Satellite Telemet - International Bird Strike Committee

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Satellite Telemet - International Bird Strike Committee
BscEB/r4P51
'ND STRI(ECOMMTTTEEEUROPE
Monitoring Bird
"'- Telemetry, ATool for Trackingand Scale
satellite
""Glob'l
Mou"-"o,, from a Locat to
Winiams Seegai
Cster
De'elopment;ndEngineering
cdeewoodRe'earch
Maryland
Ground'
Proving
Abeldecn
Mark R Fulter
National Biological Service
Boise,Idaho
Paul w' HoweY
Microwave Telemetry In€
Columbia Maryland
Yossi l,eshem
Tel Aviv Univecity
Tel Aviv, Israel
WNlpm*gf
Electronic
Key Word3i Detection Avoidance
443
198Ys satellite tocated Pladom Transmitter Terminals (PID, comparible with
the French owned tugos Systeo were developed to track and monitor avian
speies on a local to global sle (Sh.ikwerda et al. 1985and 1986). We reporr
here on aspectsof the development of bird-bome PTTSand some of the past and
presdt applications of satellite tracking to study avian speies. The use of
satellite tracking to locate ud forRast bird movemenrs and migration ro aid in
the bild strike probtem has been proposed (Lshem 1990). A satellite kacking
system used with other emerging tehnologies and capabilfties to addrcss rhe
bird stdke problem is discussed.
Conventional Telemetry system Technologi€s
Biotelemetry lus dramatically iilluenced the direction of w dlife resear.h
since the first application by Southem (1964)to srudy the wintering behavior of
bald eagles Glaliaeetus leucacephaluE. The use of conventional telemeky has
allowed for a more fto-.ough .apability to pe orm basic researchand examine
ecological and management issuesrclated to dimal behavio!, survivat,
productivity, migation and habitat use. Biotelemetry has been especiajly helpfut
in the study of avian speciesbecausebirds often are widely dispersed adoss the
lands.ape md use targe areasthrough which they can move quickly. l-cally
bird! can make diumal or nocturnal movements b€tween forging deas and
roostinS sites while seasonally they can rravel geat disranc€sberween breeding,
migratory and wintqing habitats. Conventional telemetry is como.ty
enp:oyed to locate birds to obene behavior and gather informarion on rheir
range ed patterns of habitat use. This information can be collected by severat
methods, the most comon by homing toward the Edio signal or triangllation
pe ormed by d€riving a directioml bearing on the tagged animal from two or
more reeiver positions with a directional antenna. In nearly all appticatioro of
conv€ntional biotelemetry, it is restri.ted to local use with animal pos ions being
collecred on fooL frcm automobiles or small fixed wins aircraft.
A pplicatioroor biot€lemebyhaveb"en successiu
I in developing
management plans for the coroeNation of avian species. Bloom er. al (1993)
determined by meais of biotelemetry that red,shouldered hawks coutd e6ily be
!11aru8€d
withhul)Machvity inareash SourhernCJifomia due to rheirhme
range or 1.2 [email protected] kilometer in seleted woodland habitat. Hauq dd Olifmr
(l990)dnd Mdersky andSnyde.(1992)Londucringradio tetemeriystud,esatso
were able to make coreenation recomendations for burrowing owb fAthene
gelisela:gal and California.ondors (Gynnogyps califonianus) in their oM
udque habitats. Condors posed more difficllt study problems becauserhey
ranged over 200 kilometers during forging flights from rheir nest or roost. rn this
study conventional telemetry was used to supplement obsenarioro to assistin
evaruadng the bnds behaviors and colect injured or dead individuats. Shenod
et. al (1981)sinilarly used biotelemerry to examine the releaseof caprive bred
444
peregdnefalcons in order to re-establish the spei$ in deas from which rhey
wercprcviously extirpated due to pesticide use. SmaI tail mounred bansmitters
wereused to hack peregdnes to examine their behavior, adapration ro the wild
state,6nd determine the causesa late oI mortaliry.
