Journal, 30(6), 72–76). The perceived
recovery scale is a subjective rating scale often used
by athletes and coaches to estimate the recovery
status of an athlete. Despite evidenced success as
measures of training load, there has yet to be an
investigation in to how these subjective measures
relate to recovery status. Therefore, the aim of the
study was to investigate the relationship between
session ratings of perceived exertion and recovery.
Twenty-three male professional football players
were randomly sampled from a professional football club (mean ± SD: 23 ± 5 years). All were
required to complete an informed consent form
prior to data collection and were informed of their
right to withdraw at any point during testing.
Participants were asked to fill out a perceived
recovery status questionnaire every day at the
same time of day for a period of 4 weeks to standardise data collection. Thirty minutes following
each training session participants were asked to
provide a value from the session ratings of perceived exertion scale. Ratings of perceived exertion
load were obtained by multiplying the duration of
each training session (minutes) by the intensity
assigned to that session from the session ratings of
perceived exertion scale. These values were
recorded from the end of a competitive football
session. Session ratings of perceived exertion, ratings of perceived exertion load and perceived
recovery data were analysed using a Pearson’s correlation to determine the relationship between the
different constructs. University of Northampton
and Moulton College ethics committees provided
ethical approval. Significant positive relationships
were found between total wellness and sleep
(r = 0.89, P ≤ .001) and stress (r = 0.76,
P ≤ .001). There was also a significant positive
relationship found between muscle soreness and
fatigue (r = 0.82, P ≤ .001). Session ratings of
perceived exertion also reported a significant negative moderate relationship with sleep (r = −.46,
P ≤ .005). Wellness data and subjective perceptions
of players may provide an easily accessible method
for coaches to monitor training load and further
reduce the chance of injuries.
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D1.P41. Prevalence and risk factors of
musculoskeletal injuries in Lebanese
track and field athletes: an observational
survey
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LANA EL OSTA*, ABDO EL HELOU,
HABIB AIMÉ HATEM, NAZEK
SAADALLAH & NADA EL OSTA
Saint-Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Sports participation involves a certain risk of injuries
that might lead to long-term or even permanent
disability (Alonso et al., 2012, British Journal of
Sports Medicine, 46, 505–514). It is interesting to
acquire knowledge regarding sports injuries, to facilitate the development of treatment protocols and
injury prevention programmes. Our study aims to
ascertain the current prevalence and the determinant
risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among
Lebanese elite track and field athletes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among active Lebanese
athletes aged 18 and above, who participated in the
Lebanese Championship track and field during the
past year. The total number of eligible athletes was
250. Data were collected through an anonymous
structured questionnaire exploring the demographics
and participant characteristics, and the presence of a
musculoskeletal damage at the time of the survey.
Data entry and statistical analyses were carried out
using SPSS for Windows version 18.0, USA. An
ethical committee approval was obtained for the
study (USJ − 2014–02). For the current prevalence
estimate, an athletics injury was defined as a musculoskeletal injury at the time of the survey.
Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine
the factors associated with the athletes’ injuries. A
total of 210 participants completed the questionnaire
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(response rate: 84%): 60.5% were male, and the
mean age was 25.51 ± 6.71 years. The athletes
were categorised into event groups: sprints
(17.6%), middle and long distances (49.5%), throws
(10.5%), jumps (11.9%) and combined events
(10.5%). The current injury prevalence was 40.5%
(95% confidence interval: 33.9–47.1%). Seventeen
participants reported injuries to two body regions,
and two others reported injuries to more than two
regions. Most of the damages affected the lower
extremities (67.9%), mainly knee and leg (26.4%).
The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between the presence of an injury at the time
of the survey and the athletes’ age (P = 0.014), and
height (P = 0.024): older and taller athletes had
more injuries. Moreover, the occurrence of a musculoskeletal condition during the past year was significantly associated with the presence of an injury at
the time of the survey (P < 0.0001). Musculoskeletal
injuries are prevalent in our population. Future prospective studies in track and field are needed to
confirm the relationship between the risk factors
identified and the development of musculoskeletal
injuries, and to recognise more risk factors, in
order to establish appropriate injury prevention
strategies.
D1.P42. Development of a valid and
reliable performance analysis template
for assessing team performance in elite
men’s wheelchair basketball
JOHN FRANCIS1*, GYOZO MOLNAR1,
MICK DONOVAN1 & DEREK M. PETERS1,2
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University of Worcester; 2University of Agdar, Norway
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@johnfrancis91
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their validity, reliability and therefore applicability
to the wheelchair game. The aim of this study was
to design a valid and reliable performance analysis
template for assessing team performance in elite
men’s wheelchair basketball. Following university
ethical approval and to establish expert validity,
three 1-h focus groups were conducted with four
male wheelchair basketball coaches, each with over
10 years of elite-level coaching experience. First a list
of action variables was developed, then the performance definitions were agreed and video clips cut as
agreed examples of each action variables. In total,
115 action variables were agreed and used to create
the coding template in SportsCode Elite V10
(SportsTec Inc., Australia). To establish intra- and
inter-observer reliability for each variable, one-half of
a competitive international men’s wheelchair basketball match was analysed by the first author on two
occasions and by another experienced performance
analyst once. Percentage error tests were utilised to
assess the reliability of each variable and a 5% error
score was deemed acceptable (Bland and Altman,
1986, Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 8,
135–160). Intra-observer reliability identified an
error score of 0% for 105 of the variables with the
other 10 each less than 5%, and inter-observer
reliability achieved an error score of 0% for 103
variables with the remaining 12 each less than 5%.
The study presents a valid and reliable performance
analysis template for assessing team performance in
elite men’s wheelchair basketball that should be used
in future studies in the elite men’s game (e.g., discriminating between successful and unsuccessful
teams). Further research is required to establish its
suitability for use with different levels of performer
and in the women’s game.
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The effective use of performance analysis is an essential component of the high performance strategy of
elite sports teams (Peters and O’Donoghue, 2013,
Performance analysis of Sport IX. London: Routledge)
and Vinson and Peters (2015, Journal of Sports
Sciences, 1–10) have reinforced the need for establishing the validity and reliability of the sub-components of the performance analysis coding template
before it can be used to inform the feedback process.
The four previous performance analysis papers
focussing on wheelchair basketball have however
used performance analysis templates developed
from the running game to evaluate performance
(e.g., Gomez et al., 2014, Journal of Sports Sciences,
32(11), 1066–1075) without any consideration of
D1.P43. Trust within a high
performance sport: a performance
analyst’s perspective
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JOHN FRANCIS1*, GYOZO MOLNAR1,
MICK DONOVAN1& DEREK M. PETERS1,2
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University of Worcester, England; 2University of Agdar,
Norway
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@johnfrancis91
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This study aims to capture and explore my personal
experiences of trust whilst working as a performance
analyst. I began working as a PhD research student
and a high performance Paralympic sport performance analyst in April 2014. To critically analyse
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my role within the team as the sole sports performance analyst, an autoethnographic approach was
adopted. Following ethical approval, I maintained a
self-reflective diary drawing on my thoughts, opinions
and experiences during a 15-month period between
April 2014 and June 2015. I conducted an inductive
thematic content analysis on the recorded reflections
whereby the phenomenon of trust emerged as a key
theme. To explore the importance of trust, I engage
with key theoretical concepts (Hoy and TschannenMoran, 1999, Journal of School Leadership, 9,
184–208; Day, 2009, Journal of Educational
Administration, 47(6), 719–730; Sztompka, 2000,
Trust: A sociological theory, Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press; Hardin, 2002, Trust
and trustworthiness, New York: Russell Sage
Foundation) and draw upon the key personality traits
and characteristics identified for effective sport
science practitioner to excel within their respected
discipline (Partington and Orlick, 1987, The Sport
Psychologist, 1, 309–317; Lubker et al., 2008,
Journal of Sport Behaviour, 31(2), 147–165). Four
essential components for establishing trust
between myself, and the athletes and staff were
identified: appearance and visibility, confidence,
honesty and integrity, and self-care. Stronger athlete–coach–analyst relationships were established
once each team member articulated the four components. Athletes and coaches became attuned to
the importance of performance analysis and a
greater utilisation of the discipline was observed
within the team’s practice. Trust therefore must
be established by a performance analyst between
athletes and coaches in order to advance the provision of performance analysis within a high performance sport system.
D1.P44. Skeletal muscle oxidative
capacity is greater in the dominant
versus non-dominant forearms of rock
climbers
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SIMON FRYER1*, DAVID GILES2,
INMACULADA GARRIDO3, KEERON
STONE1 & VANESA ESPAÑA-ROMERO3
University of Gloucestershire; 2University of Derby;
University of Cádiz, Spain
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@sifry37
time. It has been suggested that higher-level rock
climbers have a greater skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in their dominant forearm (flexor digitorum profundus [FDP]) when compared to their lower-level
counterparts (Fryer et al., 2015, Journal of Sport
Sciences, 33, 518–526). However, rock climbing
routes usually require relatively equal use of both
forearms during an ascent. Therefore, the aim of
this study was to assess the potential differences in
skeletal muscle oxidative capacity between the nondominant and dominant FDP of expert rock climbers. Institutional ethical approval was granted prior
to data collection. Twenty-eight rock climbers ranging in ability levels from French 6a – 9a (age =
34.7 years, s = 6.6; mass = 64 kg, s = 8.9; height =
171.1 cm, s = 8.8) were asked to refrain from caffeine
and strenuous exercise for 24 h prior to testing.
Participants were asked to lie in a supine position
for 15 min of quiet rest. Near-infrared spectroscopy
was used to assess skeletal tissue oxygenation
responses during (3–5 min) and after (5 min) arterial
occlusion at 220 mmHg (Hokanson rapid inflation
cuff) in both the dominant and non-dominant FDP.
After rapid cuff release, the mean time to half recovery (t½r) and time to full recovery (tFr), as determined
by the increase in percentage tissue saturation, were
significantly quicker (P < 0.05) in the dominant compared to the non-dominant FDP (t½r mean difference = 0.37 s, 95% CI: 1.64, 0.1 s; tFr mean
difference = 25.11 s, 95% CI: 22.25, 2.39 s). The
dominant t½r and tFr were 10.2% and 23.9% quicker
compared to the non-dominant flexor, respectively.
The results suggest that oxidative capacity is greater
in the dominant forearm of expert rock climbers and
as such rock climbing coaches, trainers and practitioners should consider focusing training on improving muscle performance in the non-dominant arm.
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D1.P45. Muscle activity and triaxial
accelerations during cross-country
mountain biking and the effect of wheel
diameter
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HOWARD HURST1*, JONATHAN
SINCLAIR1, STEPHEN ATKINS1, LEE
RYLANDS2 & JOHN METCALFE1
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Competitive rock climbing places a large physiological
stress on the forearm flexors for prolonged periods of
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University of Central Lancashire; 2University of Derby
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@Howard_Hurst
The physiological demands of cross-country mountain
biking have been well reported over recent years (Lee
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et al., 2002, Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 1001–1008;
Stapelfeldt et al., 2004, International Journal of Sports
Medicine, 25, 294–300; Prins et al., 2007, Journal of
Sports Sciences, 25, 927–935). However, few studies
have investigated muscle activity during mountain biking or how different bicycle designs may influence this
activity. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel
diameters on muscle activity and muscle acceleration
as an indicator of vibration. With institutional ethical
approval, nine male trained mountain bikers (age =
34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature = 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body
mass = 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study.
Riders were required to perform one lap of a crosscountry course as fast as possible on a 26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and
29ʺ wheeled mountain bike. dsEMG (as a percentage
of dynamic peak task, %DPT) and acceleration (RMS)
were recorded for the whole lap and during specific
ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus
lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. Within
participants one-way repeated measure ANOVAs
were used to determine statistical differences between
wheel sizes and between muscle groups. No significant
main effects were found by wheel size for each of the
four muscles for either sEMG or acceleration (RMS)
during the whole lap for ascent and descent (P > .05).
However, when data were analysed between muscle
groups, significant differences were found between
biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P < .05) for all
wheel sizes and all phases of the laps with the exception
of for the 26ʺ wheel during the descent. Mean sEMG
for the biceps brachii overall was 1.78 ± 1.66,
1.17 ± 0.74 and 1.32 ± 0.69 %DPT, for the 26ʺ,
27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels, respectively. Overall mean
sEMG for the triceps brachii was 3.61 ± 1.28,
3.58 ± 1.34 and 3.66 ± 1.07 %DPT, for the 26ʺ,
27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels, respectively. These findings
indicate that wheel diameter had no influence on the
attenuation of muscle activity or vibration
during cross-country mountain biking on the particular course used. However, more effort was observed in
the biceps brachii during descending on the 26ʺ wheel.
This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre
the front wheel over obstacles, whereas the larger diameter wheels potentially rolled over obstacles more
effectively.
D1.P46. The effect of wheel diameter
on cross-country mountain bike
performance
550
HOWARD HURST1*, JONATHAN
SINCLAIR1, STEPHEN ATKINS1, LEE
RYLANDS2 & JONATHAN METCALFE1
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1
University of Central Lancashire; 2University of Derby
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@Howard_Hurst
Currently, there are three wheel size standards used in
mountain biking, 26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and 29ʺ diameter. Few
studies have researched the influence of these wheel
sizes on cross-country mountain biking performance.
Macdermid et al. (2014, Journal of Biomechanics, 47,
1829–1837) did report significant improvements in
velocity and power output when comparing 29ʺ wheels
to 26ʺ, though no studies have yet looked at the 27.5ʺ
wheel. Therefore, the aim of this research was to ascertain the effect of all three wheel sizes on mountain bike
performance during a cross-country time trial.
Following institutional ethical approval, nine male
trained mountain bikers (age = 34.7 ± 10.7 years;
stature = 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass = 73.2 ± 8.6
kg) participated in the study. Riders were required to
perform a single lap of a 3.48 km cross-country course
as fast as possible on each of the 26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and 29ʺ
wheeled bikes. Lap time (s), power output (W),
cadence (revs · min−1) and velocity (km · h−1) were
recorded for each lap. Within groups one-way repeated
measures ANOVAs were used to determine significant
differences between wheel sizes. No significant main
effect was found for lap time (F(2,16) = .69; P > .05;
ɳ2 = .08), with mean times being 916.11 ± 54.45 s,
923.78 ± 52.93 s and 904.22 ± 54.77 s for the 26ʺ,
27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels, respectively. No significant main
effect was found for mean velocity (F(2,16) = .70;
P > .05; ɳ2 = .08), with mean values of 13.72 ± .77
km · h−1, 13.61 ± .76 km · h−1 and 13.91 ± .84 km · h−1
for the 26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels, respectively. No
significant main effect was found for mean power output (F(2,16) = 2.98; P > .05; ɳ2 = .27), with mean values
of 211.06 ± 28.16 W, 211.50 ± 31.71 W and
220.93 ± 30.43 W for the 26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels.
No significant main effect was also found for mean
cadence (F(2,16) = 3.53; P > .05; ɳ2 = .31), with mean
values of 65.37 ± 5.71 revs · min−1, 66.51 ± 6.81
revs · min−1 and 67.83 ± 5.79 revs · min−1 for the
26ʺ, 27.5ʺ and 29ʺ wheels. This study showed there
were no significant gains from riding a larger diameter
mountain bike wheel over a one lap time trial.
However, if results for one lap were extrapolated over
a full race, the 29ʺ wheel may provide a performance
advantage.
D1.P47. Examining relative age effect
in British Premier League football
MARK JEFFREYS, JOSH CANN & ABBE
BRADY*
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University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@abbebrady
Relative age effect (RAE) occurs when chronological
age and associated physical differences emerge as
strong predictors of selection practices in youth age
grouped cohorts. RAE research has repeatedly
shown how across a range of sports, those born earlier in the age-group are age-advantaged (Cobley
et al., 2009, Sports Medicine, 39(3), 235–256). The
topic of RAE has become a major issue within talent
development and performance programmes because
it has implications for youth participants’ engagement and can be questioned in terms of the extent
to which it supports successful transition to adult
high performance sport. Following institutional ethical approval, the present study sought to examine the
prevalence of RAE via birth date distributions of elite
adolescent and adult male professional footballers in
the British Premier League. This study adopted a
cross-sectional design with birth date data extracted
for three performance-age group squads; U18
(n = 115), U21 (n = 93) and first team (n = 111)
across five Premiership clubs in the 2014–2015 season. Following the work of Cobley et al. (2009) birth
date data across the calendar year were divided into
quarters for analysis (September–November,
December–February, March–May and June–
August). The analysis provides insight to the different performance-age groups at one point in time and
represents a snapshot of trends rather than causal
data. Findings demonstrated that birth date quarter
profiles differed significantly between the three performance-age groups (H(3) = 31.180, P ≤ .000).
Evidence of RAE existed both within the U18s (H
(3) = 14.61, P ≤ .002) and U21s (H(3) = 16.214,
P ≤ .001) but not within first teams (H(3) = 1.475,
P ≤ .688). Trend analysis showed that in both the
U18 and U21 groups the proportion of players born
reduced incrementally by quarter, whereas within
the first team players were more evenly distributed
across respective quarters (26%, 27%, 25% and
22%). The presence of RAE in this sample confirmed trends noted in existing research but also
draws attention to another issue. RAE may confer a
latent disadvantage effect since those with a first
quarter birth date and who may have experienced
age-advantage initially, ironically may have more
chance of being deselected as they move into senior
performance settings because proportionately, their
presence within first team settings was found to
reduce by almost 50%. In order to advance understanding about the RAE this research supports the
recommendation by Cobley et al. (2009) who
proposed the need to examine the processes by
which RAEs magnify and subside.
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D1.P48. Advancing the profiling of
athletes: incorporating coach–athlete
collaboration when interpreting fitness
testing data
BEN JONES*, KEVIN TILL & ANDREW
MANLEY
Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@23benjones
Fitness testing is regularly used within the application of sport science to support athletes. One purpose of fitness testing is to assess athletes’
strengths and weaknesses in comparison to published reference data, thus demonstrating an evidence-based approach to the profiling of athletes
and interpretation of performance data. However,
limitations exist with this process, including comparisons against mean reference data, a lack of
position-specific data, and little consideration for
the athlete or coach’s needs. Therefore, a collaborative approach (inclusive of the player–coach–
sport scientist) would appear advantageous. The
purpose of this applied practice case study is to
propose a player–coach–sport scientist collaborative method of interpreting fitness testing data to
address some of the practical limitations referred
to above. Following institutional ethics approval,
three professional academy rugby league players
were subjected to seven measures: body mass, vertical jump, 10 m and 20 m speed, 10 m momentum (velocity multiplied by body mass), Yo-Yo
test and strength (back squat, bench press, prone
row). Following testing, considering playing position, stage of physical and technical/tactical development, and future goals, each player and three
professional coaches ranked the relative importance of each test (1 = least important; 7 = most
important). This was undertaken collaboratively
with the player and coaches mutually agreeing on
the relative importance of each test. Data were
presented for players as absolute values, Z-scores
in comparison to previously published data (Till
et al., 2014, Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 28, 319–327), and modified (benchmark;
mean + 2 standard deviations) Z-scores. When
data were presented in this way, few differences
existed between the three players (e.g., vertical
jump; absolute data = 48.1, 50.2, 52.2 cm;
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Z-score
=
−0.8,
−0.4,
−0.1;
modified
Z-score = −2.8, −2.4, −2.1), despite differences
reported between the importance of vertical jump
performance based on player–coach ranking (i.e.,
4, 6, 2). When the modified Z-score was multiplied by the player–coach ranking of importance, a
clear differentiation identifying attributes that
needed development was found (e.g., vertical
jump = −11, −15, −4). This case study provides
a novel approach to presenting and interpreting
physiological data, considering the needs of a
player. The study adopted methods from sport
and exercise psychology (Butler and Hardy, 1992,
The Sport Psychologist, 6, 253–264), demonstrating
the importance of interdisciplinary practice. The
profiling of athletes is important to assess current
performance and influence training programme
design and we propose multiplying a modified
Z-score by a factor based on relative importance
may prove a useful tool for players, coaches and
practitioners.
D1.P49. Movement demands of
international rugby league players
during the 2013 Rugby League World
Cup by group stage and position
735
BEN JONES1*, KEVIN TILL1, MICHAEL
CLARKSON1, CHRIS BARNES2, PAUL
BRADLEY1 & CRAIG TWIST3
1
Leeds Beckett University; 2CB Sports Performance Ltd;
University of Chester
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@23benjones
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Rugby league is a high-intensity intermittent collision-based team sport. While the movement
demands have been reported for the domestic
European Super League and Australasian National
Rugby League competitions (Twist et al., 2014,
International Journal of Sports Physiology and
Performance, 9, 925–930), the movement demands
of international match-play remain unknown.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate
the movement demands of international rugby league by playing position (i.e., forwards, outsidebacks, adjustables) and then by stage of competition
(i.e., group or knockout matches). Five matches
(group n = 3; knockout n = 2) inclusive of 168
observations (forwards, group n = 49, knockout
n = 31; outside-backs, group n = 22, knockout
n = 16; adjustables, group n = 30, knockout
n = 20) from the 2013 male rugby league World
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Cup were retrospectively analysed after being collected via a video-computerised, semi-automatic,
match analysis image recognition system (ProZone
3, ProZone®, Leeds, England). Institutional ethics
approval was granted retrospectively. Differences
between playing positions and stage of competition
for total distance, relative distance, maximum velocity, walking, jogging, running, high-speed running
and sprint distance movement variables were analysed using a multivariate analysis of variance
(MANOVA). There was a significant difference for
the movement demands between positions
(P < 0.001). Specific examples include significantly
less total distance covered by forwards (5037 ± 1625
m) than adjustables (6986 ± 2237 m) and backs
(7601 ± 1469 m). Relative distance was significantly
higher for adjustables (93 ± 6 m · min−1) than forwards (88 ± 6 m · min−1) and backs (87 ± 6 m · min−1
). Backs covered significantly more high-speed
running and greater sprint distance (472 ± 144 and
200 ± 87 m) than adjustables (342 ± 133 and
119 ± 72 m) and forwards (241 ± 104 and 73 ± 42
m). Adjustables also covered significantly more highspeed running and greater sprint distance than forwards. No significant differences were observed
between the stage of competition for forwards
(P = 0.144), outside-backs (P = 0.158) or
adjustables (P = 0.363). For the first time, this
study suggests that the movement demands of international rugby league players during a World Cup
competition are comparable with those previously
reported during domestic competitions (~90–95
m · min−1). This study also revealed that the movement demands of international rugby league players
differ by position, but within position remained
unchanged regardless of the stage of the competition
during a World Cup tournament.
D1.P50. The seasonal variation in
anthropometric and performance
characteristics of elite inter-county
Gaelic football players
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RICHARD KELLY1* & KIERAN
COLLINS1,2
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Institute of Technology Tallaght, Ireland; 2Gaelic Sports
Research Centre, Ireland
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Greenline_Rich
Seasonal variations refer to changes in players’ anthropometric or performance characteristics, or both,
throughout a typical competitive season. The aim of
the current study was to assess the anthropometric and
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performance characteristics of an elite inter-county
squad at three time points. Following ethical approval
and informed consent 26 participants were assessed at
the start of preseason (November), following preseason (January) and in-season (March). Measurements
included stature, body mass, sum of 8 skinfold sites
(∑Skf8), estimated body fat (bf%), squat jump (SJ) and
countermovement jump (CMJ) height, 5-, 10- and 20m sprint speed, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench
press (1RM-BP), 1 RM deadlift (1RM-DL) and YoYo
intermittemt recovery test (IRT) 2. A multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine variations. The mean squad stature, body mass,
∑Skf8 and bf% were 183.5 ± 7.5 cm, 85.4 ± 10.4 kg,
96.2 ± 32.4 mm and 12.4 ± 2.6%, respectively.
Anthropometric variations were observed with an
overall increase in participants’ body mass, with subsequent decreases in ∑Skf8 and bf% (−21.5%,
P = .002; −1.43%, P = .004) from November to
March. A positional variation was observed with midfielders having greatest stature (192.4 ± 4.3 cm), while
full-forwards showed highest body mass and adiposity
(93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 130.3 ± 36.4 mm, 15.2 ± 2.7%).
Performance variations showed improvements in average speed over 5 and 10 m (−7%, P = .001; −3.4 %,
P = .008, respectively), SJ (+10.1%, P = .013), CMJ
(+9.8%, P = .013), 1RM-DL (+19.7%, P = .013), YoYo IRT2 (+34.9%, P < .001) and estimated V_ O2max
(8.8%, P < .05) noted from November to March, with
minor
improvements
observed
in
January.
Performance variations (all P < .05) showed half-forwards performed the best for SJ and CMJ
(36.7 ± 4.2 cm, 38.3 ± 4.1 cm, respectively) and
achieved higher distances in the YoYo IRT2
(1432 ± 422 m). Midfielders possessed the lowest
jump height in SJ (30.3 ± 3.8 cm) and CMJ
(31.5 ± 4.1 cm,). Half-backs achieved the fastest sprint
speeds over 5 and 10 m (1.1 ± 0.1 s, 1.8 ± 0.1 s) while
midfielders were significantly slower than all other
positions over 20 m (P = .029). Variations are evident
with respect to anthropometric and performance profiles across a Gaelic football season. Anthropometric
variations are more pronounced following preseason to
in-season, while performance variations are noted
between start of preseason and following preseason.
Applied practitioners should consider these findings
when implementing a season training plan.
D1.P51. The effect of acute fatigue on
countermovement jump performance
in rugby union players during
preseason training
RODNEY KENNEDY1* & DAVID DRAKE2
1
Ulster University; 2Ulster Rugby Club
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
A countermovement jump (CMJ) is routinely used
in many sporting settings to provide a functional
measure of neuromuscular fatigue. However, the
variables that are most sensitive to fatigue remain
somewhat
unclear
(Gathercole,
Sporer,
Stellingwerff, and Sleivert, 2015, International
Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10,
84–92). The aim of this study was to examine the
usefulness of selected CMJ variables to monitor the
post-exercise fatigue and recovery cycle. With institutional ethics approval, nine male academy rugby
union players performed five CMJ trials on three
occasions, at baseline, 24 h and 48 h post-baseline.
The fatiguing protocol consisted of a typical intense
training day during the preseason period (speed/
skills training AM and resistance training PM). A
total of 21 CMJ variables were derived from the
force–time curve, 15 relating to output (CMJOUT) and 6 relating to the mechanics of the jump
(CMJ-MEC). Data were analysed using a repeated
measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post
hoc comparisons. There were no significant differences for any CMJ variable at the 24 h time point. At
48 h, three CMJ-MEC variables (eccentric duration,
total duration and the force at zero velocity) demonstrated a significant decrement in performance when
compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Neuromuscular
fatigue may manifest itself as an altered movement
strategy rather than a simple reduction in physical
output, when measured using a CMJ. Practitioners
are therefore advised to incorporate CMJ-MEC variables when trying to identify subtle changes in the
bimodal recovery pattern associated with stretchshortening cycle induced fatigue. Such information
may help with the prescription of optimal training
loads, whilst attempting to avoid overtraining and
injury.
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D1.P52. Lower body compression tights
elicit a practically significant benefit on 905
sub-maximal running economy but not
vertical jump performance
CHRIS MCMANUS1*, KELLY MURRAY1,
NICHOLAS MORGAN2 & DAVID PARRY1
1
University of Essex; 2Sports Integrated Ltd
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@chrismcmanus1
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Despite their popularity, limited evidence supports the
purported ergogenic benefit of compression clothing
whilst running and during vertical jump exercise. The
aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of
correctly sized (CSG) and oversized compression
tights (OSG) on running and vertical jump performance when compared with normal running shorts
(CT). In a randomised crossover trial, 11 recreationally active participants completed a steady state run (15
min at 60% of the velocity associated with VO2max (v_vO2max)), 5 repeated countermovement jumps (CMJ)
pre- and post-steady state run and a time to exhaustion
(TTE) test at 100% v-_vO2max on 3 separate occasions.
Running economy (RE), rating of perceived exertion
(RPE) and blood lactate were measured during and
post-steady state run. Peak and mean concentric force
(mean of 5), jump height (impulse method) and flight
time were measured during the CMJ trials. Ethical
approval was granted by the university ethics committee prior to the investigation commencing. Magnitudebased inferences were used to determine if lower body
compression garments demonstrated any performance
and/or physiological benefits. A likely practically significant improvement (96%:4%:0%; η2 = 0.6) in RE at
60% v-_vO2max was observed in the CSG condition
when compared with CT (CT: 214.2 ± 11.6 ml · kg−1
· km−1; OSG: 211.2 ± 10.4 ml · kg−1 · km−1; CSG:
207.4 ± 10.8 ml · kg−1 · km−1). All CMJ variables,
RPE, blood lactate and TTE reported unclear differences between garment conditions. The findings suggest that the wearing of correctly fitted compression
garments has a likely benefit towards improving submaximal running economy but limited effect on vertical jump performance.
D1.P53. Differences in the pacing
patterns of female medallists and nonmedallists in the 400-m freestyle
swimming event
GRAHAM MYTTON1,2*, DAVID
ARCHER3, PENNY RUMBOLD3 & ALAN
ST CLAIR GIBSON4
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Sunderland College; 2Northumbria University;
Sunderland University; 4Free State University, South
Africa
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
3
Sex differences in pacing patterns are reported in
triathlons (Vleck et al., 2008, Journal of Science and
Medicine in Sport, 11, 424–432) and 1-mile runs
(Foster et al., 2014, International Journal of Sports
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Physiology and Performance, 9, 715–719) but not in
100- to 1500-m swimming events (Robertson et al.,
2009, Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 387–395).
Successful pacing patterns for males, i.e., those leading
to a medal winning performance, can be identified
using competition data in the 400-m freestyle swim
(Mytton et al., 2015, International Journal of Sports
Physiology and Performance, 10, 369–373). Given the
lack of existing research, the aim of this study was to
identify successful pacing patterns in the 400-m freestyle swim for elite females. Following approval from
Northumbria University ethics committee, 100-m split
times were collected from finals in the 400-m freestyle
between 2006 and 2012 including European, World
and Commonwealth competitions. Times from 48
performances were converted into normalised lap
speed, compared between medallists and non-medallists and relative to the gold medallist. A Kruskal–
Wallis test was followed by an estimation of the magnitude of the effect (Cohen’s d). Female medallists
display a significantly faster normalised speed in lap 3
(P = 0.030, moderate effect) and lap 4 (P = 0.015,
moderate effect) compared to non-medallists but were
slower in lap 2 (P = 0.006 moderate effect). When
expressed relative to the gold medallist, the lower finishing places swam significantly slower in laps 1, 3 and
4 (P = 0.045, 0.009 and 0.001, respectively) but not
compared to second and third places. To win a medal
in 400-m swimming, it appears necessary to vary pace
by adopting a more conservative pace in the early
stages of a race to allow for a relatively greater increase
in speed at the end resulting in a U-shaped pattern.
The successful female athletes demonstrated this by
conserving energy in the second lap thereby preserving
capacity for an end-spurt due to a lower prior physiological disturbance. The U-shaped pattern was flatter
than observed in male swimmers who reduced speed
to a greater extent early on and increased speed more
later on (Mytton et al., 2015). More research is needed
to understand why this flatter profile exists, for example it could be that females have less confidence to
conserve speed early in a race and therefore don’t
have the same reserves by the end or the opposite
could be true and that over-confidence early on leads
to less reserves at the end of the race. Alternatively,
females may not be required to increase their speed as
much in the latter stages in order to win because the
winning margins are greater than in the men’s event.
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D1.P54. Training load and movement
demands of English adolescent rugby
union players
PADRAIC PHIBBS1,2*, BEN JONES1,2 &
KEVIN TILL1,2
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Leeds Beckett University; 2Yorkshire Carnegie Rugby
Union Football Club
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@PadraicPhibbs
Understanding the specific training load undertaken by adolescent rugby union players is important, as both insufficient and excessive training
loads during adolescence may impede optimal athletic development, health and well-being (Gabbett
et al., 2014, Sports Medicine, 7, 989–1003). A
greater understanding of the demands of adolescent rugby union training will enable maximal
performance progression, whilst simultaneously
reducing the participants’ likelihood of exposure
to negative training effects. English adolescent
rugby union players compete in various recreational and representative playing standards,
although to date the differences in training
demands between the respective standards are not
known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
investigate the differences in field-based training
load and movement demands of adolescent rugby
union players by age category and playing standard. With institutional ethics approval, 170 adolescent rugby union players (age = 16.1 ± 1.0
years) were recruited from 10 teams, and
categorised into 6 independent groups; U16School, U16-Club, U16-Academy, U18-School,
U18-Club and U18-Academy. All training practices were monitored over a 7-day in-season microcycle via global positioning systems, triaxial
accelerometers, heart rate telemetry and sessionrating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) methods to
quantify the overall training load and movement
demands. Mean data were calculated for each participant from their respective weekly sessions to
control for multiple and uneven observations.
Differences between groups were analysed using
one-way analysis of variance. Weekly training frequency was highest for U18-School (3 ± 0), followed by U16-School and U18-Academy (2 ± 0)
and lowest for U16-Academy, U16-Club and U18Club (1 ± 0). Session duration was highest for
U18-Club and lowest for U16-Academy (70 ± 9
vs. 48 ± 5 min; P ≤ 0.001). Significant differences
were also found between groups for training loads
(P ≤ 0.001), with U18-Academy presenting the
highest s-RPE (236 ± 42 AU), total distance
(4176
±
433
m),
high-speed
running
(1270 ± 288 m) and Player LoadTM (424 ± 56
AU). Median per cent time stationary ranged from
24% to 37%, whilst very high speed running (>21
km · h−1) was 0% for all groups. This study
showed that the training load was greatest for
U18-Academy rugby union players, and the training demands differed between groups. Of significance regarding speed development and injury
prevention, all groups were exposed to low
volumes of very high speed running during training. Consequently, adolescent rugby union players
may not be adequately prepared for the rigours of
competition due to the inferior training demands
in comparison to match play.
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D1.P55. A comparison of rugby union
match demands between age group
categories in UK representative
adolescent players
DALE READ1,2*, BEN JONES1,2 & KEVIN
TILL1,2
Leeds Beckett University; 2Yorkshire Carnegie Rugby
Union Football Club
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@DaleRead4
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The physical match demands for professional
rugby union are well established (Cahill et al.,
2013, Journal of Sports Science, 31, 299–237).
However, there is a lack of evidence for adolescent players, especially in the UK. Therefore, the
purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the demands placed upon adolescent players
representing county teams across three age groups
(U16, U18 and U20) and two playing positions
(forwards and backs). Two county representative
games for each age group were assessed, with a
total of 112 independent observations collected.
Players were classified into age group categories
and by position (forwards; U16 [n = 20], U18
[n = 21], U20 [n = 18] and backs; U16
[n = 15], U18 [n = 19], U20 [n = 19]). Match
demands were analysed via a microtechnology
unit (OptimEye X4, Catapult Innovations,
Melbourne, Australia) that contained a GPS system and triaxial accelerometer sampling at 10 and
100 Hz, respectively. The magnitudes of difference between age groups within positions for
locomotive and accelerometer-based variables
were investigated using Cohen’s d effect sizes
(±90% CI). Institutional ethical approval was
granted. For forwards, unclear differences
between age groups were observed for total distance (TD), but relative distance (RD) showed
very large (U16 vs. U20; d = −2.87 ± 0.53) and
large (U18 vs. U20; d = −1.81 ± 0.52) differences
between groups. Moderate effect sizes were found
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for both maximum sprint velocity (Vmax;
d = −1.03 ± 0.53) and total sprinting distance
(d = −0.78 ± 0.53) between U16 and U20.
When normalised for time, PlayerLoadSlow TM
(PLslow · min−1) increased with age, showing
moderate
effects
for
U16
versus
U18
(d = 0.68 ± 0.52) and U16 versus U20
(d = 0.80 ± 0.54). For backs, unclear differences
between age groups were observed for TD, but
RD showed moderate differences U16 versus U20
(d = −0.88 ± 0.58) and U18 versus U20
(d = −1.01 ± 0.54). Small effect sizes were
observed for Vmax (d = −0.52 ± 0.54) and total
sprinting distance (d = −0.46 ± 0.54) between
U18 and U20, whereas U16 versus U20 showed
a small difference for Vmax only (d = −0.46 ± 56).
PLslow · min−1 increased with age, demonstrating
a moderate difference between U16 and U18
(d = 0.86 ± 0.57) and a small difference between
U16 and U20 (d = 0.56 ± 0.57). This study
shows that the absolute locomotive demands are
similar between age groups, although when
expressed relative to time, differences were
found. This is likely due to difference in playing
time between age groups and the consequent fatigue and/or pacing strategies adopted by players.
The increase in PLslow · min−1 with age suggests
an increase in static exertions. Future research
should look to explore the interaction between
physical and technical performances at different
ages of adolescent rugby.
