w w w . h a v a c ı t u r k . c o m Sayfa 1 Alisport Srl

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w w w . h a v a c ı t u r k . c o m Sayfa 1 Alisport Srl
Alisport Srl - Tel. (+39) 039.9212128 Fax (+39) 039.9212130
Via Confalonieri, 22 - Cremella (Lecco), Italy
The Silent Club is the first light sailplane in the world with a 12m wingspan and a glide ratio
greater than 31:1. It is both easy and enjoyable to fly. Assembly is simple, both due to all
controls having fully automatic connections and due to the light weight of the wings.
The airframe is built entirely of composite materials, with generous use of carbon fiber in
the aft portions of the fuselage pod, the tail boom, and various critical locations of the
structure. The cockpit is completely built of glass fiber to ensure the best protection in case
of off-field landings.
The Silent Club's low sink rate and its stability while thermalling allow it to fly with hanggliders and to be practically unbeatable in climb when compared with Standard class or 15m
class sailplanes. It is easy to both launch and to land, and is particularly suitable for new
pilots performing their first single-seat flights. The Silent Club has very efficient conventional
air brakes and can be landed in less than 70 m (230 ft). Due to its span of only 12 m (39 ft) it
can be stored in a small space. A fully enclosed "clam-shell" trailer is available for road
transportation.
Performance
Stall speed (VS):
58 km/h
Maneuvering speed (VA):
140 km/h
Maximum speed (VNE):
200 km/h
Max. L/D:
> 31:1 at 85 km/h
Minimum sink rate:
0.64 m/s at 65 km/h
Landing distance:
70 m
Technical Data
Wing span:
12 m
Length:
6.38 m
Height:
1.25 m
Aspect ratio:
14
Wing area:
10.3 m2
Empty weight:
135 kg
Max payload:
105 kg
Max weight:
240 kg
Wing load factors:
+5.3 g / -4.0 g
(at 240 kg)
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Sayfa 1
Air brakes:
conventional
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Sayfa 2
Silent Club quick-build kits are amongst the most complete available. Alisport is
pleased to offer two versions:
Silent
Club:
(meets FAI Class DU weight requirements)
Silent
Club:
fuel-injected
(with mono-blade propeller)
light
self-launch
sailplane
version
Everything required to build your Silent Club is included in the kit except hand-tools
and paint. An upgrade kit is avalailable to convert the pure glider to the self-launch
version.
The self-launch Silent Club kit adds another dimension to the pure sailplane. In
addition to the standard airframe, it also includes Alisport's 28hp air-cooled engine,
tuned exhaust system, vibration counterbalancer, battery, computer controlled
mapped fuel-injection and electronic ignition system, fuel tank with high-pressure
pump & filter, counter-balanced mono-blade propeller, belt-reduction system, prewelded and powder-coated support frame, electromechanical mechanism,
mechanism doors, throttle control, instrument panel controls, tachometer & hourmeter, and all necessary hardware.
In all cases, critical and difficult-to-make components are prefabricated using Alisport
factory tooling/jigs and supplied in ready-to-use or near ready-to-use condition.
This leaves the less-critical construction steps, assembly, and finishing to the builder.
The photos below show most of the prefabricated parts. For example, the fuselage
halves are joined, tubular steel structures are pre-welded and powder coated, the
spars are complete with precision jigged spar-pin bushings, and the sandwich wing
skins are bonded to the spar and rib. This approach has the advantage of assuring
those builders without previous construction experience that their Silent Club will
have the structural integrity and performance capability as intended by the factory.
A very detailed and illustrated Construction and Workshop Manual is supplied with
the kit. We estimate that a builder, with minimum skill, can build a Silent Club in
about 350 hours; another 150 hours are required to built the fuel-injected self………………………………………………………………………………………………..
The Original Piuma is the more quiet version and the more suitable as first
construction. The steel landing gear, with rubbers shock-absorbers, also allows the
beginners hard landing. The 2005 plans allow to build the streering front gear, as it is
possible to see from the photos. This improvement also allowed to increase the top
speed of 5 km/h (3 mph).
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Sayfa 3
1. ULM single seat motorglider made of fabrics and wood, only the tail pipe in
aluminium alloy and propulsive engine.
2. The maximum wing loading is 4,3 lb/sq.ft; this low wing loading allows the
motorglider to fly at low stall and landing speeds; this characteristic is a safety
in case of the landing out of the normal field.
3. The glide ratio is about 16 - 17 and the minimum sink rate is 200 ft/min.; it is
possible to use a little 25 HP engine with very low consumption (1 Imp Gal/h).
4. The stall speed is 30 MPH and the take-off speed is normally 34 MPH, but it is
possible also 29 MPH, for the ground effect. The normal cruising speed is 50
MPH and the VNE is 75 MPH.
5. Construction characteristics
a. Conventional 3 axis control with air-brakes.
b. The wings are tapered; the chord at root is 47,2 inches and at tip is 21,6
inches. The strut profil is similar to a drop.
c. The wing profil is the Rhode St. Genese 36, with the 16% thickness; the
leading edge is rounded very much and this characteristic permits to have
a very sweet stall.
d. The landing gear is built with the Cr-Mb steel, with the rubbers shockabsorbers, and it is put very near (but in front of) the barycentre. The
wheels have brakes and fairings. The nose whell has no steering and
shock-absorber.
