developing green cities : back to the future

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developing green cities : back to the future
‘DEVELOPING GREEN
CITIES : BACK TO
THE FUTURE’
DATIN PADUKA DR. DAHLIA ROSLY
Director General
Federal Department of Town and
Country Planning,
Ministry of Urban Wellbeing,
Housing and Local Government
Malaysia
The Equatorial Hotel, Malacca
11 May 2015
Topics
 WORLD SCENARIOS
 MALAYSIA URBANIZATION BACKGROUND
 URBAN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN MALAYSIA
 IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES INITIATIVES TO OVERCOME
CHALLENGES
 MALAYSIA’S INITIATIVES IN PROMOTING GREEN CITIES
 IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES INITIATIVES IN PBT’S
 GREEN NEIGHBOURHOOD INITIATIVE AWARDS
URBAN POPULATION OF THE WORLD
Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas
in 2014, Selected Countries / Areas
Source : United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, 2014 Revision
Malaysia
FAILURE OF URBAN PLANNING IN ASIA
World Economic Forum – Global Risk 2015
East Asia and the Pacific is perceived as least prepared for interstate
conflict and failure of urban planning.
Source : Global Risk Report 2015, 10th Edition, World Economic Forum, Geneva
MALAYSIA URBANIZATION BACKGROUND
 Malaysia population census in 2010 - 28.58 million people.
 2015 forecast - 30.48million people.
 Rapid urbanization rate :–
 Year 1970 - 26.8% urbanization (2.79 million of urban
dwellers).
 Year 2010 - 71% (20.29 million of urban dwellers).
 Forecast 2025 - 80% (27.30 million of urban dwellers).
 With an average of 75% of GDP is concentrated in the cities
as the engine of economic growth.
 Scenario on global competition – economic and urban
infrastructure must be strengthened.
 Economy growth concentrated in the main conurbation –
Greater Kuala Lumpur, Georgetown and Johor Bahru.
URBAN GREEN IN ASIA
GREEN CITIES IN MALAYSIA
Cyberjaya
Putrajaya
Wilayah Iskandar, Johor
Melaka
Miri, Sarawak
URBAN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN MALAYSIA
1. CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING
A continuous and long period in
rainfall which is significantly
below the average expected for a
region at that time of year.
Kajang, Selangor, December 2011
Drought - El-Nino 97/98
URBAN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN MALAYSIA
2. RAPID URBANISATION
Source : Dept. of Statistics Malaysia, Official Portal
• Expected to grow to 75% by
2020.
• Encroachment on agriculture
areas and Environment Sensitive
Areas (ESA) due to urban
development.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN MALAYSIA
3. CITIES ENERGY
CONSUMPTIONS
 Cities consume 70% of the world’s
energy.
 Cities responsible for 40% to 50%
GHG worldwide.
United Nations Environment Programme
Source : http://www.our-energy.com/introduction_into_energy_sources.html
World energy consumption
between year 1850 and 2000
compared to world population
increase in same period. Energy
consumption is increasing much
faster than population.
STRATEGIC POLICIES AND MEASURES IN MALAYSIA
Policies / Initiatives Related to Sustainable Developments
INTERNATIONAL
UN Conference on
the Human
Environment
UN set up the
World Commission
on Environment
and Development
Kyoto
Declaration on
Green House
Emission
Johannesburg
Earth Summit
2002, Rio +10
Bruntland
Report on
definition and
principles of
SD
1972
1980
1987
1997
1992
Malaysia National
Environmental
Policy
2010
• Japan Future City
• EU Future Cities
Rio Summit: World
commitment on
sustainable
development &
Agenda 21
COP 15
Copenhagen
Accord
Bali Roadmap
Towards
International
agreement on
Climate Change
COP 19
Warsaw
Outcomes
SGFC
2000
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
2009
Malaysia (Local
Agenda 21)
•
•
Planning Doctrine –
holistic devt for land
use planning
2004 –Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment
•
2005 – National Physical Plan, Selangor
Sustainable Development and Agenda 21
•
5th Fuel Policy, in the
8th Malaysia Plan
•
2006 - Malaysia Ninth Malaysia Plan – 4th
Thrust (Improve Standard and Sustainability
of Quality of Life)- Sustainable Development
Indicators (SDI)
SREP (small renewal
energy power
program)
M A L A Y S I A
COP 18
Doha
Climate
Gateway
2002
•
•
COP 16
COP 17
Cancun
Durban
Agreement Outcomes
Rio de
Janeiro, The
Future We
Want; Rio +20
•
2006 – National Urbanisation Policy
•
2009– Ministry of Energy, Technology and
Water, National Green Technology Policy &
Climate Change Policy
2010
2011
2010Green
Building
Index
2011:
•MURNINET
•Low Carbon Cities
Framework
•GBI Township
•Blueprint Melaka
Negeri Bandar
Teknologi Hijau
2012
2013
Garis
Panduan
Kejiranan
Hijau
2014
Pelancaran
CoE JPBDSM
Iskandar
Malaysia
Low Carbon
Society
LAND USE PLANNING MECHANISM
The scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition or
utilization of land, resources, facilities and services with a
view to securing the physical, economic and social
efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural
communities.