D1.P56. The effect of previous
hamstring injury on eccentric kneeflexor strength in professional rugby
union
JORDAN SIENIAWSKI1, KATE EVANS2,3*,
ANTHONY SHIELD4, DAVID OPAR5,
JONATHAN HUGHES6 & MORGAN
WILLIAMS1
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University of South Wales, UK; 2University of Wales
Trinity Saint David, UK; 3Newport Gwent Dragons;
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Queensland University of Technology, Australia;
5
Australian Catholic University, Australia; 6University of
Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most prevalent of all injuries in sports that involve high-speed
running (Opar et al., 2013, American Journal of Sports
Medicine, 41, 116–125). Once injured the probability
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of reoccurrence is high and re-injured HSIs are generally more severe resulting in more time before
return to play (Opar et al., 2012, Sports Medicine,
42, 209–226). Eccentric knee-flexor weakness and
between-limb imbalances in eccentric knee-flexor
strength are associated with those athletes with history of HSI in other sports; however, these variables
have not been explored in rugby union. The aim of
this study was to determine if lower levels of
eccentric knee-flexor strength or greater betweenlimb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic
hamstring exercise are present in those players with a
history of HSI. With institutional ethical approval,
this case-controlled study involved 29 professional
rugby union players (age = 24.8 ± 3.8 years;
height = 185 ± 6.8 cm; mass = 104.7 ± 13.08 kg)
having their eccentric knee-flexor strength assessed
using a custom-made device during the preseason.
Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin
and calf injury in the last 12 months and history of
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at any stage
in the player’s career were obtained. HSI was
defined as acute pain in the posterior thigh that
caused immediate cessation of exercise and damage
to the muscle and/or tendon, which was confirmed
with magnetic resonance imaging or diagnostic ultrasound examination. Fifteen players had previous
HSI. Players with a history of HSI had a 9% (95%
CI = 3–14%; P = 0.005) greater between-limb
imbalance than players with no history of hamstring
injury. This finding supports persistent weakness
despite returning to play and suggests that those
players may be at risk of future injury.
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D1.P57. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion
dose–response relationship
REBECCA STANNARD*, SIMON COOPER
& CRAIG SALE
Nottingham Trent University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@RebeccaStannard
High-intensity exercise results in increased hydrogen
cation (H+) production in the working muscle, reducing intracellular pH and potentially resulting in muscular fatigue. To reduce H+ accumulation and thus
muscular fatigue, alkalinising agents such as sodium
bicarbonate (NaHCO3) are ingested to defend against
these local changes. Athletes are widely recommended
to consume NaHCO3 in doses of 0.2–0.4 g · kg−1 BM
to increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, supporting this defensive buffering process. Despite this, the
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Day 1. Posters – Sport and Performance
dose–response relationship of blood responses (pH,
bicarbonate and base excess) following ingestion of
different doses of NaHCO3 has not been well studied.
Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to
examine the effect of different NaHCO3 doses on
pH, bicarbonate and base excess. Following institutional ethical approval, 16 healthy young males (age,
23 ± 2 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass,
78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three sessions, ingesting a
single dose (0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g · kg−1 BM) of NaHCO3
(Intralabs, UK) on each occasion. Capillary blood
samples were obtained at baseline and every 10 min
for 1 h, then every 15 min for a further 2 h. Data were
analysed using repeated measures ANOVA; significance was accepted at P < 0.05. There was a significant
main effect of dose on pH, bicarbonate and base excess
(all P < 0.001). The 0.1 g · kg−1 BM dose responses
were significantly lower than the 0.2 g · kg−1 BM (pH,
bicarbonate and base excess; all P < 0.003) and 0.3
g · kg−1 BM (pH, bicarbonate and base excess; all
P < 0.001) doses. Likewise following 0.3 g · kg−1 BM
bicarbonate and base excess responses were higher
than responses following 0.2 g · kg−1 BM (both
P < 0.01). Furthermore, for all assessed variables, a
large inter-individual variability in absolute peak
responses and the timing of the peaks relative to ingestion was shown. The main findings of the present study
are that the blood responses (pH, bicarbonate and base
excess) following NaHCO3 ingestion are increased,
and although the magnitude of the change is greater
with larger doses of NaHCO3, there is a considerable
degree of inter-individual variability. Evaluation of the
individual responses to sodium bicarbonate ingestion
starts to question whether the most commonly implemented supplementation protocol of 0.3 g · kg−1 BM
administered ~60 min prior to performance is the most
beneficial for all individuals. Due to the reported high
levels of inter-individual variability, an important practical consideration for athletes ingesting NaHCO3 is to
individualise the protocols undertaken and ensure that
they are tested prior to use in competition.
D1.P58. Maximal 30-s cycle ergometer
test performance is not affected by
changes in priming load
CHRIS TALBOT*, COREY BROOKES &
MATHEW HILL
1270
The University of Northampton
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
A maximal 30-s cycle ergometer sprint test is used
regularly in sport, exercise, clinical and paediatric
research. However, the priming load, generally the
same as the test load, has received little attention
since the test’s inception in the 1970s. This study
aimed to assess whether changes in priming load
affect performance during a maximal 30-s cycle
ergometer sprint test. Following institutional ethical
approval, 20 male collegiate level footballers (age =
20.5, s = 1.2 years; mass = 74.7, s = 6.6 kg; height
= 1.79, s = 0.05 m) volunteered for the study. All
tests were completed on a mechanically braked ergometer. Participants completed four maximal 30-s
tests (load applied at 60 rev · min−1) against 7.5%
body mass (BM; kilograms) with a minimum of 72
h, recovery between each test. During each test,
power output (watts; W) was recorded for, correct
peak power output (PPO), corrected mean power
output (MPO) and time (s) to corrected PPO. Prior
to each test, during 5 min of unloaded cycling, a
priming sprint of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% BM was
applied three times for 3 s at 2 min, 3 min and 4
min. As the data were non-normally distributed,
differences in priming variables were analysed
using Friedman’s ANOVA (SPSS v22.0; SPSS
Inc., Chicago, IL). Changes in priming load had
no effect on corrected PPO (P = 0.286), with the
greatest difference between corrected PPO of 32 W
between 10% and 5% (921 s = 147 W vs. 889
s = 149 W, ES = 0.22, respectively). There was
no effect on time to corrected PPO (P = 0.757),
although time was quicker at 2.5% and 10% compared to 5% (4 s = 2 s vs. 5 s = 5 s, ES = 0.61,
respectively). Priming load had no effect on corrected MPO (P = 0.339) with the greatest difference between 10% and 5% (638 s = 83 W, vs. 618
s = 89 W, ES = 0.24, respectively). All corrected
mean and PPO variations were within the expected
variation of 5% (Malone et al., 2014, Isokinetics and
Exercise Science, 22, 251–258). Maximal 30-s cycle
ergometer sprint performance is not substantially
affected by changes in priming load. For practicality
when using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer
a 7.5% BM priming load is recommended for a
maximal 30-s 7.5% BM test.
D1.P59. Match play demands of 11
versus 11 professional football using
global positioning system tracking:
variations across common playing
formations
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PETER TIERNEY1*, ANDREW YOUNG1,
NEIL CLARKE2 & MICHAEL DUNCAN2
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Coventry City Football Club; 2Coventry University
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*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Global positioning systems (GPS) have become
increasingly popular in team sports, quantifying
movements such as total distance covered, accelerations, decelerations, changes of direction and various
speed distances (Vickery et al., 2014, Journal of
Strength and Conditioning Research, 28,1697–1705).
These recent developments allow for player movement and energy costs to be determined more precisely; these elicit a better understanding of the
physiological characteristics required to perform at
Elite level football in various formations (Castellano,
Alvarez-Pastor, and Bradley, 2014, Sports Medicine,
44, 70–712). This study was descriptive and sought
to examine GPS determined patterns of match play
across the 5 most common playing formations
employed in 11 versus 11 match play in Elite level
u21 and u18s football in England (4-4-2; 4-3-3; 3-52; 3-4-3; 4-2-3-1). With institutional ethics approval
46 elite, male footballers (mean age = 20 ± 3.4 years,
height = 179 ± 4.72 cm, body mass = 79.51 ± 3.25
kg and estimated body fat percentage of 6.9 ± 1.5%)
wore 10 Hz (GPS) units (Statsports Technologies
Ltd, Northern Ireland) over a 30-week period during
53 competitive matches. Data collected for analysis
from individually worn (GPS) units included: total
distance (TD) covered measured in metres, high
speed running (HSR) – all running ≥19.8 km · h−1
measured in metres, high metabolic load distance
(HMLD) measuring all HSR and all accelerations
and decelerations ≥2 m · s−2 measured in metres.
Number of High Accelerations (Acc) and
Decelerations (Dec) ≥3 m · s−2. For analysis, players
were grouped into five common positional categories: forwards (FW), central midfield (CM), wide
midfield (WMF), central defenders (CD) and wide
defenders (WD) and assessed with a two-way
ANOVA. Total match averages comparing each
positional group showed CM covered the greatest
TD (10,582 ± 707 m) and CD the least
(9757 ± 548 m). WMF covered the greatest HSR
(720 ± 128 m) and CD the least (415 ± 90 m). CM
covered the greatest HMLD (1863 ± 430 m) and
CD the least (1588 ± 329 m). FW performed highest
amount of Acc (38 ± 12) and CD the least (26 ± 7).
WMF performed highest amount of Dec (64 ± 9)
and CD the least (46 ± 9). Comparing positional
differences across all formations showed that CM in
4-3-3 covered the greatest TD (11,527 ± 564 m)
>22% compared to in 4-4-2. FW in 3-5-2 covered
greatest HSR (904 ± 120 m) >45% compared to in
4-2-3-1. CM in 4-3-3 covered greatest HMLD
(551 ± 18 m) >13.6% compared to in 4-4-2. FW
in 4-3-3 greatest Acc (47 ± 13) >57% compared to
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in 4-2-3-1. WMF in 3-5-2 covered greatest Dec
(75 ± 4) >29% compared to in 4-4-2. This study
identifies positional physical characteristics and the
demands imposed from different formations which
can help coaches better understand and therefore
periodise training according to these demands.
D1.P60. Influence of increasing the
number of directional changes on
intermittent shuttle running
performance
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CRAIG TWIST*, LAURA ISHERWOOD,
FAYE REID, LIAM MCGOWAN & JAMIE
HIGHTON
University of Chester
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@craig_twist
Shuttle running is a common method employed in
the training and monitoring of team sport athletes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence
of altering the number of changes of direction on the
physiological, perceptual and performance responses
during intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion.
With institutional ethics approval, 11 male team
sport players (mean age = 20.2 years, s = 1.2; stature
= 1.80 m, s = 0.7 m; body mass = 74.6 kg, s = 4.1;
_ 2max = 51.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1, s = 4.1) completed
VO
two intermittent shuttle running trials to exhaustion
in a randomised crossover design. Participants ran
back and forth on a linear course at speeds corre_ 2max, with speed
sponding to 55% and 95% of VO
alternating every 20 m. Shuttles were performed on
an outdoor running track and were in the format of
either: (i) 1 × 20 m linear shuttle (ISR20), (ii) 2 × 10
_ 2, heart
m linear shuttles (ISR10). Measures of VO
rate, RPE, blood lactate concentration and time to
exhaustion were recorded during each trial.
Differences between trials were reported using the
effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence interval (90% CI).
Time to exhaustion was most likely shorter in ISR10
(mean = 3.2 min, s = 2.6) compared to ISR20 (mean
= 15.8 min, s = 7.8; ES ± 90% CI: −1.48 ± 0.43).
_ 2 (ES ± 90% CI:
Differences in mean VO
_ 2 (ES ± 90% CI:
0.27 ± 0.80), peak VO
0.13 ± 0.43), mean heart rate (ES ± 90% CI:
0.11 ± 0.54) and peak heart rate (ES ± 90% CI:
0.24 ± 0.56) were unclear between ISR10 and
ISR20 trials. Post exercise blood lactate concentration was most likely higher in ISR10 (mean =
8.9 mmol · L−1, s = 4.1) compared to ISR20
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Day 1. Posters – Sport and Performance
(mean = 4.4 mmol · L−1, s = 1.9; ES ± 90% CI:
2.16 ± 1.09). Similarly, mean RPE was very likely
higher in ISR10 (mean = 17.6, s = 1.4) compared to
ISR20 (mean = 15.7, s = 2.5; ES ± 90% CI:
0.67 ± 0.43). Greater metabolic and mechanical
stress is likely to have influenced the higher RPE
during intermittent shuttle running with an
increased number of turns that resulted in a shorter
time to exhaustion. Practitioners using intermittent
shuttle running for training and monitoring purposes
should be mindful of the reductions in exercise tolerance when an increased number of turns are
employed.
D1.P61. The effectiveness of different
visual skills training programmes on
elite cricket players
ZÖE WIMSHURST1*, PAUL SOWDEN2 &
MARCO CARDINALE3,4
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The area of generalised visual training is one which
divides opinion. Few studies have shown the potential for generic visual skills to improve visual performance in sport while most interventions seem to be
unsuccessful. Mostly, there is a paucity of studies
involving elite performers exposed to visual training
programmes which are becoming popular in the
sporting domain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a visual training programme on
visual and cricket skills compared to a control intervention. All procedures complied with British
Psychological Society ethical guidelines. Twentyfour male county cricket players (mean age =
24.38 ± 3.29 years) were pre- and post-tested on
14 visual and 7 cricket tasks. The visual tests were
designed to assess different elements of vision
required when playing cricket such as eye–hand coordination, speed of eye movements, peripheral
awareness and depth perception. The cricket tests
covered a range of throwing, catching and batting
skills. Participants were randomly divided into four
groups and underwent a 6-week visual training programme consisting of practical drills (P), online
training (O), Nintendo Wii games (W) or a control
intervention (C). Analysis showed that all experimental groups significantly improved from pre- to
post-test, whereas the C group showed no significant
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D1.P62. The effects of barefoot running
on 5 km performance
ASHLEY WARNER*, GRANT ABT & PHIL
MARSHALL
1
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Southampton Solent University; 2University of Surrey;
3
Aspire Academy, Qatar; 4University College London;
5
University of Aberdeen
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@zoewimshurst
improvement. The three visual training methods
implemented in this study were able to improve
visual and cricket skills more than training on cricket
skills alone and being exposed only to a control
intervention. This supports previous studies supporting that visual skills can improve through many
repetitions of training (e.g., Long and Riggs, 1991,
Perception,20, 363–371; Fujita et al., 2002, Brain
Research. Cognitive Brain Research,13, 41–52). The
improvement in cricket skills observed in this study
seems to support Wilson and Falkel’s (2004, Sports
vision: Training for better performance. Champaign, IL:
Human Kinetics) suggestion that improvements in
visual skills might influence “on-field” improvements in performance.
1500
University of Hull
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Barefoot running has been linked to a reduction in
landing impact force (Lieberman et al., 2010,
Nature, 463, 531-U149) and improved running
economy (Perl et al., 2012, Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise, 44, 1335–1343), its effect on
performance is unreported. Therefore, the aim of
this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on 5 km running performance. With institutional ethics approval, 10 healthy competitive
runners (8 male, 2 female) participated in the
study. All participants had a minimum of 6 months
barefoot or minimal-footwear running experience.
Participants performed barefoot, shod and hybrid
(forefoot strike patterns in shod) trials in a randomised order. For each trial participants performed a
5-km “race pace” time trial on a motorised treadmill,
with VO2, heart rate and RPE measured throughout.
Data were analysed using Cohen’s d and 90% confidence intervals. Results indicated a small reduction
in time to complete 5 km in the barefoot trial compared to the shod trial (d = 0.44; 90% CI = 0.31 to
0.57) and a small reduction in time in the barefoot
trial compared to the hybrid trial (d = 0.36; 90%
CI = 0.34 to 0.56). Differences between hybrid and
shod were trivial (d = 0.02; 90% CI = −0.08 to
0.12). Actual values for 5 km completion were: barefoot: 24.2 ± 3.2 min; shod: 26.5 ± 2.5 min; and
hybrid: 26.2 ± 2.9 min. Differences in VO2 were
likely trivial between all conditions. Differences in
heart rate were unclear for barefoot versus shod
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(d = −0.27; 90% CI = −0.85 to 0.31), barefoot
versus hybrid (d = −0.46; 90% CI = −1.27 to 0.34)
and hybrid versus shod (d = −0.20; 90% CI = −0.68
to 0.28) trials. Average heart rate values for trials
were: barefoot: 170 ± 10 bpm, shod:
168.6 ± 10.1 bpm and hybrid 165.4 ± 12.4 bpm.
Differences in RPE were also unclear for barefoot
versus shod (d = 0.25; 90% CI = −0.60 to 0.59) and
barefoot versus hybrid (d = −0.18; 90% CI = −0.60
to 0.24), but hybrid versus shod resulted in a
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possible small reduction in RPE in the shod trial
(d = −0.42; 90% CI = −0.83 to −0.02). RPE values
across trials were as follows: barefoot: 14.3 ± 1.2,
shod: 14.6 ± 0.8 and hybrid 14 ± 1. Results indicate
a small improvement in 5 km performance in the
barefoot condition compared to both hybrid and
shod; it is unclear if this is due to barefoot running
causing an improved performance, or whether performance is reduced when experienced barefoot runners perform in shod conditions.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110325
Day 1. Posters – Teaching and Learning
5
D1.P64. Ruminations on current and
future learning and teaching issues and
challenges within the discipline of sport
and exercise science
DAVID ALDOUS*, ANDREW MILES &
RICHARD TONG
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@dcraldous
The focus of the paper draws upon qualitative data
collected as part of a Higher Education Academy
(HEA) and British Association of Sport and
Exercise Sciences (BASES) project concerned with
understanding the issues and challenges of learning
and teaching. Following institutional ethical
approval, three focus groups were conducted.
From the original 31 volunteers, a total of 19 participants were allocated within the three groups based
on their geographical location. Participants reflected
a range of expertise and academic backgrounds that
included teaching fellows and programme directors.
The focus groups were framed around a preset of
questions provided by the HEA. These questions
provided participants with the opportunity to discuss their issues and challenges of learning and
teaching while also considering how learning and
teaching may evolve in the future. Each focus
group discussion lasted between 90 and 120 min
and were recorded and transcribed verbatim.
Thereafter, a thematic data analysis approach was
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
adopted. Themes for the analysis were centred on
those initially provided by the HEA. Each member
of the research team was provided with copies of the
transcripts and was asked to code them using the
agreed themes. The purpose of individual analysis
was to provide a theoretical, methodological sounding board to encourage reflection on, and exploration of, alternative interpretations of the focus group
discussions. This was crucial in ensuring the validity
and trustworthiness of the data. The results of the
focus group discussions highlighted an eclectic and
complex range of issues and challenges currently
facing sport and exercise science. Participants identified the challenge of aligning sport and exercise
curricula against a variety of competing external
agendas, including those presented by accreditation
bodies within the sport sector and those generic to
wider HE policy such as employability and good
honours degree classification. Furthermore, participants identified how students’ ability and willingness to synthesise knowledge within programmes
posed a number of pedagogical challenges. With
these in mind, participants identified the need to
increase the space and time devoted to developing
learning and teaching knowledge, pedagogies and
practice within departments. Similarly, participants
also highlighted the need for further value to be
placed on learning and teaching knowledge and
practice within the discipline. The results of the
study strongly emphasised the need for the discipline of sport and exercise science to begin evolving
learning and teaching policy and practice, in line
with HEA accreditation and the introduction of
the Teaching Excellence Framework.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s61–s64, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110326
Day 2. Free Communications – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
D2.S2.5(1). The effect of knee pads on
lower limb biomechanics during
volleyball
5
HANNAH LAWRIE*, GRAHAM ARNOLD,
SADIQ NASIR, WEIJIE WANG & RAMI
ABBOUD
University of Dundee
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Knee pads are used by volleyball athletes to protect
against direct impact injuries when falling. Despite
debate as to whether knee pads restrict movement,
and therefore affect performance, it has never
been explored scientifically. This study aimed to
assess the kinematic effect of knee pads on volleyball
movements and compare two styles of knee pads in
order to identify any differences. With institutional
ethics approval 26 volleyball athletes were recruited
for the study, 12 male (age 21 ± 1.9 years, height
182.4 ± 8.0 cm and mass 81.5 ± 18.7 kg) and 14
female (age 20.7 ± 1.4 years, height 167.9 ± 7.9 cm
and mass 60.5 ± 7.2 kg). Rucanor® Smash and
McDavid™ Ultra knee pads were assessed. Bare
knees and each pad were compared using Vicon©
Nexus and lower body labelling during running,
squatting and an outside hit (approach sequence,
jump and land). Results displayed that both types
of knee pad affect movement; however, during the
outside hit, McDavid pads were found to cause
greater changes. Knee flexion was reduced during
landing from an outside attack hit when knee pads
were worn. On the right knee, bare knees allowed
75.10°, Rucanor only 67.28° (difference of 7.8°,
P < 0.020) and McDavid only 62.32° (difference
of 12.8°, P < 0.001). On the left knee, bare knees
allowed 77.75° flexion, McDavid only 66.52° (difference of 11.2°, P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference with Rucanor. An increase in
abduction of the foot and an increase in internal
rotation at the hip is also seen when knee pads are
worn during all movements. It has been previously
found (Bisseling et al., 2007, British Journal of Sports
Medicine, 41, e8–e8; Bisseling et al., 2008, British
Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(6), 483–489) that
reduced knee flexion on landing increases the risk
of patellar tendinopathy. The current study found
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
knee pads to alter an athlete’s positioning to
increase risk of non-contact ACL injury, as
described by Ireland (1999, Journal of Athletic
Training, 34(2), 150–154). Players at a higher risk
for patellar tendinopathy and non-contact ACL
injury (those that regularly jump) should not wear
knee pads to reduce their risk of injury. However, if
an athlete wears knee pads they should consider
wearing them consistently to allow their play to
adapt, allowing them to make the most of their
ability, despite potentially hindering their movement. Knee pad design should be improved to
allow protection on impact without impairing an
athlete’s movement.
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D2.S2.5(2). The relationship between
three-dimensional spinal kinematics
and shoulder counterrotation during
fast bowling in cricket
BILLY SENINGTON1*, RAYMOND Y
LEE2 & JONATHAN M WILLIAMS1
1
Bournemouth
University
University;
2
London
South
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Bank
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
Shoulder counterrotation (SCR) in excess of 40° has
been reported to significantly increase risk of lower
back injury to fast bowlers (Portus et al., 2004,
Sports Biomechanics, 3(2), 263–284). However,
SCR as a measurement fails to describe true spinal
kinematics, only reporting change in shoulder alignment. Thus, a study investigating the relationship
between three-dimensional spinal kinematics and
SCR may aid the understanding of the pathokinematics of lower back injury in fast bowlers. With
institutional ethics approval, three professional fast
bowlers, mean age (±SD) 22 ± 2 years, height
184 ± 2.5 cm and mass 87 ± 3.2 kg, were instrumented with inertial sensors and an accelerometer.
Three
three-dimensional
inertial
sensors
(THETAmetrix) were attached to the skin over the
T1, L1 and S1 spinous processes. Sensors recorded
absolute orientation and accelerations (±8 g) with
data collected at 100 Hz. One accelerometer with a
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range of ±200 g (THETAmetrix) sampling at
750 Hz was attached to the medial aspect of the
mid-tibia on the subject’s back leg. Peak acceleration was used to mark the back foot impact phase of
the delivery stride. SCR was calculated by subtracting max contralateral rotation of T1 from T1 orientation at back foot impact. Lumbar, thoracic and
thoracolumbar kinematics were analysed between
back foot impact and max contralateral T1 rotation.
Each subject completed six maximal deliveries,
replicating one over of bowling. The relationship
between three-dimensional spinal kinematics and
SCR was analysed using a stepwise linear regression.
Thoracic, lumbar and thoracolumbar rotation significantly correlated to SCR (R = .702, .662 and
.462; P = .010, .010 and .027, respectively).
Thoracic rotation accounted for 49.3% of variance
in SCR, with lumbar and thoracic rotation together
accounting for 61.8%. Furthermore, significant
negative correlations were observed between thoracolumbar lateral flexion and thoracolumbar rotation
(R = −.750, P < 0.01) and thoracic lateral flexion
and thoracic rotation (R = −.645, P = 0.002). With
previous studies highlighting SCR as a risk factor to
lower back injury, its relationship with spinal rotation implies that excessive spinal rotation may contribute to the pathokinematics of lower back injury
in fast bowlers, a previously unreported notion. The
negative correlation between spinal rotation and lateral flexion may indicate that lateral flexion is used
as an alternative to SCR to generate pace while
bowling. This may have implications for coaches
when looking at technique interventions where an
increase in lateral flexion may result in less SCR and
therefore lower the risk of lower back injury.
D2.S2.5(3). Changing pivoting
technique reduces knee valgus
moments
PAUL JONES*, OLIVIA BARBER &
LAURA SMITH
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University of Salford
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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the high KVM observed during pivoting (Cortes
et al., 2011). Previous research (Dempsey et al.,
2009, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37,
2194–2200) has shown that a technique modification
programme can reduce KVM during cutting. No
studies have examined whether a technique modification programme can reduce KVM during pivots.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of
a 6-week technique modification programme on
KVM during pivoting. The study was approved by
the University’s ethics committee. Ten female netball
players (mean ± SD; age: 21.7 ± 3.4 years, height:
1.70 ± 0.03 m, mass: 59.2 ± 4.6 kg) performed six
trials of pivoting before and after a 6-week, twice per
week technique modification programme. For each
trial, three-dimensional motion data using Qualisys
ProReflex infrared cameras (240 Hz) operating
through Qualisys Track Manager software v2.8 and
ground reaction force data from two Advanced
Mechanical Technology Inc. (AMTI) force platforms (1200 Hz) were collected. Joint coordinate
and force data were smoothed with a Butterworth
low pass digital filter with cut-off frequencies of 12
and 25 Hz, respectively. The time to complete this
task (5 m approach, 180° turn, and 5 m return) was
recorded using Brower timing cells (Draper, UT).
Following the intervention, paired samples t-tests
found that IFPA significantly (P < 0.001, ES = 2.6)
reduced from 71 ± 10.6° to 27 ± 22.2° in line with the
aims of the programme and was accompanied by a
significant (39%) reduction in KVM (0.75 ± 0.43 vs.
0.46 ± 0.37 N · m · kg−1, P = 0.001, ES = 0.73).
There was a significant correlation between
changes (pre to post) in IFPA and KVM (R2 =
37%, P = 0.028). No significant differences (P =
0.702) in approach velocities (3.20 ± 0.17 vs. 3.23
± 0.32 m · s−1) were observed between pre and posttests, but a significant (P = 0.028, ES = 0.74)
improvement in performance time (3.15 ± 0.23 vs.
3.02 ± 0.12 s) was observed. The results illustrate
that a 6-week technique modification programme
can reduce IFPA leading to a reduction in KVM
and potential injury risk during pivoting, whilst
enhancing performance.
Changing direction is a common action involved in
non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in
female athletes (Faude et al., 2005, American
Journal of Sports Medicine, 33, 1694–1700), as such
actions involve lower limb postures that increase knee
valgus moments (KVM) (Cortes et al., 2011, Journal
of Sports Sciences, 29, 83–92). For instance, increased
initial foot progression angle (IFPA) may account for
D2.S2.5(4). Neuromechanical
evaluation of lower-limb anticipatory
postural adjustments early after ACL
reconstruction
LUCA LAUDANI1,2*, LUCIANA
LABANCA2, ANTONINO CASABONA3,
FEDERICA MENOTTI2 & ANDREA
MACALUSO1,2
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1
University of Cumbria; 2University of Rome Foro
Italico, Italy; 3University of Catania, Italy
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whether these abnormalities can improve by appropriate rehabilitation exercise.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Neuromuscular control of the lower limb posture
and movement may be undermined for years after
anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).
Early identification of neuromuscular deficits following surgery has been advocated to prevent muscle weakness and maximise functional outcomes
(Labanca et al., 2015, European Journal of Applied
Physiology, 115, 1441–1451). The aim of this study
was to investigate anticipatory postural adjustments
(APAs), which play a major role in minimising postural perturbations of the lower limb, early after
ACLR. With institutional ethics approval, five male
individuals who underwent ACLR with patellar tendon (mean ± SD; time after surgery: 44.4 ± 10.9
days; age: 26.0 ± 5.6 years; body mass: 72.6 ± 3.7
kg; stature: 1.82 ± 0.04 m) and 5 healthy male
participants (age: 23.3 ± 1.1 years; body mass:
70.0 ± 5.4 kg; stature: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) were enrolled
in the study. Each participant was exposed to 10
expected perturbations of the knee joint, while
semi-reclined on a raised plinth. During each trial,
the participant’s finger movement switched a 3-kg
load release, which forced the knee into sudden
extension via a rapid pull force to the posterior
side of an ankle brace. The participants were asked
to preserve the starting limb position by resisting the
perturbation. Surface electromyography signals were
recorded from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris
and vastus medialis muscles of the involved limb.
Latency and amplitude of anticipatory muscle activation were determined relative to the instant of
load release. Maximum angular displacement of
the knee joint was recorded using an electrogoniometer. Patients with ACLR showed earlier onset
latency of anticipatory responses compared to the
healthy participants for the vastus lateralis (−98.4 ±
41.8 vs. −15.2 ± 25.3 ms; P < 0.01), rectus femoris
(−68.5 ± 34.6 vs. −24.7 ± 16.9 ms; P < 0.05) and
vastus medialis muscles (−90.3 ± 48.9 vs. −17.0 ±
17.4 ms; P < 0.05).There were no significant differences in either the amplitude of anticipatory muscle
activations or the knee joint angular displacement
between ACLR and healthy participants. The
results indicate that abnormalities in timing of the
lower limb APAs may be identified and quantified
by means of our joint perturbation device early after
ACLR. Such abnormalities might reflect a safety
strategy adopted by ACLR patients to ensure minimisation of postural disturbances and to maintain
functional joint stability. Future studies with a prospective and longitudinal design should focus on
D2.S2.5(5). The effect of knee joint
angle on the reliability of the maximal
isometric back squat
250
GARETH NICHOLSON* &
ATHANASSIOS BISSAS
Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
The use of multi-joint isometric assessments, particularly the back squat, is becoming increasingly
more common in an attempt to increase the ecological validity of research. Surprisingly, no strong
consensus exists regarding the optimal knee angle
during such assessments with previous investigations using angles ranging from 30° to 170° (e.g.,
Marcora and Miller, 2000, Journal of Sports
Sciences, 18, 313–310). The purpose of this study
was therefore to examine the effect of knee joint
angle on the between-session reproducibility of the
maximal isometric back squat. Following ethical
approval, seven trained males (24.29 ± 4.23
years) completed four identical testing sessions in
a 48 hour test-retest design. The sessions comprised a warm-up, two practice and three maximal
isometric back squats performed using a squat
rack positioned over a Kistler force platform
(1000 Hz). The trials were performed at knee
angles of 90°, 100°, 110° and 130° with the
same two angles being used in sessions 1 and 2
and the remaining two angles forming sessions 3
and 4. Peak force was identified from the resultant
force–time curves with the best trial carried forward for statistical analysis. Three methods of
assessing reproducibility were used after the data
were assessed for heteroscedasticity: 95% limits of
agreement (LOA), coefficient of variation (CV)
and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). CV
showed a higher level of reproducibility when
peak force was measured at 100° (CV: 2.93%)
and 110° (CV: 1.93%) when compared to measurements taken at 90° (4.13%) and 130°
(3.05%). The absolute reliability statistics revealed
a similar trend with measurements at 110° demonstrating a high level of reproducibility as shown by
a % bias of 2.57%, a random error of 5.14%.
Measurements at 90° and 130° demonstrated a
notably lower level of reproducibility, with the
90° knee angle in particular being characterised
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by a higher bias (6.32%), notable levels of random
error (18.53%) and LOA of 232.61 ± 472.84 N
(bias ± random error). Although a number of
previous investigations (e.g., Demura et al.,
2010, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,
24, 2742–2748) have chosen a knee angle of 90°
for the isometric back squat based on positions
adopted
during
dynamic
performance,
unacceptable levels of variability were observed
when measurements were made at this angle.
The present findings underline that measurements
made at 110° knee flexion provide the greatest
level of reproducibility for use during separate
sessions. Such information may assist practitioners
when selecting testing batteries aimed at quantifying improvements following training interventions.
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Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s65–s67, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110327
Day 2. Free Communications – Physical Activity for Health
5
D2.S2.4(1). Physical fitness versus
physical activity for cardiovascular
health in adults aged 50–80 years: which
basket do we put our eggs in?
MICHAEL DUNCAN*, MIKE PRICE &
SHEILA LEDDINGTON WRIGHT
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Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@mikedunky
Increasing physical activity (PA) has been identified as
the main mechanism to enhance health in older
adults, on the assumption that increases in PA lead
to enhanced physical fitness (PF) which in turn
enhances cardiovascular health (Bouchard et al.,
2011, Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 19, 336–
346). However, there is debate as to whether increasing PA or PF is more important for public health. This
study examined the extent to which PA and PF predict
systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure,
rate pressure product (RPP) and body mass index
(BMI) in adults aged 50–80 years following institutional ethics approval. One-hundred and fourteen
adults (52 males; 62 females, 50–80 years, mean age
± SD = 64.8 ± 7.5 years) completed the 6-min walk
test as a measure of PF and wore a sealed pedometer
for 7 days (New Lifestyles, NL-2000, USA) as a measure of habitual PA. BMI (kg · m−2) was determined
from height and mass using an SECA Stadiometer
and weighing scales (Seca Instruments, Germany).
Resting SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR) and RPP were
determined using automated sphygmomanometry
(Bosch & Sohn, Germany). Analysis of covariance
was then employed with SBP, DBP, resting heart
rate (RHR), RPP and BMI as dependant variables,
gender as a between-subjects factor and age, PA and
PF as covariates. For SBP (P = 0.0001, adjusted R2 =
0.412), 41.2% of the variance in SBP was accounted
for by PF (P = 0.0001, β = −0.06) and PA (P = 0.005,
β = −0.001). Males (P = 0.017) had higher SBP
(136.7 ± 1.4 mmHg) compared to females (131.8 ±
1.8 mmHg). DBP was significantly predicted (P =
0.0001, adjusted R2 = 0.256, β = −0.049) from PF
alone. Males (P = 0.001) had higher DBP (84.1 ±
1.1 mmHg) compared to females (79.9 ± 1.0 mmHg).
PF was also the only significant predictor of RHR (P =
0.0001, adjusted R2 = 0.161), accounting for 16.1%
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
of the variance in this variable. For RPP 40.5% of the
variance was explained by PF alone (P = 0.0001,
adjusted R2 = 0.405, β = −11.0). For BMI, a significant model was evident (P = 0.0001, Adjusted R2 =
0.327), with 32.7% of the variance in BMI explained
by age (P = 0.014, β = −0.115) and PF (P = 0.0001, β
= −0.023). These results suggest that it is increased
PF and not PA is more strongly associated with cardiovascular health in adults aged 50–80 years.
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D2.S2.4(2). Chronic heart failure and
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:
two conditions one exercise therapy
PETER WRIGHT*
60
Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The coexistence of cardiac and pulmonary disease
has risen dramatically over the past three decades.
Many patients who present a significant cardiovascular disease such as chronic heart failure (CHF)
also suffer from a pulmonary disease and vice
versa. The non-cardiac and non-pulmonary factors
are very similar in both conditions such as neurohormonal changes, muscle atrophy, muscle fibre shift,
and others. It is therefore a logical consequence to
investigate the effects of exercise interventions in
both conditions with a similar exercise therapy
approach. Three studies were conducted with the
aim to identify the most effective interventions in
both conditions. In the CHF study, 125 patients
were randomised and equally divided into an endurance group (ETG), a high intensity strength training
group (STG), a circuit training group (CTG) and a
dietary comparison group or non-training group
(CPG) as well as a control group (CG). The interventions took place over a period of 6 months. In the
first chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
study, 28 patients were randomised and divided into
an intervention group (STG) who underwent a highintensity strength training for 12 weeks and a control
group (CG). The second COPD study investigated
the effects of a 3-week inspiratory muscle training
(IMT) plus conventional exercise in COPD patients.
Forty-four patients were allocated to the intervention
group (IMTG, n = 22) and comparison group
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(CPG, n = 22). The results of the CHF study
showed that EF increased significantly in all training
groups as well as the NYHA classification, but no
significant changes in the CPG was found. Peak
VO2 only showed significant changes in all training
groups and a significant decrease in the hospitalisation rate between the training groups and CPG
(P < 0.01). Results of the first COPD study presented
a significant increase (P = 0.01) in FEV1 by 5.3% in
the STG as well as in the cycle ergometry (P < 0.001)
by 18.7% (21.9 W). The results of the health-related
quality of life (HRQL) also showed significant
improvements (P < 0.05) of the STG. The second
COPD study found a significant improvement in
respiratory function in FEV1 and respiratory strength
in the IMTG (P < 0.01) and in two HRQL items,
mastery and emotional function, while the overall
cohort showed significant increases in all components
of exercise (P ≤ 0.01). It can be concluded that different exercise interventions even at higher intensities
are safe and suggest specific positive adaptations in
patients with CHF and COPD equally and improve
exercise performance as well as HRQL.
D2.S2.4(3). Cardiorespiratory fitness in
post-adjuvant therapy breast cancer
patients
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IAN LAHART *, GEORGE METSIOS
ALAN NEVILL1, GEORGE KITAS1,3 &
AMTUL CARMICHAEL2
1
,
2
University of Wolverhampton; Russells Hall Hospital;
Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@IMLahart
International
Physical
Activity
Questionnaire
(IPAQ). Multiple linear-regression models were fitted
to examine the relationships between participant’s age,
chemotherapy, self-reported total physical activity
(PA) (MET-min ∙ week−1), weeks since diagnosis
and weeks since treatment completion (not including
hormone therapy) and VO2 peak. The mean time
from diagnosis and completion of breast cancer treatment to exercise tolerance testing was 41 ± 25 and
11 ± 9 weeks, respectively. Mean VO2peak
(25.3 ± 4.7 ml ∙ kg−1 ∙ min−1) of the breast cancer
patients was classified as “poor” compared to age and
gender group matched normative values. A model that
included age, BMI, PA, weeks since diagnosis and
weeks since end of treatment was the best predictor
of VO2peak (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P < 0.01). Age and
BMI were the strongest predictors of VO2peak within
the model, such that for every one-unit increase in the
BMI and age lowered CRF by 0.66 and 0.26 ml ∙ kg−1
∙ min−1, respectively. In conclusion, our sample of
post-adjuvant therapy breast cancer patients on average had poor CRF compared to age- and gendermatched normative values, and were therefore
exposed to a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. In
addition, older age and a higher BMI were significant
predictors of low CRF.