The little tail wheel and the rudder are steerable at the same time; this
special shape unites the advantages of the classic three wheel in tricycle
formation take-off and landing and the good ground characteristic of the
tail-dragger formation.
e. The shut cockpit also allows you to fly in winter without problems. The
instruments panel is big enough for a complete set of instruments. The
fuel-tank can contain more than 4 Imp Gal. and it is sufficient for 4 fly-hours
(or much more of soaring).
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 4
f. Dimensions & areas, weight & loadings, performances, engine:
Wing span
Total wing area
Aspect ratio
Dihedral
Total tailplane area
Tail arm
Length overall
Max height
Empty weight
Max take-off weight
Max wing loading
Recommended load factors
Ultimate load factors
Max level speed
Normal cruising speed
Stalling speed
Never exceed speed
Best glide ratio with power off
Take-off
Landing
Max climb rate at sea level
Min sink rate (at 36 MPH)
Engine
38.4 ft
125 sq.ft
11.2
3°
17.2 sq.ft
10.7 ft
19.4 ft
4.6 ft
320 lb
518 lb
4.14 lb/sq.ft
+ 3.4 -1.2
+ 6.8 - 2.5
59 MPH
50 MPH
30 MPH
75 MPH
17
330 ft
330 ft
390 ft/min
200 ft/min
25 HP
The ultralight motorglider "Piuma" was born in 1989 because the designer and
builder was looking for a safe ULM motorglider, easy to build and to pilot, whose fly
and comfort peculiarities were better than the "fabric and tube" ULM available in that
moment on the market.
The designer (technician and aircraft motorglider models builder for than of 20 years)
built the little "Wing Ding II" Howey biplane and flew with it from plans, but the poor
characteristics didn't satisfy him.
The Original Piuma started to fly in 1990 and its prototype flies about twince at
month. At the moment it has 450 fly hours. The project is changed in many
particulars and the plans are modified to insert a lot of improvement; since 2003 the
Original Piuma plans also allow the construction of the steering front gear. Others
Piuma one seat versions are available, with better performances: Evolution Piuma
(a little faster and more suitable for soaring, with a best glide ratio of 20) and Tourer
Piuma (it's the faster version for tourism, normal cruise 84 mph).
A lot of motorgliders are in construction and about ten of these (in December 2002)
are flying (see the builders gallery); the italian C.A.P. (E.A.A. chapter n. 459) gave
two prizes for the best ultralight project and the best achivement during the Carpi
meeting of 1997 and 1999 (prize "Giancarlo Maestri" and "Caproni Cup").
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 5
A builder of the Tourer Piuma, confirming the name, flyied from Venice to the Sicilia
(more of 1250 mph) and , another year, from Venice to Paris, confirming that also
with little motorgliders is possible to fly big tours.
Since 1999 a side by side Twin Piuma is also available; it is possible to build four
versions from the plans:
1. Touring Version: 12,5 mt (41 feet) wings
2. Soaring Version: 13,8 mt (45 feet) wings
3. A.P.S. Version (Author Personal Size): 13,0 mt (42' 6" feet) wings - with the
fuselage 2 cm (3/4") less wide and more tapering in the aft zone.
4. 2007 Version: wings with exchangeable ending parts and other changes
It is also possible to build two more strong versions of the one seat Piuma, for
heavier pilots:
1. Rotax 447 Evolution Piuma (max take-off weight 660 lbs)
2. Rotax 447 Tourer Piuma (max take-off weight 660 lbs)
Neither completed motorgliders or kits are available; plans are sold just in order to
finance the costruction of the next different motorglider; a construction book is
enclosed with the plans and helps the construction steb by step.
All the "Piuma" versions are planned in accordance with the aeronautical standard
and, for both the one seat Piuma and the Piuma Twin, the "project books" are
available (only in italian, at the moment). Every "project book" is composed of three
parts:
1. The motivations of the choices about the shapes (wings, fin, rudder and
elevators, fuselage with the rear engine mounting, etc.) with a lot of draws
showing the fuselage, wings, tail, etc.
2. Structural calculations.
3. Characteristics of fly, wing and total drag, wing lift, efficiency, Vx, Vy, VNE,
Vstall, etc.
This "project book" is not necessary for the normal builder, but it is very important for
who wants to know the project better.
At the moment (January 2007) the original Piuma is still working and flying almost
every week.
Some details must be realized with the lathe and the cutter, but almost the entire
construction may be built without special tools; it is very easy and the planner
completed the original Piuma after 18 months of work, in the 2 car garages, 7 yards
long and 4,4 yards wide.
The time of construction depends on the builder's meticulousness; normally about
1000 hours are sufficient to complete the work.
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Sayfa 6
The plans are composed of technical drawings of big dimensions (24 x 40 inches)
with a lot of particulars.