Physical planning plays crucial role through
management of resource utilization in spatial
planning and planning mechanism.
IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES TO OVERCOME
CHALLENGES
MALAYSIA’S INITIATIVES IN PROMOTING GREEN CITIES
Green Neighbourhood / Green Cities
Planning Components Of
Green Neighbourhood
GREEN NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTION PLAN
5
Strategic
Thrust
28
Strategies
50
Actions
STRATEGIC
THRUST 1
STRATEGIC
THRUST 2
STRATEGIC
THRUST 3
STRATEGIC
THRUST 4
STRATEGIC
THRUST 5
LEGAL
ASPECTS,
POLICY AND
GUIDELINES
GREEN
URBAN
PLANNING
TRAINING AND
PROMOTION
INCENTIVES
REDUCING
WASTE AND
STRENGTHEN
RECYCLING
ACTIVITY
4 Strategies
8 Actions
13 Strategies
5 Strategies
3 Strategies
3 Strategies
23 Actions
6 Actions
3 Actions
10 Actions
MATRIX OF GREEN NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTION PLAN
LOW-HANGING FRUIT ACTION
Responsible
Agency
OTHER ACTION
Pedestrian
Walkway
Bicycle
Lane
Rainwater
Harvesting
System
Waste
Composting
Community
Farming
Perlis
√
-
√
-
-
Kedah
√
-
√
√
√
Pulau Pinang
√
√
-
√
√
Perak
√
-
√
√
√
Selangor
√
√
√
√
√
Negeri
Sembilan
√
-
-
√
√
Melaka
√
√
√
-
√
Johor
√
√
√
-
√
Pahang
√
-
-
-
√
Terengganu
√
-
-
-
-
Kelantan
√
-
√
-
-
DBKL
√
√
√
√
√
Sabah
√
√
√
-
-
Sarawak
√
-
-
√
-
√
Initiative implemented
at state level
Form new committee or establish exiting committee at
state level related to green neighbourhood
development
Adopting Planning Guideline for Green Neighbourhood
Adopting Planning Guideline for Identification of
Redevelopment of Brownfield Site
Encourage
properties
developer/private
sector/individual to participate in green building
accreditation
Establish database of brownfield and underused areas
for redevelopment purpose
Provide bicycle parks at community centre
Consider safe city elements as in the Guideline of
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design and
universal design elements as in the Planning Guideline
for Universal Design when designing for pedestrian
walkway and bicycle lane
Achieve the policy of 2 hectares open space over
1,000 urban population (exclude green roof and green
wall)
Encourage green roof, green wall and rooftop garden
Source: Monitoring Report of Action Plan for Green Neighbourhood
Development No.2 (FDTCP, 2014)
REPORTING THE ACTION PLAN
Green
Neighbourhood
Planning
Guidelines
Action Plan for
Green
Neighbourhood
Development
Report of Action Plan for Green Neighbourhood
Development to support Green Neighbourhood
Planning Guidelines and Action Plan for Green
Neighbourhood Development
GREEN NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENT ACTION PLAN
5 Initiatives for Green Neighbourhood
Development Action Plan
1
4 Rain water
harvesting system
Provision of
pedestrian pathway
2
Provision of
bicycle lane
3
Waste composting
5
Community farming
IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES IN PBT’S
IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES IN PBT’S
Kota Kinabalu Walkability Master Plan
SustainableFutureCities
IMPLEMENTING GREEN CITIES IN PBT’S
Showcase of Healthy + Walkable Cities Pioneer Projects
(a)
(b)
Covered pedestrian walkway from Kuala Terengganu Bus Terminal to
Pasar Payang, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu
Covered pedestrian walkway from Kluang Train Station to Taman
Merdeka, Kluang, Johore
CYCLE LANE AND BIKE RENTING
SustainableFutureCities
PROJECT BENEFITS
Cycle Lane ‘on road’
Commuter Station KKB – Town Centre (4km)
1.
Direct impact on the environment
2.
Potential to get sponsors.
3.
Can be as ‘urban showcase’ for
World Urban Forum 2018.
4.
Promote healthy lifestyle.
5.
Can be attributed to attractions in
the city.
ESTIMATED COST
1.
New cycle lane – RM1.2 mil
(less cost if ‘on road’)
2.
Bike park– RM150K
3.
Bicycles – RM1K per bicycle
STRATEGIC BUSINESS PARTNER
1.
2.
KTMB
SPAD
CARBON FOOTPRINT
Bike Rent
1.
Walking and cycling emit zero CO2
2.
1 km round trip walking and cycling
saves 6 kg/day of CO2 (carbon savings
per day compared to the use of car)
(Source: www.smartertavelsutton.org).
(Source: www.smartertavelsutton.org).