Biotelemeky also has be€n used to asse$ effects of Iand us€ activities on
avianspecies. Buehler €t. al (1991)and Anderson €t. al (1990)used radio
t€lemetryto €valute raptor behavior in regard to material tesr and evaluarion
aclivitis on military lands. S€egd dd Fuller have co"mmg€d a
emprehensive progam to study raptors in relation to military rraining in the
SnakeRiver Bird6 of Prey Narional Conserative Area (SRBOpNCA), (Marztuff
e( aL 19yJ). Biotelemeky was used on 120 pralie falcoro (Falco nexicanus)
duringfou breedings€asoreto exmine their distribution and evdluarethe
elfectsof military training on their biology. Lcation esrinutes were collected
andcorElated to real-time military training, v€getatiorr ground cover, prey
dishibution and other geogiaphically significat variables. Home range and
talconactivity .d be evaluated in rcgard to thesepardeters. Land use panehs
oI the local population of prairie falcons derived ftom the iandom telemeky
samplealsowere eemired usinga splinedsubrourin€in ArcllnloSortua;e
{ArlInJo, Envirommtat SystemsResearchInstirut€ Inc., Redlands, California).
Thisapproach was used to produce a contour map of prairie falcon sparial use of
thestudy ar€a. The CeoSraphic Inlomation System (cls) we developed embtes
u, to identiJy areasof high and low us€ by falcons, dd to relale them ro land-use
pattemsand management options.
lMovations in biotdemetrr' systernshave led to th€ developmenr of
s€Mrs ed sp€cial-pupose transmitters to .oll€.t an array of inJomation. The
measurementsof movement ud temperature are the most corunonly used
tensorsin wildlife studis (Kenward 1987:61).Motion sensorccan be modified to
log activity over time thus identifying periods of prolonged acrivity and
inactivity or nortality (Kenwdd 1987). Sensorshave ban tlsed to detect attitude
(Bogeland Burchard 1992),humidity (Howey et al.19Z, gasrric morility
(Ku€clrleet al. 1984 and hearr rate (sawby and cessM
1924).Sladen and
Cochre develop€d an auromatic tracking starion to detect the Fesence of
telemetrysignals fiom transmitters atrached to tundra swm, (Cygnus
columbianuscotumbianus) staging for sp ng migration from the Chesapete
Bay,lvkryland and Virginia. The system was designed to alam biologists when
signalswere detected flom swans moving north from rheir wintering areas.
Resulti fiom this work provided valuabte inlormarion on the hamess atrachmenr
of back?ack transmitters as wel as temporal and spatiat inJounation on the
swai's' spring migration (Sladenet al 1969,Sladen and Cochra& 1969md Sladen
1974).Individualy cod€d transmitters have been developed in order to in reas€
thenumber of bansmifters Lhatcan be monibored in rhe field. Coded sysrerns
alsoce be used effectively with a computei basedremore rracking systenB rhat
canrun independendy in the field (Howey €t. at 1989). SeegaaHowey and
445
luner (unpublished) used an automated.oded trackinq svstem to monitor for
peresnae fdlLorolaggedalong a coacralbdrrierFIrnr; iutum mqrat,on sirein
the ed.lern United Stdtes.t he conjigurdliono heLodcdsyrtem;di.arpd rhe
generardirection of the presenceof eachcoded tlamminer on the 165/ MHz
receiver as it was reeived swikhing among four-element mtennas poinring in
different directions (north, east south and west). This system a ow;d for the
continuous collection of presence/ absencedata on an €ndangered speciesas it
used critical co6tal migrato.y habitarAdial tracking can be very eff(tive for locaring wide-raging birds on
their breedinggrounds,winteling areas(Buehleret_al,199t) or migrarionroutes
(Hunt and Ward, 1988). Howeve!, the use of aircrafr is eapensiveand not
pra.tical fo! tracking long distance migrants thaf rravel thousands of miles, cross
.lozens of gcopolitical boundaries and travclse remote regions of thc globe.