The wings, fin, rudder and elevators ribs are
drawn in 1 to 1 scale; the same scale is
used for a lot of wood or aluminium
particulars. The handbook describes the
work the step by step and the check list for
the pre-fly controls.
There is also the complete material note and
the addresses of the italian suppliers.
Generally, all the materials can be bought at
the Aircraft Spruce & Speciality; in Europe
the rear tube is supplied by the designer. About 30 minutes are sufficient to assemble
or disassemble the Piuma.
More detailed information for every Piuma are available on the next pages.
The new "Piuma Evolution" is different from the Original Piuma in the following
modifications:
a. Fuselage shape: the cockpit is 1 inch
more wide. The rear side is completely
tapered and the lower side is rounded for
better attractiveness and aerodynamic.
b. Wing shape: the chord at root is 43,3
inches (the original is 47,2 inches) and the
aspect ratio is 13/1 (original 11,2/1).
Dihedral is 2° instead of 3° and the wing
profile changes from 16% into 15%. Max
thickness.
c. Tail shape: the tail and fin area now are more little and slimmer; the tail is
cantilever, with 2 little strut drops. The 8 steel cables used in the Original
Piuma were removed.
d. Wing struts: now the wing struts are more little and they are in aluminiumalloy drops.
e. Engine: the engine is partially hideden by the wings in the Original Piuma;
now it is in the full air and it is possible to use the engine at the full power for
more time.
f. Front wheel: now it is electrically retrectable; it is also possible to build it fixed
and with fairing, steering too.
g. Landing gear: the stratified wood landing gear covered with epoxy glass (or
epoxy carbon fiber) is much more aerodynamic.
h. Seat: it is shaped for a more outstretched position, right for a glider. It is more
confortable and also suitable for 6 feet tall persons (or little more).
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 7
i. Instrument panel: it is more similar to a glider panel.
j. Tail trim: it is electrical; the construcion is clearly drawn in the plans.
k. Aerodynamic brakes: the controls and the little squares have been improved
and drawn in 1 to 1 scale.
The best efficiency now is 20 and the normal cruise is about 63 MPH at 80% power
with a 25HP engine.
The estimated building time is 1000 hours, the same of the Original Piuma.
Wing span
Total wing area
Aspect ratio
Dihedral
Total tailplane area
Tail arm
Length overall
Max height
Empty weight
Max take-off weight
Max wing loading
Recommended load factors (security coeff. 2)
Ultimate load factors
Max level speed
Normal cruising speed
Stalling speed
Never exceed speed
Best glide ratio (at 43 MPH)
Take-off
Landing
Max climb rate at sea level
Min sink rate (at 39 MPH)
Engine
38,7 ft
114 sq.ft
13
2°
15 sq.ft
10,8 ft
19,7 ft
5,3 ft
330 lb
530 lb
4,6 lb/sq.ft
+ 3.5 - 1.9
+ 7 - 3.8
72 MPH
62 MPH
35 MPH
84 MPH
20
330 ft
330 ft
460 ft/min
165 ft/min
25 HP
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Sayfa 8
A lot of friends asked me a two seat motorglider and also for me the wish of a two
seat has grown during the last years; in the January 1998 the project and the
drawings started.
I decided for a side-by-side one, with similar characteristics of the Tourer Piuma,
with the same wings profiles; in other words I looked for a motorglider with the
"Fournier philisophie" rather than a glider with the engine. Nevertheless I also
planned a long wing version for the pilots that prefer soaring.
This wing is in the drawing n.21, enclosed in the plans; the efficiency increases to 20
in comparison with 18 of the normal version.
The "Fournier philosophie" allows a quite fast flying with a little engine, economical in
the purchase and in the use; the 503 Rotax with 1 carburettor is enough for this
motorglider.
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Sayfa 9
The comfort is treated with due consideration, because this Piuma Twin is born for
the tourism; the two seats cabin is cm 110 wide (about 43 inches) and the seats are
very comfortable and padded.
There are 2 rudder-bars and only one cloche in the middle of the 2 seats; the throttle,
brake and aerodynamic brake levers are only on the left of the pilot, but it is not
difficult to make the same for both the seats.
The pilotage position is similar to a comfortable car, with the cloche in place of the
gear-lever and the rudeder-bars in place of the rudder-brakes.
The 22 drawings (three more in the 2007 version) are very detailed (the wing's ribs
and the tail's ribs are in the 1-1 scale and the same for the metallic parts); then the
construction is easy, if the drawings are carefully examined.
The construction book helps you to follow a logical order in the job and gives you a
useful advice in the more complicate stages; the materials note is detailed and
complete. There are also some advices for the instruments: the n.8 drawing show the
instrument panel.
From the 2003 plans it is possible to build four versions of Piuma Twin:
1. Touring Version: 12,5 mt (41 feet) wing span; it is the more suitable for
tourism.
2. Soaring Version: 13,8 mt (45 feet) wing span; the wings are a new project
and new calculations: it is on the drawing n.21. The best L/D increased from
18 to 20, with a little less VNE and a little more empty weight.
3. A.P.S. Version (Author Personal Size): 13 mt (42' 7") wing span; the fuselage
is 2 cm (3/4") less wide and the aft part is more tapering. The L/D is about 19.