Papan Tanda Arah
COMMUNITY ORCHARD
EXAMPLE OF COMMUNITY ORCHARD LAYOUT
SustainableFutureCities
PROJECT BENEFITS
1.
2.
CORPORATE SPONSORSHIP
PUBLIC AWARENESS
Direct impact on the environment
and carbon trapping
Potential to get sponsors
3.
Can be as ‘urban showcase’ for
World Urban Forum 2018.
4.
Greening urban areas.
5.
In accordance with the concept of
KKB City in a Garden .
ESTIMATED COST
1.
Fruit orchad – RM100K - RM150K (less
cost if plant on existing park area)
2.
Tress – RM50 - RM100 per tree
STRATEGIC BUSINESS PARTNER
ACTIVITY AND COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP
Planting Trees With ‘Marcotting Methods’ are Capable of Producing Results as Early as 2-3 Years
1.
2.
3.
Tan Chong Motors
Perodua
UiTM/ Darul Quran
CARBON FOOTPRINT
1.
1 tree absorbs 1,000 kg of CO2 (approx)
2.
1 acre of trees stores 2,600 kg of
carbon/year (where tree cover for
urban area is about 204 trees/acre).
(Source: www.conservationfund.org/gozero).
(Source: www.coloradotrees.org).
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
PROJECT BENEFITS
Masjid Jamek Al-Rahmah
in KKB is implementing
the Rain Water
Harvesting.
The system can be
improve and the
approach can be
extended to other prayer
hall or mosque.
1.
Has been implemented in Masjid AlRahmah.
2.
Water saving can be calculated for
assessing the effectiveness of the
initiative.
3.
Can be used as a model for other
mosques.
4.
Can be as ‘urban showcase’ for
World Urban Forum 2018.
5.
Cost savings ( water bill ).
ESTIMATED COST
CASE STUDY YAYASAN HIJAU: MASJID BUKIT INDAH, AMPANG
1.
Rain water harvesting – RM150K
STRATEGIC BUSINESS PARTNER
1.
2.
3.
Cooperation between
Yayasan Hijau, KETTHA and
NAHRIM
Pump machine cost: RM200K
Masjid Jamek Al-Rahmah
Gamuda
GreenTech/ NAHRIM
CARBON FOOTPRINT
1.
Efficient use of valuable water
resources.
2.
Rainwater harvesting has a lower
environmental footprint than mains
water.
USAGE OF ECO-FRIENDLY MATERIALS
KKB food trail
Joint Program with Dealers
PROJECT BENEFITS
1.
Involvement of local residents.
2.
Rising the public awareness.
3.
Can be adjusted with food
attractions in KKB
4.
Energy and cost savings can be
calculated, easy assessment can
be made.
5.
Develop tourism and urban
heritage preservation
ESTIMATED COST
1.
2.
LED Lamp – RM10K
eco-friendly materials – RM20K RM50K per year
STRATEGIC BUSINESS PARTNER
1.
2.
3.
Perodua
Tan Chong Motors
Gamuda
CARBON FOOTPRINT
1. A normal street light bulb consumes 250400W of energy and emits 0.17 kg of CO2.
2. Every 1 kWh of energy used emits 0.68
kg of CO2. (Source: www.gg-energy.com)
3. VBC
Produk Buluh
GREEN NEIGHBOURHOOD INITIATIVE AWARDS
The award is given to
the local authorities:
Since 2011 in
conjunction with the
World Town Planning Day
celebration every year.
Five categories of award:
i. provision of
pedestrian
pathway
ii. provision of bicycle
lane
iii. rain water
harvesting
iv. waste composting
v. community
farming
Mayors and Local Authorities Representatives
with Green Initiatives Award
The purpose is to promote and create awareness about the importance
of green initiatives among the local authorities.
CYCLE LANE
Majlis Bandaraya Melaka
Bersejarah
Majlis Bandaraya Shah Alam
Majlis Bandaraya Kota Kinabalu
PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY
Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh
Majlis Perbandaran Kuantan
Dewan Bandaraya Kuching Utara
COMMUNITY GARDENING
Dewan Bandaraya Kuala
Lumpur
Majlis Perbandaran Port
Dickson
Majlis Perbandaran Klang
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Pusat Komuniti Kempas
Tandas Awam MP Kulim
Tasik Titiwangsa
Pangsapuri Kos
Rendah Sri Stulang
Medan Selera
Bandar Baru Uda
Dewan Komuniti Taman Koperasi Polis
Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru
Majlis Perbandaran Kulim
Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur
WASTE COMPOSTING
Majlis Daerah Kampar
Majlis Bandaraya Kuching
Selatan
Majlis Perbandaran Sibu
ACTION PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION
Selection of
Priority
Initiatives
Implementations
of Selected
Initiatives
Showcase
for
Malaysia
Strategic
Alliance
Partnership
Monitoring and
Evaluating
Federal Department of Town and Country Planning
Peninsular Malaysia
Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government Malaysia
www.townplan.gov.my
33

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