D2.S2.4(4). The anthropometric and
fitness impact of twelve weeks walking
football: a pilot study
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JOSH ARNOLD1,*, STEWART BRUCE-LOW1,
LUKE SAMMUT2 & MATT JOHNSON1
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Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with
increased breast cancer mortality risk, independent of
adiposity. Knowledge of CRF values is, therefore, critical to establish mortality risk and tailor appropriately
timed exercise interventions in breast cancer patients
susceptible to low CRF. Therefore, the purpose of the
current study was to examine the CRF levels of breast
cancer patients within 1 year of completing postadjuvant therapy and explore the relationship between
patient characteristics and CRF. With local NHS
ethics committee approval, 32 breast cancer patients
(age = 52 ± 10 years; height = 162 ± 5.4 cm;
mass = 70.6 ± 10.3 kg; BMI = 27.2 ± 4.4 kg ∙ m−2;
chemotherapy received = 16/32, 50%) underwent an
incremental exercise tolerance test to symptom limitation to assess CRF (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak).
Pretest patient’s height and mass measurements were
taken and physical activity was assessed via
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Southampton Solent University; 2Southampton General
Hospital
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Josh_T_Arnold
This study aimed to assess whether walking football is
able to provide sufficient physiological stimulus to augment positive health and training effects in individuals
over the age of 50 years; specifically characterising any
anthropometrical, fitness changes and also attitudes
towards physical activity following a 12-week walking
football programme. Following ethical approval, 10
male participants (mean ± SD: age 66 ± 7 years, height
1.77 ± 0.07 m, body mass 89.16 ± 9.13 kg) completed
a 12-week walking football programme, consisting of a
single 2-h training session (multiple 5-a-side games)
each week. Body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, maximal
oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, exercise time
to exhaustion and isometric hand-grip strength were
assessed at baseline and immediately following the
intervention. Pre-post intervention differences were
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determined using means ± SD and t-tests; effect sizes
were calculated using Cohen’s d (0.2 small, 0.5 medium, 0.8 large). Post intervention implicit attitudes
towards physical activity were measured through an
implicit association test – physical activity (IAT-PA)
and explicit attitudes towards walking football/physical
activity were assessed through a semantic differential
scale of 8 pairs of bipolar adjectives. Twelve weeks
walking football significantly reduced body fat mass
(baseline, 28.07 ± 10.02 kg vs. 12 weeks, 24.87 ±
10.00 kg, P < 0.05, d = 0.9). Nonsignificant differences
with medium effect sizes were seen for a reduction in
whole body mass (baseline, 89.71 ± 9.67 kg vs. 12
weeks, 87.78 ± 9.05 kg, P = 0.1, d = 0.6), an increase
in fat-free mass (baseline, 61.66 ± 6.00 kg vs. 12 weeks,
64.15 ± 8.48 kg, P = 0.1, d = 0.6) and an increase in
time to exhaustion (baseline, 526 ± 106 s vs. 12 weeks,
587 ± 108 s, P = 0.09, d = 0.7). Other nonsignificant
differences, with small or no effect sizes were seen in
isometric handgrip strength, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate. Initial findings suggest that all the participants reported a strong positive
implicit attitude towards physical activity and a positive
explicit attitude towards physical activity and walking
football. Twelve weeks walking football positively
altered all anthropometrical and fitness measures with
a range of magnitude, with participants reporting positive attitudes towards physical activity, in particular
walking football.
D2.S2.4(5). Assessment of physical
activity at high altitude: a comparison of
the FitBit Charge and Actigraph GT3x+
devices
JAMES DENTON, RACHAEL DAWE,
ALICE FISHER-EDWARDS, STUART
DIXON & LISA BOARD*
University of Sunderland
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Substantial research evidence has assessed energy
expenditure (EE) in the high altitude environment
but few studies have explored the variations in exercise intensity (light [<3.0 METS], moderate [3.05.9 METS], vigorous [>6.0 METS]) during
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prolonged adventurous activities in high altitude
regions. Elevated EE is associated with an
increased incidence of acute mountain sickness
(Miller, Taylor & Johnson, 2013) but we are yet
to understand how variations in exercise intensity
may influence the incidence of AMS. Advanced
mobile phone technology over the past decade
has led to the availability of simple, user-friendly
physical activity monitors that allow simple data
recording and viewing via mobile phone technology, removing the need for advanced technical
analysis. However, the validity and reliability of
these devices is not fully established. The purpose
of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of the FitBit Charge device to the Actigraph
GT3x+ triaxial accelerometer during a 7-day
mountain expedition to the Atlas Mountains,
Morocco. Ethical approval was granted by the
University of Sunderland. Twelve males (age, 39
± 14 years; height, 183.8 ± 8.6 cm; body mass
93.3 ± 16.8 kg) were studied over four consecutive
24-h periods at altitudes above 3000 m with daily
ascents >4000 m in winter conditions. Actigraph
and FitBit monitors were worn on the left wrist.
Steps taken per day, EE (Kcal · d−1), total time
(min) over 4 days spent in light (LIGHTTOTAL),
and moderate (MODTOTAL) activity and mean
time spent in light (LIGHTDAY) and moderate
(MODDAY) activity per day (min) were recorded.
Data were compared using Pearson product
moment correlations (r). Moderate to high correlations were observed between the two devices for
daily step count (FitBit, 25861 ± 4118, Actigraph
GT3x+, 25867 ± 4439 steps · d−1; r = 0.83,
P < 0.001), energy expenditure (FitBit,
3468 ± 242, Actigraph GT3x, 2135 ± 582
Kcal · d−1; r = 0.86, P < 0.001), LIGHTTOTAL
(FitBit, 2024 ± 434, Actigraph GT3x+,
1947 ± 289 min; r = 0.67, P = 0.008),
MODTOTAL (FitBit, 856 ± 229, Actigraph
GT3x+, 1076 ± 153 min; r = 0.74, P = 0.003),
LIGHTDAY (FitBit, 483 ± 47, Actigraph GT3x+,
487 ± 72 min; r = 0.53, P = 0.04), MODDAY
(FitBit, 214 ± 58, Actigraph GT3x+, 277 ± 44
min; r = 0.88, P < 0.001). FitBit shows concurrent
validity with Actigraph GT3x for daily step count
and time in light activity but not for time spent in
moderate activity. FitBit Charge has limited validity for quantifying energy expenditure.
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D2.S2.1(1). Which aspect of muscle
performance exhibits the greatest
diurnal variation?
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ZULEZWAN A. MALIK *, SAMUEL A.
PULLINGER1, ROBERT M. ERSKINE1, JOS
VANRENTERGHEM1, BEN J. EDWARDS1
& JATIN G. BURNISTON1
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Liverpool John Moores University; 2Universiti
Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Each of the parameters tested exhibited significant
diurnal variation and performance was superior in the
evening than in the morning. The range of morning to
evening variation measured in this cohort of active
males ranged from 8.1% to 18%. RFD and peak isometric force exhibited the greatest diurnal variation
and, therefore, represent the optimum techniques for
future studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms
underpinning diurnal variation or the effects of interventions aimed at improving morning performance.
Muscle force production and power output are greater
in the evening than in the morning but it is not clear
which aspect of muscle performance exhibits the greatest amount of diurnal variation. Here we investigate
the magnitude of diurnal variation using a selection of
different techniques that span the entire force–velocity
profile of skeletal muscle. With institutional ethics
approval, 20 healthy males (mean ± SD: age, 25.9 ±
4.4 years; body mass, 75.1 ± 8.2 kg; height, 177.3 ±
6.8 cm) completed this study. The participants were
physically active and were familiarised with the techniques and protocol prior to completing four experimental sessions (each separated by 48 h) in either the
morning (07:30 h) or evening (17.30 h). The order of
the sessions was balanced and consisted of two protocols of knee extensor function (i) isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s−1, 2.09
rad · s−1, 4.19 rad · s−1 and 7.85 rad · s−1 or (ii) the
maximum rate of force development (RFD) and maximum isometric force measured using the twitch interpolation technique. Peak isometric force in the evening
(720.8 ± 79.7 N · m−1) was significantly (P < 0.01)
greater (10.2%) than in the morning (654.0 ± 78.9
N · m−1). RFD was also significantly greater
(P < 0.01; 18%) in the evening (7051.6 ±
1261.1 N · s−1) than in the morning (5972.3 ±
1500.7 N · s−1). At each of the velocities tested using
IKD, peak torque during extension was significantly
(P < 0.05) greater in the evening than the morning.
The magnitude of diurnal variation was 9.8% at
60° · s−1 (245.4 ± 42.8 N · m vs. 223.4 ± 35.7
N · m), 8.4% at 120° · s−1 (195.4 ± 29.1 N · m vs.
180.2 ± 32.1 N · m), 8.1% at 240° · s−1 (143.5 ±
24.1 N · m vs. 132.8 ± 26.6 N · m) and 8.6% at
450° · s−1 (98.1 ± 18.8 N · m vs. 90.3 ± 19.3 N · m).
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
D2.S2.1(2). Effects of timing of
Montmorency tart cherry concentrate
on recovery from repeated sprints
JOSHUA S. JACKMAN*, IAN VARLEY,
CRAIG SALE & PHILLIP G. BELL
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Nottingham Trent University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@josh_jackman_
Montmorency cherry juice (MC) supplementation has
been reported to enhance the recovery of functional
performance following strenuous exercise (Howatson
et al., 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science
in Sports, 20(6), 843–852; Bell et al., 2015, Applied
Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 40(4), 414–423).
To date, research has employed dosing strategies that
include MC supplementation pre-, on the day, and
post-exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effect of
the timing of MC supplementation on indices of recovery following repeated sprints. Following institutional
ethics approval and using a randomised, double-blind,
placebo-controlled design, recreationally active, male,
team-sports players (N = 32) were recruited (age
21 ± 1 years; height 1.79 ± 0.08 m; mass
75.6 ± 14.8 kg). Participants were randomly and
equally allocated into one of four supplementation
groups; MC PRE&POST (96 h pre-, on the day &
48 h post-exercise), PRE (96 h pre- & on the day of
exercise), POST (on the day & 48 h post-exercise), or
isoenergetic placebo (PLA; 96 h pre-, on the day &
48 h post-exercise). The repeated sprint protocol
required participants to perform 15 × 30 m sprints
with a 10-m stopping zone, interspersed with 60 s
rest (Howatson and Milak, 2009, Journal of Strength
Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2419–2424). Muscle
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function (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of
knee extensors; MVIC) and performance (20 m sprint,
5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump; CMJ) were
assessed at baseline, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise.
Markers of muscle soreness (visual analogue scale),
muscle cell disruption (creatine kinase; CK) and
acute-phase inflammation (C-reactive protein; CRP)
were additionally measured pre-exercise. Data were
normalised to baseline and analysed using a two-factor
mixed model ANOVA (group × time) (P < 0.05).
MVIC was impaired at 48 h (time main effect;
P = 0.046), before recovering from 48 to 72 h (time
main effect; P = 0.022); however, no group differences
were shown (P = 0.28). Increases in muscle soreness
and CK were shown at 24 and 48 h before partially
recovering at 72 h (P < 0.05), although there were no
differences between groups (P > 0.05). No differences
in 20 m sprint, 5-0-5 agility test, CMJ performance, or
CRP between groups were apparent (P > 0.05). MC
supplementation had no significant impact on indices
of recovery following repeated sprints although the
authors acknowledge that the study may have been
under-powered to detect differences in the measured
variables. Subsequently, the efficacy of MC supplementation as a recovery strategy may be influenced
by the timing of ingestion. Future research that elucidates the role that supplementation timing plays may
provide useful for athletes looking to optimise the use
of MC in order to gain an enhanced recovery.
D2.S2.1(3). Physical and cognitive
observations during an Antarctic
expedition
ANA ANTON-SOLANAS1*, BARRY
O’NEILL1, TESSA E. MORRIS1 & JOE
DUNBAR2
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GSK Human Performance Lab; IPRO Interactive Ltd
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male (188.2 cm height; 94.5 kg body mass) took
part in the expedition. A total body Dual-energy
X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed
before and after the expedition, as well as 8 skinfolds and 5 girths measurements. Additionally,
daily subjective data were recorded (sleep quality,
total hours of sleep, energy levels, perceived exertion, mood, muscle soreness and muscle/joint
pain). Distance covered and hours of physical activity per day were recorded daily. As a measure of
cognitive function the athlete completed a computerised battery of tasks (Axon Sports Cognitive
Priming Application) every third morning alongside
saliva samples to determine salivary cortisol
(sCort), testosterone (sT), alpha amylase (sAA)
and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), including
5 baseline measurements, 11 during the trek and 3
post expedition. The project was approved as a
GSK Human Performance Lab (GSK HPL)
Scientific Support project according to internal
Medical Governance procedures. Following the
expedition the athlete lost 5.3 kg body mass and
the sum of 8 skinfolds decreased from 73 mm to
59 mm. The cognitive psychomotor speed displayed a gradual decline (a slowing of reaction
time) over the course of the expedition. Salivary
testosterone increased and salivary cortisol
decreased throughout and amylase and SIgA
peaked towards the end of the expedition. This
case study provides novel and unique data on the
demands of polar exploration and it is the first to
have reported changes in cognitive function during
an expedition. The anthropometric findings are in
agreement with the existing polar expedition literature. The results build on the limited literature and
provide further insight into the hormonal, psychological and cognitive effects of polar expeditions.
The findings may inform strategies for future expeditions supporting explorers to better prepare for
success.
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Ana_AntonRD
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There is a paucity of literature on exploration and
ultra-endurance activities in extreme environments.
The current case study follows the expedition of a
solo male athlete who at the end of 2013 attempted
to record the fastest solo, unsupported journey from
the Antarctic coast to the South Pole, covering a
total distance of 1150 km in 29 days, 19 h and 24
min. The purpose of the study was to assess
changes in body composition during an Antarctic
Expedition and to monitor cognitive function, subjective well-being and physiological stress, as measured by salivary hormones and markers of mucosal
immunity, during the Expedition. A 36-year-old
D2.S2.1(4). Short-term versus
medium-term heat acclimation in
tropically acclimated males:
performance and inflammation
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JOSHUA H. GUY1,2*, ANDREW M.
EDWARDS1, GLEN B. DEAKIN2,
CATHERINE M. MILLER2 & DAVID B.
PYNE1,3
1
James Cook University, Australia; 2University of St
Mark and St John; 3Australian Institute of Sport,
Australia
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@J_H_Guy
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Although short-term (<7 exposures) heat acclimation protocols can yield some positive performance
benefits, it appears that longer term (8–14 exposures) protocols are more beneficial for endurance
athletes. However, what is unclear is whether short,
often demanding programmes also evoke acute
stress that could overload anti-inflammatory pathways. The aim of this study was to determine
whether undertaking heat training causes a significant change in blood biomarkers associated with
heat stress and inflammation. With institutional
ethical approval 16 male participants were randomly allocated to either a heat training group
(EXP, n = 8; training at 35°C, 70% RH) or a
control group (CON, n = 8; training at 20°C,
45% RH). All participants performed seven training
sessions and three heat stress tests (HST) over 18
days, involving an intense first week of six sessions
in 7 days, followed by three top-up sessions over 9
days. Exercise training sessions comprised 4 ×
10 min stationary cycling at 55% of V_ O2max in
either EXP or CON environments. The HST
required participants to complete three submaximal
workloads of 10 min duration (50%, 60% and 70%
V_ O2max) on a cycle ergometer followed by a 5-km
time trial (35°C, 70% RH). Serum blood samples
were collected pre and post each HST and analysed
for the concentrations of interleukin-6, immunoglobulin M and lipopolysaccharide. EXP and CON
groups had a significant improvement in time trial
performance (s) between HST1 (baseline) and
HST2 (7 days) (EXP, 590 s ± 48 s mean ± 95%
CI, 556 s ± 39 s, P = 0.04, ES = −0.65; CON,
613 s ± 37 s, 575 s ± 35 s, P = 0.02, ES = 0.88);
however, EXP were also faster in HST3 (18 days)
versus HST1 and HST2 (541 s ± 35 s, P = 0.02,
ES = −0.98). There was no significant pre to post
time or group differences for immunoglobulin M or
lipopolysaccharide. Although short-term heat training can enhance 5 km cycling time trial performance, this effect is no greater than matched
exercise training in temperate conditions.
However, the addition of three top-up heat training
sessions between days 7 and 18 was sufficient to
infer further performance adaption for the heat
training group alone. Elevations in pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin-6) were
insufficient to trigger further systemic inflammation. The findings of this study suggest intensive
short-term (<7 days) heat training protocols should
be supplemented by periodic post-programme topup sessions.
D2.S2.1(5). The effect of nitrate
supplementation on muscle contractile
characteristics following a highintensity training bout
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BEN GIBBONS, TOM O’LEARY, JOHN
JAKEMAN & MARTYN MORRIS*
Oxford Brookes University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@martyngmorris
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Nitrate ingestion from beetroot juice (BR) has the
capabilities to enhance muscle contractile efficiency,
and potentially improve exercise tolerance (Ferguson
et al., 2013, Journal of Physiology, 591(2), 547–557.)
Delaying the onset of fatigue is vital in athletes, potentially contributing to increased power or duration.
Although recent work has demonstrated the positive
impact of nitrate on muscle twitch characteristics
(Haider and Folland, 2014, Medicine and Science in
Sport and Exercise, 46, 2234–2243) to date, no work
has assessed the impact of nitrate supplementation on
the maintenance of muscle contractile characteristics
following high-intensity bouts of exercise. Following
university ethical approval, in a randomised doubleblind study, 19 males (age: 23 ± 4 years) firstly completed a high-intensity training bout prior to then consuming either BR (NO3−: 0.6 g · day−1) or PL
(insignificant nitrate content) for six consecutive
days. Following supplementation, the high-intensity
training bout was repeated. The high-intensity training
bouts consisted of four 30-s Wingate Anaerobic sprint
tests, separated by 4 min recovery. Immediately pre
and prior to the exercise bouts, participants performed
three maximal single-leg isometric contractions, with
peripheral magnetic stimulation applied at rest and
during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) for
the assessment of peripheral voluntary activation
(PVA), resting twitch (RT), maximal rate of torque
development (MRTD) and half relaxation time
(0.5RT). Mean and peak power during the high-intensity training bout showed no improvement after BR
when compared to PL (1035 ± 120.2 W vs. 1079 ±
242.6 W, P > 0.05). There was no improvement in the
maintenance of MVC, resting twitch (RT), PVA and
half relaxation time (HRT) following BR supplementation. However, in the BR group maximal rate of force
development (MRFD) was maintained to a greater
extent than PL (ES = 0.45, P ≤ 0.05). MRFD fell by
66.8 ± 20.5% in PL, whereas only 48.2 ± 16.3% in BR
after the high-intensity bouts. BR supplementation
maintained MRFD, improving muscle contractile
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efficiency on fatigued fibres; however, results suggest
that it doesn’t produce improved performance in highintensity training bouts. No improvements in power
production, combined with no significant changes in
MVC and RT, indicate that individuals were equally as
fatigued and could not produce greater force after
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supplementation. Although supplementation did not
lead to improvements in high-intensity exercise performance, the improved maintenance of MRFD may
have implications for training adaptations and performance, particularly when undertaking multiple sessions in a day.
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Day 2. Free Communications – Psychology
D2.S2.2(1). Sporty people play
fair … until it gets really competitive
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JOHN PERRY * & PETER CLOUGH
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1
University of Hull; 2Manchester Metropolitan University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Game theory was originally devised by mathematicians von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944,
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press) to determine optimal strategies in competitive situations. It is particularly valuable in attempting to understand
psychological processes related to morality in
sport. The purpose of this study therefore was to
examine the extent to which individuals cooperate
with each other in various competitive environments and whether this can be predicted by emotional intelligence, moral competence and
sportspersonship.
With
institutional
ethical
approval, 43 participants (males = 32, females =
11) aged 18–40 (mean age = 20.33, s = 3.60)
from a range of team (n = 36) and individual (n =
7) with an average playing experience of 10.86 (s =
6.07) years were randomly assigned to an accumulative or competitive condition. Conditions were
defined by changes in the way prize money was
distributed. Following measures of emotional intelligence, moral competence and sportspersonship, a
round-robin tournament took place using 10-round
matches of the prisoner’s dilemma (MaynardSmith, 1983, Evolution and the Theory of Games,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). The
final round of each match provided a one-shot condition. Results presented no significant difference
between the accumulative and competitive conditions overall, but there was a significant difference
(t(28.20) = .85, P < 0 .01, d = 0.87) in the one-shot
game, as cooperation was significantly higher in the
accumulative condition than the competitive condition. Similarly, those in the accumulative condition
were significantly more likely to cooperate after
being suckered in the previous round (t(37) =
2.52, P < 0.05, d = 0.79) than participants in the
competitive condition. A paired-samples t-test to
examine the condition effects between the first
round cooperation and the final, one-shot cooperation revealed a large significant difference (t(42) =
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
8.74, P < 0.01, d = 2.67). Hierarchical multiple
regression analyses revealed that sportspersonship
was the largest predictor of overall cooperation, as
41.1% of the overall variance was explained (F(4,
33) = 5.75, P < 0.01). Cooperation in a one-shot
condition was not predicted by sportspersonship. It
was however significantly predicted by the competitive condition and emotional intelligence (R2 =
.44, F(4, 33) = 6.37, P < 0.01). The findings suggest that sportspersonship is predictive of behaviour
until the conditions become terminally competitive.
D2.S2.2(2). Development and
validation of the Sport Supplement
Belief Scale
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PHILIP HURST*, ABBY FOAD & DAMIAN
COLEMAN
Canterbury Christ Church University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Phil_Hurst1
The World Anti-Doping Agency encourages social
science research to uncover the psychological characteristics that render certain athletes susceptible to
doping behaviours. Research suggests that athletes
using sport supplements are more likely to progress
to doping substances and that an athlete’s belief mediates this relationship. However, instruments aiming
to measure and quantify athletes’ beliefs have not
received appropriate psychometric analysis. This
makes it difficult for researchers wishing to measure
beliefs and ascertain the accuracy of their results.
Therefore, this research aimed to address these concerns via the development and validation of an instrument that measures athletes’ beliefs towards sport
supplements. After experts within the field of antidoping and a select group of athletes reviewed the
scales content validity, 171 athletes completed an
initial version of the Sport Supplement Belief Scale
(SBS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the
Maximum likelihood procedure hypothesised the
explained variance between items and determined
acceptable model fit. Model fit was considered acceptable based upon Hu and Bentler’s criteria (1999,
Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary
Journal, 6, 1–55). All participants gave consent to
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participate in this study and ethical approval was
granted by Canterbury Christ Church University.
Results of the CFA revealed acceptable model fit for
an 11-item version of the SBS (χ2/df = 1.458, root
mean square of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.050,
90% CI = 0.018 to 0.079, P = 0.430, standardised
root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.0432, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.975, Tucker-Lewis index
(TLI) = 0.967). Internal consistency was considered
good (α = 0.84) and temporal stability showed very
large correlations between one week of first administration (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Higher scores on the
SBS were reported for users of sport supplements
compared to non-users (38.6 ± 9.96 vs. 31.0 ± 10.6,
t(169) = 3.409, P = 0.001, d = 0.8), supporting the
scales discriminant validity. The results provide evidence that the SBS is a valid and reliable instrument
for measuring athletes’ beliefs towards sport supplements. Future research should aim to incorporate the
SBS within the battery of instruments social scientists
use to assess athletes susceptible of doping behaviour.
D2.S2.2(3). Developmental assets
predict self-reported physical activity
in British adolescents
MARTIN I. JONES1*, GEORGE THOMAS2
& JOHN K. PARKER2
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University of Exeter; 2University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
drmijones
Developmental assets are groups of environmental
and intrapersonal strengths known to enhance health
and educational outcomes in young people. An asset
may be a skill, a set of competencies, an experience,
a relationship or behaviour. Researchers have shown
that the more assets young people acquire, the
greater the likelihood of thriving (Scales et al.,
2000, Applied Developmental Science, 4, 27–46).
However, few researchers have focused on physical
activity as an outcome even though Scales and colleagues championed the maintenance of physical
health as a critical indicator of thriving. Evidence
shows that frequent activity has significant health
benefits; therefore, physical activity is a core representation of health and is effectively a health proxy
when identifying thriving. In existing studies of
developmental assets and health (e.g., Scales et al.,
2000), researchers assessed the maintenance of physical health through single-item measures. These
measures included items such as eating the right
foods and exercising but have not measured physical
activity exclusively. To this end, the purpose of this
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study was to explore the contribution of developmental asset categories to the contribution of physical activity in British adolescents using a nuanced
measure of physical activity. Consistent with existing
theory, we hypothesised that developmental assets
would contribute to predicting variance in physical
activity; however, the relationships between specific
asset categories and physical activity had yet to be
established. Two hundred and eighty-two British
adolescent
participants
completed
the
Developmental Assets Profile (DAP, The Search
Institute, 2005, DAP Manual) and the Physical
Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A:
Kowalski et al., 2004, Questionnaire for Older
Children (PAQ-C) and Adolescents (PAQ-A) manual). Zero-order Pearson’s correlations indicated
that all asset categories correlated with physical
activity. Standard multiple regression showed that
asset categories contributed to variance in selfreported physical activity, but only positive values,
positive identity and social competencies were statistically significant at the P ≤.05 level. We hypothesised that the significant correlations combined with
nonsignificant regression coefficients indicated mediation. To test this hypothesis, we tested a multiple
mediator model. This model included the empowerment asset category as the predictor, physical activity
as the outcome and positive values, social competencies, and positive identity as mediators running in
parallel. Results revealed that these three variables
did mediate the relationship between empowerment
and physical activity. The results of the present study
offer promising evidence of how developmental
assets may contribute to promoting physical activity
and encouraging positive youth development.
D2.S2.2(4). The role of player–parent
dyads in sports injury rehabilitation
and the return to competition of elite
female youth soccer players
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ADAM GLEDHILL1*, DALE FORSDYKE2
& GEORGIE SUTTON3
1
Leeds Beckett University; 2York St. John University;
York College
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@gleds13
3
Adolescent female soccer players – for a combination
of physical, physiological and psychosocial factors –
are at high risk of injury. Whilst there is a growing
appreciation of the role of player–parent dyadic relationships within the development experiences of
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adolescent female soccer players (e.g. Gledhill and
Harwood, 2014, International Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology, 12, 150–165), there remains a
dearth of literature that has examined their role during
adolescent injury rehabilitation and return to competition (RTC) experiences (Podlog et al., 2013,
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 437–446). Given
that female athletes experience greater injury-related
retirement than males (Ristolainen, Kettunen, Kujala,
and Heinonen, 2012, European Journal of Sport Science,
12, 274–282), examining factors that can improve
rehabilitation outcomes and RTC for female soccer
players is a noteworthy research consideration.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the
role of player–parent dyads in successful injury rehabilitation and RTC. Drawing on ontological relativism
and epistemological constructionism, this study purposefully sampled adolescent female soccer players (N
= 3) – who had successfully returned to competition
post injury – and their parents (N = 6). After gaining
institutional ethical approval, data were collected via
semi-structured interviews based on previous injury
(e.g. Podlog et al., 2013) and female soccer (e.g.
Gledhill and Harwood, 2014) literature and informal
fieldwork, before being analysed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006, Qualitative Research in
Psychology, 3, 77–101). Data interpretations indicated
that social support seeking and provision, rehabilitation compliance, fostering a healthy athletic identity,
and opportunities for growth and development are
salient results of player–parent dyads that may
increase a player’s chances of making a successful
RTC. Applied implications for parenting during
sports injury rehabilitation and RTC (e.g. the potential for parent education programmes) and future
research directions (e.g. research specific to playing
level) are discussed.
D2.S2.2(5). Making a case for the
importance of high-performance coach
well-being
ABBE BRADY*
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University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@abbebrady
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The social significance of well-being is considerable
and the importance of understanding it at all levels
of society is evident as it is increasingly adopted as
an indicator of valued states and desired outcomes
for governments, organisations, communities and
for individuals (Huppert and So, 2013, Social
Indicators Research, 110(3), 837–861). Explicit
study of the concept of well-being has been relatively slow to emerge in sport psychology. Whilst
literature is emerging about how particular High
Performance (HP) cultural practices in the pursuit
of performance success in sport can enhance or
compromise athletes’ well-being (Lundqvist and
Sandin, 2014, The Sport Psychologist, 28(3),
245–254), limited literature exists on the wellbeing of coaches who also inhabit the HP space.
Coach well-being is defined as a multidimensional,
positive and sustainable state that allows the coach
to thrive and flourish. A challenge faced by sport
psychologists interested in the holistic support of
high-performance coaches is that whilst we intuitively know coach well-being is important in its own
right and has an impact on sustained performance
achievement in sport, we have little explicit research
examining the topic of coach well-being, nor its
relationship with coach performance, athletic performance or athlete well-being. In a culture familiar
with the mantra of marginal gains to enhance athletes’ performances, the absence of literature about
coach well-being is both an oversight and also a
significant opportunity. Using evidence drawn
heavily from findings across other contexts and disciplines, this paper aims to provide a compelling
rationale for the importance of understanding and
supporting coach well-being. Increasing evidence in
business, health sciences and psychology demonstrates that people are successful across multiple
life domains not only because success increases
people’s well-being but also because high wellbeing engenders success in many life domains
(Lyubomirsky,
King,
and
Diener,
2005,
Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855). Findings
from cross-sectional, longitudinal and experimental
studies repeatedly demonstrate how high levels of
well-being are causally linked to positive outcomes
such as productivity, performance, learning and
personal development, personal resources, prosocial behaviour, constructive interpersonal relationships, good health and longevity (Lyubomirsky
et al., 2005). Such outcomes have direct relevance
for the coach and are also very likely to impact upon
the athlete and others in the performance setting.
Implications for practice are presented at personal,
interpersonal, cultural and organisational levels.
Recommendations are made centring on a framework for future research and practice in applied
sport psychology.
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D2.S2.3(1). The effects of
hypohydration on cognitive function in
physically active males
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KARAH DRING1*, SIMON COOPER1,
RUTH JAMES1, ROBERT CORNEY2 AND
LEWIS JAMES2
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Nottingham Trent University; 2Loughborough
University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The effect of hypohydration on cognitive function
remains equivocal, with confounders in previous studies
such as the method used to attain hypohydration (Ganio
et al., 2011, British Journal of Nutrition, 106, 1535–1543;
Szinnai et al., 2005, American Journal of Physiology
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 289,
R275–R280). Many studies have used a combination of
exercise and heat exposure, making it difficult to distinguish the effects of hypohydration from the confounding
effects of heat exposure and exercise, a limitation
addressed by the present study. Following ethical
approval, 20 physically active males (age: 24.1 ± 0.8
years, height: 1.80 ± 0.06 m, body mass:
74.1 ± 8.7 kg, VO2max: 47.4 ± 11.8 ml ·
kg−1 · min−1) completed a familiarisation session and
two experimental trials, euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP), separated by 7 days. Baseline measurements of body mass, plasma volume and cognitive
function (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg
paradigm) were taken upon arrival (~4 pm). Participants
completed intermittent cycling at 50% of predetermined WRmax (10 min cycling interspersed with 5 min
rest) in an environmental chamber (35°C, 70% RH)
until ~2% of initial body mass was lost. Participants
consumed 175% BML plain water (EUH) in four aliquots or 200 ml plain water (HYP) and returned to the
laboratory the following morning (~8 am) for all measures. Cognitive function data were analysed in R and
all other data were analysed in SPSS using a trial × time
interaction. Changes in body mass and plasma volume
were greater on the HYP trial when compared to the
REH trial (body mass: HYP −2.7 ± 0.4% BML, REH
−0.6 ± 0.6% BML, P < 0.01; plasma volume: HYP
−7.1 ± 5.5%, REH: 0.9 ± 3.3%, P < 0.01). Response
times were slower the following morning when hypohydrated compared to when rehydrated on both baseline
and complex levels of the visual search test (baseline:
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
REH +1 ms, HYP +15 ms, P = 0.027; complex: REH
−85 ms, HYP +99 ms, P = 0.003). However, there was
no effect of hypohydration on response times on either
the Stroop test or Sternberg paradigm (all P > 0.05).
Furthermore, there were no effects of hypohydration on
accuracy on any of the cognitive function tests (all
P > 0.05). Overall, these findings suggest the effect of
hypohydration on cognitive function is dependent upon
the component examined. Specifically, hypohydration
impaired the speed of visual processing (as assessed by
the visual search test), but did not affect executive function (Stroop test) or working memory (Sternberg paradigm). These findings have implications for athletes
who may experience hypohydration, given the implications of cognitive function for sporting performance.
D2.S2.3(2). The validity and reliability
of an amateur boxing conditioning and
fitness test
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EDWARD THOMSON*, KEVIN LAMB
AND CERI NICHOLAS
University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@ethomson_boxing
Despite the notable physiological demands made of
amateur boxers during competition, scientific
appraisal of the sport has been scarce, and attempts
to quantify its demands have suffered from inadequate measurement validity and reliability. As
simulation protocols (of performance) offer viable
frameworks for this intent and permit examination
of intervention-based changes in performance, this
study addressed the validity and reliability of the
internal responses to a recently developed boxing
conditioning and fitness test (BOXFIT). With institutional ethics approval, 28 male amateur boxers
(mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 3.5 years, body mass
67.7 ± 10.1 kg, stature 171 ± 9 cm) performed
repeated trials of the BOXFIT separated by 4–7
days, which involved three 3-min rounds interspersed with 60 s rests, and included offensive
punches (26 per min), defensive movements (12
per min), and boxing-specific locomotion (covering
35.8 m · min−1 @ 0.5 m · s−1). Measurements of
heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), post-
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exercise blood lactate (BLa), ratings of perceived
exertion (RPE), the frequency of boxing-specific
actions and total punch accelerations were recorded
during both trials to characterise the internal and
external demands. Ten participants also engaged in
bouts of competitive sparring (contested over the
same durations and instructed to compete realistically) 5–9 days later to provide a source of validation data for these demands. The BOXFIT yielded
mean and peak HR of 169 ± 11 and 188 ± 11
beats · min−1, respectively, VO2 of 41 ± 6 ml · kg · min−1
, BLa of 4.6 ± 1.3 mmol · L−1, RPE 6–8 across
rounds and punch accelerations of 2737 ± 104 g.
Typically, values for all measures increased
(P < 0.01) from one round to the next (e.g., mean
HR; ES [95% CI] = 0.64 [0.1 to 1.17], 0.28 [−0.80
to 0.25] for round one vs. two and two vs. three,
respectively). Of these, the mean and peak HR,
post-exercise BLa and RPE represented 96 ± 4%,
97 ± 4%, 49 ± 10% and 90 ± 13% of sparring
values, respectively. The coefficient of variation for
measurements was found to be 2–12%. The findings
reflect that whilst the boxers experienced a high internal demand, the simulation protocol yielded
responses typically lower than those observed during
competitive sparring. Nonetheless, the responses to
the BOXFIT were sufficiently reliable that, with slight
modifications (i.e., alterations to its external load),
applied sports scientists, coaches and boxers could
adopt the simulation to appraise systematic changes
or improve features of boxing performance.
D2.S2.3(3). Influence of team cohesion
in sport in school-aged students: in
relation to gender, age and type of sport
MARIA ESPADA-MATEOS1,2* AND
ENRIQUE FRADEJAS1
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Universidad Camilo José Cela, Spain; Universidad
Pontificia de Comillas, Spain
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Team cohesion provides greater learning, more satisfaction in sport and with team mates, more productivity,
better communications, more feelings of security and
greater adherence to the sports practice (Eys,
Loughead, Bray, and Carron, 2009, The Sport
Psychologist, 23, 330–345). Therefore, the main purpose
of this study was to analyse the state of team cohesion in
school-aged students practising sports, as a function of
gender, age and type of sport. The research used a
descriptive quantitative methodology by means of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 816 subjects (50.3%
male and 49.7% female) of between 12 and 18 years of
age (mean 14.6, s = 1.9), who practise different individual and team sports in the Castilla-La Mancha region.