4. Version 2007: it allows you to build your own Twin version according to your
needs; more in detail, thanks to the three new drawings (23, 24 and 25), you
can:
a. build a new wing with two exchangeable ending parts to achieve a wing
span of 12,80 mt or 13,60 mt (suggested 13,20 mt); a new spar is
needed. The best L/D is 20 for the shorter wing and 22 for the longer
one.
b. cover the whole wing with ply-wood and glass (or carbon) fiber, getting
a finitura close to the composito wings; the new VNE is 120 mph (190
km/h).
c. build new carbon winglets with high efficiency.
d. build new air-brakes, with a different location and a new movement
mechanism.
e. build wing tanks, saving space in the fuselage for baggage and
parachute.
For pilots under 180 pounds and less of 58 ft, I suggest the APS – 2007 version
with the wing of 13,20 mt (44 ft) ; L/D = 21 and minimum Sink rate = 1,1mt/sec (
220 ft/min).
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 10
Wing Span
Wing Area
Lenght
Height
Empty Weight
Gross Weight
Fuel Capacity
HP/HP Range
VNE
Top speed
Cruise
Stall
Stall full flaps
L/D
Aspect ratio
Min.Sink Rate
Load factors max.
Serv. Ceeling
Bldg Material
Bldg Time (man hours)
Take-off distance
Landing distance
44 ft.
126 sq.ft.
21.3 ft
5.9 ft
620 lbs.
1000 lbs.
11 gal
50
119 mph.
103 mph.
92 mph.
44 mph.
35 mph.
18/1
13.5
220 ft/min.
+ 4 -1.7
12.000 ft.
WF
1.200
400 ft.
400 ft.
13.2 mt
11.7 mq
6.4 mt
1.8 mt
280 kg
450 kg
40 lt
45/60
190 Km/h
165 Km/h
145 Km/h
70 Km/h
55 Km/h
1.1 mt/sec
3600 mt
Legno/tela
120 mt
120 mt
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Sayfa 11
cm 60 x
80
cm 60 x
100
cm 60 x
90
cm 60 x
100
cm 60 x
90
cm 60 x
N. 1 120
N. 2 cm 60 x
N. 3 65
N. 4 cm 60 x
N. 5 80
N. 6 cm 60 x
N. 7 125
N. 8 cm 60 x
N. 9 110
N.10 cm 60 x
N.11 120
N.12 cm 60 x
N.13 120
N.14 cm 60 x
N.15 100
N.16 cm 60 x
N.17 85
N.18 cm 60 x
N.19 90
N.20 cm 60 x
N.21 100
N.22 cm 60 x
N.23 100
N.24 cm 60 x
N.25 115
cm 60 x
120
cm 60 x
120
cm 60 x
90
cm 60 x
60
GENERAL PLAN OF THE MOTORGLIDER
FROM HIGH AND FROM SIDE VIEW - FRAMES 7 AND 10
FRAMES N. 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 8 – 9
TRIPTYCH
LANDING GEAR - THROTTLE, AIR BRAKES, BRAKES LEVERS
FUSELAGE
CLOCHE; AILERONS AND TAIS LEVERS
FUSELAGE
FRAME N. 7 - FLAPS - MECHANISM TO FOLD UP THE WINGS
FUSELAGE
FORWARD LANDING GEAR AND RUDDER-BARS
FUSELAGE
FRAME 3-UP AND 6-UP - INSTRUMENTS PANEL - CANOPIE
FUSELAGE
HINGES
FUSELAGE
GENERAL PLAN - SPARS - RIBS - FLAPS LEVER IN THE
FUSELAGE
WINGS
WING
FLAPS AND AILERONS - MECHANISM TO SET IN ACTION
WING
RIBS FROM 1 TO 11 - LITTLE BACH SPAR - FLAPS HINGE AND
WING
PROFILE FLAPS
WING
RIBS 12 - 13 -14 – COUNTERBALANCE FOR THE AILERONS
WING
RIBS N. 15 – 16 – 17 – 18 – COUNTERBALACE FOR THE
WING
AILERONS
ELEVATOR
RIBS N. 19 – 20 – 21 – WINGLETS
ELEVATOR
GENERAL PLAN - SPARS - ELEVATOR RIBS N. 1 – TRIM
FIN AND
RIBS N. 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – HINGES - MECHANISM TO SET IN
RUDDER
ACTION
FIN AND
GENERAL PLAN - HIGHTER PART WITH HINGES
RUDDER
RIBS 18-UP AND 18-DOWN – MECHNISM TO SET IN ACTION
FIN AND
THE ELEVATOR (LEVER)
RUDDER
LITTLE BACK GEAR - RUDDER DOWN HINGE - CORNER FIN AND
RUDDER RIBS N. 24 AND 24-UP
RUDDER
RUDDER RIBS N. 19 – 20 – 21 – 22 – 23
WING FOR
RIBS N. 22 – 23 – GENERAL PLAN – SPARS - ETC
SOARING
A.P.S. CHANGES; NEW AILERONS MECHANISM
A.P.S. VERSION
NEW WINGS, AIR BRAKES, WING TANKS AND OTHER FOR
2007 VERSION
NEW WINGS, AIR BRAKES, WING TANKS AND OTHER FOR
2007 VERSION
NEW WINGS, AIR BRAKES, WING TANKS AND OTHER FOR
2007 VERSION
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 12
The Piuma Twin construction plans are composed of 22 drawings (3 more for 2007
version) with references in italian and english and a 42 pages handbook in english.