Limiting fa.tors associatedwith convcntional telemeby such as restri.ted
geographic range and huhan operarion requircd to obtain inlormation on ftee
ranging animls prompted the development of spacedbasesystemsto rrack and
moniior wildlife via satellite.
Spa.eBasedSatelliteTra.king Te.hnoloAy
Satellite transmifters called Phtform Transmitter Terminats (PTIS) were
designed to inlerface with and be tfacked and monitored by the Fren.h ownc.l
A r g o _ s . y s t c(m
T r n c ye t d l . 1 o 8 8 , I h . m T s o p c r J r e o n d nU t n J H i g t , l r c q u e r )
of 401.550MHz kansmtting an identificarion code and dara from;p b eisht
setuor.. Ile signdlsdre drgiidlly encodedon a putsewidrh of 0 36 s^ ond;nd a
pulse interval of every 50 90 seconds. The frcquency of the signal must be very
stable(<2 Hz d.ifu, and the radtateapower must te retudu"ty"t:gl, O.rSto Z ir
1
W).. The siSnalisreceivedbythe satelliies,then rransmitredto processing
equipment on the ground_ LocarioN are €stimated by the Doppler principle.
lntation estimates vary from 1150 m to many kiloh+os, aep!"aing on;ni-al
behalid, enviroMental vaiables, and data-processingopti;ns 6e;ting et. al,
1991)- Satelliics .atying rhe Argos system are locared in 850 kiiometer;un_
synchronous olbits. Depending on the transhitte/s larftude, ir is possible to
detemine its location and .ollect inJormation from the semo6 berween 6 an.t 20
times in a 24 hour pcriod.
Early attempts to track wildtife by sarellite invotved elk thar were t acked
w i l h | T I s w e i S h i n gl l l I ( C r a i g h e dedl .a t . 1 9 7 2 )D
. uringthelaTo\sne
reductioDin sizeof the PTr wa5aLltcvedrnd 5 tg unirswereuspdto rrdckpotabare (Ursusdctot (Kolz er.aI,1980,S.hwejngb;g and t€e 1982)and sea'
turtles (Caretta caretta) (Ti"it" ""a rol,, rsszl Toyo Communications
Equipm€nt Co-/ Ltd manufactured rhe smallesr pTT available by the edly 1980,s,
which wei8hed 1000gms wth the baneries inctuded. rhe prot6type rri
produced by the ]olurs HopkiN Univercjty, Appried ruy"ii. raUoiuto.y -u" tt n
446
&siattenpt to design and miniaturize a PTT for use on a ttrd (Strikwerda et ar19891).
Bird borne PTIS becamea reality for kacking and monitoring activities of
avi.I specis in 1984when this sotar powered PTT was su..ssfulty fielded on
dEbaclof a wild nute swan (cygnus olor) captured in fte chesapeake Bay of
I,tiryland(Strikwerda et al. 1984). Sincethen the tehnology has continued to
dd provide a unique capability to track and monitot avian sp€cies
develop
$'€ighing
as litde as 800 grns. The next field test conducted with the Johs
Hoplitr University PTI was in 1984on a sub-adutt bald eagle. This mptor was
backedfor 270 days over a 2400 kilom€ter range from Maryland to Florida. The
!e$lt! of this experiment led to a seriesof field tests of the technology with other
aviansFcies (Strickwerda et. al, 1986)- Additiomt {ield testswere conducted on
baldeagleegolden eaglesand a gy alcon as the PTT was redu.ed in size from
185gm to a 95 gm unit produced by Microwave T€lemetry Inc. (Hovr'ey, 1989).