Several aspects were taken into account for the statistical
calculations: the population is infinite; thus for the
population variance we used the most unfavourable
supposition where “P” and “Q” are equal with 50%
each; the confidence interval was set at 95.5%, with a
margin of error of ±3.5%. The Psychological
Characteristics related to Sports Performance questionnaire (Características Psicológicas relacionadas con el
Rendimiento Deportivo (CPRD)) with Cronbach alpha
of r = .85 was used. The results show that with regard to
gender there were no significant differences in team
cohesion in any of the items analysed, t(814) = −1.71,
P > 0.05; t(814) = −1.66, P > 0.05, coinciding with
previous studies (e.g., Paradis and Loughead, 2010,
International Journal of Sports, 41, 1–20). With regard
to age, the younger sports practitioners (12–13 years)
revealed a lower level of cohesion than the older ones
(14–15 years), F(2, 538.22) = 3.78, P < 0.05, again
coinciding with other previous studies (e.g.,
Subramanyam, 2013, International Journal of Sports
Sciences & Fitness, 3, 250–258). With respect to different
sports, there were statistically significant differences
between the students who practised volleyball, who
showed a stronger team spirit, and those who practised
tennis F(9, 326.19) = 4.53, P < 0.05, again in line with
previous research (e.g., Halbrook et al., 2012, Journal of
Sport Behavior, 35, 61–77). The results suggest the need
to promote team cohesion in school-aged sports people
as it has been shown that this type of training provides
the young sports person with a greater degree of commitment to their team. The team cohesion variable is
particularly relevant in team sports (or in individual
sports when playing doubles or as a team).
D2.S2.3(4). Between- and within-race
variance in elite short-track speed
skating: a new approach to analyse
group behaviour during competition
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MARCO J. KONINGS* AND FLORENTINA
J. HETTINGA
University of Essex
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@MarcoKo4
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Previous research indicated that short-track speed skaters seem to alter their pacing behaviour based on their
opponents, especially during the initial stages of
1500 m races (Konings et al., 2015, International
Journal of Sport Physiology and Performance, doi:
10.1123/ijspp.2015-0137). The aim of the present
study was to gain more insight into the interaction of
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athletes competing within the same race. Therefore,
within-race and between-race variances (σ2) were
assessed in elite short-track speed skating competitions. We hypothesised to find a relatively low withinrace σ2 and high between-race σ2 in the initial race
stages, indicating that athletes adjusted their own
pacing behaviour to the group’s pace in the early stages
of competition. With institutional ethics approval, lap
times of elite 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m short-track
speed skating competitions for both males and females
of the seasons 2012–2013 (n = 1141 races) and 2013–
2014 (n = 973 races) were collected. Within-race and
between-race σ2 were determined for each lap and for
the finishing time. Within-race σ2 is the variance in lap
times of a particular lap that could be explained by the
difference in lap times of individual athletes compared
to the average lap time in that lap in that particular
race. In contrast, the between-race σ2 is the variance in
lap times in a particular lap that could be explained by
the difference in the average lap time in that lap of
particular races compared to the average lap time in
that lap of all races. Between-race and within-race σ2
were expressed as percentage of the total variance for
each particular lap or for the finishing time. For finishing times, the between-race σ2 could explain respectively 79.2%, 93.4% and 86.6% of the total variance
for the 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. In the first five laps
of the 1000 m and in laps 2–7 of the 1500 m, withinrace σ2 could explain <5% of the total variance.
Thereafter, the within-race σ2 increased up to 39.3%
(1000 m) and 61.4% (1500 m) for the final lap.
Interestingly, the highest percentage of within-race
variance for the 500 m is accomplished in the first lap
(σ2 = 36.1%), indicating a relatively low interaction
between competitors during the 500 m. For the 1000
m and 1500 m, the occurrence of the high variability in
starting pace between races while within-race variance
is low suggests that athletes behave as a group in the
initial phase of the race and follow the behaviour of
their opponents in the early stages of competition.
D2.S2.3(5). A retrospective analysis of
the longitudinal development of
physical qualities associated with
career attainment in academy rugby
league players
KEVIN TILL*, BEN JONES AND TOM
GEESON-BROWN
Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@KTConditioning
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To advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to talent identification and development, player
characteristics should be prospectively or retrospectively tracked from players who attain the highest possible level of performance (i.e., professional level).
Although research is available that evaluates the physical characteristics of future professional rugby league
players aged 13–15 years (e.g., Till et al., 2015, Journal
of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 30–314), limited
research is available that longitudinally monitors the
physical development of future professional athletes
from within academy ages (i.e., 16–19 years).
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate
the longitudinal development of physical qualities
across 3 years (i.e., under 17, 18 and 19) between
career attainment level (i.e., professional or academy)
in academy rugby league players. With local institutional ethics approval, 25 academy rugby league
players were grouped according to their career attainment level (i.e., professional, n = 10; academy, n = 15).
All players were assessed on three consecutive annual
occasions for height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds,
10 and 20 m speed, 10 m momentum, vertical jump,
Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 and strength
(one repetition maximum [1-RM] and relative squat,
bench press and prone row). A repeated measures
analysis of variance test (RM ANOVA) was applied
with partial eta squared (η2p ) effect sizes calculated. RM
ANOVA showed professional players were significantly stronger than academy players for 1-RM squat
across the three time points (professional – U17 =
134.3 ± 12.8, U18 = 145.7 ± 16.0, U19 =
151.8 ± 16.0; academy – U17 = 117.3 ± 20.1, U18 =
134.0 ± 14.1, U19 = 140.8 ± 11.0 kg; P = 0.027, η2p
= 0.20). For career level × time interaction, significant
effects were found for body mass (P = 0.009, η2p
= 0.23), sum of four skinfolds (P = 0.03, η2p = 0.18),
10 m momentum (P = 0.007, η2p = 0.24), Yo-Yo
(P = 0.023, η2p = 0.16), relative squat (P = 0.023, η2p
= 0.18) and relative prone row (P = 0.022,
η2p = 0.18). Findings showed that between the age of
16 and 19 years, future professional players had
increased body mass (8.2 ± 5.3 vs. 2.9 ± 3.8 kg) and
10 m momentum (47 ± 36 vs. 17 ± 19 kg · s−1) than
academy players, who improved sum of four skinfolds,
Yo-Yo, relative squat and prone row more than professional players. This study emphasises the importance
of lower body strength and the development of body
mass and momentum for the attainment of professional levels in rugby league. Practitioners should
emphasise the development of strength, body mass
and momentum in the design of training programmes
for academy rugby league players for future success
within the professional game.
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Day 2. Posters − The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Expert
Statements
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The British Association of Sport and Exercise
Sciences (BASES) Expert Statement Grants aim to
assist the development of expert statements on broad
topics, related to the application of scientific principles to sport and exercise science, about which there
is interest, confusion or controversy. The statements
are to be written for all persons interested in sport
and/or exercise sciences and answer the following
questions: What is the role of sport and/or exercise
science within this topic? Why is this topic important? What are the issues and what evidence is available? What conclusions can be drawn?
Download a PDF of the full BASES expert statements from www.bases.org.uk/BASES-ExpertStatements
D2.P01. BASES expert statement on
assessment and management of nonasthma-related breathing problems in
athletes
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JOHN DICKINSON *, ALISON
MCCONNELL FBASES2, EMMA ROSS3,
PETER BROWN3 AND JAMES HULL4
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University of Kent; 2Bournemouth University;
English Institute of Sport; 4Royal Brompton
Hospital
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
3
Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, including
wheezing, tight chest, difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath, coughing and breathlessness, are
commonly reported by athletes. The prevalence of
asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
(EIB) can be up to 70% in sportspeople with high
breathing requirements and/or in environments
where inhaled air is dry and/or polluted. Given this
high prevalence, it is tempting to assume that exercise-induced respiratory symptoms in athletes are
most likely due to asthma or EIB. However, it is
possible that athletes’ respiratory symptoms may
not be due to asthma/EIB. Further, athletes with
asthma/EIB may still report exercise-induced
respiratory symptoms, despite being adequately
medicated for their airway disease. Differential
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
diagnosis of exercise-induced respiratory symptoms
includes exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction
(EILO) and dysfunctional breathing (DB). EILO
manifests as dyspnoea, wheeze and cough on peak
exertion and will not respond to a therapeutic strategy targeting EIB. Confirmation of EILO requires
direct nasendoscopy to be performed during exercise, and it should be recognised that there is a
considerable overlap between EIB and EILO, i.e.
some athletes will have both conditions, thus rendering them “refractory” to EIB treatment alone. The
term “DB” encapsulates a variety of idiopathic
breathing abnormalities that have no obvious
organic, pathological origin. DB may be underpinned by abnormal breathing mechanics caused by
respiratory muscle dysfunction and/or reduced
respiratory system compliance, as well as anxiety
and/or hyperventilation syndrome. Interventions for
athletes with EILO and DB include the following:
● Breathing pattern retraining: Most individuals
with EILO and/or DB have inefficient breathing
technique, using chest, or even clavicular
breathing, which can increase laryngeal tension.
Thus, retraining strategies require a degree of
neuromuscular re-education to ensure that the
complex inspiratory musculature is used holistically and in concert during both training and
everyday life.
● Inspiratory muscle training (IMT): It is important to ensure breathing technique is addressed
initially, by focusing upon diaphragmatic
breathing, rather than clavicular or chest
breathing. IMT sessions should be performed
twice daily, five times per week and comprise
approximately 30 continuous forced inspiratory efforts, with relaxed expiration. The use
of IMT to attenuate symptoms of DB and
EILO is supported by case studies in Olympic
athletes.
In conclusion, not all exercise-induced respiratory
symptoms can be explained by asthma or EIB.
Differential diagnosis of EILO or DB may be considered. Initial reports suggest that breathing pattern
retraining and IMT can be effective interventions to
treat conditions such as EILO and DB.
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D2.P02. The BASES expert statement
on the effect of aerobic exercise on body
mass regulation: individual variability
and compensatory responses
1 2
95
and women, no sex differences exist in exercise-induced reductions in BM. Therefore,
exercise should be promoted equally to men
and women for weight management.
● Exercise produces clinically meaningful
improvements in health independent of changes
in BM. Therefore, resistance to exerciseinduced BM losses should not be portrayed as
a rationale against the promotion of regular
exercise. Indeed, the independent health benefits of exercise should be promoted more heavily.
1
MARK HOPKINS , *, DAVID BROOM ,
DAVID STENSEL3, NEIL KING4 AND
JOHN BLUNDELL2
1
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Sheffield Hallam University; 2University of Leeds;
3
Loughborough University; 4Queensland University
of Technology
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Despite being a heavily promoted public health
approach to combat obesity, the role of exercise in
weight management has been recently questioned.
Therefore, this statement summarises the scientific
literature examining the effect of aerobic exercise on
body mass (BM), and the roles that individual variability and compensation to exercise play. The main
points are summarised below:
● Modest reductions in BM (1.5–3 kg) are seen
when exercise is performed without dietary
restriction. However, exercise is often unsupervised, adherence not measured and the total
exercise-induced energy expenditure small.
Furthermore, marked inter-individual variability exists in exercise-induced reductions in BM.
● While this heterogeneity must be acknowledged, labelling individuals as “non-responders” based on the change in a single variable
is misleading as exercise produces numerous
physiological
adaptations.
Furthermore,
whether “poor responsiveness” is evident across
a range of phenotypes, reproducible or amenable to change, remains to be established.
● Exercise may cause biological and/or behavioural “compensation” on either side of the
energy balance equation that offsets the prescribed energy deficit. Acute exercise does not
stimulate an automatic increase in energy
intake, but partial compensation is seen following 7–14 days of exercise. Long-term interventions
suggest
that
exercise-induced
compensatory eating mediates BM losses in
susceptible individuals. However, there is little
evidence to suggest that compensatory changes
in energy expenditure mediate exercise-induced
reductions in BM.
● The prevailing view that women lose less BM
than men following regular aerobic exercise is
not supported. When the exercise-induced
energy expenditure is matched between men
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In summary, aerobic exercise is an effective means of
reducing BM in some, while others experience more
modest or no reductions in BM. Recognition that
individual differences exist may promote a better
understanding of the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility to exercise-induced reductions in BM.
Identifying predictors of exercise responsiveness,
and strategies that enhance efficacy in poor responders, will help develop more effective weight management
strategies.
Importantly,
clinically
meaningful improvements in health occur independent of changes in BM, and exercise should be promoted equally to men and women for weight
management.
D2.P03. The BASES expert statement
on aerobic training for older and
clinical groups using arm crank
ergometry
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LINDSAY BOTTOMS1, PAUL M. SMITH2*,
GARRY TEW3 AND MIKE PRICE4
1
University of Hertfordshire; 2Cardiff Metropolitan
University; 3University of York; 4Coventry
University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Arm crank ergometry is mainly associated with testing and training athletes with physical disabilities.
Indeed, testing and training recommendations contained within this BASES expert statement is an
extension of information presented by GooseyTolfrey et al.(2013, The Sport and Exercise Scientist,
Autumn (37), 8–9) that focused upon spinal cord
injury. Moreover, this expert statement outlines the
potential benefits associated with arm crank ergometry in the general population. While lower-limb exercise is more commonly studied and prescribed, arm
crank ergometry represents an accessible, additional
exercise mode with many important applications.
Although not as commonly available as treadmill
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The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Expert Statements
running or cycle ergometry, most modern fitness
centres offer arm crank ergometry. This expert statement presents evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic arm crank ergometry training for a variety of subpopulations, including older adults and clinical
patients with either chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease or peripheral artery disease.
The purpose of this statement is to raise awareness
of the potential benefits of arm crank ergometry. We
hope professional members of BASES and affiliated
exercise practitioners will consider this mode of
exercise and, if appropriate, subsequently use it to
meet specific needs of athletes and clients.
Key conclusions include the following:
functional capacity can become improved during treadmill walking following arm crank ergometry training, and it is likely that this
transference of fitness and function is related
to central, cardiovascular adaptations.
● It is feasible for most sub-populations of participants to engage with arm crank ergometry,
which is sometimes better tolerated than other
modes of lower body exercise.
● The nature of training can take the form of
constant load, moderate exercise, high-intensity, interval training or all-out repeated sprint
activity, though evidence supporting the implementation of sprint exercise is limited.
● Established testing guidelines exist for arm
crank ergometry. (Smith and Price, 2007, In
E. M. Winter, A. M. Jones, R. C. R. Davison,
P. D. Bromley, and T. H. Mercer (Eds.),
Exercise and Clinical Testing (Vol. 2, pp.
138–144), Oxon, UK: Routledge.)
● Arm crank ergometry has many useful training
applications, many of which extend to older
participants
and
settings
of
clinical
rehabilitation.
● There is evidence that fitness gains stemming
from arm crank ergometry training can transfer
to other modes of exercise; for example,
Future research is required to extend our knowledge
associated with health benefits resulting from arm
crank ergometry training. In particular, evidence
surrounding the transferability of fitness and functional gains associated with training the arms to
other modes of exercise warrants further examination. It is also clear that high-intensity, interval training is feasible using arm crank ergometry. However,
the acute and long-term responses have not been
fully explored, nor has the effectiveness of high
intensity, interval training compared to the more
traditional prescription of moderate intensity, longduration exercise.
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Day 2. Posters – Biomechanics and Motor Behaviour
D2.P04. Sex differences in maximum
and explosive voluntary torque of the
knee extensors and plantar flexors
5
FEARGHAL BEHAN1,2*, MATTHEW
PAIN1 & JONATHAN FOLLANDa,b
1
Loughborough University; 2ARUK Centre for Sport,
Exercise and Osteoarthritis
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Explosive muscular force production is considered
important for sport performance and injury prevention (Tillin and Folland, 2013, European Journal of
Applied Physiology, 114, 365–374). Females have
greater incidence of anterior cruciate knee ligament
injuries than males and sex discrepancies in explosive force may be a contributory factor that requires
further investigation. The aim of this study was to
investigate sex differences in maximum voluntary
torque (MVT) and explosive voluntary torque
(EVT) in the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF). Following ethical approval, neuromuscular
performance of 21 untrained males (mean ± SD;
age: 25.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m, mass:
81.4 ± 10.0 kg) and 20 untrained females
(22.4 ± 3.1 years, 1.67 ± 0.06 m, 65.3 ± 9.2 kg)
was assessed during maximal and explosive isometric
knee extension and plantar flexion contractions.
MVT was measured during maximum voluntary
contractions and EVT at 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and
200 ms from force onset during explosive contractions. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and
student’s independent t-tests with a Bonferroni correction were undertaken. Males were significantly
stronger in KE (302 ± 43 N · m vs. 160 ± 31
N · m, P < 0.01) and PF (282 ± 56 N · m vs.
181 ± 36 N · m, P < 0.01) than females and displayed significantly greater EVT at all time-points in
KE (P < 0.01) and from 50 to 200 ms in PF
(P < 0.05). Males also had significantly greater
MVT and EVT at all time-points in KE (MVT
P < 0.01, EVT P < 0.05) and at 25 and
100–200 ms in PF (MVT P < 0.01, EVT P < 0.05)
when force was normalised to body mass. However,
when EVT was normalised to MVT there was no
significant difference between the sexes (P = 0.372).
Pooled data showed significant correlations between
KE and PF MVT (absolute: r = 0.832, P < 0.01) and
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
EVT from 50 to 200 ms (absolute: r = 0.488–0.763,
P < 0.01; relative to MVT: r = 0.353–0.764,
P < 0.05). Greater male MVT appears to explain
their superior explosive force production in KE and
PF in agreement with previous KE research
(Hannah et al., 2012, Experimental Physiology, 97,
618–629). Additionally, KE and PF MVT and
EVT appear moderately–strongly correlated. Future
injury prevention programmes should emphasise
increasing female absolute MVT as both genders
appear to possess a similar ability to express their
available force-generating capacity in an explosive
manner.
D2.P05. The dose-response effects of
dissociation training on measures of
neuromuscular control during
performance screening in male youth
footballers
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ROBERT M. BURGE1*, GARY
DAVENPORT2, STEPHEN TAYLOR2,
JONATHAN D. HUGHES1 & MARK DE
STE CROIX1
1
University of Gloucestershire; 2Bristol City Football
Club
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@RMBurge
Movement screens purportedly identify compensatory kinematics that predispose athletes to injury
(Kiesel, Plisky, and Butler, 2011,Scandinavian
Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21,
287–292). The efficacy of assessing select competencies and prescribing remedial training based on
screen outcomes however remains equivocal. The
Foundation Performance Matrix Screen© (FPMS)
supposedly profiles injury risk, subsequently directing its independent motor control Dissociation
Training (DT) (Mottram and Comerford, 2008,
Physical Therapy in Sport, 9, 40–51). However,
there appears to be no research evidencing that DT
can improve FPMS score or reduce injury. The
dose-response to DT therefore remains to be established. With institutional ethics approval, elite U15/
16 and U17/18 male academy footballers comprised
Group 1 (n = 6) (G1) and Group 2 (n = 8) (G2),
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respectively. G1 performed DT 1x week while G2
performed DT 3x week over 8 weeks. Centre of
pressure (CoP) total, anterior-posterior (X) and
medial-lateral (Y) displacements (cm), sway velocity
(cm · s−1) and ellipse area (cm2) were recorded from
participants’ non-dominant leg during a single leg
stance test (SLST) and Y balance test™ (YBT).
Force platform time to stabilisation (TTS), peak
vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) and loading
rates were recorded from a 20-cm bilateral drop
jump landing (DJL). The FPMS and YBT were
scored according to respective guidelines. All tests
were performed barefoot. Cohen’s d effect size (ES)
was calculated from differences in means. Small ES
for G1 (ES −0.180; 95% CI, −1.94 to 0.60) and G2
(ES −0.136; 95% CI, −0.12 to 1.62) FPMS scores
were observed. Large ES for DJL loading rates (ES
−1.89, 95% CI, 0.046 to 0.079) and YBT normalised anterior reach (ES 1.416, 95% CI, 66.30 to
73.29) were observed for G1 compared to G2
where trivial (ES 0.072, 95% CI, 0.067 to 0.095)
and moderate effects (ES 1.104, 95% CI, 66.84 to
72.90), respectively, were observed. The magnitude
of change for G1 was consistently greater for all DJL
and YBT measures. Furthermore, SLST performance for G1 improved for all CoP measures
whereas G2 decreased. The measures used to assess
neuromuscular function indicate 8 weeks DT had
meaningful effects on neuromuscular control; however, the magnitude of effects was greater for G1
than G2. As SLST, YBT and DJL indicated greater
effects and are all proposed to predict injury, they
could be a suitable surrogate marker for assessing the
effects of DT. These findings also suggest that a
lower dose of DT is sufficient provided training is
individualised.
D2.P06. The effect of error in centre of
pressure and knee joint centre location
on knee adduction moment: a
sensitivity analysis
PATRICK CARDEN*, MICHAEL NUNNS
& SHARON DIXON
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University of Exeter
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Large knee adduction moments (KAM) observed
during human locomotion have been associated
with increased risk of lower limb pathology in
both sporting populations (Stefanyshyn et al.,
2006, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34,
1844–1851) and older adults (Baliunas et al.,
097, 2002, 10, 573–579). Frontal plane location
of both the centre of pressure (CoP) and the
knee joint centre of rotation (Knee CoR), when
combined with the magnitude of ground reaction
force (GRF), are the main determinants of the
magnitude of KAM. Both kinematic data and
CoP are susceptible to sources of error. While
the typical error of both frontal plane joint angles
and CoP has been established, the effect of error
on joint kinetics during locomotion should be
determined. The aim of the current investigation
was therefore to quantify the sensitivity of KAM to
error in frontal plane CoP and knee joint centre of
rotation. Data for one female participant (age: 60
years, stature: 1.61 m, body mass: 57.3 kg) were
selected for analysis from a larger participant
group from a study with institutional ethical
approval. The participant was asked to run at
3.3 m · s−1 ± 5% while three-dimensional movement of the right leg was synchronously recorded
at 200 Hz (Codamotion) with ground reaction
force data (AMTI), which was sampled at
1000 Hz. Marker trajectory and GRF data were
filtered at 10 Hz. KAM was calculated within the
Coda software using inverse dynamics. A systematic error was applied to mediolateral CoP and
Knee CoR locations in 1 mm increments, synonymous with typical error values highlighted in previous studies (1–6 mm) prior to calculating joint
moments. The KAM values with altered CoP and
Knee CoR were compared to the KAM without
additional error to determine the sensitivity of
KAM to errors in CoP and Knee CoR location;
this was determined by calculating route mean
square error (RMSE). The findings of the study
indicate that for every 1 mm of systematic error
applied to mediolateral CoP location KAM RMSE
was 0.02 (N · m) · kg−1. This was the same for
variations applied to mediolateral Knee CoR, also
with RMSE 0.02 (N · m) · kg−1 per 1 mm. This
approach to modelling error in joint moment data
highlights the importance for accurate CoP and
Knee CoR data. For the data collection set-up
and analysis procedures described, the level of
confidence in KAM has been determined, permitting confident comparison of moment values
between participants and between running
conditions.
D2.P07. Centre of pressure excursion
in footballers’ support limb when
maximal instep shooting
ANDREW MITCHELL* & KYLRN
BROOKS-LYNCH
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University of Bedfordshire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Ball kicking techniques in football place the nonkicking support limb at increased risk of injury such
as lateral ankle sprain. Epidemiology literature suggests that the risk of injury increases in the final third
of each half as a result of fatigue (Hawkins et al.,
2001, British Journal of Sports Medicine,35, 43–47),
that 39% of lateral ankle sprains occur in a noncontact mechanism and lateral ankle sprains account
for 11% of injuries sustained in football (Woods
et al., 2003, British Journal of Sports Medicine,37,
233–238). The purpose of this study was to examine
centre of pressure excursion (CPE) in the support
limb, whilst shooting into three separate parts of the
goal, in a non-fatigued condition and a globalised
football specific fatigue condition. With institutional
ethical approval, 15 right-foot dominant, male semiprofessional football players volunteered to participate in the study (age 22.4 years, s years ± 2.8,
height 178.87 m, s m ± 0.67, mass 77 kg, s ± 11.3)
(mean ± SD). Participants were required to kick a
football into the left, centre and right side of the goal
three times in a randomised order. Missed shots
were excluded from the study and participants continued to shoot until nine successful shots were
completed. Approach speed was controlled using
light gates (Brower, Speedtrap II 3265a, Cranlea).
Centre of pressure excursion in the anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, anteroposterior and mediolateral
directions in the support limb were examined during
the shooting trials in both conditions using a 0.5 m
RS Scan Foot Scan Plate (RS Scan Lab Ltd). A
significant increase in lateral CPE was observed
with fatigue, specifically when shooting into the
right target in comparison to the left (P = 0.009)
and centre targets (P = 0.038). Significantly lower
lateral CPE was observed when shooting into the
centre target in the non-fatigued condition, when
compared to shooting into the left (P = 0.016) or
right targets (P = 0.003). Significantly higher mediolateral CPE was observed when shooting at the
right (P = 0.005) and centre targets (P = 0.028) in
the football-specific fatigued condition when compared to the non-fatigued condition. The results
suggest that football players may be at a greater risk
of injury such as lateral ankle sprain when shooting
the ball in a fatigued condition. Targeted prehabilitation, such as single-leg proprioceptive exercises
and strengthening of muscles controlling mediolateral CPE at the sub-talar and hip joints may serve to
reduce this risk of injury. In addition, CPE in the
support limb is influenced by the direction of the
shot on goal and further research is required to
examine potential performance benefits here.
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D2.P08. The reliability of inertial
250
sensing technology for analysis of spinal
kinematics during fast bowling in
cricket
BILLY SENINGTON1*, RAYMOND Y.
LEE2 & JONATHAN M. WILLIAMS1
1
Bournemouth University; 2London
University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
South
255
Bank
The analysis of fast bowling biomechanics has
received much attention in the literature. However,
the pathomechanics relating to injury are poorly
understood. This understanding is critical if interventions to reduce injury risk are to be successful.
Due to technological constraints the majority of
research has been confined to the laboratory,
increasing costs and restricting portability. Thus,
application of such techniques to the wider fast
bowling community is limited. Inertial sensors may
be able to address limitations in current methods
used for the motion analysis of fast bowling.
Therefore, this study aims to investigate the reliability of inertial sensors for analysis of spinal kinematics
during fast bowling in cricket. With institutional
ethics approval, three professional fast bowlers were
instrumented with three wireless inertial sensors
(THETAmetrix, LSM303DLH) attached to the
skin over the S1, L1 and T1 spinous processes.
Sensors recorded absolute orientation and accelerations (±8 g) with data collected at 100 Hz. All data
were transferred to MATLAB (Ed. R2012a) where
peak sacral acceleration at back and front-foot
impact was identified and used to denote the delivery stride. All data were filtered using a fourth-order,
low-pass Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency
of 5 Hz. Spinal orientation at back and front-foot
impact was determined and lumbar, thoracic and
thoracolumbar kinematics were calculated from
rotation matrices for the delivery stride. Absolute
agreements of kinematic variables were calculated
using two-way mixed model intra-class correlation
coefficients (ICCs) with standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC)
also calculated. ICCs for lumbar flexion, thoracic
lateral flexion and extension and thoracolumbar
rotation demonstrated high reliability with ICCs
between 0.83 and 0.96. All other measures displayed
acceptable reliability with ICCs between 0.63 and
0.75. SEM for shoulder counterrotation and all lumbar kinematics was placed between 2.66° and 4.82°,
demonstrating relatively low measurement error for
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such ballistic movements. MDC values for all other
measurements ranged between 6.63° and 8.57°. Low
MDC values were calculated for all measures, ranging from 4.52° to 8.11°. The above results demonstrate that inertial sensors may be suitable for
measurement of three-dimensional spinal kinematics
during fast bowling. SEM values highlight low measurement error, demonstrating high reliability. Low
MDC values verify that inertial sensors may be valuable to coaches in detecting or implementing
changes in bowling technique. Consequently, inertial sensors may provide a more cost-effective and
portable solution to current camera-based motion
analysis systems, allowing coaches to give real-time
feedback to players outside of a laboratory
environment.
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Day 2. Posters – Physical Activity for Health
D2.P09. Physical activity levels during
physical education: is structured
activity better?
5
OSAMA ALJUHANI1* & GAVIN
SANDERCOCK2
1
Northern Borders University; 2University of Essex
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Physical education (PE) lessons have multiple objectives beyond promoting physical activity (PA) levels
such as knowledge, skills development and psychosocial adjustment. Children and adolescents may
participate in different amounts of PA during structured settings compared with unstructured settings
(Giles-Corti et al., 2005, Exercise and Sport Sciences
Reviews, 33(4), 175). Less time might be allocated
for structured lesson management, general instructions and learning skills during an unstructured lesson, which may allow for more time spent in
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare
the time spent in MVPA during structured and
unstructured PE lessons. After obtained ethical
approval, 51 pupils (28 boys; age 12.8 ± 0.5 years)
completed two structured (basketball coaching) and
two unstructured (basketball practice) PE lessons
(duration: 30 min per lesson). The participants in
unstructured PE were asked to practise basketball
freely
without
the
teacher’s
intervention.
Participants’ PA levels were monitored using
Actigraph GT1M accelerometers (ActiGraph,
Pensacola, FL, USA) with recording set at 1-s
epoch. Minutes of MVPA during both lessons were
calculated according to established cut-points
(Treuth et al., 2004, Medicine and Science in Sports
and Exercise, 36(7), 1259). Data in this study were
reported as absolute time in minutes. For the purpose of this study, repeated measures analysis of
variance followed by paired t-tests and independent
t-tests were used to examine the differences. In average, pupils spent 11 min in MVPA during unstructured PE compared with 10 min during structured
PE lessons. Although data showed relatively more
time in MVPA during unstructured PE lessons, but
when data split according to sex and school year, no
significant differences were found between lessons in
boys 1.01 (95% CI: −0.63 to 2.64), girls 0.94 (95%
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
CI: −0.62 to 2.51), year seven 0.59 (95% CI: −1.11 to
2.28) and year eight 1.54 (95% CI: −0.26 to 2.82).
Pupils did not meet the recommended level (50%) of
PE class time in MVPA during either structured or
unstructured PE. However, 18% of the students met
the recommended 50% during unstructured PE compared with 12% during structured PE. There was very
little difference in total MVPA during structured and
unstructured lessons. Interventions to increase PA
during PE are required. Interventions should target
PE structure to allow pupils to engage in sufficient
amount of PA.
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D2.P10. Does habitual physical activity 60
increase the sensitivity of the appetite
control system? A systematic review
KRISTINE BEAULIEU1*, MARK
HOPKINS1,2, JOHN BLUNDELL1 &
GRAHAM FINLAYSON1
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1
University of Leeds; 2Sheffield Hallam University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
It has been proposed that habitual physical activity
improves appetite control; however, the evidence has
never been systematically reviewed. The objective of
this systematic review was to examine whether appetite control (e.g. subjective appetite, appetite-related
peptides, food intake) differs between physically
active and inactive individuals. A search was conducted in the databases Medline, Embase and
SPORTDiscus for articles published in English
between 1996 and 2015 using keywords pertaining
to physical activity AND (appetite AND [food intake
OR appetite-related peptides]). Articles were
included if they involved healthy non-smoking adults
(18–64 years) participating in acute/cross-sectional
studies examining appetite control in physically
active and inactive groups. Longitudinal studies
assessing appetite control before and after an exercise-training intervention in previously inactive individuals were also included if the intervention was
greater than four weeks and did not include any
concurrent dietary intervention. Risk of bias was
assessed but did not influence study inclusion. Of
77 full-texts screened, 28 studies (acute/cross-sectional = 14; exercise-training = 14; total
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participants = 6074) met the inclusion criteria. Of 10
acute/cross-sectional studies that measured appetite
ratings, 3 found differences between the physically
active and inactive groups and 5 of 10 studies found
differences after exercise training; however, the
results were not consistent across studies.
Differences in absolute energy intake were significant in 10 of 11 acute/cross-sectional studies and in
5 of 11 training studies, but no clear effects were
apparent. Four studies suggested that active individuals have greater ability to decrease ad libitum
energy intake in response to high-energy foods (following a preload or at a test meal). The mechanisms
underlying this effect are not known but could
include changes in body composition, postprandial
hunger or satiety peptides, or sensitivity to tonic
peptides such as leptin or insulin. Methodological
issues existed concerning the small number of studies and lack of objective quantification of food
intake. Furthermore, the definitions used to define
active and inactive individuals varied markedly. To
conclude, despite no consistent differences in appetite sensations or absolute energy intake, this review
suggests that habitually active individuals may have
increased sensitivity to the energy content of foods
compared to inactive individuals. This characteristic
of active individuals could mitigate the risk of overconsumption in an energy-dense food environment.
Further studies are required to confirm these findings. This systematic review is registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews
(PROPSERO) as CRD42015019696.
D2.P11. Effects of physical fitness and
lifestyle on cognitive function and
spatial learning performance in older
adults by using a “human maze
assessment model”
JACQUELINE BOEHR1*, ALEXANDER
GARTHE2 & PETER WRIGHT1
1
Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany;
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases,
Germany
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Adult neurogenesis is the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus of the adult brain and
has been proven in rodents and humans, also in
older age. In rodents, physical activity and cognitive training enhances learning performance in the
Morris water maze (MWM), a navigation task to
study spatial learning and memory functions,
which is mostly used in rodents (Garthe A.,
Roeder I., Kempermann G. 2015, Hippocampus)
and is also suitable to investigate neurodegenerative diseases. Conditions such as dementia are
continually increasing due to the demographic
change and the demand for innovative treatment
and diagnostic concepts is therefore obvious. In
this context, the neuroprotective effect of physical
exercise in humans has been sufficiently documented. Physical fitness affects cognitive performance
and can predict the risk of dementia later in life.
Furthermore, Erickson et al. (2009, Hippocampus,
19(10), 1030–1039) showed a significant correlation between cardiorespiratory fitness and the hippocampal volume, associated with an increased
performance on spatial learning tasks. For transferring the knowledge gained from animal models,
virtual water mazes have been developed to assess
spatial learning in humans. However, Hegarty
et al. (2006, Intelligence, 34, 151–176) showed
that small-scale learning (e.g. looking at a monitor)
is partly based on different functional brain systems than large-scale learning (navigation in real,
complex settings). Hence, the aim of the first part
of the presented study was to develop a human
water maze (participants swimming in a lake) in
order to mimic the animal models and to prove the
ecological validity of the virtual water maze test.
Interim results show that rodents and humans are
using highly similar search/navigation strategies to
find and remember an invisible target position by
using existing visual cues of the environment (e.g.
trees, houses, parking cars). In the next stage, a
similar test area on a football pitch was developed
in order to make this functional test applicable to
various populations. Parameters such as latency,
path length and heart rate were monitored by a
geo-physiological tracking system (Catapult). The
aim of the ongoing second part of the study was
to examine the effects of physical fitness and lifestyle on spatial learning in older adults by using
both the human land maze and the virtual spatial
learning task. In conclusion, the data so far suggests
that the land version of the MWM could be a valid
assessment tool for hippocampal function in
humans. Final results are expected in autumn 2015.
D2.P12. Effect of acute class-based
circuit training on academic
achievement in children 10–11 years
BEN DICKINSON1*, MICHAEL DUNCAN2
& EMMA EYRE2
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UCLAN, Preston, 2Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@bendickinson18
Children gain cognitive benefits from physical activity, particularly in complex mental processing
(Donelly and Lambourne, 2011, Preventive
Medicine, 52(1), 36–42). For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts more emphasis on methods of
improving academic achievement. It is impractical
for schools to use cycle ergometers or treadmills on
a whole class basis; thus, there is a need to examine
whether more ecologically valid modes of exercise
might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training has been shown to benefit
cognitive function and recall ability (Pesce, Crova,
Cereatti, Casella and Bellucci, 2009, Mental Health
and Physical Activity, 2, 16–22) and is easily operationalised within schools. The present study examined the effects of acute class-based circuit training
on children’s academic achievement. Following
institutional ethical approval, 25 children (17 boys,
8 girls, 10–11 years, mean age 10.3; n = 25; S.
D ± 0.46 years) completed the Wide Range
Achievement Test (WRAT 4) at rest and following
30 min of circuit-based exercise. The session was
conducted with a full school class, comprising exercise stations requiring 30-s exercising followed by
30-s rest, whereby the children were instructed to
complete as many repetitions of the following compound, body-weight based exercises as they could;
Star Jumps, Squat Thrusts, Burpees, Speed
Bounces, Modified press-ups, Tuck jumps, 5 m
shuttle runs, “Mountain Climbers”, press-ups, situps, body weight squats, Bean Bag raises and Stork
balance. The blue and green WRAT4 forms, considered to be equivalent versions, were administered
as part of the experimental design to eliminate the
potential for practice effects (Wilkinson and
Robertson, 2006, Wide Ranging Achievement Test
(4th ed.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment).
Repeated measures MANOVA was employed to
examine any differences in components of the
WRAT post-rest and -exercise. The independent
variable was condition (rest vs. exercise) and the
dependent variables were WRAT scores for mathematics, reading, spelling and sentence comprehension. There was a significant effect for the
intervention condition (P = .006, Wilks’
Lambda = .403). Gender was not significant
(P > .05). Standardised scores for word reading
were significantly higher post-exercise (P = .0001)
compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores
for sentence comprehension (P = .783), spelling
(P = .06) mathematics (P = .277) and reading
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(P = .165) were not different between rest and exercise conditions. The results of the current study
suggest an acute bout of circuit-based exercise
enhances word reading but not other areas of academic achievement in 10–11 year old children.
These findings support prior research (e.g. Pesce,
Crova, Cereatti, Casella and Bellucci, 2009) that
indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively
improve cognition and recall ability in children.