This book contains a lot of information and gives useful advices during the
construction; there is also a detailed and complete material note.
The tail boom in Aluminium 6005-T16 is also available: diameter mm 127 - thickness
mm 1,5 - lenght m 5,2.
To make the Twin you need mt 5,2 and mt 2,6 more.
The wing profiles are the same of the Tourer Piuma.
The material cost, without engine and instruments, is about 8000 euro, at the 2007
prices.
The time of construction is about 1200 hours.
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 13
2008 - SPAIN: AVIACION GENERAL Y DEPORTIVA - MAY
> 2007 - USA: FREDERICK FLYER - CHAPTER 524 OF EAA - PAGES 5 AND 6
> 2007 - ARGENTINA: INFO AVION - NOTICIAS DE LA AVIACION LIVIANA - APRIL
> 2004 - GERMANY: OUV - JAHRBUCH 2004 - ACHIM GROH'S PIUMA TWIN
> 2002 - ITALY: VOLARE SPORT
> 2001/2002 - ITALY: AVIAZIONE SPORTIVA - MONTHLY ISSUES ON PIUMA
PROJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6
> 2000 - ITALY: IL BASCO AZZURRO (AVIAZIONE DELL'ESERCITO)
> 2000 - FRANCE: VOL LIBRE
> 2000 - ITALY: AVIAZIONE SPORTIVA NOVEMBER (TWIN)
> 1998 - USA: SYMPOSIUM (BRUCE CARMICHAEL - NEW YORK)
> 1998 - ITALY: VOLARE SPORT
> 1993 - ITALY: HOBBY VOLO
> 1992 - ITALY: AVIAZIONE SPORTIVA
> 1992 - USA: SPORT AVIATION - JANUARY
> 2000/2007 - USA: WORLD DIRECTORY OF LEISURE AVIATION
> 1998/2008 - USA: KITPLANES
> 1997/2000 - USA: AEROCRAFTER
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 14
www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com
www.sorliniavio.com
www.kodiakbs.com
www.simonini-flying.com
www.hks-power.co.jp/hks_aviation
www.hirth-engines.de
www.raven-rotor.com
www.tn-prop.com/engines.htm
www.2si.com
www.jabiru.net.au
www.usjabiru.com
www.aviaimport.com
www.greatplainsas.com
www.carrprecision.com
www.ultralightnews.com
www.gt-propellers.com
www.quintiavio.com
www.duc-helices.com
www.sensenichprop.com
www.hartzellprop.com
www.propellor.com
www.hoverhawk.com
www.warpdriveprops.com
www.mt-propeller.com
Official Rotax engines website
Rotax engines - ITALY
Rotax engines - USA
Simonini engines - ITALY
Hks engines - JAPAN
Hirt engines - GERMANY
4 stroke Geo-Suzuki engines
2 stroke Zenoah engines
2 stroke 2SI engines
4 stroke Jabiru engines - 80 e 120 HP - AUSTRALIA
4 stroke Jabiru engines - 80 e 120 HP - USA
Engine Jabiru - FRANCE
Engine kits
1/2 Volkswagen
ULM engines - several brands
Italian propellers GT
Propellers
Duc propellers
Sensenich propellers
Propellers
Costant speed propellers
Carbon fiber propellers
Carbon fiber propellers
Propellers
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Sayfa 15
Plans Basic price (it is possible to build Evolution and Tourer Piuma):
- 16 drawings
- construction and use handbook in english language
300
euro
Plans Advanced price:
- plans Basic
- project and use handbook in italian language
- new dvd 3200 photos
- Kit Utility*
350
euro
Sending charges included for all the world.
Plans Basic price for Touring, APS and Soaring versions:
- 22 drawings
- new construction and use handbook in English (42 pages)
400
euro
From the 2003 plans it is possible to build 3 versions of Piuma Twin:
1. Touring Version: 12,5 mt wing span, more suitable for tourism.
2. Soaring Version: 13,8 mt wing span, more suitable for soaring; the efficiency is
increased from 18 to 20 with a little more weight.
3. A.P.S. Version (Author Personal Size): wing span of 13,00 mt and fuselage more
narrow of 2 cm, but more tapering; the drawing n.22 shows the new ailerons controls
and some different parts. The efficiency is about 19.
Plans Advanced 2008 price:
- plans Basic
- drawings 23, 24 and 25 for the 2007 version (see Twin Piuma section for a detailed
description of new 2007 version)
- project book updated 2008 (114 pages with new photos) in italian language
- new dvd 3200 photos
480
euro
Sending charges included for all the world.
www.havacıturk.com
Sayfa 16
For original Piuma, Evolution and Tourer - 1 pipe - mt 5.2:
For Twin Piuma - 1 pipe and half pipe more:
160 euro
240 euro
Sending charges not included.
