Small Satellites - The Aerospace Corporation

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Small Satellites - The Aerospace Corporation
Small Satellites:
Past, Present, and Future
Henry Helvajian and Siegfried W. Janson
Editors
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Contents
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxv
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi
1 The First Small Satellites:
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
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$GGLWLRQDO9DQJXDUG/DXQFKHV &RQFOXVLRQV 5HIOHFWLRQV $FNQRZOHGJPHQWV %LEOLRJUDSK\ 2 The History of Small Satellites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
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High-Value Missions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
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Contents
0LVVLRQ0DQDJHPHQW 6FLHQWLILF5HVXOWV &RQFOXVLRQV $FNQRZOHGJPHQWV 5HIHUHQFHV 4 The Role of AMSAT in the Evolution
of Small Satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
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A “100 Satellite” Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
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Contents
7 The United States Air Force Academy
FalconSAT Small Satellite Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
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5HIHUHQFHs 8 The United States Naval Academy
Small Low-Cost APRS Satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
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Small Satellites Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
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Contents
10 The UK’s First Nanosatellite—SNAP-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
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&RQFOXVLRQV $FNQRZOHGJPHQWV 5HIHUHQFHV 11 Microvariability and Oscillations of STars
(MOST) Mission: Canada’s First Microsatellite
and Space Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
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7KH6SDFH)OLJKW/DERUDWRU\ $FNQRZOHGJPHQWV 5HIHUHQFHV 12 TUBSAT: The Technical University of Berlin
Satellite Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
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Contents
13 Proba: ESA’s Series of Small Satellite Testbeds . . . . . . . 385
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Design, Production, and Operations:
Orbital’s MicroStar Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
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Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera . . . . . . . . 487
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Contents
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17 Developing and Maturing
Microsatellite Formation Flight Technology . . . . . . . . . 525
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18 A Mass-Producible Glass/Ceramic Micropropulsion Unit
for a Co-Orbiting Satellite Assistant (COSA) Mission . 559
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Contents
20 Picosatellites at The Aerospace Corporation . . . . . . . . . 635
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Space Debris and Reentry Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
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Contents
23 The Future of Small Satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
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Satellites as an Assembly of Mass-Producible
Functionalized Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815
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Contributors
William AilorLV3ULQFLSDO'LUHFWRURIWKH&HQWHUIRU2UELWDODQG5HHQWU\'HEULV
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Dirk BernaertsLVWKH3URED3URMHFW0DQDJHUDWWKH(XURSHDQ6SDFH7HFKQRO
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Bob Bruninga&GU861>[email protected]/DEDWWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV
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Vladimir ChobotovLVDPHPEHURIWKH&HQWHUIRU2UELWDODQG5HHQWU\'HEULV
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Srimal W. ChoiLV6HQLRU3ULQFLSDO6\VWHPV(QJLQHHUDW2UELWDO6FLHQFHV&RUSR
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xvii
Contributors
Steven L. HastLV6HQLRU3URMHFW/HDGHULQWKH$VWURG\QDPLFV'HSDUWPHQWDW7KH
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Henry HelvajianLVD6HQLRU6FLHQWLVWLQWKH3K\VLFDO6FLHQFHV/DERUDWRULHVDQG
UXQVWKH/DERUDWRU\IRU/DVHU0LFURHQJLQHHULQJ6FLHQFHDW7KH$HURVSDFH&RUSR
UDWLRQLQ(O6HJXQGR&DOLIRUQLD+HLVWKHHGLWRURIMicroengineering Aerospace
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Contributors
Jaymie M. MatthewsLV02670LVVLRQ6FLHQWLVWDQG3URIHVVRURI3K\VLFVDQG
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Simon NoletLVD3RVW'RFWRUDO$VVRFLDWHLQWKH6SDFH6\VWHPV/DERUDWRU\DWWKH
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Daniel L. OltroggeLV6HQLRU$QDO\VWDQG&(2RI(DUWK5HVHDUFK//&LQ&RO
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Contributors
Alvar Saenz-OteroLVD5HVHDUFK6FLHQWLVWZLWKWKH6SDFH6\VWHPV/DERUDWRU\DW
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Chapter 1
The First Small Satellites: Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
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1.1 Introduction
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1.2 The Historical Background
1.2.1 Sounding Rockets
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1
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of M. Votaw
Courtesy of NASA
Courtesy of NASA
2
Fig. 1.1. Two views of Sputnik I (top). Explorer I (middle). Robert Bauman with Vanguard 1 (bottom).
3
Courtesy of B. Fraze
The Historical Background
Fig. 1.2. Comparative sizes of the Sputnik I, Explorer I, and Vanguard 1 satellites
(left, top to bottom) and their respective launch vehicles, R-7, Juno I, and Vanguard
(right, left to right).
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Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of NASA
4
Fig. 1.3. Robert H. Goddard with his first successful liquid-fueled rocket.
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5
Courtesy of White Sands Missile Range Museum
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6
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of U.S. Army
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7
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8
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9
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10
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
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Fig. 1.9. Dual Aerobee launches at White Sands Missile Range (a), Richard Custer
with Nike-Cajun rocket and HUGO payload at Wallops Island (b), Van Allen's Rockoon being launched from the icebreaker USS Eastwind (c), and Commander Gus
Ebel, Carl McIwain, and Frank McDonald with a Loki rocket at sea (d).