Applicetions
Eagleg
As the technology contirued to develop and b(ome available, others
usedIfis to track and monitor the griffin vulture (Gdesigner et. al, 1992),Lesser
rpottedeagles(Meyburg et. al, 1993)and a Steller's seaeagle (Meyburg and
lobkov, 1994). Satellite backing is now b€ing us€d to do basic rcsearch on many
avianspeciesfor conservation and resource nunagement plaming. In Gla.ier
BayNational Park the *6oGl movements of bald eagles,wer€ eramined by
srtelliie hacking to study the eaglesforaging relationship to strearu and dvers
thatpotentiauy could be aff€cted by pro?osed copper mining activities (Kralovec
1994).In Canada, Brodeau and D€Carie (1993)studied golden eaglesto evaluate
theimpact of a proposed hydroel€.tric dam to be coNtrucred south of lames
Ba, Ontario. Eaglesfrom the area to be flooded were tagged with Pfis and
backedsouth to their wintering Founds. The golden eaglesbacked via satellite
dishibuled thetrelvg over the entire known eastem United Stateswinterine
rdge lor Lhespeies, thereby€stablishingtheir naraloriginsouthofJamesB;y as
a critical aiea for the maintemnce of the spaies in thjs part of North Ameica.
In 1989Sega! and Fuller initiated a 6-year compiehensive study on
raplos for the Idaho AJmy National Guard oDARNG), on the Orchdd Training
Area(OTA), the ftnd hrg6t National Guard kaining facility in the Unit€d
Shtes. On the OTA, cent ally located within the SnakeRiver Birds of Prey
NationatC-onservationArea , we examined the spatial relationships of military
haining to golden ea8le movements. Satetlite telemetry was used to collect
lo.ation data ftom eagl€sthat frequented military exctusion areasand to
detemine wintering rang€s for adult and sub-adult eagles(Seegd et al. 1996 in
press). Becausegoldo eaglesof unknown ongin join€d wintering eagleson the
OTA. telemetry via satellite was also used to identily the bre€ding grounds.
Initial results showed some wintering addt eagl6 ljed military [email protected]
4{7
€rteNiwly, having-m(h rmdller wjnrering rdngesLhanwide ranginSEub_ad
ult
eaSles(Figure1). Unjque inlolmtion on rhe U,"",ting ,*"s ot ,ai rt ;ogr"s -u"
o b l d i n e dw i r h i nt h e f i r s r y e d o f t h e s t u d y .l n t h es p r i n g o f l g a 3 d r h e ; d u t t
birds miSratedto breedin8 locdrioB incenLralAla"ka dd WesrernCamda
(Fisure 1).
Peregrine Falcons
The applkation ot tracting brds via sdre ite h6 erpanded 6 a resutrof
.
tmronrnued devetopmenrand minjarurizdrionof t't-Is. As the sizpand we.sht
of the transmitters were reduced the number of speies that could calry rhe t'ii
imeased, Since the mrty 1990sMicrowave Telemehy rnc. has suppliej ove! 900
ITI that have been applied to more than 20 avian sp€cieson a global scale.
The
use of radio trgging shoutd atwdys be bdspdon carefut coniiderarion of rne
eriectsot the tratum ters on birds behdviorand fli8ht (e.g. Obrfrhr et dt.
1988,
Samuel and Funer 1994).
th€ auturm o{ 1993pTTs (NANO 104 Microwave T€lemerry rnc.)
. . _ln
weighhgabout23 gramswereat|d.hedto peregrinef.t-*
1r.t.o pe*g.in,,
an endangeredsp<iesand a Neorropi.almjgi,nt thar br;ed.;n thc
Tndflut.
Archcand wntersas larsourhds CenrrdtdndSoulh America Fifry_fourrns
rcre deployed on peregrines in five locaho$ in Norin America and one location
in the western Russian Ar(ic. Resultsof rhis effoit have described the range
;f
this Areticfdkon and identifiedcriricatbreedin&migratoryand winterinq"
Iur'riatstor the cocefrdrion of the speciesin North and SouthAmeri.a
Werddio rag€:d peregriretdtconsdu ring theaDrum migrarionon
^
Assateaguelsland,
Marytdndand virginia and tddre Island.Te;. AIso,rdulr.