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D2.P13. Fitness versus physical activity
in predicting fatness in children
EMMA EYRE1*, MICHAEL J. DUNCAN1 &
ALAN NEVILL2
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Coventry University; 2Wolverhampton University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
emma_eyre2
There is much debate on the importance of physical
activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness on body fat
since childhood fatness is associated with unfavourable metabolic profiles (Freedman et al., 1990,
Pediatrics, 103, 1175–82; Mesa et al., 2006,
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 16,
285–93). While there is some evidence to suggest that
fitness is inversely associated with fatness and PA is
associated with fitness and fatness (Ruiz et al., 2006,
Journal of Public Health, 94–102; Ruiz et al., 2006,
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 299–303),
this has not been extensively examined in British
children. Therefore, this study investigates the association of PA and cardiorespiratory fitness with body
fat in British children. Following ethical approval, 216
children aged 7.8 ± 2.4 years (77 boys, 139, girls, 32%
overweight/obese) from Coventry, UK, took part in
the study. Body mass index (kg · m−2) was determined
from height (m) and body mass (kg). Body fat (BF%)
was assessed using two site skinfolds (tricep,
subscapula) and leg-to-leg bioimpedance (BIA).
Additionally, waist circumference (WC, cm) was
also measured. Children wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (actiheart, camntech)
for 7 days. Predicted maximum oxygen consumption
(VO2MAX) was measured during an incremental step
test whilst wearing an actiheart. ANCOVA analysis
identified that average daily counts per minute and
predicted VO2MAX are independent predictors of BF
%. Independently, average daily counts per minute
explained between 6.2% in skinfold BF%
(P = 0.024, Ƞ2 = .024) and 7.9% of variance in BIA
BF% (P = 0.005, Ƞ2 = .038), predicted VO2MAX
explained 12.3% in skinfold BF% (P < 0.01,
Ƞ2 = .089) and 14.4% of the variance and BIA BF%
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(P < 0.01, Ƞ2 = .106). However, when average daily
counts per minute and predicted VO2MAX were
assessed together, average daily PA counts per minute
were no longer significant (skinfold BF% P = 0.189,
Ƞ2 = .009; BIA BF% P = 0.052, Ƞ2 = .019) but
predicted VO2MAX remained a significant predictor
of skinfold BF% (P < 0.01, Ƞ2 = .079) and BIA BF
% (P < 0.01, Ƞ2 = .091). The findings suggest that
both PA and fitness are predictive of fatness when
examined alone. When combined, fitness, and not
PA, was the only significant predictor of fatness.
Therefore, public health efforts to reduce body fatness
may be better served by focusing on increasing fitness.
D2.P14. The effect of seated and supine
exercise on executive function in TIA
patients and healthy controls
JAMES FAULKNER1*, REBECCA GRIGG2,
LEE STONER2, BRANDON WOOLLEY 2,
PHILIP ALLAN3, TERRY O’DONNELL3,
LAIKIN WONG4, JEREMY LANFORD4,
YU-CHIEH TZENG3 & DANIELLE
LAMBRICK5
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University of Winchester; 2Massey University, New
Zealand; 3University of Otago, New Zealand;
4
Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand;
5
Unversity of Southampton
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@drjamesfaulkner
A recent meta-analysis has demonstrated exercise to
have a positive effect on executive function in healthy
adults (Chang et al., 2012, Brain Research, 1453,
87–101). Accordingly, exercise could have a beneficial effect in improving executive function in stroke
patients, a cognitive domain frequently impaired
post-stroke (Cumming et al., 2012, International
Psychogeriatrics, 24, 557–556). The purpose of this
study was to examine the effects of an acute bout of
submaximal seated and supine exercise on executive
function in transient ischemic attack (TIA; minor
stroke) patients and an age-matched healthy control
group (HC). Following ethical approval, nine TIA
patients (65.1 ± 10.1 years; 85.8 ± 16.9 kg) and
fifteen HC participants (61.5 ± 7.1 years;
84.9 ± 16.3 kg) performed two familiarisation sessions and four laboratory-based exercise protocols
on a cycle ergometer. The laboratory-based exercise
tests included two maximal graded-exercise tests to
volitional exhaustion; one test was performed on a
seated cycle ergometer, the other on a cycle
ergometer in a supine position. The two remaining
tests were 30-min sub-maximal exercise tests (seated
and supine) undertaken at an exercise intensity
equivalent to 90% of the gaseous exchange threshold.
The Stroop task assessed executive function and was
performed prior-to (baseline), immediately after and
15 min following the exercise tests. Near-infrared
spectroscopy was continuously recorded throughout
the entire testing protocol to assess changes in total
haemoglobin (tHb), oxyhaemoglobin (O2Hb) and
deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb). Regardless of exercise
modality (seated vs. supine) or condition (TIA vs.
healthy-control), exercise elicited significant improvements in the time to complete the Stroop task (baseline: 61.3 ± 10.0 s; post: 58.1 ± 9.4 s; 15-min post
54.8 ± 9.0 s; P < 0.05). There was a significant
increase in tHb (−0.6 ± 7.3 cf. 15.6 ± 8.1%) and
O2Hb (−2.3 ± 10.9 cf. 22.2 ± 11.1%) after exercise
(baseline to post) which remained significantly higher
15 min following exercise regardless of the exercise
modality (seated vs. supine) or condition (TIA vs.
healthy-control) (both P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that 30 min of sub-maximal exercise in a
seated and supine position led to improvements in
executive function in TIA and healthy-control participants. The cognitive improvements which were
observed immediately after exercise were maintained
for a further 15 min. These findings may be important for improving executive function, a cognitive
domain greatly impaired by stroke. Future research
should further investigate the underlying mechanisms
by which exercise affects executive function in stroke
patients.
D2.P15. Influence of wearable
technology on physical activity,
physical fitness and disability in nonspecific back pain patients
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REBECCA GORDON* & SAUL BLOXHAM
University of St Mark & St John
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Physical activity (PA) can reduce non-specific
chronic low back pain (LBP) (Shnayderman and
Katz-Leurer, 2013, Clinical Rehabilitation, 27,
207–214). Non-specific chronic LBP patients
take an average of 29% fewer steps than individuals without LBP (Ryan et al., 2009, Australian
Journal of Physiotherapy, 55, 53–58). In agreement
with findings which report that basic PA monitors
such as pedometers promote PA (Tully et al.,
2014, BMC Research Notes, 7, 952), we have
found increased PA in LBP patients (n = 27)
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who used pedometers. With developing technologies providing greater feedback to the user (e.g.
heart rate, sleep quality), it is conceivable that
more advanced monitors such as Fitbits may provide greater motivations to increase PA. The aim
of this study was to investigate the effect of the
Fitbit ChargeHR compared to a pedometer on
PA, fitness and disability in non-specific subacute LBP patients. Following institutional ethics
approval, 36 patients attended a 6-week PA and
lifestyle programme (6×2 h sessions), and 27
patients were provided with a pedometer (usual
care method) (mean age 49 ± 12.5 years, weight
82.3 ± 23.1 kg) compared to 9 with a Fitbit (mean
age 51 ± 16.8 years, weight 79.8 ± 14.6 kg). The
groups were randomly selected, and as part of an
ongoing study, it is anticipated that further groups
will be provided with Fitbits in the future. The
NHS provided consent for the back pain programme and data collection but NHS ethics was
not required. Each session provided a different
practical and educational focus including activities
to develop aerobic fitness, flexibility, core activation, stability, muscular strength and endurance.
All activities were relevant to activities of daily
living. Dietary advice, home diaries and Fitbits/
pedometers were provided to record activities
completed at home. Both groups completed pre–
post measures of the Modified Oswestry Disability
Questionnaire, aerobic fitness (Chester Step test),
grip strength (handgrip dynamometer) and body
composition (Tanita MC-180MA). Pre–post data
was analysed via independent and paired t-tests.
Significant increases in step count (Fitbit 23%,
pedometer 28%, effect size = 0.07) for both
groups was identified (P ≤ 0.05). Aerobic fitness
increased (Fitbit 7%, pedometer 20%, effect
size = −0.22) but was only significant in the pedometer group (P < 0.05). Disability rating significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in both groups (Fitbit
19%, pedometer 18%, effect size = 0.05). Grip
strength significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased in
both groups for the left hand (Fitbit 12%, pedometer 7%, effect size = 0.09) and increased in
the right hand (Fitbit 17%, pedometer 2%, effect
size = 0.25), but was only significant in the Fitbit
group. No significant change in body weight was
reported for either group (P > 0.05, effect
size = 0.00). Although wearable technology
(Fitbit) can effectively increase PA levels of non-specific LBP patients, there is no greater effect
compared to pedometers during a 6-week programme. Further studies should explore the
impact wearable technology can have on patients’
ability to “self-manage” PA levels, having exited
structured PA interventions.
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D2.P16. Understanding physical
activity and obesity in preschool
children
CHARLOTTE HALL*, MICHAEL
DUNCAN, EMMA EYRE & SAMUEL
OXFORD
460
Coventry University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The prevalence of adulthood obesity is over 30%
in most countries worldwide and as high as 60% in
the United States and the United Kingdom (Flegal
et al., 2010, Journal of American Medical
Association, 303(3), 235–241). Long-term complications related to childhood obesity include physiological diseases, such as hypertension, type II
diabetes, coronary heart disease and strokes
(Bryant et al., 2013, European Journal of Sport
Science, 14(7), 730–736). Recommendations are
for children to partake in 60-min of moderate-tovigorous PA (MVPA) every day and 3 h of PA
(Department of Health, 2011, London, UK;
Tremblay et al., 2012, Applied Physiological
Nutrition and Metabolism, 37, 345–356). Forty-six
participants (aged 3–5; 26 males; 20 females; mean
age 3.57 ± 0.50) in preschool settings throughout
Coventry and surrounding areas wore an accelerometer for 4 days (these 4 days included 2 weekdays and both weekend days) during their awake
time to assess PA. Additionally, nursery PA time
was recorded. The activity counts were averaged
by minutes to interpret the percentage of time in
low, moderate and vigorous PA. BMI was calculated for a comparable result, as kg · m−2. Ethical
approval was granted by Coventry University
Ethics Department. Out of these participants,
18% of children were considered as overweight or
obese in accordance with previously established
cut-off points (Cole et al., 2000, BMJ, 320
(7244), 1240). In weekdays, 67% of the children
completed 3 h of PA, 37% completed 60 min of
MVPA and 37% completed both recommendations. In weekends, 59% of the children completed
3 h, 37% completed 60 min and 37% completed
both recommendations. Overall, 50% of children
completed PA recommendations for 3 h, 35%
completed 60 min and 35% of children completed
both recommendations on weekdays and weekends. During 3 h of nursery time, children completed 42% of their 3 h PA recommendations and
44% of their 60 min recommendations. Males in
nursery time completed 38% of MVPA recommendations was completed and 40% of the 3 h.
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Females, in nursery time, completed 20% of the
3 h of PA and 49% of MVPA recommendations.
A repeated measures ANOVA for weekday to
weekend percentage of time spent in sedentary,
light, moderate and vigorous with gender
as between-subject factors identified no significant difference in days of the week and within
genders (P > 0.05). Therefore, it is identified
that these children overall are insufficiently physically active as only 37% complete the appropriate
recommendations.
D2.P17. Midwives and antenatal
teachers’ understanding of physical
activity guidelines during pregnancy
YVONNE HOPKINSON*, DENISE M HILL,
SIMON FRYER & LINDSEY KILGOUR
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University of Gloucestershire
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@yvonnehopkinson
Regular physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is
beneficial for both mother and baby (Gaston et al.,
2012, Psychology of Sport and Exercise,13, 550–557).
Current recommendations suggest at least 30 min
per day of moderate intensity PA is maintained
during pregnancy (NICE, 2010, nice.org.uk/guidance/PH27). Despite this, women often disengage
from PA whilst pregnant, with many who were previously active choosing to become inactive
(Nascimento et al., 2012, Current Opinions in
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24, 387–394). Moreover,
it has been reported that women often receive limited guidance from their healthcare provider regarding PA, whilst others are even encouraged to
remain sedentary (Clark and Gross, 2004,
Midwifery, 20, 133–141). Evenson and Bradley
(2010, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 18(6),
400–407) also found pregnant women still had misconceptions about PA during pregnancy, and so
concluded that more research was needed to
explore the advice given by health professionals
regarding PA during pregnancy. Therefore, the
aim of this study was (i) to examine the level of
understanding held by midwives/antenatal teachers
regarding the NICE PA guidelines and (ii) investigate the PA guidance given to women during pregnancy by midwives/antenatal teachers. After
institutional ethical approval was granted, 111 midwives and antenatal teachers completed an electronic survey to explore their understanding of NICE
PA guidelines during pregnancy, and advice they
offered pregnant women in their care. The study
revealed only 8% of respondents were able to identify accurately the NICE guidelines for PA participation whilst pregnant, with 37% suggesting that
they were unsure of the current recommendations.
Through qualitative content analysis (Schreier,
2012, Qualitative Content Analysis in Practice,
London: Sage), data revealed that the guidance
offered to pregnant women by midwives/antenatal
teachers included (i) to remain at pre-pregnancy
physical activity levels (whether sedentary or
active); (ii) exercise at low intensity only and (iii)
not start any new exercises. All of which are incongruent with the current recommendations.
Furthermore, despite being a key contact point for
women during pregnancy, 50% of respondents did
not feel confident offering advice or answering
questions relating PA during pregnancy, and 82%
reported having no access to CPD opportunities to
develop their understanding of this subject area
further. This study has identified a worrying lack
of understanding regarding the NICE guidelines
relating to PA during pregnancy amongst key professionals working with pregnant women. Further
work is warranted to improve the communication of
PA guidance to healthcare professionals and pregnant women.
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D2.P18. Supervised exercise for older
women treated for breast cancer.
Results from a pilot randomised
controlled trial
KEVIN KIPLING1*, SERENA
MCCLUSKEY1, DANIEL BODUSZEK1,
MARILYNNE KIRSHBAUM2 & GED
GARBUTT1,3
University of Huddersfield; 2Charles Darwin
University, Australia; 3Penine Acute Hospitals Trust,
North Manchester General Hospital
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@k_kipling
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There is compelling evidence of the benefits that
breast cancer survivors (BCS) can experience by
participating in physical activity (PA) during or
post-cancer treatment (Campbell et al., 2012, a concise evidence review, Macmillan Cancer Support, 4–
11). Research involving younger cancer survivors
and older “cancer-free” adults has demonstrated
that exercise can play an important part in ameliorating some of the effects of cancer treatment and of
the ageing process (Courneya et al., 2004, Critical
Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 51, 249–261).
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However, evidence from older BCS is limited,
despite the higher incidence of diagnosis and lower
survival rates in this population. The aim of this
study was to investigate whether a 12-week supervised exercise intervention with older women (>60
years) during adjuvant therapy for breast cancer,
improved function (12-min walk), body composition
(air displacement plethysmography), quality of life
(European Organisation for Research and
Treatment of Cancer) and PA levels (Scottish PA
Questionnaire) and if these could be sustained over a
12-month period. The intervention group followed a
1× week supervised exercise circuit consisting of
cardiovascular and resistance exercises, working at
an intensity of 3–4 ratings of perceived exertion
(RPE). Participants were asked to attempt two additional 30 min of PA at home. Home PA was not
monitored. The feasibility of recruitment, adherence
and acceptability with this population was also
assessed. Ethical approval was obtained from South
Yorkshire NHS panel. Eighty-four women were
approached who met the inclusion criteria resulting
in thirty-five BCS (mean age = 67 ± 5.02 years)
randomly assigned to either a supervised exercise
intervention group (n = 16) or a usual care control
group (n = 19). Power calculations were not used as
this was a pilot study to inform future larger interventions. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Statistical analyses were
conducted using descriptive statistics, mixed
between–within subjects ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction terms were
detected between groups for any outcome measures
at the four time points. However, both intervention
and control groups significantly increased walk distance (P < 0.0, ES = .78) and physical activity levels
(P < 0.05, ES = .30) over 12 months. Attrition rates
to the study were good (12.5%-intervention, 26%control, 20%-overall) with no adverse events
reported. Adherence to the supervised exercise sessions was high (>85%). Recruitment onto a supervised exercise intervention with older BCS was
feasible with high adherence levels without adverse
events. Future studies should incorporate larger
sample sizes to further evaluate the effects of PA in
this under researched population.
D2.P19. Domain-specific physical
activity data from the Scottish Health
Survey to inform policy and practice
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NANETTE MUTRIE*, TESSA STRAIN,
CLAIRE FITZSIMONS & PAUL KELLY
University of Edinburgh
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@nanettemutrie
Increasing physical activity (PA) levels is a priority in
Scotland. However, more needs to be known about
age- and sex-related differences in the relative contributions of the domains of PA. Knowledge of
population level differences could aid better intervention and policy design. This study investigated
the differences in the relative contributions of the
domains of PA between those who met the current
PA recommendations (150-min moderate activity,
or 75 min of vigorous activity or equivalent combination) and those that were insufficiently active, by
age and gender. Data from the nationally representative 2013 Scottish Health Survey were acquired
from the UK Data Archive. Self-reported moderate
and vigorous PA (MVPA) from 4894 responding
adults (≥16 years) was mapped onto the domains
of: walking, cycling, domestic, leisure, occupational,
outdoor, non-team sport, team sport, and exercise
and fitness. After excluding those reporting >10 h
per day in one domain (n = 9), the relative contributions of the domains were calculated for all those
reporting ≥1 min of MVPA per week (n = 3976).
Welch’s ANOVAs with Games-Howell post hoc tests
were performed on weighted data stratified by sex
and activity status (reporting an equivalent of 1–149
or ≥150 min MVPA per week) to assess selected
differences by 10-year age group. In our sample,
64.3% met the recommendations, 18.6% reported
between 1 and 149 min of MVPA per week and
17.2% reported none. The following descriptive
findings were identified; amongst those that met
the guidelines, exercise and fitness, occupational,
domestic and walking were the top four contributing domains for men under 54 and women under
64. In the older age groups, non-team sport was a
greater relative contributor and occupational was
negligible. Walking was the only domain to contribute to over 16% of all MVPA across all genders
and age groups. Domestic activity was the main
contributor to total MVPA for those who reported
1–149 min of MVPA per week, accounting for
between 34.9 and 72.0% of the total for both
sexes and all age groups. Walking contributed significantly more to total MVPA in those over 65
than in other age groups for both sexes and activity
levels (all P < 0.05). These results indicate that the
implementation of the National Walking Strategy
in Scotland is important for the promotion of PA
for all, particularly for older adults. Policymakers
should be more sensitive to the range of domains
in which PA takes place and the variations of participation across the life-course and between
genders.
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D2.P20. The efficacy of the EduMove
approach in promoting learning,
psychosocial functioning and physical
activity: a qualitative study that
captures the perspective of pupils,
teachers and EduMove coaches
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OSCAR MWAANGA * & JAMES MASON
JAMES STEELE1*, JÜRGEN GIESSING2,
BJÖRN EICHMANN2 & JAMES FISHER1
1
1
Currently, the Education through Movement
(EduMove) approach is among the few innovations
that use movement games and activities as a vehicle
to simultaneously promote learning, psychosocial
functioning and physical activity. Although there is
emerging evidence to support a positive relationship
between enjoyable physical activities (PA) and children’s academic achievement as well as psychosocial functioning, this relationship is not fully
established and underpinning mechanisms not
fully understood (Lee and Hopkins, 2013,
Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, 130010). This study
aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the
mechanisms underpinning the claimed positive outcomes through a qualitative evaluation of the 11
EduMove interventions in Southampton schools.
With institutional ethics approval, semi-structured
interviews were conducted with school teachers
(n = 10), EduMove coaches (n = 15) and pupils
(n = 15). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the
interviews data. The results seem to suggest
EduMove interventions are efficacious in promoting learning and psychosocial functioning. The
mechanisms underpinning the outcomes are complex but operate through three broad themes that
emerged from the analysis, that is, enjoyment and
reduced stress; diverse learning styles and engagement. The EduMove approach supports the emerging body of evidence that suggests that enjoyable
physical activities promote learning and psychosocial functioning. The enjoyment reduced stress during tasks and sustained engagement on tasks. Also,
pupils supported each other to complete tasks but
also worked individually. However, to ascertain the
positive association between PA and academic
achievement and psychosocial functioning, more
rigorous experimental research with standardised
interventions, valid and reliable tools of measurement, and a long-term follow-up to monitor sustained cognitive and psychosocial outcomes is
needed.
Resistance training (RT) is an exercise modality
known to elicit a wide range of beneficial health
outcomes. However, most studies of RT examine
methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically
valid RT programmes are seldom compared for efficacy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare two common ecologically valid approaches to
RT. The study was ethically approved by the lead
author’s institution. An a priori sample size calculation was performed based upon typical effect sizes
(ES) for strength reported in the literature revealing
each group required between 9 and 13 participants
to meet required power of 0.8 at an alpha value of
P ≤ .0.05. Thirty participants provided informed
consent and were randomised to either a group performing ecologically valid low (HIT; n = 16) or high
volume (3ST; n = 14) RT methods 2×/week for 10
weeks. Outcomes included strength measured using
repetitions to momentary muscular failure, body
composition measured using bioelectrical impedance and participant’s subjective assessments of
the training interventions using a questionnaire.
Absolute changes in strength and body composition
between groups were examined using independent ttests and questionnaire data was examined using
Mann–Whitney U tests. Further, 95% confidence
intervals (CI) were calculated in addition to ES
using Cohen’s d for strength and body composition
outcomes to compare magnitude of effects between
groups where an ES of 0.20–0.49 was considered as
small, 0.50–0.79 as moderate and ≥0.80 as large.
Because of discrepancy in gender ratio between
groups after randomisation, between group analyses
were also conducted separately by gender. Ninetyfive per cent CIs indicated both HIT and 3ST
groups improved strength significantly with large
effect sizes (ranging 0.97–1.73 and 0.88–1.77,
respectively). HIT had significantly greater strength
gains for three of nine tested exercises compared
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D2.P21. A comparison of two
ecologically valid resistance training
methods upon strength, body
composition and subjective
assessments of training
2
Southampton Solent University; 2EduMove
Limited
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Southampton Solent University; 2University
Koblenz-Landau, Germany
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@jamessteeleii
of
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with 3ST and females in the HIT group showed
significantly greater strength gains for four of the
nine exercises (all P < 0.05). Females also showed
significantly higher motivation to continue 3ST
training (P = 0.013). There was no difference
between groups for males. Body composition did
not significantly change in either group. In conclusion, significant strength gains can be produced
s93
using either HIT or 3ST. However, strength gains
may be greater when using HIT, particularly for
females. Nevertheless, females reported higher motivation towards continuing 3ST training. We recommend HIT for maximising strength, though 3ST
may be prudent for females considering motivation
may affect adherence.
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Journal of Sports Sciences, 2015
Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s94–s100, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1115651
Day 2. Posters – Physiology and Nutrition
D2.P22. The frequency effect of
carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling
performance
5
MALIKA FELTON*
University of Winchester
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Carbohydrate mouth rinses (CMRs) can provide an
ergogenic effect on cycling performance ≤1 h via
stimulation of oropharyngeal receptors that activate
reward/pleasure areas of the brain. Longer duration
CMRs (10 s vs. 5 s) provide further enhancement,
producing higher receptor stimulation levels due to
increased exposure time to CMRs, although practically the longer duration wasn’t recommended due to
associated breathing difficulties. Consequently, the
aim of this study was to investigate if the enhancement from increased exposure time could also be
achieved via a higher frequency of CMR, while
removing the breathing problems. With institutional
ethics approval, 8 participants (7 males and 1 female,
mean ± SD: age = 31.5 ± 10.4 years, mass = 75.2 ±
12.1 kg, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m) completed a 30min time trial on four occasions. A 25 ml 6.4%
maltodextrin (CHO) or water (PLA) solution was
rinsed for 5 s either every 3 min (10%) or 6 min
(20%). No significant difference in mean distance
cycled was found between conditions (CHO10% =
16.19 ± 1.59 km; PLA10% = 15.72 ± 1.59 km;
CHO20% = 16.22 ± 1.74 km; PLA20% = 15.71 ±
1.02 km; P = 0.375). However, distance cycled
increased when using CMR by 3% and 3.3% for
10% and 20% frequencies, respectively, and 6 out
of 8 participants cycled furthest when using a CMR.
Additionally, the likelihood that a CMR will provide
a 0.5% increase in distance cycled over PLA is 80%
and for a 1% improvement a 64% likelihood. There
were no significant differences in power output
(P = 0.461), cadence (P = 0.161), heart rate
(P = 0.813) or RPE (P = 0.072) between conditions.
Power output dropped by an average of 1% during
the 5 s MR (P = 0.698). It is unclear why this study
differs from previous statistically significant findings
of CMR enhancement but it does question the
theorised understanding of receptor activation.
Receptors may have a stimulation limit meaning a
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
higher frequency CMR cannot produce greater activation, and, therefore, no additional performance
benefit. Despite the power output decrement during
MR, no cumulative negative effect was found during
10% trials. Average power output was 4.5% higher
during 10% trials due to a reported increase in motivation levels, resulting in higher power output outside
of MR. In conclusion, a higher frequency CMR does
not provide additional performance enhancement but
this is not due to decrements in power output associated with MR procedure. From a practical perspective, if using a CMR can produce a 0.5%
improvement in performance (80% likelihood) then
this is a worthwhile enhancement for cyclists.
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D2.P23. The effects of an active warmup with motivational video or music on
repeated sprint performance
JAMIE HIGHTON*, THOMAS WILLIAMS,
GERARD NOWLAN & CRAIG TWIST
65
University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@JHighton
Several physiological and psychological preconditioning strategies enhance exercise performance (Kilduff
et al., 2013, International Journal of Sports Physiology
and Performance, 8, 677–681). However, few studies
have directly compared or combined these methods.
Therefore, this study aimed to determine if combining
an active warm-up with motivational video or music
enhanced subsequent repeated-sprint performance
compared to an active warm-up alone. After institutional ethics approval, 16 team sport players (age =
22.1 years, s = 3.4; stature = 178.2 cm, s = 8.3; body
_ O2max = 47.2 ml · kg−1 ·
mass = 77.9 kg, s = 11.8; V
−1
min , s = 5.1) completed three randomly ordered
trials 72 h apart. In one trial, participants completed
a 5-min cycle ergometer warm-up at a power output
_ 2max before 7 × 30 m maxcorresponding to 60% VO
imal sprints on a non-motorised treadmill (CON). In
other trials, participants completed the same warm-up
but simultaneously watched a motivational video
(VID) or listened to self-selected motivational music
(MUS) before the sprints. Between-trial differences
were determined via magnitude-based inferences
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based on effect sizes and 90% confidence intervals.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was very likely
reduced after the warm-up in VID (12.4, s = 1.2)
and MUS (12.4, s = 1.1) compared to CON (13.4,
s = 1), along with a most likely increased positive affect
(~20%) and possibly reduced negative affect (~15%).
Average heart rate in the warm-up was likely higher in
VID (154 b · min−1, s = 13) compared to MUS (152
b · min−1, s = 17) and CON (152 b · min−1, s = 13),
_ 2 in VID and MUS (~0.1
with a possible increased VO
−1
L · min ). Average sprint time in the repeated sprints
possibly improved in VID (7.2 s, s = 1.2) and MUS
(7.2 s, s = 1.3) compared to CON (7.4 s, s = 1.3), due
to very likely improvements in the initial sprint (VID =
6.6 s, s = 1; MUS = 6.7 s, s = 1; CON = 7.2 s, s = 1.1).
_ 2 and RPE were not different between trials during
VO
the sprints, although blood lactate was likely increased
in VID (18.0 mmol · L−1, s = 3.3; MUS =
16.5 mmol · L−1, s = 3.2; CON = 15.5 mmol · L−1,
s = 3.7). Repeated sprint performance is enhanced by
adding motivational video or music to an active warmup, potentially due to positive changes in psychological constructs. Practitioners should consider using this
preconditioning strategy before team sport competition to enhance subsequent sprint performance.
D2.P24. A pilot study for inter-user
variability of dietary analysis with
MyFitnessPal by exercise professionals
120
ALISON HILL* & JAMES STEELE
s95
With institutional ethics approval, six Level 2 (n = 2)
and Level 3 (n = 4) Register of Exercise Professionals
(REPs) members were recruited. Participants had been
REPs qualified for 3 ± 3 years. Each was provided with
the same sample food diary and instructed to analyse it
using MyFitnessPal. Total energy intake (kcal), total
carbohydrate (g), total fat (g), total protein (g), sugars
(g), fibre (g), cholesterol (mg) and sodium (mg) results
from the MyFitnessPal analysis were examined. Interindividual variation was calculated using coefficient of
variation (CV). Means, standard deviations and CV for
each outcome were as follows: Total energy intake
(1521.1 ± 229.0 kcal; CV = 15.1%), total carbohydrate (190.3 ± 30.9 g; CV = 16.2%), total fat
(30.8 ± 10.4 g; CV = 33.6%), total protein
(43.8 ± 8.66 g; CV = 19.8%), total sugars
(57.2 ± 7.78 g; CV = 13.6%), total fibre
(15.2 ± 3.6 g; CV = 23.7%), total cholesterol
(504.0 ± 45.0 mg; CV = 83.3%) and total sodium
(755.7 ± 274.4 mg; CV = 36.5%). CVs for all measures were considered unacceptably high in comparison to prior data in students studying nutrition at
master’s degree level (Puš, Podgrajšek, and Simčič,
2012, Acta Argic. Slov., 100(2), 117–121) highlighting
the difference in level of nutritional qualification.
Particular concerning, cholesterol and sodium, nutrients with particular importance in health, showed the
largest variation. Whilst a larger study is required to
identify potential sources of variability (i.e. coding
error relating to MyFitnessPal specifically), our study
highlights a potential need for continuing training for
EPs in accuracy of dietary analysis.
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Southampton Solent University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@DrAliHill
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It is considered within the professional scope of an
exercise professional (EP) to provide advice based on
healthy eating guidelines; however, individualised
advice is not. Food diaries are a common format used
to provide such advice and MyFitnessPal is a popular
food diary app used for dietary assessment (Josp,
Fairborn, Green, and Perry, 2015, JMIR mHealth
uHealth, 3(1), e7). Recently, it has been reported that
many EPs do indeed offer individualised advice utilising food diary assessment outside of their scope of
practice (McKean, Slater, Oprescu, and Burkett,
2015, Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 25(2),
154–162). It is known food diaries have inherent
sources of error affecting reliability; however, interindividual reliability of food diary analysis using commercially available software has not been investigated
in EPs. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to
examine the inter-individual variability of EPs analysing the same one day food diary using MyFitnessPal.
D2.P25. The effects of high-intensity
cycling training on postural sway in
healthy young adults
175
MATHEW HILL1*, MATTHEW HIGGINS2
& MIKE PRICE3
1
University of Northampton, 2University of Derby and
Coventry University
3
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@DrMathewHill
Acute high-intensity training (HIT) elicits a transient increase in postural sway (Donath et al., 2015,
Gerontology, 61, 15–23). Consequently, it is possible
that repeated HIT sessions may lead to positive
balance adaptations. Therefore, the purpose of this
study was to investigate whether short-term HIT
training attenuates the negative effects of acute
cycling on postural sway. Following institutional
ethical approval, 18 healthy adults were randomly
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assigned to either 3 weeks (n = 8, age = 20.1 ± 2.6
years, height = 177 ± 5 cm, mass = 73.6 ± 5.1 kg)
or 6 weeks (n = 10, age = 24.3 ± 5.8 years, height =
179 ± 6 cm, mass = 81.0 ± 15.8 kg) of HIT on a
cycle ergometer. Training was completed three
times per week: (1) repeated short (6, 8, 10 s), (2)
longer sprints (30 s) at 7.5% body mass resistance,
and (3) exercise to exhaustion (TLIM) at 100% of
aerobic peak power output. Postural sway (i.e. centre of pressure [COP] displacement in the anteroposterior [AP] direction and COP path length [PL])
were measured before (− 5 min) immediately after
(1 min) and at 5, 10 and 20 min of recovery of the
first and final TLIM training sessions. Data were
recorded for 30 s and sampled at 100 Hz using a
force platform. Sway outcomes were analysed by a
three-way repeated measures ANOVA (time: −5
min, 1, 5, 10 and 20 min × group; 3 weeks and 6
weeks × training status; pre and post). Pre-training,
TLIM elicited an acute increase in AP (3 weeks: P
= 0.001, ES = 2.2; 6 weeks: P = 0.001, ES = 2.0)
and PL (3 weeks: P = 0.002, ES = 2.3; 6 weeks: P =
0.001, ES = 2.0) returning to pre-exercise levels
within 10 min of recovery. Following 3 weeks of
training, significant increases in AP (P = 0.001, ES
= 2.8) and PL (P = 0.002, ES = 2.0) were observed
post exercise, returning to pre-exercise levels after
15 min of recovery. After 6 weeks of training no
significant increases in sway (AP: P = 0.212, ES =
0.2; PL: P = 0.998, ES = 0.3) were observed following TLIM. In summary, 3 weeks of HIT resulted in
greater increases in sway and longer recovery times
following high-intensity cycling compared to pretraining. After 6 weeks of HIT postural sway following acute cycling was attenuated. Impaired neuromuscular control following 3 weeks of HIT is
possibly due, in part, to the initial development of
overreaching. Longer duration HIT is required to
improve postural sensory-motor control.
The study assessed the relationship between hurling
player’s fitness profile and a method of integrating
training load (TL). Twenty-five hurling players performed VO2max and lactate threshold (LT) testing
followed by a hurling intermittent simulation protocol. Written informed consent was obtained by each
subject and ethical approval was granted by the
ethics committee of the Institute of Technology
Tallaght. Results from the LT test were used to
determine velocity at lactate threshold (vLT) (km · h−1
), velocity at onset of blood lactate accumulation
(vOBLA) (km · h−1) with VO2max (ml · kg · min−1)
also assessed. The heart rate–blood lactate profile
was used for the calculation of internal TL
(iTRIMP). Total distance (TD), high speed distance (HSD) (≥17 km · h−1) and sprint distance
(≥22 km · h−1) were measured using GPS technology (4 Hz, VX Sport, New Zealand) which allowed
measurement of external TL during hurling match
play simulation. The external TL (distance) was
divided by the internal TL (iTRIMP) to form integration ratios. Pearson correlation analyses allowed
for the assessment of relationships between fitness
measures and integration ratios to match performance. External measures of TL showed limited
correlations with fitness measures. The integration
of external and internal TL (TD:iTRIMP; HSD:
iTRIMP; Sprint:iTRIMP) showed significant relationships with fitness measures. TD:iTRIMP was
correlated with aerobic fitness measures VO2max (r
= 0.524; P = 0.006; Large) and vOBLA (r = 0.559;
P = 0.003; Large). HSD:iTRIMP also correlated
with aerobic fitness variables vLT (r = 0.502; P =
0.009; Large) and vOBLA (r = 0.407; P = 0.039;
Moderate). Interestingly Sprint:iTRIMP also
showed significant correlations with vLT (r =
0.611; P = 0.001; Large). The study indicates that
the integration of TL ratios can provide practitioners with a live measure of fitness as external
performance alone showed limited relationships
with fitness measures.
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D2.P26. The integration of external
and internal training load metrics in
hurling
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SHANE MALONE1,2*, IBRAHIM
AKUBAT3, KIERAN COLLINS2 &
DOMINIC DORAN1
D2.P27. Accuracy of the Polar FT40M
heart rate monitor in estimating
energy expenditure during treadmill
running
1
Liverpool John Moores University, 2Institute of
Technology Tallaght, Ireland and 3Newman University
CLARE MARSH* & DANNY PENDER
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
ittdublin.ie
@shanemalone01
University of Salford
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Estimation of energy expenditure (EE) from heart
rate (HR) monitors has been reported to provide
inaccurate predictions of EE during exercise by
some studies, whilst others have reported good predictive accuracy. Some of the discrepancies
reported could be related to the exercise intensity
used where accuracy could be influenced by the
upper/lower HR ranges utilised, and whether male
or female participants were used as gender has been
reported to influence predictive accuracy.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Polar FT40M heart rate
monitor (HRM) in estimating EE during treadmill
running at four exercise intensities in males and
females. Following institutional ethics approval,
six male (mean ± SD: age = 24.33 ± 3.82 years,
height = 180.67 ± 7.54 cm, weight =
81.67 ± 13.16 kg) and six female (mean ± SD:
age
=
22.17±
3.13
years,
height
=
162.67 ± 4.82 cm, weight = 59 ± 3.16 kg) participants conducted a preliminary trial to determine
treadmill running speeds which correspond to
55%, 65%, 75% and 85% of estimated HRmax.
The participants then performed four steady-state
submaximal trials at the speeds determined during
the preliminary trials. EE was measured using
indirect calorimetry (IC) (Cortex Metalyzer 3b)
and estimated using HRM simultaneously for
5 min at each intensity. A three-way ANOVA
(measuring device [IC/HRM] × intensity × gender)
was conducted to compare the mean EE. There
was no significant difference (P = 403) in average
gross EE (all intensities) between IC (45.3 ± 2.9
kcal) compared to HRM (44.1 ± 2.0 kcal).
Measured and predicted EE differed most
(16.4%) at 55% HRmax and least (1.4%) at 75%
HRmax, but intensity did not have a significant
effect (P = 0.068) on the accuracy of HRM estimation of EE (IC: 29.7 ± 15.7, 41.2 ± 16.5, 50.9
± 15.4, 59.5 ± 14.4 vs. PHRM: 24.8 ± 5.4,
38.3 ± 8.0, 51.7 ± 9.3 and 61.6 ± 10.2 kcal for
55%, 65%, 75% and 85% HRmax, respectively).
There was also no significant gender effect at each
intensity (P = 0.178), but when comparing average
gross EE, gender significantly affected the accuracy
of the HRM (P = 0.012) with an overestimation of
EE in females (IC: 34.2 ± 13.1 vs. HRM:
40.6 ± 15.2 kcal, P < 0.01, effect size = 0.45) and
underestimation in males (IC: 56.5 ± 12.7 vs.