The hangar is a "T", wood construction, suitable for Piuma Twin and
Piuma Evolution, with wood's floor and sheet covered.
Hangar plans cost (3 drawings of cm 60 x 45 and the handbook in
english with the complete material note), sending charges included:
25
euro
DVD contents:
- 1600 Piuma Twin construction pictures
- 1200 Piuma one-seat construction pictures
- 400 finished and flying Piuma pictures
- 40 hangar pictures (finished and during construction)
DVD price, sending charges included:
30
euro
The Kit Utility is available for Piuma Evolution and Piuma Tourer,
and it contains:
a) drawing of the engine castle for Rotax 377-447-503
b) notes for a max weight of 300 Kg (pilots max 190 cm tall and
95 Kg weight)
c) set of 24 drawings (cm 21 x 30) with all the metal parts (some
in 1:1 scale)
Kit Utility price, sending charges included:
Plans Basic price:
- 14 drawings
- new construction and use handbook in english language
www.havacıturk.com
30 euro
190
euro
Sayfa 17
Plans Advanced price:
- plans Basic
- project book and use handbook, in Italian language (70 pages)
- new dvd 3200 photos
- drawing of the engine castle for Rotax 377-447-503
230
euro
Sending charges included for all the world.
Plans Basic price:
- 15 drawings
- construction and use handbook in english language
280
euro
Plans Advanced price:
- plans Basic
- project book and use handbook in Italian language (92 pages)
- new dvd 3200 photos
- Kit Utility*
330
euro
Sending charges included for all the world.
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Sayfa 18
WINDEX 1200 C design philosophy
Address:
Telephone:
+46 (0)490 16810
Fax:
+46 (0)490 35302
WINDEXAIR AB
Lucernavägen 9
593 50 Västervik
Sweden
E-mail: [email protected]
WINDEX 1200 C design philosophy
The powered sailplane gives its pilot maximum freedom of the skies with a minimum
of trouble and waiting usually associated with gliding activities.
SELF-LAUNCHING
You could for instance on a beautiful day go soaring without having to organise a
ground crew, tow-plane and pilot etc at short notice. The easy ground handling and
self-launching capability of WINDEX 1200 C means utilising your precious time to the
full.
WINDEX 1200 C is primarily a high-performance sailplane, but its unique concept
with a low-drag fin-mounted engine installation and a variable-pitch propeller turns it
also into an efficient touring aircraft with a cruising speed of 210 km/h (130 mph).
AEROBATICS
In addition to this the airframe of WINDEX 1200 C is stressed for aerobatic
manoeuvres and designed to JAR 22 (A). This may be exploited accordingly if you
have the necessary training and feel so inclined, or could be regarded as an extra
safety margin in normal flying.
POWERED SAILPLANES
Powered sailplanes are nothing new. Different types have been available for a
number of years. Most of the types on the market so far fall into one of 3 categories:
2-seat trainers with acceptable power-on performance but at best mediocre gliding
capability, 15-26 metre span sailplanes based on racing designs and with retractable
engines, excellent gliding capability but heavy and with relatively poor power
performance and the need for ground assistance, and finally homebuilt powered
gliders with poor performance in either mode.
DIFFERENT CONCEPT
WINDEX 1200 C represents a different concept. It's a powered high-performance
sailplane that can be easily handled on the ground by one person. It is affordable and
could be that "personal" aircraft you have been waiting for. We are convinced there is
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Sayfa 19
a definite need for this type of aircraft where you can decide yourself when, where
and how you want to fly.
Even with engine nacelle, propeller and a 20% smaller span it has a soaring
performance equal to or better then a 15-metre Standard Cirrus glider. It also has a
climb rate of approximately 2.5 metre/sec (685 fpm), under power.
MODERN AEROSPACE MATERIALS
At the same time the WINDEX 1200 C is designed as a pilot's aeroplane with lively
but pleasantly balanced control response and not requiring undue piloting skill.
All these claims may sound too good to be true, but in order to achieve this we have
developed a unique concept, applied advanced aerodynamics, used modern
aerospace materials together with sophisticated manufacturing methods, derived
innovative mechanical designs and moreover developed a special variable-pitch
propeller.
The performance and handling qualities of the pre-prototype WINDEX 1100 once
verified the feasibility of a small, high-performance powered sailplane. Flight testing
of the WINDEX 1200C has reviled even smoother control harmony and handling
qualities.
AFFORDABLE
To make it affordable we are producing the WINDEX 1200 C now in the form of a kit,
where major airframe components are supplied as mouldings but much of the timeconsuming fitting work is left to the builder. The design concept also necessitated a
special compact engine and feathering propeller unit, that also is part of the kit.
WINDEX 1200 technical page
TO MAIN WEB PAGE
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Sayfa 20
This image is made by Jukka Tervamäki [email protected]
Click here to see an image of several Windex gliders thermaling.