we'e taggedon |-adrelsldnd jn thpspringas they moved northourofhhn
Anerica lo iheiJArctic breeding
8iound.. fad,e Isldnd,s thc on\ known
stagmBareafor the tundE peregrinein this hemisphprednd providescriri.aI
migratoryhabih r fo. the speciesd u ring I heir northwdd fl rghr. The pTTswere
Fogrammed to operate for 12 months bansmi$ing 8 hours-every rhree days
duJing migrationthen swir.hing lo asi\ daycycteoI tran.mis\iondurinS'
Dreeo'ngand \futeljng periodshhen the birdc here more sedentary. Durins
rl"
slas.qa-rsrl wepra.ed
trrrsonadurr
fe*r", i. u"#* s"y"'^a
!.."$1'e
Ranl,in
Inlet,Canada;Sondresttonfjord,Creenland,and on the KotafetuEuta,
r(u<ra LJunngrhe pdr 24 monttu we haveco ectedove!6,000posirions
on
rhse dar.aha_ve
provided more irLfo.marion
on
rhespdes
T::,lil:c':'":. in
.l'srnbuhon
rhe NoJthemand Southdn Hemijphers ot the Arneric;sftan 25
years or convenrioMt fietd sr! dieqand banding rcr! rns. Salel e rracted
peregrnesrrom thissamptein LheNew Wortd winreredfrom D€tawde
to
Argentina€ndretumed I o breedinggioundqacros\rhe Nonhem Ar.tic
from
The following peregrines were at captured in rhe spring on padre
Islad
4{8
t-
2: 5709'5695&
andirackd to their winbing andbreeding8!ounds(FiSure
Canadian Artic
the
Eastern
in
slto; a bird that bred
imn nre tracr<of SzOS
'#'moued
in th€ auhrnn
Penjroula
the
Yucatin
on
a'a
southto a -inrering
of th€
noth
in
Alaska
bred
that
migrant
.
1v*6*
"l'"*"
fi i".["r Sess
the unique
s707
shows
rakon
- Nortt€rn A'sentina
""a ***"a
i,i.ih".
(Fisur€
3) This
in
€t
dl
(seesar
adult
Press)
*'-l'eedins
oiJii, -*a"r.g
p*€g'iner
where
non-breeding
ua
r"tet
stuiv
rn"
ni"r.in
i"i-iir"* to
of HudsonBay'
.ii."t r" "." "*" tv Ur"r.gists.She$en left th€ west€mshore
From
*""iJ ri, ""'0'"* 6"tm t;hnd dd went north to th€ Arctic ocean
flvwav to
coastal
the
Eastern
wav
of
bv
south
"*"ted
"ru
r"r."a
""i i'"ii"ffi.
rracking
based
sat€llit€
venezuela
" J"[.i"" "*" "r""e th" No.themcoastof
the
tundra
for
l
habitat
critic'
a'
Island
or
Padre
i"i, l"^"?"n"i. ,r'""*p"'tdce
hland
Padrc
stasinson
birds
rnigation
rhe
sPrins
f"icon Durin;
;;;;;
the entirerangeol the spe'Fs on w
nilr;Ed to breedingareasrePresenting
um
loiU e-".i.r" .onti""nr' This injornution wascolecbedandrnaPPeo
svstem
bsed
trackins
rhe
sPace
Provided
*p"ns€
-a
.u-"iii"iJo^"
or
deasthatcouldnotbea'cessed
"-J*a"" i-. ui.a. nit'g throughremote
methods
hacking
wildlile
co"eredby coi'e;rional
elilctivetv
Ouinq the pasttS yearsrheelectronicsin thp PTIShaveL€en
thJoughtheinte8'ationof
r'""" p*"ided newcaPabilities
.rni""Jiita
with
canint€rlace a varietvof seMrsto .
Thetlarumitrers
;;";"*."
Lheorsanjsm
theenviromentsulroundinS
from
i"i-""i.-J'lw ""a."1*t a"ra
Inc
r€lemehv
bv
Miaowde
habmitrer
m-"
ti;
Produc€d
* *"eri.JnJ
.
reseo
I'ero
is
betng
of
eleckonics
3 5 grams
20qtamswhichincludesonly
weiahs
rakon
""ii" r*[ C']rc"*,," "ack rhemisrationof tfieadultmalePeresrine
will
allowJor
I'n
of
the
weighr
and
in
6ite
*auction
r""h*
,iidct*.r. nrt
hackingto a widervdiety otstuuer avutrlpec'es
ihea;Dlkationof sateuite
lssus
isbeingusedto gatherdataa<tdres\rng
Cmeralv,trackineviasatellite
with
convenhonar
to
consider
imPossible
or
r."