HRM: 47.6 ± 16.9 kcal, P < 0.01, effect size =
−0.59). The results show that the Polar FT40M
HRM provides good predictive accuracy of EE
across different exercise intensities, but gross average EE is influenced by gender with an overestimation of EE in females and underestimation in
males.
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D2.P28. The effect of glutamine
ingestion on pulmonary oxygen uptake
kinetics during severe intensity
exercise
350
SIMON MARWOOD*, JAMES LEEMAN &
KARYN SMALL
Liverpool Hope University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@SiMarwood
Glutamine ingestion prior to exercise augments the
exercise-induced increase in the tricarboxylic acid
(TBA) cycle intermediate (TCAi) pool, but does
not reduce the metabolic inertia observed at exercise
onset, at least during moderate–heavy intensity exercise. Whether this remains the case during severe
intensity exercise where the TCAi pool size and
TCA cycle flux are likely to be near-maximal is
unknown. The purpose of the present study was
therefore to examine the effect of prior glutamine
ingestion on oxygen uptake kinetics and exercise
tolerance during severe intensity exercise. With
institutional ethics approval, six healthy and active
males (22 ± 3 years, 81 ± 8 kg, VO2max 3.9 ± 0.4
L · min−1) volunteered for the experiment.
Following a preliminary ramp exercise test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET) and maximal oxygen uptake, participants undertook two
visits to the laboratory, separated by one week, following an overnight fast. On the morning of each
visit, participants undertook a glycogen-depleting
protocol involving two bouts of exercise (30 and
20 min, respectively) at the GET, interspersed
with 5 × 30 s bouts at a power output equivalent
to twice the GET, each separated by 90 s of passive
recovery. After a 5-h recovery period where only
water was consumed, participants consumed
5 ml · kg−1 of a drink containing either neutrally
flavoured placebo (CON) or 0.125 g · kg−1 of glutamine (GLN) 1-h prior to exercising for 360 s at
60% of the difference between the GET and maximal oxygen uptake. Data were analysed by paired
t-tests and supplementary effect size calculations
(Cohen’s d). The fundamental time constant
(CON: 37 ± 10 vs. GLN: 35 ± 12 s; P = 0.3,
d = 0.2) and slow component (CON: 0.53 ± 0.3
vs. GLN: 0.52 ± 0.5 L · min−1; P = 0.5, d = 0.0) of
oxygen uptake kinetics were no different between
conditions. The present data therefore show that
glutamine ingestion does not speed oxygen uptake
kinetics during the transition to severe intensity
exercise. This therefore suggests that, in support of
previous research in moderate–heavy intensity
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exercise, the normal rate and magnitude of the exercise-induced increase in the TCAi pool size does not
contribute to metabolic inertia during the transition
to severe intensity exercise.
D2.P29. Corticospinal and
neuromuscular function and their
relationship to exercise capacity in
healthy adult males
THOMAS O’LEARY* & MARTYN MORRIS
_ O2max was associated with more LICI (rho =
V
−0.48, P < 0.01). There were no other relationships between markers of neuromuscular or corticospinal function and exercise capacity. These
findings provide new insight into how neuromuscular and corticospinal function contributes to
exercise capacity. Higher exercise capacity is
accompanied by alterations in the circuits that
modulate motor cortical output which could be
important in central fatigue resistance and may
occur as an adaptation to endurance training.
This may be useful for developing, and better
understanding, interventions that improve neural
function and develop fatigue resistance.
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Oxford Brookes University
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@thomas_j_oleary
Nervous system function is highly adaptive in
response to training and can also be affected by
disease. Multiple sites within the motor pathway
from motor cortex output to muscle contractile
function contribute to human performance; however, the corticospinal and neuromuscular factors
contributing to exercise capacity are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the
relationship between corticospinal and neuromuscular function to exercise capacity. Following
university ethical approval, 26 active males (mean
± SD, age = 24 ± 4 years, height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m,
_
mass = 80.8 ± 10.2 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (V
O2max) = 44.0 ± 5.4 ml · kg−1 · min−1, peak power
_ max) 333 ± 50 W) performed a series of
output (W
submaximal and maximal isometric knee extensions immediately before the completion of cycle
_
tests to determine the lactate threshold (LT), V
_ max. During each maximal voluntary
O2max and W
isometric (MVC) contraction and at rest, femoral
nerve stimulation was applied to measure neuromuscular function (voluntary activation; peak
twitch torque; time to peak torque, CT; rate of
torque development, RTD). Transcranial magnetic
stimulation was then administered over the motor
cortex during a 10% MVC contraction to measure
corticospinal function (motor evoked potential;
cortical silent period, cSP; intracortical facilitation,
ICF; short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI;
long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). The
_ O2max and was assoLT occurred at 55 ± 10% V
ciated with slower contractile times (CT, r = 0.72;
RTD, r = −0.33; both P < 0.05). Those with a
higher LT also had less SICI (r = 0.54, P < 0.01)
_
and more ICF (r = 0.57, P ≤ 0.001). A higher W
−1
(W
·
kg
)
was
associated
with
higher
ICF
(r
=
max
0.59, P ≤ 0.001), more LICI (rho = −0.40, P <
0.05) and longer cSP (r = 0.37, P ≤ 0.05). A higher
D2.P30. Stable isotope assessment of
water turnover and hydration status in
children attending a primary school
465
with a drinking water policy
JAMES SMALLCOMBE, JACK
GARNHAM, PHILLIP WATSON, LEWIS J.
JAMES & KEITH TOLFREY*
Loughborough University
470
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Adequate intake (AI) recommendations for water are
widely promoted and school-based drinking water
policies, designed to ensure adequate water consumption, are increasingly common. However, objective
data regarding water turnover and hydration status
in children remain limited. The aim of the present
study was to employ the criterion deuterium oxide
(2H2O) enrichment dilution technique (Schloerb
et al., 1950, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 29,
1296–1310) and urine analysis to examine water
turnover and hydration status of children attending a
school with a drinking water policy. The study also
aimed to assess daily water intake in relation to current European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ageand sex-specific AI recommendations. With institutional ethics approval and primary caregiver consent,
16 healthy girls and boys (mean (SD) age = 10.4 (0.3)
years; stature = 1.44 (0.07) m; body mass = 34.2
(5.7) kg drank 0.1 ml · kg−1 body mass of deuterium
oxide [2H2O; 99.9% atom, Sigma, London]). Total
body water (TBW) was determined by isotope-ratio
mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis of deuterium
(2H) concentration of the second urine void postequilibration. Thereafter, water turnover was quantified by the rate of 2H elimination across five consecutive school days. Each urine void was collected, its’
volume quantified and osmolality determined by
freezing point depression. Daily water intake was
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quantified from weighed dietary intake records. TBW
was 61.7 (6.3)% body mass and daily water turnover
was 1522 (310) ml · day−1 (44.8 (7.5) ml · kg−1 · day−1).
Mean total daily water intakes for the girls (989 (120)
ml · day−1) and boys (1428 (310) ml · day−1) were
significantly lower than the EFSA sex-specific AI of
1900 and 2100 ml · day−1, respectively (t(4) = −17.0,
P < 0.0005 and t(10) = −7.2, P < 0.0005). Water intake
was 838 (242) ml · day−1 at home and 453 (180)
ml · day−1 at school. Water turnover, total water intake
and water intake at home and at school did not differ
significantly across observation days (P > 0.05). Mean
daily urine output was 699 (204) ml · day−1. From
samples collected at home, mean urine osmolality was
710 (167) mOsmol · kg−1 with a slightly higher value of
768 (265) mOsmol · kg−1 at school (P = 0.119, ES =
0.35).
Elevated
urine
osmolality
(≥800
mOsmol · kg−1) was observed in 41% and 47% of
samples collected at home and school, respectively.
The current findings demonstrate that, even in the
presence of a school-based drinking water policy, the
dietary water intakes of children fail to satisfy current
AI recommendations. Furthermore, elevated urine
osmolality, indicative of hypohydration, is prevalent.
Future research is warranted to elucidate the clinical
relevance of these findings.
D2.P31. Relationships of dietary intake
with age, body mass and body
composition in professional adolescent
rugby league and rugby union players
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DEBORAH SMITH*, BEN JONES, LOUISE
SUTTON, RODERICK KING & LAUREN
DUCKWORTH
Leeds Beckett University
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@DebbieRuthSmith
Rugby league and rugby union are high-intensity
intermittent team sports, involving high-speed running and a large number of collisions. As such, body
mass is regarded as a key determinant of performance and increasing lean body mass is therefore
desirable. Although it is well known that dietary
intake can influence body mass and composition, to
date no study has investigated the relationship
between these variables, particularly for adolescent
players where dietary requirements are emphasised
further due to growth and maturation. Therefore,
this study aims to investigate the relationship of dietary intake (energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat and
fluid) with age, body mass and composition of
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adolescent rugby players. Following institutional
ethics approval, 91 male professional rugby players
(age = 14.2–19.7 years, height = 1.61–2.00 m, body
mass = 55.1–115.0 kg and sum of 8 skinfolds [∑Sf] =
40.8–174.0 mm) completed a 4-day semi-quantitative (weighed where possible, household measures
and pictures) diet diary during preseasons. ∑Sf was
measured from 8 sites by an International Society for
the Advancement of Kinanthropometry accredited
practitioner. There were positive significant relationships between age and energy (r = 0.34, P = 0.001),
protein (r = 0.64, P < 0.001), carbohydrate (r = 0.24,
P = 0.023), fat (r = 0.16, P = 0.139) and fluid (r =
0.53, P < 0.001) intake. Body mass demonstrated
positive significant relationships with protein (r =
0.46, P < 0.001) and fluid (r = 0.33, P = 0.001)
intake, although no significant relationship with
energy (r = 0.15, P = 0.166), carbohydrate (r =
0.06, P = 0.596) or fat (r = −0.06, P = 0.549) intakes
was observed. No significant relationships were
observed for ∑Sf, although there was a positive relationship with protein intake (r = 0.11, P = 0.290),
and negative relationships with energy (r = −0.13, P
= 0.232), carbohydrate (r = −0.11, P = 0.305) and
fat (r = −0.24, P = 0.025) intakes. No relationship
was observed between ∑Sf and fluid intake (r = 0.08,
P = 0.463). This study shows that there was an
increase in dietary intake for older players.
Similarly, the positive relationship observed for body
mass and energy intake was expected, although this
appeared to be from protein as opposed to carbohydrate and fat. As such, practitioners should further
investigate sports nutrition recommendations for
adolescent rugby players, specifically protein requirements when focusing on increasing body mass.
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D2.P32. Prevalence, techniques and
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knowledge of rapid weight loss amongst
UK adult judo athletes: a
questionnaire-based study
SHAAN RASHID, NIKOS
MALLIAROPOULOS & MANUELA
ANGIOI*
590
Queen Mary University of London
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
An extremely high prevalence (up to 89%) of
rapid weight loss (RWL) exists within the sport
of judo (Artioli et al., 2010, Medicine & Science in
Sports & Exercise, 42(3), 436–442). The aims of
this questionnaire-based study were to explore
the RWL trends amongst the UK adult judo
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population with particular focus on prevalence,
methods and knowledge surrounding the health
effects of RWL. Furthermore, we aimed to
uncover differences in rapid weight loss behaviour (RWLB) between gender, different weightclasses, competitive levels, age RWL began and
“high”/“low” knowledge athletes. This was done
to identify which athletes are at most risk of
aggressive RWL techniques. Full ethical approval
was granted by the Queen Mary’s University of
London ethics committee. An existing validated
questionnaire assessing RWL in judo athletes was
modified with the addition of a knowledge section and then underwent content revalidation
(Artioli et al., 2010, Scandinavian Journal of
Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(1), e177–187).
The questionnaire provided an RWLB score
(higher score equated to more aggressive RWL)
and a knowledge score (out of 10). A total of 256
athletes (189 males and 66 females, aged 18–67)
completed the questionnaire. Unpaired t-test/
one-way ANOVA tests and chi-squared tests
were used to test differences of mean RWLB
scores and prevalence between groups for numerical and nominal data, respectively. Results
revealed that the prevalence of RWL was 84%.
The most common methods of RWL were
increased exercise and decreased food/fluid
intake. The mean knowledge score was
6.2 ± 2.8 with most incorrect answers were
regarding the physiological effects of RWL. No
significant differences in RWLB scores were
found between gender, “high”/“low” knowledge
athletes or weight classes. Significantly higher
scores in RWLB were found in international athletes compared to regional athletes (males only
P = 0.014) and those that began RWL at 9–11
compared to 20+ (males only P < 0.01). In conclusion, RWL is highly prevalent in the UK adult
judo population and athletes have moderate
knowledge surrounding its effects. In males,
higher RWLB are associated with higher competitive level and an earlier age RWL began.
Therefore, new rulings to target elite and youth
level athletes should be implemented to reduce
precarious RWL in judo.
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D2.P33. Influence of the practice of
mental imagery in school-aged sport: in
relation to gender, age and type of sport
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ENRIQUE FRADEJAS1 & MARIA
ESPADA-MATEOS1,2*
1
Universidad Camilo José Cela, Spain; 2Universidad
Pontificia de Comillas, Spain
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Mental imagery is a mental ability which reproduces
an experience in the absence of external stimuli.
Sportsmen and women use mental imagery to
improve concentration, self-confidence and anxiety,
control their emotional responses, acquire and practise sports strategies and abilities, or to aid in recovery from injury (Guillot and Collet, 2008,
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology,
1, 31–44). Therefore, the main purpose of this study
was to analyse the practice of mental imagery in
school-aged sports people, as a function of gender,
age and type of sport. The sample consisted of 816
subjects (50.3% male and 49.7% female) of age
between 12 and 18 years (mean 14.6, s = 1.9), who
practise different individual and team sports in the
Castilla-La Mancha region. Several aspects were
taken into account for the statistical calculations:
the population is infinite; thus, for the population
variance, we used the most unfavourable supposition
where “P” and “Q” are equal with 50% each; the
confidence interval was set at 95.5%, with a margin
of error of ±3.5%. The Psychological Characteristics
related to Sports Performance questionnaire
(Características Psicológicas relacionadas con el
Rendimiento Deportivo [CPRD]) with Cronbach’s
alpha (r) = .85 was used. The results show with
regard to gender that there were no statistically significant differences in the practice of mental imagery
in any of the items analysed, t (814) = .97, P > 0.05;
t (814) = −.69, P > 0.05; t (814) = .06, P > 0.05; t
(814) = 1.21, P > 0.05, coinciding with previous
studies (e.g. Godoy, Vélez and Pradas, 2007,
Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 7, 45–59). With
respect to age, there were statistically significant differences as the younger subjects (12–13 years)
revealed a lower level of practice in mental imagery
than the older ones (14–15 and 16–18 years),
F(2,540.92) = 7.32, P < 0.05, again coinciding
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
with previous studies (e.g. Gaudreau and Blondin,
2002, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 3, 1–34). In
relation to the type of sport, statistically significant
differences existed between the students who practised swimming, rhythmic gymnastics and futsal,
who used mental imagery more before competitions,
in comparison with those who practised tennis F
(9,328.30) = 3.42, P < 0.05, in line with previous
research (e.g. Adegbesan, 2009, Perceptual & Motor
Skills, 108, 43–50). In conclusion, the practice of
mental imagery is a very useful technique for achieving greater control of the mind, the emotions and the
body, and changing behaviour, all of which are
necessary to attain maximal sports performance.
For this reason, coaches should use mental imagery
techniques with school-aged sports people.
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D2.P34. Mental toughness does not
predict pain catastrophising, pain
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intensity or cold water immersion time
in competitive university athletes
following a cold pressor test
MARTIN JONES*, CHARLIE MANTHORP,
SOHVI NUOJUA & JACK ABBOTT
70
University of Exeter
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
drmijones
The existing literature emphasises the importance of
mental toughness (MT) as a construct that underpins success and competitive advantage in achievement contexts. MT comprises a continuous variable
that is the accumulation of several personal
resources. Jones et al. (2002, Journal of Applied
Sport Psychology, 14, 205–218) suggested that one
facet of MT is the ability to maintain technique and
effort during pain. Gould et al. (2002, Journal of
Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172–204) also suggested that pain tolerance was a core competency
of Olympic champions. The aim of this study was to
examine whether MT predicted indices of pain
prior to and following a cold pressor test (CPT).
Researchers have used pain catastrophising, ratings
of pain intensity and pain tolerance as outcome
variables when measuring psychological predictors
of pain (e.g. Sullivan et al., 2001, The Clinical
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Journal of Pain, 17, 52–54). Researchers have also
used the CPT to induce pain. Following ethical
approval and a sample size calculation, we recruited
74 participants (34 females) from sports teams at a
British University. We invited participants to complete the MT Index (MTI) (Gucciardi et al., 2015,
Journal of Personality, 83, 26–44) and the Pain
Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) (Sullivan et al., 1995,
Psychological Assessment, 7, 524–532) before immersion. The CPT involves participants immersing the
hand into cold water until they can no longer tolerate the pain. We reduced the water temperature to
1°C and used a submersible water pump to circulate
the water. We also recorded the time that hand was
fully immersed in water. We informed participants
that they could withdraw their hand at any time. We
instructed participants to remove their hand after 3
m if they had not done so already. After withdrawal
from the water, we invited participants to rate the
intensity of their pain on a 10 cm visual analogue
scale. We checked for assumptions of regression
and found only total immersion time was extremely
skewed because >70% of the sample had to be told
to withdraw their hand after 3 min. We conducted
three separate linear regressions with pain catastrophising, pain intensity and total immersion times as
the dependent variables, and MT as the independent variable. The R2 ranged from .000 to .036, and
none of the regression coefficients were significant
at the P < .01 level. The results suggest that MT
might not be related to pain in the way previous
researchers hypothesised.
D2.P35. An investigation of stress
experiences and contagion in elite
youth eventing
PHILIPPA KERBY* & RACHEL ARNOLD
University of Bath
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Three-day eventing in equestrian incorporates
dressage, show jumping and cross-country.
Performing optimally across all three disciplines
can place pressure on riders and their entourage;
therefore, it seems surprising that no research to
date has explicitly examined their stress experiences. This is also a priority given the current
high dropout rate in youth eventing. The purpose
of this study, therefore, was to explore the stress
experiences across eventing youth age categories,
and examine if any stress contagion exists.
To elaborate on the latter component, literature
suggests that the bidirectional interaction between
an individual and their environment can be contagious. Following ethical approval, five elite youth
riders (one male and four females), who had been
selected for their national eventing squad in the
Under-21 (n = 2), Under-18 (n = 2) or Under16 (n = 1) categories, were interviewed. To provide further insight into the topic, interviews were
also conducted with each of the rider’s coaches
(n = 5) and one of each of their parents (n = 5).
A thematic interpretational content analysis was
used to analyse the data, which occurred initially
at the individual level; however, the group level
was also examined for interpersonal dynamics
and contagion. The findings illustrated the various
stressors that the riders experienced (e.g. personal,
competitive, organisational), their emotions and
feeling states (e.g. frustration, anxiety), potential
moderators of the relationship between demands
and outcomes, and ways in which their stress
experiences were managed. For each of these components, data also emerged regarding the contagion of stress, with it appearing most prevalent
between rider and parent. To elaborate, stressor
contagion was particularly evident via a rider indirectly perceiving demands through a third party
(e.g. parental opinions, event commentary).
Moreover, riders’ emotions were often transferred
to parents and vice versa. The rate at which contagion occurred seemed to be influenced by various personal and situational moderators (e.g. rider
and parent personalities, clarity in roles). Overall,
the findings suggest that youth eventers do experience various stressors and emotions which can be
contagious to their parents/coaches (and vice
versa), and these stress experiences should be
managed accordingly. This study provides the
first insight into stress contagion in a youth eventing population and the results that have emerged
across the various stages of the stress process can
advance theory. For practice, the findings can support practitioners as they look to design and implement appropriate stress management interventions
for athletes and their entourage.
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D2.P36. Executive function following
acute exercise at different intensities
RACHAEL L. MCDONALD* & CHELSEA
MOORE
Leeds Trinity University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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A single bout of acute exercise has a positive influence on basic information processing tasks such as
simple reaction time (Tomporowski and Ellis,
1986, Psychological Bulletin, 99, 338–346).
Although similar cognitive improvements have
been observed in more complex, executive function tasks, including visual search and short-term
memory tasks, the research findings are less consistent (Chang, Labban, Gapin, and Etnier, 2012,
Brain Research, 1453, 87–101). Previous studies
have employed various exercise modes, duration
and intensities, as well as differences in the nature
and timing of the psychological task, which may
explain the inconsistent findings (Chang et al.,
2012). Therefore, the improvement in cognitive
function following acute exercise needs further
investigation. Identification of an optimal exercise
intensity could be used to improve executive functioning in sport, occupational (e.g. military) or
academic settings. The aim of the present study
was to determine whether an acute bout of treadmill running at different intensities affects performance on an executive functioning task. With
institutional ethics approval, 21 healthy adult
males (mean age 20.8 years, s = 1.6; body mass
79.9 kg, s = 10.4) completed a maximal incremental graded exercise test to establish maximal oxygen uptake (V_ O2max). Thereafter, participants
performed an executive functioning task immediately prior to and following either 30 min of rest or
treadmill running at three different exercise intensities determined by V_ O2max; light (30% V_ O2max),
moderate (50% V_ O2max) and hard (70% V_ O2max)
workloads. The modified flanker test was used to
assess executive function (Eriksen and Eriksen,
1974, Perceptual Psychophysiology, 16, 143–149).
Repeated measures analysis of covariance
(ANCOVA) for time was employed to assess the
main effect of exercise intensity on reaction times
(RT; ms) and error rate (%). RT significantly
improved following exercise (P < 0.01). Pairwise
comparisons indicated that RT following hard
exercise was significantly faster (m = 471.07 ms,
s = 4.53) than either no exercise (m = 494.05,
s = 4.62) or light exercise (m = 492.04 ms,
s = 4.59) (P < 0.01, 95% Cl 6.786–41.186;
P < 0.01, 95% Cl 3.820–38.140, respectively).
Accuracy of response was not significantly affected
by exercise (P > 0.05). The present results suggest
that treadmill running at 70% of V_ O2max significantly improves executive functioning and could
be a useful tool when employed to improve the
performance of complex cognitive tasks in sport,
occupational or academic settings.
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D2.P37. The application of the 3 + 1 Cs
model to client–trainer relationships in
physical activity settings: implications
for practitioners
LOUISE ROWE1* & SOPHIA JOWETT2
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1
University of Cumbria; 2Loughborough University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Low client retention is a perennial problem for exercise on prescription schemes and in the fitness
industry more generally. The client–trainer relationship (CTR) is potentially an important factor in all
personal training contexts which could have a significant impact on client retention, achievement and
satisfaction (Vinson and Parker, 2012, Qualitative
Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 4, 15–31), yet
it has been largely ignored in empirical research. In
the related area of sport coaching, the 3 + 1 Cs
model was developed to explain coach–athlete relationships (Jowett, 2007b, In S. Jowett and D. Lavalle
(Eds.), Social Psychology in Sport (pp. 15–28),
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics). Using this conceptualisation, the relationship has been shown to
predict positive outcomes in this setting (Jowett and
Ntoumanis, 2004, Scandinavian Journal of Science
and Medicine in Sport, 14, 245–247). This qualitative
study aimed to explore the CTR in health-related
exercise settings using the 3 + 1 Cs model. After
receiving institutional ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were performed with 15 client–trainer dyads drawn from two settings; personal training
(n = 7) and exercise on prescription schemes (n = 8).
Relationship lengths ranged from 9 weeks to 4 years.
Each participant completed a semi-structured interview with assurance that their views would not be
revealed to the other dyad member. Participants
were encouraged to give a narrative of their experiences with their partner as their relationship developed. Analysis was completed in three steps.
Initially, transcripts were read and then coded
openly using Atlas Ti 6.2. Next, the codes were
analysed inductively, refined and fitted to the a priori
higher order themes of closeness, commitment,
complementarity and coorientation. In addition, a
further theme of “Antecedents” emerged. Finally,
selective coding was performed around important
codes within each theme for both clients and practitioners. The themes relating to the 3 + 1 Cs were
well saturated and shown to be reliable (Cohen’s
kappa > 0.60) when compared with another expert
coder. This supports the validity of the model for
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physical activity contexts. The discussion shows that
expertise, trust, respect and understanding are
important features of the relationship for both dyad
members although these are contextualised in different ways for clients and practitioners. These lead to
practical recommendations to improve the CTR
from the early stages of the relationship.
D2.P38. The organisational stressors
experienced by disabled sport
performers
RACHEL ARNOLD* & YASMIN PRATT
University of Bath
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Organisational stressors have emerged as an important issue for sport performers, since they can
attenuate not only their preparation for and performance in competitions, but also their health and
well-being. These demands are also pervasive and
predominant, with a meta-interpretation identifying
640 organisational demands encountered by a total
of 1809 sport performers (Arnold and Fletcher,
2012, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34,
397–429). What is evident from reviewing the stressor literature, however, is that there is a tendency for
studies to sample non-disabled, rather than disabled,
sport performers. Whilst there are exceptions to this
(see, e.g. Campbell and Jones, 2002, Adapted
Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 82–99), studies
recruiting disabled athletes have typically examined
the holistic environment and all of the sources of
stress encountered, rather than specifically focusing
on the pervasive and problematic organisational
demands. The purpose of this study, therefore, was
to explore the organisational stressors that disabled
sport performers encounter. Following ethical
approval, 10 disabled sport performers (eight males
and two females), who were aged 18–56, reported a
range of disabilities and impairments (e.g. amputee,
spina bifida, cerebral palsy), and competed in a variety of sports (e.g. golf, wheelchair basketball, athletics), participated in a semi-structured interview. A
thematic interpretational content analysis identified
104 organisational stressors that were encountered
by the sample. Each of these demands could be
placed within the pre-existing classification of organisational stressors (Arnold and Fletcher, 2012),
which comprises leadership and personnel (nine
subcategories), cultural and team (seven subcategories), logistical and environmental (11 subcategories), and performance and personal issues (four
subcategories). That said, within these subcategories, new stressors emerged in the data which
had not been previously identified. For example,
the participants raised organisational stressors relating to lack of coach/teammate disability knowledge,
sympathetic supporters, unfair disability classifications and lack of disabled access to facilities.
Overall, the findings suggest that whilst there are
some demands which appear similar to those
encountered by non-disabled athletes, there are
also various unique and novel stressors encountered
by disabled sport performers. In addition to the contribution that this novel study can make to research
and theory, it can also offer practitioners who are
tasked with supporting disabled athletes greater
insight into their organisational stressors. This will
enable more appropriate organisational stressor
interventions to be developed so that, ultimately,
negative consequences of these demands can be
reduced and an individual’s well-being and performance enhanced.
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D2.P39. The role of parents in youth
sport values
LUKE GOGGINS1*, PAUL FREEMAN2 &
CRAIG WILLIAMS1
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1
University of Exeter; 2University of Essex
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Values are fundamental constructs that influence
individuals’ attitudes and behaviours (Lee,
Whitehead and Belchin, 2000, Journal of Sport &
Exercise Psychology, 22, 307-326; Schwartz, 2007,
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 711-728).
Children can develop sport-related values systems
from the attitudes and behaviours of their significant
others (Welks, Babkes and Schaben, 2004, In M. C.
E. Silva and R. M. Malina (Eds.) Children and Youth
Organized Sports (pp. 95-122). Portugal: Coimbra
University Press). After institutional ethics approval
was granted, this study employed quantitative and
qualitative methods to examine the relationships
between parents’ values, motivational climate, and
children’s values. In Study 1, 92 school children
(mean age = 14.10 years, SD = 1.10) and their
parents (mean age = 47.40 years, SD = 5.60) completed versions of the Youth Sport Values
Questionnaire-2 and Parent-Initiated Motivational
Climate Questionnaire-2. Strong correlations were
found between children’s own and perceived parent
competence, status, and moral sport values. A moderated-mediational analysis found that children’s
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perceptions of their parents’ values and motivational
climate significantly predicted children’s own competence values (R2 = .52, P < .001), and parent’s
values for their children were indirectly associated
with children’s own competence values via children’s
perceptions of their parents’ values, abs = .0.170.22, 95% CIs [0.04, 0.43]. Parents’ own values
and children’s perceptions of their parents’ values
significantly predicted child own status values (R2
= .65 & .63, P < .001), but parents’ values for their
children were not associated with significant indirect
effects on children’s own status values via motivational climate or children’s perceptions of their parents’ values. In Study 2, six parents (mean age =
s105
41.00 years, SD = 7.54) participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified some
inconsistencies between parents on the values they
perceived to be important for their children compared to what has been identified by previous
research as important for children in sport and
some lack of awareness around how values are effectively transmitted. These findings provide empirical
support to the specific role parents play in the development of their child's sporting values. They demonstrate the interaction between parent own values and
the values they deem important for their child and
the different influences these can have on their
child’s sport values and motivational climate.
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Day 2. Posters – Sport and Performance
D2.P39. Effective management
strategies of achilles tendinopathy in
elite tennis players
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JENNY ALEXANDERS*, OLIVIA JACKSON
& CAROLINE DOUGLAS
University of Hull
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
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Achilles tendon injuries frequently occur among athletes who partake in activities and sports containing
running. Specifically, it is reported that achilles tendinopathy affects 38% of males and 26% of female
elite tennis players (Montalvan et al., 2004, Journal
of Medicine of Science and Tennis, 4, 14–15). This type
of injury is associated with restricted subtalar joint
mobility and limited ankle dorsiflexion. Therefore,
in order to avoid negatively impacting training and
performance, as well as optimising prevention strategies and appropriately managing Achilles tendinopathy in elite tennis players is of paramount
importance. The central aim of this study was to
critically review the literature to determine clear
training considerations when working with players
suffering from achilles tendinopathy. A comprehensive search strategy was employed using relevant
electronic databases PubMed, Medline, PEDro,
ScienceDirect and SportDiscuss. In addition, reference lists were hand searched for potentially relevant
research. All studies were identified using study
inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results from the
selected studies were directly transferred and critically appraised. Findings highlighted a number of
training considerations that optimise performance
of tennis players who have ongoing achilles tendinopathy. These were tendon unloading patterns, such
as cross conditioning (Davenport et al., 2005,
Physical Therapy, 85(10) 1093–1103); eccentric
training of the gastrocnemius group (Cook and
Purdham, 2003, Clinical Sports Medicine, 22,
777–789); and dynamic tendon lengthening exercises (Alfresdon and Cook, 2007, British Journal of
Sports Medicine, 41, 211–216). These management
strategies may be beneficial for strength and conditioning coaches to incorporate as part of optimal
conditioning for tennis players. This can be by periodising these methods into a tennis season with the
aim of preventing achilles tendinopathy, or by
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
utilising these exercises within rehabilitation sessions
for players already experiencing this problem. Future
studies comparing specific tennis-conditioning
approaches could provide valuable insight into the
possible contributing risk factors to achilles and
patellar tendinopathy in tennis players.
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D2.P41. Rehabilitation in tennis:
investigating forehand ball strikes using 55
different grades of ball compression
and varied court lengths
EMMA ANDERSON*
Lawn Tennis Association
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Due to high volumes of training and competition,
chronic injuries in upper limbs are common in tennis
athletes (Pluim, Staal, Windler and Jayanthi, 2006,
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 415–423). A
coach-led programme used various grades of ball
compression (25%/red; 50%/orange; and 75%/
green; of normal yellow ball compression) and
changes in court length to progressively increase tennis training load during upper limb rehabilitation.
Low-compression balls were developed to enhance
technical development in beginners (Hammond and
Smith, 2006, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine,
5(4), 575–581); however, using these balls for rehabilitation purposes has not been previously investigated. This research therefore aimed to explore
coaching assumptions that (1) the lower the ball compression the lower the load at ball strike and (2) the
shorter the court length the lower the load at ball
strike. One high club level female tennis player (26
years, LTA rating 4.1) completed 2 × 10 crosscourt
forehand, rally-ball strikes using foam, red, orange,
green and yellow balls at the service line; and orange,
green and yellow balls at both mid-court and baseline.
A 100 Hz, 3D accelerometer (Catapult Innovations,
Australia) was attached to the participant’s posterior
forearm, proximal to the wrist joint to measure Player
Load (PL; “instantaneous rate of change of acceleration”, Catapult Sports, 2013) per ball strike for each
trial. Incoming and outgoing ball velocity was measured for all trials using Hawkeye. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of court
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length (P < 0.01) with increased PL from service line
(mean ± SD; 1.50 ± 0.28 PL) to mid-court
(2.11 ± 0.33 PL) to baseline (3.21 ± 0.38 PL) across
all balls. There was a significant increase in PL from
foam and red balls (mean ± SEM; 1.337 ± 0.102 PL,
1.61 ± 0.072 PL; P < 0.01) to orange, green and
yellow balls over all trials (mean ± SEM;
2.185 ± 0.042 PL, 2.33 ± 0.042 PL, 2.295 ± 0.042
PL); however, there was no difference between foam
and red, or between orange, green and yellow balls.
Changes in PL were not related to changes in ball
velocity. These results show that court length is an
important consideration when planning progressive
rehabilitation for tennis athletes and that lower compression balls do not always result in reduced player
load per ball strike. Further research is necessary to
increase the sample size of this pilot study and investigate inter- and intra-subject variability using this
protocol.
D2.P42. Upper and lower limb
imbalances examination in female
water-polo players
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THEODOROS M. BAMPOURAS* &
ANDREW J. WILSON
University of Cumbria
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
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Water-polo players frequently and repeatedly perform shooting and passing actions, which are executed in a unilateral overhead fashion. The high
occurrence of these actions in training and games
could result in substantial shoulder imbalances.
Further, to perform any of those actions and for
scrimmaging, execution of the “eggbeater kick”
(cyclical movement of the legs) is required to lift
the body out of the water. Eggbeating could alter
the muscular balance between hip abductors and
adductors, again resulting in muscular imbalances
(of the lower limbs). As muscular imbalances have
been linked to decreased performance and increased
injury risk, the present study aimed to examine
whether the above sport-specific demands result in
muscular imbalances in female players. Following
institutional approval, 13 competitive, division 1
female water-polo players (1.68 ± 0.04 m,
72.9 ± 13.3 kg) agreed to participate. Shoulder
strength was assessed with an isometric shoulder
extension (Myometer, MecMesin, UK) with the
arm extended over the head and the players seated
to isolate the shoulder contribution. Maximum
strength from two trials per arm was recorded.
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Additionally, players performed a 47 cm drop jump
with their hands on the waist throughout and minimum rebound time. Knee valgus (angle from the
anterior superior iliac spine to the tibiofemoral joint
and from the tibiofemoral joint to the malleolus;
neutral knee position = 180°) was measured with a
50 Hz camera for each leg in two positions, just
before landing and at minimum knee distance.
Shoulder extension strength difference was examined with a dependent t-test. A 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA examined knee valgus differences.
Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05 and effect sizes
were calculated for significant differences. The
shooting shoulder (82.0 ± 18.7 kg) was significantly
stronger (18.5%, P = 0.011, ES = 0.81) than the
non-shooting one (69.2 ± 12.2 kg). Knee valgus
angle was not significantly different between legs at
either positions. There was a significant difference
(4.5%, P = 0.001, ES = 1.17) between landing knee
valgus angle (165.9 ± 4.1°) and minimum knee distance knee valgus (158.6 ± 7.9°). The large shoulder
muscle imbalance found in the present study can
have implications for the players’ swimming performance. Additionally, the increased injury risk with
that imbalance dictates attention to training to
address it. The lack of knee valgus angle between
limbs and the small change between landing and
minimum knee distance suggests good neuromuscular control during landing and impact absorption,
alleviating concerns about the effect of eggbeating
on muscle strengthening.
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D2.P43. Seasonal changes in session
external training load in professional
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rugby league players; a case study from
an elite European rugby league squad
CHRISTOPHER BLACK1,2*, KEVIN
TILL1,2, JOHN O’HARA1, JASON
DAVIDSON2 & BEN JONES1,2
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Leeds Beckett University; 2Leeds Rhinos Rugby League
Club
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Blackie_SandC
Rugby league players engage in intense training in
preparation for the demands of match play.
Practitioners typically adopt varying volumes and
intensities of training at different stages of the season, with the intention of developing and retaining
the fitness characteristics of players. Despite the
match demands of rugby league being known, to
date the seasonal training demands are unknown.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the
training demands of male professional rugby league
players during preseason (November–February),
early (March–April), mid (May–July) and the late
(August–September) phase of the season, quantified
using global positioning systems (GPS) technology.
Following institutional ethical approval, 11 professional rugby league players (age, 26.5 ± 5.3 years;
height, 183.9 ± 8.0 cm; body mass, 95.8 ± 10.5 kg)
were monitored during field-based training sessions
during the 2014 Super League season. Training sessions undertaken during each phase of the season
were averaged for each player to account for uneven
and missed observations. Measures included session
duration, total distance, relative distance, high-speed
running (>5 m · s−1) and the number of repeated
high-intensity efforts, accelerations and decelerations. A repeated measures analysis of variance was
used to determine the seasonal changes in training
load throughout the different training periods.