It's made by Jukka with Mac and form*Z software. (GIF 332kb)
Wing airfoil section
Our own specially designed 17% thick airfoil section has
comparatively low drag and a wide low drag bucket that
is further expanded by a 22.5% chord trailing edge flap.
The basic airfoil has very docile stall characteristics
in both smooth and rough condition.
Speed polar of WINDEX 1200 C
Even with engine nacelle, propeller and a 20%
smaller span WINDEX 1200 C has a soaring performance
equal to or better then a 15-metre Standard Cirrus glider.
Pilot's position in cockpit
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Sayfa 21
Pilot's position in cockpit is comfortable and relaxing.
Carbon fibre wing spar
The carbon fibre spar has been successfully proof tested
at 2.175 kgs each side. That gives a useable load factor
of +9 g and -7 g (with added safety factor of x 1.725).
Power plant
The König engine
The König SC-430 3-cylinder engine, used in the
WINDEX 1200C is now manufactured in Canada.
With a displacement of 430 cc it gives a take off power of 20 hp at
4200 rpm. Weight of the König engine is 13.8 kg (30.4 lbs). Starting
is electric and it uses gasoline of types 100LL, 80UL and mogas98.
Variable-pitch propeller unit
The variable-pitch propeller unit for the König engine has been built and
successfully tested to JAR 22 standards.
The pilot control pitch from the cockpit, fine pitch to fully feathered.
The JAR tests include 50 hours running and 500 control movements
with engine running. After that the propeller unit is dismantled, searched
for damage, tolerances checked and finally function checked again.
The unit has come through bench testing without problems.
Some Windex has flown over 300 engine hours without problems.
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Sayfa 22
Propeller shaft power
Take-off distance
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Sayfa 23
WINDEX 1200 C kit
WINDEX 1200 C kit will be delivered in 3 parts, fuselage kit, wing kit and engine
kit.
We are delivering kits to several countries and Windex is now flying in USA,
Costa Rica, France and Sweden.
WINDEXAIR AB has further developed the kit to make it considerable easier
and faster to build.
If you are interested in a WINDEX 1200 C kit, please contact WINDEXAIR AB
for discussion of details or further information on possible delivery dates, price
etc.
Fuselage kit
The WINDEX 1200 C Fuselage kit consist the following:
Laminate parts:
Upper and lower fuselage shells, vertical tail with engine nacelle, left and
right, spar for vertical tail, upper and lower stabiliser shells, including spar
caps moulded-in, spar web stabiliser, reinforcement module including seat
and backrest, cockpit frame left and right, wheel housings for main- and
tail wheel fairings, housing, ventilation channel with mechanism mounted,
stick mechanism cover, fwd push rod cover aft rudder line covers and
rudder pedal assembly.
Plexiglas canopy cut to size with ventilation window (Mecaplex). Main
wheel with tire. Tail wheel, complete. Miscellaneous tubing, electrical
wiring, switches, fuel lines, etc.
All metal parts are pre made.
All hardware, bolts etc., is AN-quality.
(With a few stainless steel exceptions)
5-Point (aerobatic) harness. Tow hook. Full scale templates for bulkheads,
etc. All necessary drawings. Building manual (English language)
Epoxy, fibreglass, adhesives.
NOT INCLUDED: Instrument, paint, abrasive paper and similar materials.
Wood, chipboard etc. for building cradle and jigs.
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Sayfa 24
Wing kit
All internal wing fittings, hinges, spoilers, push rods, fuel tanks and wing
spars are fitted. Wing is closed to eliminate wing jig and to considerably
save building time
Metal parts:
All metal parts are pre-made.
Wing spar pin bolts, bolts for rear and fwd attachment. AN aircraft hardware.
Push rods for ailerons and spoiler. 2 x aluminium fuel tanks each 17 litres.
Associated couplings and hardware.
All necessary drawings and templates. Building manual. Epoxy, fibreglass,
adhesives,
NOT INCLUDED: Paint. Abrasive paper and similar materials. Wood,
chipboard etc. for jigs.
Engine / Propeller unit
Complete, assembled unit with variable-pitch propeller, (pitch controlled
from cockpit).
Laminated parts:
Cowlings, carbon propeller blades, spinner.
Hardware and Metal parts:
Special design mechanical vario pitch prop hub, engine mounts, linkage,
firewall all necessary hardware, control wires, fuel lines, etc.
Some attachment parts and fuel tanks for practical reasons delivered with
fuselage or wing kits.
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Sayfa 25
Please be aware that this report is no substitute to the flight manual. I have
simply summarized my personal experiences of test flying the Windex. I am a heavy
guy (105 Kg) and the majority of the flights has been performed with the center of
gravity at the forward limit. Test flights and spins with the center of gravity at the aft
limit has been performed by my good friend Rune Ingman who is a little bit lighter (66
kg).
The characteristics of the aircraft may vary with the build of the pilot. Further I am
very familiar with aerobatic aircraft. Other pilots may find some characteristics
different, just because their style of flying is different from mine. All flights including
aerobatics are dangerous and must be performed on a safe altitude and with a well
trained pilot. You may find some of the speeds given in the various chapters to be too
precise. The figures has been derived as an average from several flights and I do
admit that I have deleted a couple of values noted on my knee pad in the air, which I
by logic can determine to be unrealistic.