-stlv
tr'"i**i '-w"
t.*.rilv
andwift
t'acrinswith othertechnologv
satelliie
*L.u.in;
-"iiia".
of
managenent
and
to
research
r"t r"'.va"tive aPProaches
,.""* "'*"a"*"
the
continuing
*e
are
r-ttrenoore'
rssstl
"
al
i"t"J i****
C.tl*
"a*ncea rrrs andnew sensorswhich win dPand the
"i^i*
fr,"i.pr.J
Mvanc€dBird BomeSalelliteTelemetryDeveloPtnent
of
TheDr€sentcorJisurationof thebird bomePTTallowsfor $e interfac€
are
transmitters
st€llite
ThJmostcomrnonlvued on the
, *;.tir""*"*
motion,altitudeandbattetyvoltage AkolutevaPorpressure
hmDer;ture,
t*' ed usewith a t€mperaturethe'misto' bomonitor ror
."*1," -"."iri"Ur"i*
a
i'Jal" or"-"" " a rsz4 Howev(Pe'scomn) is drrentlv develoPing
svstm
il"i u"'i',1i"*,iui* a;rgi' t'ut -iir ii'"*po't" uclobalPositionins
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and locallvhasbccnwcll demonstiated With thc nltcgEhon
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to
accomplish
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among
eachangc
data
and
mpPjng
;nd Arc view isbcinguscd {o; desktop
''
Inldahowe usedtemotesensinSand GISto develoPsPatialdatabaseson
r p f t t r c ' r i d a n i m a Jr s t r b u t i o nI n r h ps n d l' P i v ' r
"'-"iio" fr.a-.u".r'-"
J8 oJ' d
c
8 i r i . o f r . v N . n o n r l C o n n a l i o nA r ' d T I ' " { ' r ' m I n ' l u ' l a
- dEery'
n a pf r o m L i n L l. r ' l h e m d l ( M d P P ' r s a r c l l i ri m
t r u , . d v n e e l a r i om
used to
are
imagerv
scamer
"i t".dsat Multi'specbal
i"o*-*
i"i"*"r
dimate
and
tl
ainins'
militarv
wildfire,
to
related
r" r,"a **r
a"iJi"r'""*i"
telemctrv
saiellitc
and
'onventional
includjng
-'ear.h
ii"ta
r...r,.ig". O"i"
451
_-.t
'n9 j-spatialry+xplicit model of habitats, prey and raprors ro
1:
I:orelrared
prcFcr
oukomes ofdifferent djsrurbanceand ctirur€ s.u""rioi,na t"
managuent altematives for the Bureau of l"ard Management, Idaho !"ne.at"
.irmy
National Gudd aJd D?attDent of the Army.
The application of bird backing via sareltiresto bird strjke to aircrdJr
.
has
beenprop_osedC€shem 1991). In lsrael a bild stdke program has been
su.cesfinly dweloped fo. rhe rsrael Air Force 0AF), wlich inregrales the us€
of
st'dei:. lr:n:s, c-rosq obsewatioro ud sround basedradar. rhrs program has
contiibutedsignificd0y to rhe reductionofbird srrikesby mititary;ir.;fr
and
wasadopredby civit aviationin Israelin 1990.rn" p-g.li" rr,:"A r,., ,"r"J
the IAI 300 million dollars in damage as well as theiiv; or pirot" ao.ii!
d,"
past ten yers. ceographic inJoharion on satellite monito;d sentinel
b;rd!
jn -ig"ato'y_ nocks rhar pose a ttuea L
ro aiKraft can be inregraled with
l:"118
the
oth€r etemenrsof khet's Eystemand enhancethe forecdsrand ;onitoring
of
Aj:.11, *:l:l*n
are projectedro so upsLrbsranriaUy
in rhe nearflru.e
....