Training time was significantly higher during preseason than the early, mid and late phase of the season
(51.9 ± 5.0 vs. 35.8 ± 1.5, 36.4 ± 2.7, 37.5 ± 2.9
min; P < 0.001). Similar observations were found for
total distance (3723 ± 265 vs. 2793 ± 404,
2678 ± 213, 2678 ± 213 m; P < 0.001), highspeed running (496 ± 135 vs. 311 ± 48, 323 ± 67,
267 ± 78 m; P < 0.001), repeated high-intensity
efforts (n = 22 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 2, 14 ± 2, 11 ± 3;
P < 0.001), accelerations (n = 35 ± 6 vs. 19 ± 4,
17 ± 3, 15 ± 4; P < 0.001) and decelerations
(n = 32 ± 5 vs. 14 ± 4, 15 ± 4, 12 ± 3;
P < 0.001). There were no differences between
stages of the season for relative distance (73 ± 3 vs.
75 ± 7, 74 ± 7, 74 ± 5 m · min−1; P = 0.338). This
study provides the first insight into movement
demands of training at different stages of the season
for professional rugby league players. Mean training
sessions in preseason have a higher volume than in
season, although when expressed relative to time no
differences were observed. The findings of the study
can be used to inform practitioners on the periodisation strategies employed in professional sport,
which appears to be manipulated by session
duration.
D2.P44. Effect of maturation on
selected performance measures and
between rep recovery length during a
self-paced repeated sprint task
CALLUM BROWNSTEIN1,2*, NEIL
GIBSON1 & DEREK BALL1
1
Heriot-Watt University; 2Heart of Midlothian Football
Club
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Recent studies have used a self-paced, teleoanticipatory approach as a means of individualising and
optimising repeated sprint training (e.g. Glaister
et al., 2010, Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research, 24, 3296–3301). These investigations
have found that following familiarisation, participants can accurately self-govern inter-interval recovery periods to maintain performance during
repeated-sprint exercise. However, these studies
have only been conducted on adults, with no similar
evidence in young athletes. Therefore, the primary
aim of this investigation was to assess performance
during a repeated sprint task with self-guided recovery in elite youth footballers. A secondary aim was to
assess whether participants at different stages of
maturation displayed differences in selected performance and recovery variables during the repeated
sprint task. With institutional ethics approval,
twenty-eight elite youth soccer players (mean
age = 13 ± 0.9 years; stature = 1.62 ± 1.08 m;
body mass = 50.2 ± 12.7 kg) (mean ± SD) were
familiarised with the study protocol, before being
measured for stage of growth in relation to peakheight–velocity, and split into a “less” and “more”
mature group using a median split. Participants then
completed 10 × 30 m repeated sprint trials under
three conditions: using a standardised recovery period of 30 s between sprints, using self-selected recovery periods facilitated by the use of a perceived
readiness scale (PR) taken from an earlier study
(Edwards et al., 2011, Psychophysiology, 48, 136–
141), and using self-selected recovery periods with
no external cue (NEC). Percentage sprint decrement
was significantly higher in the NEC (P < 0.01) and
PR trials (P < 0.05) in comparison with the standardised recovery trial, as was sprint mean (P < 0.05 for
both). The average recovery durations taken during
the PR and NEC trials were significantly shorter
than the 30 s provided during the standardised
recovery trial (P < 0.001 for both). Between-group
comparisons showed no significant differences
between the less and more mature group for all
performance and recovery variables. The results of
the study suggest adolescents underestimate the
amount of recovery time needed between bouts of
activity during repeated sprint exercise with selfselected recovery periods. Therefore, repeated-sprint
training with self-selected recovery periods may not
be an effective training tool for practical implementation in elite youth soccer players when maintenance of work is desired.
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D2.P45. The effects of acute vibration
training on neuromuscular responses
amongst amateur and professional
soccer players
ROSS CLOAK*, ANDREW LANE &
MATTHEW WYON
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University of Wolverhampton
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@RossCloak
Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is an
increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes prior to performance and during structured
breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on neuromuscular responses are not clear, and suggestions that
athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrants investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare
and contrast the acute effects of acute WBVT on
peak isometric force, muscle activation and postactivation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors
between amateur and professional soccer players.
Player beliefs on the effectiveness of the intervention
were also examined. With institutional ethics
approval, 44 male soccer players (22 professional
and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass:
75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 176.7 ± 5.2 cm) were
randomly assigned to either an intervention
(WBVT, 3 × 60s at Hz) or control group. A twitch
interpolation technique method was used to assess
peak isometric force, muscle activation and PAP of
the knee extensors. Participants also completed a
self-report questionnaire to assess perceived benefits
of the intervention. First, a paired sample t-tests
indicated significant differences (P < 0.02) in baseline peak isometric force measurements between
professional and amateur players. A three-way
ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant (P < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22) increase (10.6%)
in peak isometric torque amongst professional
players following acute WBVT. A significant difference (P < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16) in PAP amongst
professionals following acute WBVT was also
reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements.
Results also indicated professional players reported
positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBVT
intervention (P < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27) training
compared to amateur players. The results of this
study indicate that acute WBVT elicits a positive
neuromuscular response amongst professional
players identified by PAP and improvements in isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the
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intervention. These benefits were not reported
amongst amateur players. The research raises important applied considerations when looking at neuromuscular responses, that being professional and
amateur athletes respond differently to acute
WBVT. This may be in part mediated by initial
starting strength levels of the players and the belief
in the intervention itself. Further research should
investigate the time course of these positive adaptations and how they relate subsequently to match
performance as well as the effect player beliefs have
on adherence/compliance.
D2.P46. Influence of serum
testosterone on start performance and
lean mass accrual in male skeleton
athletes
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STEFFI COLYER*, KEITH STOKES,
JAMES BILZON & AKI SALO
University of Bath
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@SteffiColyer
Within-athlete variation in circulating testosterone has
been associated with changes in strength–power performance across a training season (Crewther and
Cook, 2010, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical
Fitness, 50, 371–375). Accordingly, testosterone
could conceivably be implicated in long-term adaptation by regulating training performance via non-genomic pathways, and not simply through genomic
processes (Crewther et al., 2011, Sports Medicine, 41,
103–123). We investigated the association between
serum testosterone and both start performance
changes and lean mass accrual across a training season
in male skeleton athletes. Ethical approval was
obtained from a local university ethics committee.
Multiple (seven to nine) dry-land push-track testing
sessions were undertaken by seven male skeleton athletes across two 24-week training seasons. Fingertip
blood samples taken immediately before testing were
used to determine serum testosterone concentration at
each session. Subsequently, athletes performed three
maximal-effort push-starts and average start performance (15-m sled velocity) was calculated. Withinathlete relationships between testosterone and start
performance were first explored using Pearson correlations and 90% confidence intervals (CI). Individual
coefficients were then combined via Fisher transformation to obtain a group correlation coefficient. Lean
mass was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of one 24-week
training season only. Associations between lean mass
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accrual and several testosterone variables across this
period (baseline testosterone, mean testosterone and
mean testosterone relative to baseline) were then
assessed using Pearson correlations and 90% CI.
Combined within-athlete correlations revealed clear
positive relationships between serum testosterone and
start performance (r = 0.27, 90% CI = −0.01 to 0.51).
Lean mass change across the training season had a
negative association with baseline testosterone
(r = −0.70, 90% CI = −0.93 to −0.04) and an unclear
association with mean testosterone (r = −0.33, 90%
CI = −0.84 to 0.40). However, a positive relationship
between mean testosterone relative to baseline and
lean mass accrual was observed (r = 0.81, 90%
CI = 0.30 to 0.96). The results suggest that fluctuations in normal baseline testosterone concentration
could influence the expression of start performance.
Additionally, maintaining an elevated concentration of
testosterone above baseline could potentially be
important for lean mass gain, perhaps by regulating
training performance across a season. These findings
provide some support for the short-term effects of
testosterone and the inclusion of hormonal analyses
in longitudinal athlete monitoring programmes.
Although more work is certainly required, training or
warm-up interventions which elevate circulating testosterone could potentially be beneficial to skeleton
athletes’ performances.
D2.P47. The influence of body mass on
the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test in
Rugby Union players
JOSH DARRALL-JONES
& KEVIN TILL1,2
1,2
*, BEN JONES
1,2
1
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Leeds Beckett University; 2Yorkshire Carnegie Rugby
Union Football Club
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@J_Darrall_Jones
Rugby union is a physically demanding intermittent
contact sport, characterised by high-intensity efforts,
followed by incomplete recovery. High levels of contact during match-play favour players with increased
body mass, whilst momentum is considered an
important physical quality for successful performance. Therefore, the movement and physical
demands of match-play require high levels of aerobic
power, speed and optimal body composition.
Previous research has shown that there are increases
in body mass with age, although no change in the
Yo-Yo and 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30–
15IFT) as players get older (Darrall-Jones et al.,
2015, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,
Epub ahead of print). Therefore, the aim of the
study was to evaluate the difference in performance
of the 30–15IFT across four squads in a professional
rugby union club in the United Kingdom; and consider the influence of body mass in the interpretation
of the end velocity of the 30–15IFT (VIFT). One
hundred and fourteen male rugby union players
from four squads (i.e. U16s, U18s, U21s and
Senior’s) completed the 30–15IFT mid-season following institutional ethics approval. VIFT (km ·
hr−1) and body mass were collected from all participants. Data were analysed using magnitude-based
inferences to determine if differences between
squads were greater/similar/lower (%/%/%) than the
smallest worthwhile change or difference (ES ≥ 0.2)
based on Cohen’s d effect size principle. VIFT
demonstrated
small
and
possibly
lower
(ES = −0.33; 4/29/67) values in the U16s in comparison to the U21s, with further comparisons
between squads unclear. When body mass was
included as a covariate, all differences in VIFT were
moderate to large (ES = −0.78 ± 0.55 to
−1.79 ± 0.75), and very likely (0/4/96) to almost
certainly (0/0/100) lower in the squads with lower
body mass, with the exception of the comparison
between
Senior
and
U21
squads
(ES = 0.07 ± 0.54; 35/45/20). The results demonstrate that there appears to be a ceiling in the VIFT
attained in rugby union players which does not
increase from U16s to Senior level. The increases
in body mass with increased age and playing level
suggest that the ability to perform high-intensity running improves with age; although this did not translate into greater absolute VIFT. This may be due to
the detrimental effect of body mass on change of
direction. Practitioners should be aware that absolute VIFT is unlikely to increase once at a certain
level; however, during periods where increases in
body mass are evident, VIFT should be monitored.
D2.P48. Tensile force and elasticity of
kinesiology tape: application
considerations in the management of
athletic injury
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LANCE DOGGART* & SARAH CATLOW
University of St Mark and St John
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The application of kinesiology tape (K tape), in athlete rehabilitation and performance, features at the
highest level of competition (Williams et al., 2012,
Sports Medicine, 42, 153–164). The distinctive elastic
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component is the key mechanical factor behind
claims that K tape can aid recovery from injury and
assist in prevention (Shakari et al., 2013,
International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 8,
800–810). There is no agreement on the elastic capabilities of the tape to inform a definitive application
protocol. The aim of this study was to assess the
tensile force and elastic stretch length of a predetermined length of K tape with a view to informing a
standard application protocol and optimise the rehabilitation and treatment process. Following
University ethics approval two hundred 28 cm strips
of K tape were pre-cut and attached, in turn, via a
4 cm length to a strip tester (Lascells, UK) and a
4 cm length to the radial styloid process on a participant. The strip tester was connected to a digital
force transducer. The effective length of the tape for
stretching was 20 cm. Ten testing sessions of 20
strips were then undertaken by a skilled practitioner.
The tape was stretched until the maximum point of
tape integrity, elastic limit, was reached. This was
evidenced as the point at which the transparency and
density of the weave fibres were compromised.
Tensile force (N) and stretch length (cm) were
recorded. A mean tensile force of 2.96 N (s = 0.36)
and a mean stretch length of 29.96 cm (s = 1.12)
were noted. The stretch length values ranged from
29.05 cm to 31.00 cm and equated to a percentage
stretch length of 45–55% for the effective 20 cm
length. A significant correlation was noted between
stretch length and tensile force (P < 0.05; r = 0.75;
r2 = 0.56). Analysis of variance revealed a significant
difference (P < 0.05; 95% CI = 2.91 to 3.01 N;
ES = 0.34) in tensile force across the 10 testing
sessions. Significant difference was also noted for
stretch length across the testing sessions (P < 0.05;
95% CI = 29.81 to 30.12 cm; ES = 0.29). The
results suggest that the tensile force applied, and
stretch length obtained, were significantly variable
limiting the development of a standard K tape application protocol for the management of athletic
injury. For an active 20 cm strip of K tape the stretch
length to optimise treatment and performance
should be limited to between 45 and 55%.
D2.P49. Do rugby league referee
movement demands influence
decision-making accuracy? Analysis of
match-play by 5, 10 and 30 s
STACEY EMMONDS1*, JOHN O’HARA1,
BEN JONES1, KEVIN TILL1, AMY
BRIGHTMORE1 & CARLTON COOKE2
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1
Leeds Beckett University; 2Leeds Trinity University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
@S_Emmonds
Rugby league (RL) referees are responsible for enforcing the laws of the game and their decisions influence
match outcomes. To date, the only study to investigate the relationship between the physiological and
movement demands of RL referees and penalty accuracy evaluated 10-min game periods, and no relationship was found (Emmonds et al., 2014, Journal of
Strength and Conditioning Research, Epub ahead of
print). The authors concluded that comparisons over
a 10-min period may not be sensitive enough. The
purpose of this study was therefore to examine the
movement demands of RL referees in the 5-, 10and 30-s periods prior to making a decision, to determine if the demands immediately prior to a decision
impacted upon decision-making accuracy. With institutional ethics approval, eight professional Super
League referees participated in this study. Six matches
per referee were analysed. Movement demands were
collected using 10 Hz GPS units (MinimaxV4;
Catapult Sports, Australia). Decision-making
demands were quantified using Opta Stats (Leeds,
UK), which were retrospectively reviewed by an expert
referee review panel to determine the accuracy of
decisions when awarding or not awarding a penalty.
Comparisons between movement demands and penalty accuracy were determined using Mann–Whitney
U tests. In the 5 s prior to a penalty, running speed
and total distance were significantly higher for incorrect versus correct decisions (155.0 ± 82.9 vs.
116.8 ± 57.0 m · min−1, P = 0.001, d = 0.54;
13.9 ± 7.4 vs. 8.9 ± 4.7 m, d = 0.80; P = 0.001).
Similar findings were evident for 10 s prior to a decision (125.8 ± 65.2 vs. 102.2 ± 45.9 m · min−1,
d = 0.42; P = 0.001; 21.0 ± 11.4 vs. 15.1 ± 7.7 m,
d = 0.61; P = 0.002). Maximum velocity achieved 5 s
prior to an incorrect versus correct decision was also
significantly different (3.3 ± 1.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.8 m · s−1,
d = 0.31; P = 0.001). In contrast, there was no significant difference in running speed or total distance
covered between correct and incorrect decisions when
analysed over a 30-s time period, or maximum velocity achieved when determined over a 10- or 30-s
period. In summary, high intensity movement
demands in the 5 and 10 s prior to a penalty decision
may negatively influence the decision-making accuracy of RL referees. Training incorporating periods
of up to 10 s of high-intensity exercise with ecologically valid decision-making activities may benefit the
preparation of RL referees for the challenges of match
officiating.
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D2.P50. Changes in adductor, abductor
and hip extension strength following an
intermittent running test in
professional rugby union players
D2.P51. The intra- and inter-day
reliability of the FitroDyne as a
measure of multi-jointed muscle
function
KATE EVANS1,2*, JONATHAN HUGHES3,
TOM MATHEWS2 & MORGAN
WILLIAMS4
JOHN FERNANDES*, KEVIN LAMB &
CRAIG TWIST
1
2
University of Wales, Trinity Saint David; Newport
Gwent Dragons; 3University of Gloucestershire; 4University
of South Wales
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Groin injuries are one of the most frequent injuries in
elite level multidirectional team sports (Orchard,
2015, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42,
798–802). The hip adductors co-contract with gluteus
maximus and the hip abductors during the early and
late stance phase of running to provide frontal plane
pelvic and hip stability. One of the most prominent
modifiable risk factors for groin injury is weakness of
the adductor muscles. This weakness may be compounded by exercise-induced fatigue. Ensuring the
adductor muscles recover fully before subsequent
training may be an important factor in the prevention
of groin strains in rugby union. The purpose of this
study was to determine whether adductor, abductor
and hip extension muscles fatigue following maximal
high velocity running to volitional exhaustion. With
institutional ethics approval, this case-controlled study
involved 28 Professional rugby union players
(age = 24.4 ± 3.8 years; height = 185 ± 6.8 cm;
mass = 104.7 ± 13.08 kg) having their adductor
strength isometrically assessed using the adductor
squeeze test at 0°, 60° and 90°/90°. Hip extension,
adduction and abduction were tested isometrically
using a hand-held dynamometer. Players completed
a Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) to fatigue
and were then retested. There was no significant difference in adductor squeeze tests at 0°, 60° and 90°/
90°, nor hip abduction using the hand-held dynamometer (P > 0.05) following the Yo–Yo intermittent
recovery test. Hip extension (42.3 kg vs. 39.8 kg) and
hip adduction (42.1 kg vs. 37.5 kg) tests using the
hand-held dynamometer were significantly reduced
following the Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test
(P = 0.035 and P < 0.001, respectively). The assessment of hip extension and hip adductor strength using
handheld dynamometry appears to be more sensitive
to fatigue than adductor squeeze testing and should be
considered pre- and post-training and/or matches as a
player monitoring tool.
University of Chester
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@JFTFsport
This study examined the intra- and inter-day reliability of the FitroDyne rotary encoder (Fitronic,
Bratislava, Slovakia) as a measure of muscle function during traditional multi-jointed resistance
exercises. Following University ethical approval
and two days after strength testing and familiarisation, 14 resistance trained males (mean age 22.6
years, s = 4.9; bench press [BP] 1 repetition maximum [1RM] 102.5 kg, s = 19.0; predicted back
squat [BS] 1RM 132.2 kg, s = 26.2; bent-over-row
[BOR] 94.8 kg, s = 14.5) completed three repetitions of BP, BS and BOR with load increments of
10% (from 20 to 80% 1RM) in a randomised
order. Replica trials were completed 2 and 24 h
after. All exercises were performed on a Smith
machine (Perform Better, UK) with the
FitroDyne’s cord attached to the end of the barbell. Barbell velocity was measured for each repetition from which power output were calculated.
Data analysis revealed no significant bias
(P > 0.05) between trial means at any load and
the errors were found to be homoscedastic. The
typical error for peak and mean power and velocity
during BP (8.2 to 53 W and 2.2 to 6.9 cm · s−1),
BS (13.3–55.6 W and 2.4–7.4 cm · s−1) and BOR
(14.5–62.8 W and 4.0–10.5 cm · s−1) was greater
than the smallest worthwhile change, but smaller
than the moderate change intra-day across all
loads. BP yielded high intra-day reliability at
loads 20–70% 1RM for peak and mean power
and velocity (coefficient of variation, CV% = 1.6–
4.8), but poor intra-day reliability at 80% 1RM
(CV% = 12.2, 17.1, 9.7 and 13.4, respectively).
BS and BOR across all loads for peak and mean
power and velocity displayed CVs of 2.4–6.4% and
2.6–9.0%, respectively. For the inter-day reliability, in no case was the typical error greater than the
smallest worthwhile change for peak and mean
power and velocity, but it was smaller than the
moderate change in every case for BP (11.5–34.2
W and 2.4–6.7 cm · s−1), BS (8.7–73.3 W and 2–
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8.1 cm · s−1) and BOR (10.3–68.8 W and 3.7–
9.5 cm · s−1). In terms of CVs, BP, BS and BOR
displayed high inter-day reliability for peak and
mean power and velocity (CV% = 2.1–8.6, 2.2–
6.1 and 2.38.8%, respectively). It was concluded
that at submaximal loads, the FitroDyne can measure moderate, but not small, changes in both
intra- and inter-day measures of muscle function
reliably during commonly used multi-jointed
exercises.
D2.P52. Influence of the voluntary
isometric contraction intensity in
modified proprioceptive
neuromuscular facilitation stretching
on hamstring flexibility
DALE FORSDYKE1* & ADAM GLEDHILL2
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York St John University; 2Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@forsdyke_dale
Despite inconclusive findings over the role of
stretching modalities on functioning and injury
risk (Lauersen et al., 2014, British Journal of
Sports Medicine, 48, 871–877) developing flexibility
is still considered an essential part of sports conditioning and rehabilitation. Modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (mPNF) is a
stretching modality used extensively with athletic
populations to develop flexibility (Hindle et al.,
2012, Journal of Human Kinetics, 31, 105–113).
Importantly, the intensity of the voluntary isometric contraction component of mPNF prescription lacks empirical consensus, leading to variable
mPNF practices (Westwater-Wood et al., 2010,
Physical Therapy Reviews, 15, 23–27). The purpose
of this study was to investigate the most effective
percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction in improving hamstring flexibility using
active knee extension and active single leg raise.
This study used a quasi-experimental crossover
design. With institutional ethical approval, 22
symptomatic (single leg raise < 70°) healthy college athletes (mean age 18.09 years, s = 1.51;
males = 17, females = 5) were recruited.
Following testing familiarisation, participants
received an acute treatment of contract-relax
mPNF requiring a 20%, 50% or 70% maximum
voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) component. Desired %MVIC was established using a
subjective BORG-CR scale with verbal anchors
(c.f. Day et al., 2004, Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research, 18, 353–358). Additional to
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the contract-relax mPNF, a sham treatment (passive static stretch) was used. The treatment
sequence was randomised using a Latin square.
Protocol for each treatment was conducted by a
graduate sports therapist. Pre- and post-treatment
active knee extension and active single leg raise
was recorded using a high-speed video camera,
and analysed using Dartfish TeamPro software.
Effect-size calculations revealed medium pre- and
post-treatment effect size at 20% (0.58) and 70%
(0.56) MVIC, small at 50% MVIC (0.41), and
trivial (0.035) for the sham treatment across both
measures. Analysis of magnitude-based inference
revealed 20% and 70% MVIC was equally beneficial (>98%) for active knee extension and active
single-leg raise compared to 50% MVIC (80.9 and
87.5%) and the sham treatment (34.4 and 20%).
Of interest, the sham treatment was found to be
18.7% harmful on ASLR measurement. Results
suggest that whilst mPNF is an effective hamstring
stretching modality, sub-maximal %MVIC are
comparable to maximal intensities in improving
active knee extension and single leg raise after an
acute treatment of contract-relax mPNF.
Practitioners should be aware of this finding to
reduce the risk of iatrogenic issues.
D2.P53. Attributes that determine the
success of a field hockey drag flick: a
coach’s perspective
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KIRSTIE GRACE1,2*, CHRIS LOW2 &
CARLTON COOKE1,2
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Leeds Trinity University; 2Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@Kirstie_Grace
The drag flick is a set play scoring technique in
the sport of field hockey. The paucity of research
on the drag flick has failed to identify key technique factors related to performance or an overall
measure of performance of the drag flick skill.
The aim of the study was to establish what attributes contribute to a successful drag flick technique in field hockey. Following ethical approval, a
modified Delphi poll was conducted with a panel
of 10 expert field hockey coaches (39.2 ± 8.29
years). The three-stage research process of initial
interview and subsequent questionnaires were
undertaken with each participant. Following
round one, data was transcribed verbatim. Open
coding identified themes and attributes from participant opinions. The two rounds of questionnaires asked participants to evaluate, rate or
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delete indicators that have been highlighted as
contributing to the drag flick skill. Each item
had to receive a mean rating of at least four or
higher, and each item had to receive at least 75%
of all individual ratings at level four or higher.
Items which failed to meet this criterion and
therefore consensus of the expert panel were discarded. Results identified that “technical attributes” such as timing of the ball pickup,
rotation of the body and follow-through of the
right hip throughout the drag flick skill were considered most important by the group of expert
coaches. “Physiological attributes” such as core
stability and explosive power in the legs were
also considered to be crucial in influencing the
drag flick skill and to a lesser extent “psychological attributes”. Conclusions suggest that, at developmental levels of the drag flick skill, coaches
should emphasise and allocate training time to
develop the technical and physiological aspects
of the skill to improve the player’s capability of
executing an accurate drag flick.
D2.P54. Investigating the effects of
passive heat maintenance and postactivation potentiation on power and
strength performance
NICK HARGREAVES* & CHRISTIAN
COOK
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Bangor University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
Sport scientists are increasingly targeting competition day as an additional opportunity to enhance the
performance of athletes. Any period of inactivity
following the completion of a warm-up has been
highlighted as an area that leads to consequent performance attenuation. This is primarily due to
decreases in both muscle temperature (Tm) and
core temperature (Tc). The aim of this study was
to investigate the effects of passive heat maintenance
(PHM), post-activation potentiation (PAP) and the
combination of both on subsequent performance.
Peak power (Wmx) and mean power (Wav) during
a 6-s Watt Bike sprint, and countermovement jump
(CMJ) height (Probiotics, Inc. Jump Mat) were
recorded. With institutional ethics approval, a total
of 17 male recreationally active participants
(mean ± SD; 25.3 ± 5.8 years) completed 4 trials
(PHM, PAP, Control, PHM–PAP). For all trials,
there was a 12-min rest period between pre-test
and post-test, during which interventions occurred.
PHM involved heating the lower limbs using an
electric blanket, whilst PAP consisted of a voluntary
conditioning contraction of intermittent sprints on a
Watt Bike. Data analysis included calculation of
average percentage-change figures, in addition to
repeated-measures analysis of variance on SPSS.
Results showed that the PHM–PAP intervention
provided the greatest average percentage increase
in performance at post-test for both Wmx
(1.59 ± 3.72%) and Wav (2.33 ± 4.20%).
However, these changes were statistically non-significant (P = 0.124 and P = 0.159, respectively).
In addition, a statistically significant increase in
CMJ height was observed following PAP as compared to control (0.05 ± 2.79% vs. −3.99 ± 4.34%;
P = 0.033). Thus, we conclude that it would be
beneficial to deploy a cycling-based PAP protocol
during periods of inactivity, in order to significantly
improve subsequent performance, particularly in
sports involving short high-intensity movements
(e.g. sprinting). Additional research is required (preferably with an elite sample) to confirm if the
observed PHM–PAP intervention benefits that
were approaching significance are in fact significant
findings. Recommendations for future research
include using heat retentive PHM garments, and
implementing a PAP protocol with a voluntary conditioning contraction in which the entire sample is
proficient.
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D2.P55. Optimal conditioning for
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female soccer players – a comparison of
methods
OLIVIA JACKSON*, JENNY ALEXANDERS
& PHIL MARSHALL
University of Hull
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and smallsided games (SSG) have been shown to improve
VO2 max and repeated sprint ability of soccer
players (Ferrari Bravo et al., 2008, International
Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 668–674; Helgerud
et al., 2001, Medicine & Science in Sports &
Exercise, 33, 1925–1931). Uncertainty still surrounds the optimisation of conditioning programmes,
however,
particularly
regarding
females (Polman et al., 2004, Journal of Sports
Sciences. 22, 191–203). This study aimed to compare the effects of HIIT and SSG on the fitness of
non-elite female players. With approval from the
University ethical committee, 14 non-professional, female players (age: 18.5 ± 1.3 years)
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completed tests on speed (20 m sprint), agility
(Illinois run), lower body power (standing long
jump) and aerobic capacity (Yo-Yo intermittent
recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1)) pre- and postfour-week interventions of HIIT (n = 7) or SSG
(n = 7). HIIT sessions included sets and repetitions of maximal sprints, while SSGs involved
player number and rule manipulations. The 30min sessions incorporated adequate rest periods
to allow high intensity work. Weekly RPE
averages were calculated for both groups. All
parameters displayed significant progressions
(P < 0.05). YYIRT1 exhibited notable improvements, with increases of 125.71 ± 27.60 m (SSG)
and 120.00 ± 23.09 m (HIIT). Significant developments were seen in the Illinois run, with average improvements of 0.26 ± 0.08 s (SSG) and
0.39 ± 0.16 s (HIIT). Effect sizes of 0.7–0.9
show moderate to high practical significance. An
independent t-test showed comparisons between
improvements in the two groups to be insignificant across all tests (P > 0.05), indicating that
both produced similar developments. SSG participants reported slightly lower (P < 0.05) average
RPE (mean SSG = 7.30 ± 0.42 vs. mean
HIIT = 7.82 ± 0.38), suggesting that HIIT generates greater perceived effort. Results indicate
that HIIT and SSG produce significant physical
improvements in non-elite female soccer players.
These methods can be incorporated within wholeteam practices, or sessions with limited conditioning time. With SSGs allowing physical, technical
and tactical development simultaneously, they
may arguably be more beneficial in achieving allround conditioning of players. Lower SSG RPE
values suggest that this may be the preferred
method for players. As both training types elicited
significant improvements, HIIT may offer initial
fitness improvements within the general preparation phase, and SSGs may be suitable for players
in the specific preparation or pre-competition
phases.
D2.P56. Assessing anticipatory
prediction skills in athletes using
techniques developed for vision science
SEPEHR JALALI*, KIELAN YARROW &
JOSHUA A. SOLOMON
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City University London
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Experts are able to predict the outcome of their
opponent’s next action (e.g. a tennis stroke) based
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on kinematic cues that are “read” from preparatory
body movements. Traditionally, this ability has been
investigated by manipulating a video of the opponent, but this can reveal only the information
sources that have been anticipated by the experimenter. In this work, classification-image techniques
borrowed from visual science were used in order to
find out how participants discriminate sporting scenarios as they unfold. Videos were taken of three
competent tennis players making services and forehand shots, each with two possible directions.
Following local Ethical Committee approval, the
videos were presented to 15 novice and 15 clublevel amateur participants (25 males, 5 females, age
range 19–61, mean age 30) for a period from 800 ms
before to 200 ms after racquet–ball contact.
Participants stepped off force plates in a tennisappropriate manner to report shot direction. A time
limit was established for responses that allowed them
to achieve 90% accuracy in a training phase.
Participants then viewed videos through randomly
placed Gaussian windows (“Bubbles”). The number
of windows was varied to ensure ~75% accuracy. A
comparison of Bubbles from correct and incorrect
trials allowed us to estimate the relative contribution
of information coming from different regions of the
video towards a correct response. Bubbles were
applied in either space or time in separate sessions.
Temporally, two regions had a significant impact on
accuracy. One extended from ~50 ms before ball
contact to 100+ ms afterwards. Interestingly, a second cluster suggested that for forehands, information was also being accrued from around the time of
swing initiation, ~300 ms before ball contact.
Spatially, regions of the video through which the
ball passed after being struck (i.e. the shot’s trajectory) proved informative. There was also some evidence of information accrual from an opponent’s
head and legs. These regions were derived based
on data from all participants, as an amateur minus
novice contrast was not significant. Although still
under development, our technique has potential to
help players improve in two ways: By showing them
(1) from when/where they read information, and (2)
their “gives” (i.e. the information their opponents
can read to anticipate their shot selections).
D2.P57. Changes in markers of fatigue
following a competitive match in elite
academy rugby union players
GREGORY ROE*
Leeds Beckett University; Yorkshire Carnegie Rugby
Union Football Club
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*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@ggregroe
Rugby union is an intermittent, high-intensity, collision-based team sport played at senior and junior level.
Players are likely to experience fatigue following
match-play, which has been reported for senior
players, but is unknown for juniors. Therefore, the
purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude
of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular
function (NMF), plasma creatine kinase concentration
([CK]) and perception of wellbeing following a competitive match in elite academy rugby union players.
Following institutional ethical approval, 14 academy
RU players (age 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height
182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) were
recruited and participated in the study. Upper- (plyometric push-up [PPU]) and lower-body (countermovement jump [CMJ]) NMF, plasma [CK] and
perception of wellbeing were assessed 2 h prior to
kick off, and immediately, 24, 48 and 72 h postmatch. Changes were assessed using magnitudebased inferences based on Cohen’s effect size (ES)
principle. CMJ flight-time was substantially decreased
immediately (ES = −0.34 ± 0.2; likely, 89%) and at 24
h (ES = −0.51 ± 0.21; very likely, 99%) post-match,
while CMJ peak power was substantially decreased at
24 h only (ES = −0.71 ± 0.24; almost certainly, 100%),
before returning to near baseline at 48 and 72 h postmatch. CMJ peak force remained substantially
reduced immediately (ES = −0.35 ± 0.21; likely,
89%), 24 h (ES = −0.43 ± 0.13; almost certain,
100%) and 48 h (ES = −0.38 ± 0.16, very likely,
96%) post-match, before returning to near baseline at
72 h. PPU flight-time was substantially reduced immediately (ES = −0.20 ± 0.11; possibly 51%) and 24 h
(ES = −0.16 ± 0.15; possibly, 67%) post-match before
returning to baseline at 48 h, while PPU peak force
remained trivial at all time-points. Increases in [CK]
were substantial immediately (ES = 1.29 ± 0.21;
almost certainly, 100%), 24 h (ES = 2.15 ± 0.27;
almost certainly, 100 %), 48 h (ES = 1.51 ± 0.33;
almost certainly, 100%) and 72 h (ES = 0.67 ± 0.32;
very likely, 99%) post-match, while perception of wellbeing
was
substantially
reduced
24
h
(ES = −2.86 ± 0.56; almost certainly, 100%), 48 h
(ES = −0.95 ± 0.73; very likely, 96%) and 72 h
(ES = −0.42 ± 0.45; likely, 80%) post-match. The
findings demonstrate a 48–72 h period post-match
where players are still recovering from the match
demands. Practitioners should be aware of the difference in recovery times between upper- and lower-body
NMF, and the individual nature of recovery, emphasising the need to plan the post-match microcycle
accordingly to ensure adequate recovery prior to
returning to full training.
D2.P58. Effect of compression tights on 1070
thermoregulation and performance
during high-intensity intermittent
running
CAROLINE SUNDERLAND*, ANDREAS
ROBERTSON, MATTHEW MILLAR &
JOHN MORRIS
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Nottingham Trent University
*Corresponding author:
[email protected]
The use of compression garments has become
common place in many team sports, irrespective
of environmental conditions, both in training and
matches. Many competitions take place in hot
environmental conditions which can impair both
intermittent running (Morris et al., 2005,
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26,
805–814) and skill performance (Sunderland and
Nevill, 2005, Journal of Sports Sciences, 23,
531–540).Therefore, the aim of the research was
to ascertain whether wearing compression leggings
influenced thermoregulation and performance during simulated team games activity. Following institutional ethical approval, seven physically active,
non-acclimated, healthy males (mean ± SD age
23 ± 4 years, height 1.83 ± 0.11 m and body
mass 83.9 ± 10.9 kg) volunteered to participate.
In a randomised order, four main trials involving
repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s maximal sprints,
24 s recovery) before and after two 45-min bouts
of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol
were completed. Three trials were completed
under hot conditions (32°C, 50% RH): (1) wearing graduated compression tights; (2) sham tights
and (3) control (normal sports clothing). The
fourth trial was completed in moderate conditions
(15°C, 50% RH) in normal sports clothing. Sprint
performance (mean and peak power output), rectal
temperature, heart rate, blood lactate, rating of
perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation
were all recorded. The effect size (Cohen’s d)
was calculated using paired comparisons and interpreted using the following thresholds: 0.2–
0.5 = small effect; 0.5–0.8 = moderate effect and
>0.8 = large effect. 95% of the confidence intervals of the difference were also calculated. Data are
presented as mean ± SD. While there were performance, physiological and perception differences
between the hot and moderate trials (all mediumto-large effect sizes), there were no differences
between hot trials with and without compression
garments. Mean power output was greater in the
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moderate trial than the hot trials (moderate vs. hot
compression −81 W (−123 to −40) d = 0.69; moderate versus hot sham −94 W (−126 to −62)
d = 0.60 and moderate versus hot control −64 W
(−115 to −130) d = 0.52). Rectal temperature was
lower in the moderate trial than the hot trials from
30 min onwards (moderate vs. hot compression
−0.5 °C [−0.9 to −0.1] d = 1.21; moderate vs.
hot sham −0.4 °C [−0.7 to −0.1] d = 1.01 and
moderate vs. hot control −0.4 °C [−0.8 to 0.0]
d = 0.93). RPE, thermal sensation and heart rate
were lower during the moderate trial, but were not
different in the three heat trials. When exercising
in the heat, compression tights do not alter
repeated sprint performance, thermoregulation,
heart rate or perceptual responses compared with
a sham garment or normal sports clothing.
D2.P59. Six-year changes in body
composition of UK professional rugby
league players using dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry
KEVIN TILL*, BEN JONES, MATTHEW
LEES, MATTHEW BARLOW, AMY
BRIGHTMORE, JOHN O’HARA & KAREN
HIND
Leeds Beckett University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@KTConditioning
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Recent research has demonstrated that greater player
body mass, lean mass (LM) and lower percentage
body fat (%BF) are positively related to rugby league
performance (e.g. Gabbett et al., 2011, Journal of
Sports Sciences, 29, 1655–1664). Correspondingly,
over recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on player size and muscularity in the professional
sport. However, to date, there has been no published
data on the longitudinal changes in the body composition of senior professional rugby league players.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate
changes in three-compartment body composition over
six years, in UK professional rugby league players
using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Following institutional ethical approval, 12 professional rugby league players (baseline age: 25.0 ± 3.9
years, height: 183.4 ± 8.4 cm) from one European
Super League club received total body DXA scans
(Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare) midseason in 2008
and 2014 when euhydrated (urine osmolality < 700
mOsmol · kg−1). The regions of interest on scan
images were checked and manually adjusted where
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necessary by a qualified densitometrist according to
DXA manufacturer guidelines. The primary outcomes were total body mass, %BF, total and regional
fat mass (FM), LM and bone mineral content
(BMC). A repeated measures multivariate analysis
of variance (MANOVA), controlling for chronological age, examined differences between the two time
points. Effect sizes were calculated. The repeated
measures MANOVA found an overall significant
effect for time (P = 0.048, = 0.99). Univariate
analysis identified increases in total body mass
(95.3 ± 12.2 vs. 98.5 ± 12.2 kg, P = 0.005,
d = 0.26), total LM (77.2 ± 8.6 vs. 79.8 ± 9.6 kg,
P = 0.006, d = 0.29) and leg LM (25.8 ± 2.8 vs.
