konsep metode ilmiah (scientific method)

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konsep metode ilmiah (scientific method)
KONSEP METODE ILMIAH 1
(SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1)
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Science is a method people use to study the natural
world. It is the process that uses observation and
investigation to gain knowledge. YOU USE IT
EVERYDAY!!!
Science is a methodical procedure for the
exploring and understanding of nature.
Science is the systematic enterprise of
gathering knowledge about the world and
organizing and condensing that knowledge
into testable theories
• Science is a process of learning to know the nature
of everything in the material world, from atoms to
the most complex of living organisms and inanimate
objects.
• Nonmaterial things, like gods, whose existence can
be neither confirmed nor disproved, are excluded,
for science deals only with those elements of the
universe that can be shown, at least potentially, to
exist.
• Science, therefore, is never-ending and always
changing.
Scientific method: basic steps that scientists
follow in uncovering facts and solving
scientific problems
• Dalam satu kunjungan lapangan mahasiswa menemukan
satu tanaman khusus X
• Prediksi: tanaman tersebut didapatkan pula pada tempat
dengan iklim dan elevasi yang sama. Mahasiswa akan
memperkirakan antara pola iklim khusus dengan
pertumbuhan tanaman X.
• Hipotesis: Saya hipotesiskan pola iklim dan elevasi
berpengaruh terhadap keberadaan tanaman
• Ketika pada tempat dimana terdapat pola iklim dan elevasi
sama tetapi tidak terdapat tanaman X …. Kenapa tidak
ada??? ………. Mengarahkan pada penjelasan adanya
hubungan pola iklim dengan fenomena lainnya.
• Memunculkan hipotesis lainnya, bahwa pertumbuhan
tanaman dipengaruhi oleh kesuburan tanah, atau
keberadaan spesies lainnya, dsb.
• Hipotesis muncul dari observasi ragam
fenomena alam untuk diuji benar atau tidak
melalui eksperimen
• Prediksi dapat muncul dari satu fenomena
yang belum jelas dan untuk membuktikannya
membutuhkan teknologi “Di Planet Mars
terdapat kehidupan”
Latihan
•
Buat pernyataan prediksi dan hipotesis:
– Pada satu kunjungan ke desa-desa miskin di satu daerah ternyata pada saat langsung
kunjungan di satu desa pertama, angka kematian per tahun di desa tersebut tinggi.
Bagaimana halnya dengan desa miskin yang ada di daerah tersebut?
Prediksi?:
Kelompok 1:
Kemungkinan disekitar desa miskin (desa miskin lainnya) angka kematiannya tinggi
Kelompok 2: angka kematian juga terjadi di dasa miskin sekitarnya
Hipotesis?:
Kelompok 1:
P enyebab kematian dipengaruhi oleh pendidikan, lingkungan dan makanan, dan keseahan
Kelompok 2: Derajat kemiskinan berpengaruh thdp angka kematian disuatu daerah
Induction and Deduction
• Induksi: Pembentukan suatu generalisasi yang ditumbuhkan dari
suatu pengujian informasi/fakta
• Deduksi: identifikasi suatu fakta yang belum diketahui yang
dimunculkan dari fakta yang sudah diketahui
• Contoh, jika kita melakukan pengujian cukup kotoran kucing maka
kita dapat generalisasi bahwa kotoran kucing kaya akan sumber
parasit (Induksi)
• Jika kita menemukan tapak kaki manusia di pantai pulau kering
maka disimpulkan bahwa manusia lainnya ada, atau pernah ada di
pulau itu (deduksi)
To induce could mean ‘to lead or draw into, to infer, to
persuade,’ and induction, ‘to lead to the conclusion that
etc....’ To deduce could mean ‘to lead from, to draw from’
and deduction, ‘to draw a conclusion from etc....’
Induction. From The Oxford English Dictionary
(OED); to induce (in relation to science and logic) means “to derive by
reasoning, to lead to something as a conclusion, or inference, to suggest
or imply,” and induction “as the process of inferring a general law or
principle from observation of particular instances.” Another version is the
“adducing (pulling together) of a number of separate facts, particulars,
etc. especially for the purpose of proving a general statement.”
Deduction. The OED definition of to deduce is “to show or hold a thing to be
derived from etc...” or “to draw as a conclusion from something known or
assumed, to infer”; deduction thus is “inference by reasoning from generals
to particulars,” or “the process of deducing from something known or
assumed...”
Both terms define systems of logic the purpose of which is to solve
problems, in the one case by looking for a general characteristic
(generalization, conclusion, conjecture, supposition, inference, etc.) in a set
or group of observations, in the other to identify a particular instance
through its resemblance to a set or group of
known instances or observations.
Scientific Method and Scientific
Writing
OBSERVATION
PROBLEM STATEMENTS
HYPHOTESIS STATEMENT
EXPERIMENT , DATA CLLECTION AND
ANALYSIS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION STATEMENT
• Stating the Question:
– What is it that you are trying to find out from your
experiment?
– What is it that you are trying to achieve?
• Research Your Topic:
– Investigate what others have already learned about your
question.
– Gather information that will help you perform your
experiment.
• State Your Hypothesis:
– After having thoroughly researched a topic, you should
have a rough answer about what you think will happen in
your experiment.
– This educated guess concerning the outcome is called your
hypothesis. You must state your hypothesis in a way that
you can readily measure.
• Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment:
– Now that you have come up with a hypothesis, you
need to develop a procedure for testing whether it is
true or false.
– This involves changing one variable and measuring the
impact that this change has on other variables.
– When you are conducting your experiment, you need
to make sure that you are only measuring the impact
of a single change.
– Scientists run experiments more than once to verify
that results are consistent.
– Each time that you perform your experiment is called
a run or a trial.
• Analyze Your Results:
– At this stage, you want to be organizing and analyzing the
data that you have collected during the course of your
experiment in order to summarize what your experiment
has shown you.
• Draw Your Conclusion:
– This is your opportunity to explain the meaning of your
results.
– Did your experiment support your hypothesis? Does
additional research need to be conducted? How did your
experiment address your initial question and purpose?
• Report Your Results and Conclusion:
– Since you are performing an experiment for the science
fair, you will write a report and prepare a display board so
that others can share in your discoveries.
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