tuaro€r ryys) and bird popLrlarions
tiuL increaserhe risk of biJdst'ik€s(e.8.non_
higraborycatudageese,seasonat
gul nock nearairpo*,1 *e i,..e,,ine ;^
North Amqi.a (Ru*h er al. I99t Hestbeck1995).rnr.*lti..
eo- *o?rl_*ta"
sourcessnowa rurkect incre6e inskikerdtes duling rhe migrdtory
montt$ in
rhe Nmbersorbirds in prc\imty ro ai.po,ts i"-eas"
:prins.:n*fi[u:lFn
ormhcafly(uilbe€r et al.1995).Factorsinfluencin8lhe tihing and
routesof
mgratrcn are_rrtue
u<terstoodbuLnew trhnologies canenhanceour abitirv to
'oxow rtugrahngblrdsand kack rhei, tocationsretdrive to airports
and airc;afr
fli8htpaths.M!(h effoa ha beenexpendedroundeBland bi;d
sh.ikeond local
rever.5rudres'nclu<te:localbird movements;nestinSand tedins
hrbirs;.roe
mamgementprachcesthatatkact or dererwitdlife specie.;rebc;tion
ot,anAils
lhat attractgulls to the prorim ity of aircrafUand,d ifferenttechniques
for s.arine
Duos.nomrunways.The imptementationof airport witdtife manas€menl
oldns
ano rhedevelopmentof acrivebijd shike t€am havehad a positiv-e
effecton
bird strike rates but importanr resed.h is yer to be done (Cu'.t ",
rSesj
Reducrionofrheprobabiliryof bird srrikeroairdafrin the U.S.
__
isa
" hu_nnnsafefy and the firsnciar probrem. Resuranotu
:::::'1."::J":lp.:*h
supurarctne d€vetopmentofaircraJtand airaafr enginescapable
of
yo_ts.lanqmc
of bi'dstharweish.Tks..
irri, i" eipunsiu",na
aaa"
lh:,mp:cL
aooroon werghr
to aircraft. Thesenew modificariorewilt be incorporatedin
.?i*aftbur notin orderequipment
cunentry
in use.over
l:yTC"l*"9.J1s
uepasrdecade
lsraetdevetopeda programdesignedro reducethe probabititvof
ouo sni\es thar resulredin reduceddamageandtossof tife.Thjswasdone
Lhroughthe orSaniad educarionand rr.ining of personnetwirhin
rheaircralt
ommurury.. rhe system atso provid€d inforrnarjon on the pr*nce
of
m-gratory.birds withjn aircrajroperating deas. The additio; of
a spaceb6ed
sysrem to ttack avian spe.jes of concern to the aircEJt industry sing
ceographic
452
lnlomationSystemsand gound bas€d radar as well as other bird tracking
lechdque!can provide crilical injomution to assistin redu.ing the probability
ol birdstriks with airdaft.
TI|eauthors wish to thank the following for assistar.e in the preparation
ofth! manusclipt,Linda S.huectr B.lanes Dayton and lanis Seegar.
AndersoDD. E., O. J. Rongstad and W. R. Mytton. 1990.Home range changesin
nptorserposedto incleased human activity levels in southeastern Colorado.
Widl.Soc.Bull.18r134-142.
BloonrP.H., M. D. Mccrary and M.l. Gib6on. 1993.Red-shoulde.ed hawk
home"range
and habitat use in southem California. I- wildl. MaMge. 57: 258265.
Bogel,R. and D. Burchard. 1992. An air pressure traNducer for telemetering
nightaltitude of bnds. Pages10G106in I. G. Pn€de and S. M. Swift, eds., Proc.
4thEur.Conf. Wildl. Telem. Ellis Horuood, Chichester. U. K.
Erodeur,S.and R. Decane.1993.Etudi€ telemehique de L'Aigle royal (A8,ila
clrys"trs).Rappot FiMle. G.R.E.B.E.,Monheal.109pp.