27.6 ± 3.8 kg, P = 0.049, d = 0.54) across the six-year
period. Increases were also found for total BMC
(4324 ± 566 vs. 4575 ± 582 g, P < 0.001, d = 0.44)
and BMC at the arms (P = 0.006, d = 0.36), legs
(P = 0.001, d = 0.43) and trunk (P < 0.001, d = 0.45)
regions over the six-year period. No changes were
identified in %BF or FM across the six-year period.
This study demonstrates that senior professional
rugby league players competing in the European
Super League over a six-year period have increased
total body mass, which can be predominantly
explained by a gain in LM of the lower body. Such
findings may reflect the increasing physical demands
of the professional game and a greater emphasis on
lower body resistance training. These players had
remained competitive in the professional sport for
six years, which suggests that increasing LM and
BMC may be beneficial to career longevity.
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D2.P60. Impact of fixture congestion on
indices of performance and recovery in 1205
elite youth football players
CARL WELLS1*, CHRIS HATTERSLEY2,3,
STEVEN TRANGMAR3 & STEPHEN
PATTERSON3
1
Perform at St. George’s Park; 2Sheffield Wednesday
Football Club; 3St. Mary’s University
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@PerformHPL
Elite football schedules often require players to
undertake two competitive fixtures within seven
days. It is unclear how such frequent exposure to
competition affects physical performance and recovery status. The aim of the present study was to assess
indices of physical output and recovery in elite youth
football players during a two game week. With institutional ethics approval nine elite male youth football
players (mean age 17.6 ± 0.6 years, stature
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177.1 ± 6.9 cm, body mass 71.48 ± 6.9 kg) participated in two single game weeks (SGW) and two
double game weeks (DGW). The performance of
SGW and DGW were alternated over this period.
Physical performance during games was assessed via
global positioning technology and heart rate analysis.
Measures of perceived physical condition using a
visual analogue scale and countermovement jump
(CMJ) were performed 1, 24, 48 and 72-h post
each game. A two-way repeated measures analysis
of variance, with a post hoc Bonferroni test, was
calculated on the mean performance and recovery
data. Physical output was reduced during the second
game of the DGW when compared to SGW performance although the differences were not significant
(total distance, SGW 11257 ± 552 vs. DGW
10982 ± .431 m; effect size, −0.55: high-speed running, SGW 781 ± 252 vs. DGW 673 ± 196 m; effect
size, −0.48: high-intensity actions, SGW 283 ± 49
vs. DGW 263 ± 55; effect size, −0.42). Perceived
indices of physical condition were significantly lower
post the second game of DGW in comparison to the
same time periods following the SGW fixtures (24 h
post-recovery status P = 0.05; Muscle soreness
P = 0.05; 72 h post-recovery status P = 0.01; muscle
soreness P = 0.01). No differences were found for
sleep quality or CMJ performance between SGW
and DGW. A Pearson product moment correlation
identified the strongest association between physical
performance and physical condition involved high
speed running and leg soreness (r = −0.81,
P < 0.01) immediately after the second DGW fixture. These results suggest that a DGW week has a
negative impact on the performance capabilities of
elite youth football players during the second fixture
of that week. This reduction in performance capability might be attributable to an inability of the players
to recover fully between games. Such findings could
have future implications for player selection in elite
youth football during congested fixture schedules.
D2.P61. The effect of a posterior chain
activation exercise upon knee stability
indices during altitude landings in
female university field sport players
CAROLINE S. WESTWOOD*, ALICE J.
DAVIES & JOE D. LAYDEN
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associated with a reduced risk of Anterior Cruciate
Ligament injury (Reiman, Bolgla and Loudon, 2012,
Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 28, 257–268).
Recent investigations indicate that, in addition to
the muscles working directly over the knee joint,
muscular control of the hip and pelvis is associated
with knee joint kinematics and stability (Powers,
2010, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical
Therapy, 40, 42–51). Further experimental evidence
supporting this relationship is limited. The aim of
this study was to establish whether activation of posterior chain (gluteus medius [Gmed], gluteus maximus [Gmax] and semitendinosus [SemiT]) muscle
activation (PCMA) had an impact upon knee stability indices during altitude landings. With institutional ethics approval, on 2 separate occasions 10
females (mean ± SD; age 19.9 ± 1 years, stature
1.68 ± 0.09 m, body mass 70.3 ± 11.05 kg) completed 3 altitude landings onto a force plate on their
dominant leg, preceded by a standardised warm up
with or without PCMA (repeated forward stepping
onto a 50 cm box). The most appropriate PCMA
activation technique was determined in a pilot investigation where EMG activation was recorded in
seven females (mean ± SD; age 20 ± 2 years, stature
1.69 ± 0.03 m; body mass 68.3 ± 6.1 kg) during five
(side plank abduction, front plank with hip extension, single-leg squat, forward step up and pelvic
drop) PCMA exercises. EMG measurements
revealed forward step onto a 50 cm box to have the
highest activation of Gmed and combined posterior
muscles with percentage maximal voluntary isometric contractions of 80 ± 28%, and 71 ± 37%,
respectively. The findings from the main study indicated a 10% increase in muscular activation of
PCMA following the step-up exercise and a subsequent 3.25% reduction in landing force; however,
neither were statistically significant (P > 0.05).
Further research is required to explore the role of
PCMA activation further, through analysis of knee
flexion upon landing, and the role of this within
ACL injury prevention.
1275
1280
1285
1290
1295
1300
1305
1310
1315
D2.P62. The effect of weight loss on
strength and power related
performance in adult judo athletes: a
systematic review
University of St Mark & St John
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
@marjonSaC
SHAAN RASHID, NIKOS
MALLIAROPOULOS & MANUELA
ANGIOI*
It is generally accepted that increased activation of
the muscles surrounding the knee joint are
Queen Mary University of London
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
1320
Day 2. Posters – Sport and Performance
1325
1330
1335
1340
1345
Currently the evidence about the effect of weight
loss on strength and power performance remains
controversial. Some studies suggest that weight
loss before competition reduces strength and
power performance (Degoutte et al., 2006,
International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(1), 9–
18), whilst others suggest that there is little to no
effect (Mendes et al., 2013, British Journal of Sports
Medicine, 47, 1155–1160). The aim of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the evidence
on the effect of weight loss on strength and power
performance in the adult judo population by critically appraising the strengths and weaknesses of
these studies. In March 2015, a computerised literature search of four electronic databases
(PubMed, CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus and Web
of Science) was performed limited from 1998.
Included in this review were quantitative studies,
published in English, which measured the effect of
body-weight reduction on strength and power outcomes in the judo population aged 16 and over.
Titles were screened and checked for suitability
against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quality
was assessed using the PEDro scale for clinical
s119
trials and CASP for cohort studies. A total of 11
studies were identified, with 9 studies evaluating
power performance and 6 analysing strength (4
papers analysing both). Power performance – five
studies (2 “good-quality” trials, 1 “fair-quality”
trial, 1 “high-quality” cohort study and 1 “moderate-quality” cohort study) showed that there is to
be no interaction between weight loss and powerrelated performance. Four cohort studies (1 “highquality” and 3 “moderate-quality”) showed a
decrease in power after weight loss. Strength –
Two studies (both moderate quality cohort studies) suggest that weight loss has no effect on
strength outcome measures. Four remaining studies (1 “good quality” clinical trial, 1 “high-quality” cohort study and 2 “moderate-quality” cohort
studies) showed weight reduction decreased
strength. Main results of this review suggest that
overall weight reduction has no significant effect
on power-related performance, however significantly reduces strength. Meta-analysis technique
is recommended to be implemented in future similar studies in order to determine the effect size of
current knowledge.
1350
1355
1360
1365
1370
Journal of Sports Sciences, 2015
Vol. 33, Supplement 1, s120–s125, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1120481
Index
Key to abstract codes
Unique codes. Each abstract has an unique code to assist you in identifying whether the abstract is a poster or
free communication presentation and in which session it will be presented.
5
Page numbers. For each abstract a page number is provided, giving the location of where it is published in this
booklet.
Poster presentations. There are two poster presentation sessions:
1. Day 1, 13:30-14:45
2. Day 2, 12.30-13.30.
10
Poster presentations have a code such as D2.P15 – Day 2, poster board number 15.
Free communication presentations. There are 10 free communication presentation sessions:
1. Day 1, 14.00-15.30 (5 parallel sessions)
2. Day 2, 11:15-12:30 (5 parallel sessions).
Free communication presentations have a code such as D2.S2.3(4) – Day 2, session 2.3, fourth presentation.
15
20
25
30
35
40
Abbas, Zara-Angela, s9, D1.S3.3(2)
Abbott, Jack, s101, D2.P34
Abboud, Rami, s61, D2.S2.5(1)
Abt, Grant, s6, D1.S3.1(4)
Akubat, Ibrahim, s96, D2.P26
Al-Shayji, Iqbal, s3, D1.S3.5(5)
Aldous, David, s60, D1.P64
Alexanders, Jenny, s106, s114, D2.P39, D2.P55
Aljuhani, Osama, s85, D2.P09
Allan, Philip, s88, D2.P14
Allen, James, s8, D1.S3.1(6)
Alshayji, Iqbal, s2, D1.S3.5(4)
Anderson, Emma, s106, D2.P41
Angioi, Manuela, s99, D2.P32
Anton-Solanas, Ana, s69, D2.S2.1(3)
Apps, Lindsay, s29, D1.P14
Archer, David, s53, D1.P53
Arnold, Graham, s22, s61, D1.P03, D2.S2.5(1)
Arnold, Josh, s66, D2.S2.4(4)
Arnold, Rachel, s102, s104, D2.P35, D2.P38
Atkins, Stephen, s48, s49, D1.P45, D1.P46
Atkins, Steve, s21, D1.P01
Atkinson, Greg, s26, D1.P09
Atkinson, Jan M., s26, D1.P09
Babraj, John, s35, D1.P24
Backhurst, Alice, s32, D1.P18
Bailey, Damian, s35, D1.P23
© 2015 Taylor & Francis
Ball, Derek, s108, D2.P44
Bampouras, Theodoros M., s44, s107, D1.P37, D2.
P42
Bandelow, Stephan, s41, D1.P32
Barber, Olivia, s62, D2.S2.5(3)
Barford, Cheryl, s25, D1.P07
Barker, Jamie, s11, D1.S3.3(4)
Barlow, Matthew, s117, D2.P59
Barnes, Andrew, s23, D1.P06
Barnes, Chris, s51, D1.P49
Barrett, Brendan, s44, D1.P38
Barwick, Benjamin, s32, D1.P18
Beattie, Stuart, s12, D1.S3.3(6)
Beaulieu, Kristine, s85, D2.P10
Beebe, Athan, s44, D1.P38
Beedie, Christopher J., s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Behan, Fearghal, s81, D2.P04
Bell, Phillip G., s68, D2.S2.1(2)
Bennett, Simon, s44, D1.P38
Bennie, Jason, s1, D1.S3.5(1)
Bentley, Ian, s21, D1.P01
Berger, Nicolas, s32, D1.P18
Berria, Juliane, s25, D1.P08
Best, Russ, s32, D1.P18
Biddle, Stuart, s1, D1.S3.5(1)
Bilzon, James, s109, D2.P46
Birch, Samantha, s1, s15, D1.S3.4(6), D1.S3.5(2)
Birdsey, Laurence, s45, D1.P39
45
50
55
60
65
Index
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
Bissas, Athanassios, s63, D2.S2.5(5)
Black,Christopher, s107, D2.P43
Blacker, Sam, s32, D1.P19
Bloxham, Saul, s88, D2.P15
Blundell, John, s79, s85, D2.P02, D2.P10
Board, Lisa, s7, s67, D1.S3.1(5), D2.S2.4(5)
Boduszek, Daniel, s90, D2.P18
Boehr, Jacqueline, s86, D2.P11
Bottoms, Lindsay, s79, D2.P03
Bradley, Paul, s51, D1.P49
Brady, Abbe, s41, s49, s74, D1.P31, D1.P47, D2.
S2.2(5)
Brightmore, Amy, s111, s117, D2.P49, D2.P59
Brookes, Corey, s56, D1.P58
Brooks-Lynch, Kylrn, s82, D2.P07
Broom, David, s79, D2.P02
Brouner, James, s43, D1.P36
Brown, Peter, s78, D2.P01
Brownstein, Callum, s108, D2.P44
Bruce-Low, Stewart, s66, D2.S2.4(4)
Bryant, Elizabeth, s26, D1.P10
Buckley, John, s44, D1.P38
Burge, Robert M., s81, D2.P05
Burniston, Jatin G., s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Buscombe, Richard, s14, D1.S3.4(4)
Buys, Roselien, s31, D1.P17
Byrne, Neal, s4, D1.S3.5(6)
Cann, Josh, s49, D1.P47
Carden, Patrick, s82, D2.P06
Cardinale, Marco, s58, D1.P61
Carmichael, Amtul, s66, D2.S2.4(3)
Cartwright, Doug, s5, D1.S3.1(1)
Carvalho, Wellington R. G., s29, D1.P15
Casabona, Antonino, s62, D2.S2.5(4)
Catlow, Sarah, s110, D2.P48
Chalari, Eleanna, s6, D1.S3.1(4)
Chan, Kai Quin, s33, D1.P20
Chester, Neil, s33, D1.P20
Clarke, Neil, s17, s34, s56, D1.P21, D1.P59, D1.
S3.2(2)
Clarkson, Michael, s51, D1.P49
Clarkson, Sean, s23, D1.P06
Cloak, Ross, s109, D2.P45
Clough, Peter, s72, D2.S2.2(1)
Coleman, Damian, s72, D2.S2.2(2)
Collins, Dave, s13, D1.S3.4(2)
Collins, Kieran, s51, s96, D1.P50, D2.P26
Colyer, Steffi, s109, D2.P46
Connor, Craig O., s7, D1.S3.1(5)
Cook, Christian, s113, D2.P54
Cook, Kathryn, s15, D1.S3.4(6)
Cooke, Carlton, s111, s113, D2.P49, D2.P53
Cooper, Simon, s18, s36, s41, s55, s75, D1.P25,
D1.P32, D1.P57, D1.S3.2(3), D2.S2.3(1)
Cornelissen, Veronique, s31, D1.P17
Corney, Robert, s75, D2.S2.3(1)
s121
Cotterill, Stewart, s37, D1.P27
Cox, Martin, s17, D1.S3.2(2)
Croix, Mark De Ste, s81, D2.P05
Cruickshank, Alice, s44, D1.P38
Cuttell, Saul, s34, s46, D1.P22, D1.P40
Darrall-Jones, Josh, s110, D2.P47
Davenport, Gary, s81, D2.P05
Davidson, Jason, s107, D2.P43
Davies, Alice J., s118, D2.P61
Davies, Vanessa, s45, D1.P39
Dawe, Rachael, s7, s67, D1.S3.1(5), D2.S2.4(5)
Deakin, Glen B., s69, D2.S2.1(4)
Deighton, Kevin, s26, D1.P09
Denton, James, s67, D2.S2.4(5)
Devonport, Tracey J., s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Dickinson, Ben, s86, D2.P12
Dickinson, John, s78, D2.P01
Ditroilo, Massimiliano, s6, D1.S3.1(4)
Dixon, Sharon, s82, D2.P06
Dixon, Stuart, s67, D2.S2.4(5)
Doggart, Lance, s110, D2.P48
Donovan, Mick, s47, D1.P42, D1.P43
Doran, Dominic A., s6, s96, D1.S3.1(3), D2.P26
Douglas, Caroline, s106, D2.P39
Douglas, Jessica A., s26, D1.P09
Drake, David, s52, D1.P51
Dring, Karah, s75, D2.S2.3(1)
Duckworth, Lauren, s5, s99, D1.S3.1(2), D2.P31
Dunbar, Joe, s69, D2.S2.1(3)
Duncan, Michael J., s1, s15, s17, s26, s29, s34, s56,
s65, s86, s87, s89, D1.P10, D1.P15, D1.P21, D1.
P59, D1.S3.2(2), D1.S3.4(6), D1.S3.5(2), D2.
P12, D2.P13, D2.P16, D2.S2.4(1)
Edmundson, Christopher, s21, D1.P01
Edwards, Andrew M., s69, D2.S2.1(4)
Edwards, Ben J., s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Eichmann, Björn, s92, D2.P21
El Helou, Abdo, s46, D1.P41
El Osta, Lana, s46, D1.P41
El Osta, Nada, s46, D1.P41
Emeh, Chukwudi, s3, D1.S3.5(5)
Emmonds, Stacey, s111, D2.P49
Erskine, Robert M., s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Esformes, Joseph I., s44, D1.P37
Espada-Mateos, Maria, s76, s101, D2.P33, D2.S2.3(3)
España-Romero, Vanesa, s48, D1.P44
Evans, Kate, s55, s112, D1.P56, D2.P50
Evans, Kirsty, s21, D1.P02
Evans, Will, s6, D1.S3.1(4)
Eyre, Emma, s26, s86, s87, s89, D1.P10, D2.P12,
D2.P13, D2.P16
Fall, Lewis, s35, D1.P23
Falls, Niall, s11, D1.S3.3(4)
Faulkner, James, s35, s88, D1.P24, D2.P14
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
s122
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
Index
Fbases, Alison Mcconnell, s78, D2.P01
Felton, Malika, s94, D2.P22
Ferguson, Kyle, s4, D1.S3.5(6)
Fernandes, John, s112, D2.P51
Finlayson, Graham, s85, D2.P10
Fisher, James, s27, s92, D1.P11, D2.P21
Fisher-Edwards, Alice, s67, D2.S2.4(5)
Fitzsimons, Claire, s91, D2.P19
Flavell, Jon, s44, D1.P38
Fletcher, Iain, s25, D1.P07
Foad, Abby, s72, D2.S2.2(2)
Fogarty, Mark, s6, D1.S3.1(4)
Folland, Jonathan, s36, s81, D1.P25, D2.P04
Forsdyke, Dale, s11, s73, s113, D1.S3.3(5), D2.
P52, D2.S2.2(4)
Fradejas, Enrique, s76, s101, D2.P33, D2.S2.3(3)
Francis, John, s47, D1.P42, D1.P43
Freeman, Paul, s104, D2.P39
Friesen, Andrew, s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Fryer, Simon, s38, s48, s90, D1.P28, D1.P44, D2.P17
Furlong, Brona, s31, D1.P17
Gallagher, Anne, s31, D1.P17
Gaoua, Nadia, s42, D1.P33
Garbutt, Ged, s90, D2.P18
Garnham, Jack, s98, D2.P30
Garrido, Inmaculada, s48, D1.P44
Garthe, Alexander, s86, D2.P11
Geeson-Brown, Tom, s77, D2.S2.3(5)
Genner, Kyle, s46, D1.P40
Gibbons, Ben, s70, D2.S2.1(5)
Gibbs, Ian, s22, D1.P03
Gibson, Alan St Clair, s53, D1.P53
Gibson, Neil, s108, D2.P44
Giessing, Jürgen, s92, D2.P21
Giles, David, s48, D1.P44
Gill, Jason, s2, s3, D1.S3.5(4), D1.S3.5(5)
Gledhill, Adam, s73, s113, D2.P52, D2.S2.2(4)
Goggins, Luke, s104, D2.P39
Golding, Danny, s15, D1.S3.4(5)
Gordon, Rebecca, s88, D2.P15
Grace, Kirstie, s113, D2.P53
Greenlees, Iain, s14, D1.S3.4(4)
Grigg, Rebecca, s88, D2.P14
Grinkeviciute, Kotryna, s13, D1.S3.4(2)
Guy, Joshua H., s69, D2.S2.1(4)
Hadjiioannou, Loulia, s23, D1.P06
Haines, Matthew, s28, D1.P12
Hall, Charlotte, s89, D2.P16
Hanim, Sareena, s33, D1.P20
Hankey, Joanne, s34, D1.P21
Hannah, Ricci, s36, D1.P25
Hares, Felicity, s45, D1.P39
Hargreaves, Nick, s113, D2.P54
Harris, Julie, s44, D1.P38
Harris, Kevin, s28, D1.P13
Harvey, Jordan, s46, D1.P40
Hatem, Habib Aimé, s46, D1.P41
Hattersley, Chris, s117, D2.P60
Hawari, Nabeha, s2, s3, D1.S3.5(4), D1.S3.5(5)
Hawkey, Adam, s22, D1.P03
Healy, Martin, s39, D1.P30
Hettinga, Florentina J., s76, D2.S2.3(4)
Higgins, Matthew, s95, D2.P25
Highton, Jamie, s19, s20, s37, s57, s94, D1.P26,
D1.P60, D1.S3.2(4), D1.S3.2(6), D2.P23
Hill, Alison, s95, D2.P24
Hill, Andrew, s11, D1.S3.3(5)
Hill, Denise M., s19, s41, D1.P31, D1.S3.2(5)
Hill, Mathew, s26, s56, s95, D1.P10, D1.P58, D2.
P25
Hind, Karen, s117, D2.P59
Hobbs, Sarah Jane, s23, D1.P05
Hodges, Rhiannon, s34, D1.P22
Hodson, Danielle, s35, D1.P23
Holder, Tim, s9, D1.S3.3(1)
Hopkins, Mark, s79, s85, D2.P02, D2.P10
Hopkinson, Yvonne, s90, D2.P17
Horton, Elizabeth, s29, D1.P14
Hughes, Jonathan D., s55, s81, s112, D1.P56, D2.
P05, D2.P50
Hughes, Stephen, s20, D1.S3.2(6)
Hull, James, s78, D2.P01
Hurst, Howard, s48, s49, D1.P45, D1.P46
Hurst, Philip, s72, D2.S2.2(2)
Ibeiro, Roberto R., s29, D1.P15
Isherwood, Laura, s57, D1.P60
Jackman, Joshua S., s68, D2.S2.1(2)
Jackson, Olivia, s106, s114, D2.P39, D2.P55
Jakeman, John, s35, s70, D1.P24, D2.S2.1(5)
Jalali, Sepehr, s115, D2.P56
James, Lewis J., s75, s98, D2.P30, D2.S2.3(1)
James, Rob, s1, D1.S3.5(2)
James, Ruth, s75, D2.S2.3(1)
Jeffreys, Mark, s49, D1.P47
Jeffries, Owen, s17, D1.S3.2(1)
Jenks, Rebecca, s15, D1.S3.4(6)
Jessop, David, s27, D1.P11
Jobson, Simon, s37, D1.P27
Johnson, Matt, s66, D2.S2.4(4)
Johnsonwarrington, Vicki, s29, D1.P14
Jones, Arthur, s15, D1.S3.4(6)
Jones, Ben, s5, s38, s50, s51, s53, s54, s77, s99,
s107, s110, s111, s117, D1.P29, D1.P48, D1.
P49, D1.P54, D1.P55, D1.S3.1(2), D2.P31, D2.
P43, D2.P47, D2.P49, D2.P59, D2.S2.3(5)
Jones, Martin I., s42, s73, s101, D1.P35, D2.P34,
D2.S2.2(3)
Jones, Paul, s62, D2.S2.5(3)
Jowett, Gareth, s11, D1.S3.3(5)
Jowett, Sophia, s103, D2.P37
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
Index
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
335
340
Kelly, Adam, s9, D1.S3.3(1)
Kelly, Paul, s91, D2.P19
Kelly, Richard, s51, D1.P50
Kennedy, Rodney, s52, D1.P51
Kerby, Philippa, s102, D2.P35
Kilgour, Lindsey, s90, D2.P17
King, Neil, s79, D2.P02
King, Roderick, s5, s99, D1.S3.1(2), D2.P31
Kinman, Gail, s15, D1.S3.4(5)
Kinnafick, Florence, s46, D1.P40
Kipling, Kevin, s90, D2.P18
Kirshbaum, Marilynne, s90, D2.P18
Kitas, George, s66, D2.S2.4(3)
Konings, Marco J., s76, D2.S2.3(4)
Korff, Thomas, s17, D1.S3.2(1)
Kozub, Steve, s15, D1.S3.4(5)
Labanca, Luciana, s62, D2.S2.5(4)
Lahart, Ian, s66, D2.S2.4(3)
Laird, Eamon, s39, D1.P30
Lamb, Kevin, s75, s112, D2.P51, D2.S2.3(2)
Lambrick, Danielle, s35, s88, D1.P24, D2.P14
Lane, Andrew M., s10, s109, D1.S3.3(3), D2.P45
Lanford, Jeremy, s88, D2.P14
Laudani, Luca, s62, D2.S2.5(4)
Lawrie, Hannah, s61, D2.S2.5(1)
Layden, Joe D., s118, D2.P61
Lee, Raymond Y., s61, s83, D2.P08, D2.S2.5(2)
Leeman, James, s97, D2.P28
Lees, Matthew, s117, D2.P59
Littlewood, Martin, s13, D1.S3.4(1)
Lovell, Geoff P., s42, D1.P35
Low, Chris, s113, D2.P53
Low, David A., s6, D1.S3.1(3)
Lowton-Smith, Sean, s5, D1.S3.1(1)
Macaluso, Andrea, s62, D2.S2.5(4)
Macdonald, Ian, s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Macleod, Hannah, s18, D1.S3.2(3)
Madigan, Sharon, s39, D1.P30
Magee, Pamela, s39, D1.P30
Malcolm, Rachel, s36, D1.P25
Malik, Zulezwan A., s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Malliaropoulos, Nikos, s99, D2.P32
Malone, Shane, s96, D2.P26
Mankowska, Alex, s44, D1.P38
Manley, Andrew, s50, D1.P48
Manthorp, Charlie, s101, D2.P34
Marsh, Clare, s96, D2.P27
Marshall, Phil, s114, D2.P55
Marwood, Simon, s97, D2.P28
Mason, James, s92, D2.P20
Mathews, Tom, s112, D2.P50
Mccaffrey, Noel, s31, D1.P17
Mccluskey, Michael, s38, D1.P28
Mccluskey, Serena, s90, D2.P18
Mccrimmon, Laura, s3, D1.S3.5(5)
s123
Mcdonald, Rachael L., s102, D2.P36
Mcdonncha, Ciaran, s4, D1.S3.5(6)
Mcgowan, Liam, s57, D1.P60
Mcmanus, Chris, s52, D1.P52
Mcnamara, Shane, s7, D1.S3.1(5)
Mcsorley, Emeir, s39, D1.P30
Menotti, Federica, s62, D2.S2.5(4)
Metcalfe, John, s21, s48, D1.P01, D1.P45
Metcalfe, Jonathan, s49, D1.P46
Metsios, George, s66, D2.S2.4(3)
Mhill, Denise, s90, D2.P17
Miles, Andrew, s60, D1.P64
Millar, Matthew, s116, D2.P58
Miller, Catherine M., s69, D2.S2.1(4)
Minatto, Giseli, s25, s29, D1.P08, D1.P15
Mitchell, Andrew, s82, D2.P07
Mitchell, Katy, s29, D1.P14
Mitchell, Tom, s13, D1.S3.4(1)
Molnar, Gyozo, s47, D1.P42, D1.P43
Monaghan, David, s31, D1.P17
Moore, Chelsea, s102, D2.P36
Moran, Kieran, s31, D1.P17
Morgan, Nicholas, s52, D1.P52
Morris, John, s41, s116, D1.P32, D2.P58
Morris, Martyn, s70, s98, D2.P29, D2.S2.1(5)
Morris, Samuel, s6, D1.S3.1(3)
Morris, Tessa E., s69, D2.S2.1(3)
Mullen, Thomas, s19, D1.S3.2(4)
Murphy, Marie, s4, D1.S3.5(6)
Murphy, Niamh, s4, D1.S3.5(6)
Murray, Kelly, s52, D1.P52
Mutrie, Nanette, s91, D2.P19
Mwaanga, Oscar, s9, s92, D1.S3.3(1), D2.P20
Mytton, Graham, s53, D1.P53
Nasir, Sadiq, s61, D2.S2.5(1)
Nesti, Mark, s13, D1.S3.4(1)
Nevill, Alan, s4, s6, s10, s66, s87, D1.S3.1(4), D1.
S3.3(3), D1.S3.5(6), D2.P13, D2.S2.4(3)
Nevill, Mary, s41, D1.P32
Newton, Helen, s31, D1.P17
Nicholas, Ceri, s75, D2.S2.3(2)
Nicholson, Gareth, s21, s63, D1.P02, D2.S2.5(5)
Norris, Jonathan, s20, D1.S3.2(6)
North, Jamie S., s9, D1.S3.3(2)
Nowlan, Gerard, s94, D2.P23
Nunns, Michael, s82, D2.P06
Nuojua, Sohvi, s101, D2.P34
O’Connor, Noel, s31, D1.P17
O’Donnell, Terry, s88, D2.P14
O’Hara, John, s107, s111, s117, D2.P43, D2.P49,
D2.P59
O’Leary, Thomas, s98, D2.P29
O’Leary, Tom, s70, D2.S2.1(5)
O’Neill, Barry, s69, D2.S2.1(3)
Oliveira, Rita De, s42, D1.P33
345
350
355
360
365
370
375
380
385
390
395
s124
400
405
410
415
420
425
430
435
440
445
450
Index
Opar, David, s55, D1.P56
Oxendale, Chelsea, s37, D1.P26
Oxford, Samuel, s26, s89, D1.P10, D2.P16
Pain, Matthew, s81, D2.P04
Papageorgiou, Andrea, s14, D1.S3.4(4)
Parker, John K., s42, s73, D1.P35, D2.S2.2(3)
Parris, Kirstie, s43, D1.P36
Parry, David, s52, D1.P52
Patterson, Stephen, s117, D2.P60
Pender, Danny, s96, D2.P27
Perry, John, s72, D2.S2.2(1)
Peter Wright, s65, D2.S2.4(2)
Peters, Derek M., s47, D1.P42, D1.P43
Petroski, Edio Luiz, s25, s29, D1.P08, D1.P15
Phibbs, Padraic, s53, D1.P54
Potton, Anita, s14, D1.S3.4(4)
Pourshahidi, L Kirsty, s39, D1.P30
Pratt, Yasmin, s104, D2.P38
Price, Mike, s5, s26, s65, s79, s95, D1.P10, D1.S3.1
(1), D2.P03, D2.P25, D2.S2.4(1)
Pullinger, Samuel A., s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Pummell, Elizabeth, s43, D1.P36
Pyne, David B., s69, D2.S2.1(4)
Racinais, Sebastien, s42, D1.P33
Rashid, Shaan, s99, s118, D2.P32, D2.P62
Read,Dale, s54, D1.P55
Reckmann, Kerstin, s30, D1.P16
Reid, Faye, s57, D1.P60
Richards, Joanna, s25, D1.P07
Richardson, Ashley, s22, D1.P03
Richardson, Dave, s13, D1.S3.4(1)
Robertson, Andreas, s116, D2.P58
Roe, Gregory, s115, D2.P57
Romer, Lee M., s17, D1.S3.2(1)
Roscoe, Clare, s1, s2, D1.S3.5(2), D1.S3.5(3)
Ross, Emma, s78, D2.P01
Rowe, Louise, s103, D2.P37
Rumbold, Penny, s53, D1.P53
Ryan, Terence, s38, D1.P28
Ryan-Stewart, Helen, s37, D1.P27
Rylands, Lee, s48, s49, D1.P45, D1.P46
Saadallah, Nazek, s46, D1.P41
Sale, Craig, s55, s68, D1.P57, D2.S2.1(2)
Salo, Aki, s109, D2.P46
Sammut, Luke, s66, D2.S2.4(4)
Sampson, Alistair, s32, D1.P19
Sandercock, Gavin, s85, D2.P09
Santos, Keila D., s29, D1.P15
Sari-Sarraf, Vahid, s26, D1.P09
Scott, Mark A., s6, D1.S3.1(3)
Sculthorpe, Nicholas, s25, D1.P07
Senington, Billy, s61, s83, D2.P08, D2.S2.5(2)
Senior, Ruth, s19, D1.S3.2(5)
Sharples, Adam P., s6, D1.S3.1(3)
Shaw, Dominic, s35, D1.P23
Shield, Anthony, s55, D1.P56
Shore, Hannah, s23, D1.P05
Sieniawski, Jordan, s55, D1.P56
Sinclair, Jonathan, s21, s22, s23, s48, s49, D1.P01,
D1.P04, D1.P05, D1.P45, D1.P46
Singh, Sally, s29, D1.P14
Small, Karyn, s97, D2.P28
Smallcombe, James, s98, D2.P30
Smith, Deborah, s5, s38, s99, D1.P29, D1.S3.1(2),
D2.P31
Smith, Grace, s37, D1.P26
Smith, Laura, s62, D2.S2.5(3)
Smith, Mike, s17, s34, D1.P21, D1.S3.2(2)
Smith, Paul M., s8, s79, D1.S3.1(6), D2.P03
Solomon, Joshua A., s115, D2.P56
Sousa, Thiago F., s29, D1.P15
Sowden, Paul, s58, D1.P61
Sparrow, Julie, s32, D1.P18
Stanley, Damian, s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Stannard, Rebecca, s55, D1.P57
Steele, James, s27, s92, s95, D1.P11, D2.P21, D2.P24
Stensel, David J., s26, s79, D1.P09, D2.P02
Stewart, Claire Elisabeth, s33, D1.P20
Stokes, Keith, s109, D2.P46
Stone, Keeron, s38, s48, D1.P28, D1.P44
Stoner, Lee, s38, s88, D1.P28, D2.P14
Stopforth, Marie, s9, D1.S3.3(1)
Strain, Tessa, s91, D2.P19
Sunderland, Caroline, s18, s36, s116, D1.P25, D1.
S3.2(3), D2.P58
Sutton, Georgie, s73, D2.S2.2(4)
Sutton, Louise, s5, s99, D1.S3.1(2), D2.P31
Talbot, Chris, s56, D1.P58
Taylor, Paul John, s22, D1.P04
Taylor, Stephen, s81, D2.P05
Tester, Emma, s38, D1.P29
Tew, Garry, s79, D2.P03
Thomas, George, s73, D2.S2.2(3)
Thompson, Luke, s42, D1.P35
Thomson, Edward, s75, D2.S2.3(2)
Tierney, Peter, s56, s58, D1.P59, D1.P62
Till, Kevin, s50, s51, s53, s54, s77, s107, s110, s111,
s117, D1.P48, D1.P49, D1.P54, D1.P55, D2.
P43, D2.P47, D2.P49, D2.P59, D2.S2.3(5)
Todd, Joshua, s39, D1.P30
Tolfrey, Keith, s98, D2.P30
Tong, Richard, s60, D1.P64
Totterdell, Peter, s10, D1.S3.3(3)
Tracey Devonport, s14, D1.S3.4(3)
Trangmar, Steven, s117, D2.P60
Twist, Craig, s19, s20, s37, s51, s57, s94, s112, D1.
P26, D1.P49, D1.P60, D1.S3.2(4), D1.S3.2(6),
D2.P23, D2.P51
Tyler, Chris, s36, D1.P25
Tzeng, Yu-Chieh, s88, D2.P14
455
460
465
470
475
480
485
490
495
500
505
Index
510
515
520
525
Van Uffelen, Jannique, s1, D1.S3.5(1)
Vanrenterghem, Jos, s68, D2.S2.1(1)
Varley, Ian, s68, D2.S2.1(2)
Volskis, Lukas, s14, D1.S3.4(4)
Walsh, Deirdre, s31, D1.P17
Wang, Weijie, s61, D2.S2.5(1)
Watson, Phillip, s98, D2.P30
Wells, Carl, s117, D2.P60
Westwood, Caroline S., s118, D2.P61
Wheat, Jonathan, s23, D1.P06
Wilkinson, Courtney, s22, D1.P03
Williams, Craig, s104, D2.P39
Williams, Jonathan M., s61, s83, D2.P08, D2.S2.5(2)
Williams, Morgan, s55, s112, D1.P56, D2.P50
Williams, Natalie, s45, D1.P39
Williams, Thomas, s94, D2.P23
s125
Wilson, Andrew J., s107, D2.P42
Wilson, John, s2, s3, D1.S3.5(4), D1.S3.5(5)
Wimshurst, Zöe, s58, D1.P61
Wong, Fui Yen, s6, D1.S3.1(3)
Wong, Laikin, s88, D2.P14
Woods, Catherine, s4, s31, D1.P17, D1.S3.5(6)
Woolley, Brandon, s35, s88, D1.P24, D2.P14
Wright, Peter, s30, s86, D1.P16, D2.P11
Wright, Sheila Leddington, s65, D2.S2.4(1)
Wyon, Matthew, s109, D2.P45
530
535
Yarrow, Kielan, s115, D2.P56
Young, Andrew, s56, D1.P59
Young, Tom, s19, D1.S3.2(5)
Yusof, Ashril, s33, D1.P20
Zhang, Shuge, s12, D1.S3.3(6)
540