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15
Courtesy of G. H. Ludwig
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Courtesy of NASA
Sputnik I
Fig. 1.13. Internal view of Sputnik I components.
17
18
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of NASA
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Fig. 1.14. R-7 launch vehicle for Sputnik satellite.
Sputnik I
19
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20
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1.4 Explorer I
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Fig. 1.15. Explorer I instrument section being installed on Scale Sergeant fourth-stage
motor.
Explorer I
21
Courtesy of NASA
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Fig. 1.16. Explorer I components and external shell. The cosmic ray experiment is
mounted on the upper portion of the compartment, and the telemetry section, flexible
antennas, and micrometeor detectors are mounted at the bottom. The white stripes
are designed for thermal control of the spinning satellite.
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of U.S. Army/ Redstone Arsenal
22
Fig. 1.17. Night launch of Explorer I aboard the Juno I launch vehicle.
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23
Courtesy of U.S. Army
Explorer I
Fig. 1.18. Upper-stage spin bucket on top of a modified Redstone first stage.
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24
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of C. McIlwain
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Fig. 1.19. Iowa graduate student Carl E. McIlwain with the cosmic ray experiment
that he flew on a Nike-Cajun rocket from Ft. Churchill, Canada, into an auroral substorm at about the same time that Explorer I flew. His analysis of the flux of energetic
particles detected on his Nike-Cajun flight allowed him to explain to Van Allen why
the Explorer I Geiger counter saturated.
Vanguard 1
25
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Fig. 1.20. Vanguard 1 during final installation and checkout on its TV-4 launch vehicle.
26
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Courtesy of NASA
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Fig. 1.21. Successful launch of Vanguard 1 on 17 March 1958.
Vanguard 1
27
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Fig. 1.22. Dave Corbin assembling Vanguard 1 satellite.
28
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
Fig. 1.23. Vanguard 1 battery-operated transmitter.
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Vanguard 1
Navy Electronics
Laboratory
San Diego,California
29
Blossom Point, Maryland
Ft. Stewart, Georgia
Batista Field, Havana, Cuba
Coolidge Field,Antigua Island
Mt. Cotopaxi,Quito, Equador
Ancon, Lima, Peru
Antafagasto, Chile
Peldehue Military Reservation,
Santiago, Chile
Fig. 1.24. Minitrack antenna dipole feed (top). Typical segment of a Minitrack interferometer antenna array (middle). Minitrack locations in the Western hemisphere
(bottom).
30
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
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Fig. 1.25. Aerobee Hi in hangar with payload exposed.
Additional Sputnik Launches
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1.6 Additional Sputnik Launches
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Fig. 1.26. Sputnik II three-part payload, with science instrument package on top,
spherical Sputnik I type shell below that, and Laika the dog's capsule on the bottom.
32
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
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Additional Explorer Launches
33
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1.7 Additional Explorer Launches
Courtesy of George H. Ludwig
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Fig. 1.27. Henry Richter of JPL (left) and Iowa graduate student George H. Ludwig
with prototype equipment for the Explorer II cosmic ray experiment, which added a
tape recorder to the basic Explorer I package. The satellite failed to reach orbit, but
an identical payload was flown successfully on the Explorer III mission on 26 March
1958.
34
Sputnik, Explorer, and Vanguard
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Fig. 1.28. A Juno II rocket.
Additional Explorer Launches
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Fig. 1.29. The Explorer VI satellite.
36
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Fig. 1.30. The Thor Able III launch vehicle.
Additional Explorer Launches
37
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Fig. 1.31. The Explorer VII satellite.
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39
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Additional Vanguard Launches
Fig. 1.32. Transparent view of 51 cm Vanguard satellite interior.
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Courtesy of NASA
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Fig. 1.33. Vanguard 2 satellite on launch vehicle.
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1.9 Conclusions
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Table 1.1 Summary of Launches from July 1957 to December 1959
Sputnik
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1.10 Reflections
Courtesy of NASA
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Fig. 1.35. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team toasting Sputnik I.
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1.11 Acknowledgments
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%.ODZDQVDQG-%DXJKDUGW´7KH9DQJXDUG6DWHOOLWH/DXQFKLQJ9HKLFOHDQ(QJLQHHU
LQJ6XPPDU\µ(QJLQHHULQJ5HSRUW1R&RQWUDFW1RQU7KH0DUWLQ&RPSDQ\
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)&'XUDQW,,,Robert H. Goddard, Accomplishments of the Roswell Years, 1930–1941
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+(1HZHOOBeyond the Atmosphere, Early Years of Space Science—The NASA History Series6FLHQWLILFDQG7HFKQLFDO,QIRUPDWLRQ%UDQFK1DWLRQDO$HURQDXWLFVDQG6SDFH
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5XVVLDQ6FLHQWLILF5HVHDUFK&HQWHURoads to Space, An Oral History of the Soviet Space
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'$&ODU\Rocket Man, Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age+\SHULRQ
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