Buehler,D. A., J. D. Fraser, M. R. tuller, L. S. McAltister and l. K. D. seegar. 1991
in press.Captiv€ and field-tested radio transmitter attachmenc for bald eagles.J.
FieidOmithol.
Effets of
Bueler,D. A.,T.l. Mersmann,l.D. Fraserand I. K. D. SeeSar.1991.
humn activity on bald eagle distribution on the northern ChesapeakeBay. l.
Wildl. Manage.55: 282-290
Cmighead,F. C., lr., J.J. Claighea4 C. E. cole, dd H. K. Bueher. 1972.Satellite
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Dolbe€r,R. A., wdght, S. 8., dd E. C. Cleary. 1995.Bird and other wildlife
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453
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S. D. 1995.lonn F. Kemedy International Airport Wildtife Managemenr
:Garber,
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_:wifr
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Ieslb:c\j I. l. te! 9mda seese
T.,G.S. Fadis, C. E. Pucken,p. D. Doran,and M.l. Ma;, €ds:our riving
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U.S_Dept.Int., Natl. Biot.Serv.,Washington,
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I n t e r r u t i o n aSly m p O n D o t e l e m p h yC
. . J .A m l a n e re, d . U n i v p r s i i o
yf A,tansd..
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hlemeBy.M. S. thesisVirAiniaPolytech.ttut and 5t U^iv, Bldctsbur9 167PP'
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Leftam"Y.1990. The DeveloPment of a Real-TimeWarning System For The
hraeli Air Force Utilizing Gr;und obseivers, Radar, Motodad Glider and
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AsA New wdnjng Method BSCE/2OHelsinld'
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\,{arzluff,l. M., L. S. Schueck M Vekast B. A. Kimsey, M McFadzerr R RTownse; and I. O. McKinley. 1993.Influence ol military baining on the
in:K
of lapiors in theSn;k Riv€rBirdsol PrevArea Pages40-125
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resedr'h
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ff:::'ii*::"tH*.'"*
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po,ar
f"xl,y:,f
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andI. Wall.1996.
f,fte.nYeesofSateiretractingD.vetoprent
ard Appti.riion,"Witai,t"
Re.edrch
dnd( . .Gpruario..
1"r-* Hopl,., enr r".h ri,g".r ." p.. ".
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1981.Hackins:
J.
rarconsothe'''a"* p'iv ri" p"."e'ii"
ftrji:1"::il:iffi : *resrine and
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conL Bird Hazdrdsro
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Krngston,(]n l2 Cr ndda 2j I_244_
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SpringMitrdrion or ']re
ralhi"Lling_sran.
rrc.. ConL On BiotogicatAspecrs
or Bi.i_ai.,otr colti.io^
Problem,Clernson,SCarotin,.Febru;ry. 233:2J4
Strilwarda,T. L, M. R tu er, W.S.Seegrr,f.W.
Howeydnd H. D.Blact.1986
;;1"",?T."r:iJ*
**-irter
andlocaiionp'osramr;hn' HopkinsArL fe.h
stikwerda T x., H. D. BlTk, N. Ievanonandp. w.
Howey.1985.Thebirdbome traGmitter.JohnsHopkinsAppt. physicsrab. T€.h.
digesr6r6MZ
Iz. 1982.Sat€ fte searurrterracking. MarineFisheries
456
Iigqlc !
rvhtcrht
and Brecding Arcas
Migration TracksOf
T$'o AdLrltr and one S]'lbn dult alold$ llagles
Radio lvlarkcd At lhe Orchard Training Area, klaho
qal I
\)
),
,6
-.!-7
*-
I
-+'
458
lr-
rigqrg2
Brpcdint.WinrerirrEcnd Mrgratronl rrcls
ol
Three l'ercgrine lalcons
5709 L
5795 k
5707 a
45 , q
460
ucql€
lhe Winterhg, Summering, and Migration Irack
ofJ \.n B'. JrrrtifPn grin' I dl'"r
# 57A7
Norlh- _
sPrin8\'ligr.tion
Autunrn llligr.lfion Soulh
401
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