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Sayfa 26
1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
The first thing you will notice is that this is a small airplane. When lying down, you are
not sitting, the visibility forwards is restricted by the instrument panel, you have only
one inch between your head and the canopy and no inches outside your elbows.
When strapped up I can not reach the release knob, the radio and the transponder
and I have only my fingertips on the stick when it is in full forward position. This must
be adjusted to future aircraft, this prototype had no proper back and head rest during
the test flights. One good solution for increased space in the cockpit is to modify the
panel around the stick to enable the pilot to move 3-5 cm forwards. To be able to do
the inverted flight testing a special backwards bent stick was manufactured. It is very
difficult for heavy guys to maneuver the flaps to +30 deg position because of the
restricted elbow room. I have deferred from using +30 deg flaps on some busy
landings because of this difficulty.
Once in the air you will find the controls very quick and precise. The propeller pitch
control will require your constant supervision in order to maintain the correct prop
speed and the sensitive controls requires your undivided attention during the take off.
The climb rate is at best, moderate, with this könig engine hence you will need to
plan your take off and obstacle free climb carefully. The aircraft is very stable and the
controls are light with increasing control forces with increasing speed.
The aerobatics characteristics are the best I have encountered in any glider. Windex
is probably the best aerobatic competition aircraft available. How about a roll rate of
6 seconds, a spin rate of one turn in 4 seconds and permission to pull +9 and -7 g
after a 350 km/h dive.
The landing is straight forward using 8 or 30 deg flaps and the Spoilers are extremely
efficient.
Although the aircraft is not difficult to fly it is very different from larger low
performance aircraft. Therefore I personally would recommend potential pilots to fly
modern high performance gliders for 100 h and do some spins and other aerobatics
maneuvers together with a good teacher before flying the Windex 1200C.
1.1 JAR 22.143 AND JAR 22.155 CONTROL AND MANEUVERABILITY
General characteristics
Windex has excellent stability and very good handling qualities in the air. The stick
forces are very low around the neutral point of the stick, but increases with increased
stick input. This gives you a very good feel of the aircraft. Actually the Windex
controls feels like if you were flying a significantly larger aircraft. This prototype has
no trim installed and the stability with hands off the stick can only be tested at low
speeds. If I let the stick free at 110 km/h the aircraft will continue a stable flight. The
altitude will vary 10-15 m and the speed will vary within +-10 km/h with a frequency of
17 seconds. If I let the stick go at higher speeds the aircraft will continue stable flight
but slowly increase the speed.
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Sayfa 27
At high speeds the stick forces will increase in a very pleasant and natural way. Even
at very high speeds the aircraft feels very stable and presents no difficulties with the
pitch control, which one could have expected looking at the short fuselage. At stall
the nose will drop with no tendency to dip a wing.
The operation of flaps and Spoilers will not effect the stability nor will they give
significant trim or stick force changes. The glide path will naturally be steeper with
flaps and Spoilers extended.
On production aircraft I recommend installation of a trim. The aircraft is very sensitive
and it is easy to loose altitude, resulting in increased speed and rpm, just by looking
at the map during normal cruise conditions.
1.2 ROLL AND SIDE SLIP STABILITY
The stability in the roll plane is excellent and the aircraft is not sensitive to side slip. I
have tested 15 deg side slip and brutal rudder movements at low speeds ( stall + 10
km/h ) in climb, descend and cruise with no tendencies for stall or a wing dip.
Intentional flight with rudder and stick at opposite sides at airspeeds between 120220 km/h has been demonstrated. This control combination will produce a well
controlled side slip with very conventional characteristics.
1.3 JAR 22.46 STALL SPEED
30 deg flaps, no brakes, max. weight, max. forward center of gravity, engine idle,
cooling covers closed = 75 km/h.
Windex 1200 C will not stall easily. With the center of gravity in front of the center it
will continue to fly even with the stick all the way back. To enter a stall you need to
either do it dynamically or with a slight climbing attitude. The nose will drop down
straight with no tendency to dip a wing. A small 5 deg side slip will not affect the stall
characteristics. You will have aileron control throughout the stall. The altitude loss is
25 m for a normal stall with no Spoilers and 40 m with Spoilers extended.
1.4 JAR 22.201 STALL SPEEDS
Stall speeds normal upright flight, no engine, center of gravity in the middle.
Flap position
Stall Speed Spoilers
Stall Speed no Spoilers
extended
Km/h
Km/h
- 6 deg
95
85
- 3 deg
93
84
0 deg
90
80
+ 4 deg
82
78
+ 8 deg
80
77
+30 deg
75
75
Stall speeds with 5 deg side slip, no engine, normal upright flight, center of gravity in
the middle.
Flap position
Stall Speed Spoilers
Stall Speed no Spoilers
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Sayfa 28
- 6 deg
- 3 deg
0 deg
+ 4 deg
+ 8 deg
+30 deg
extended
Km/h
95
93
90
82
80
75
Km/h
85
84
80
78
77
75
The aircraft is not at all sensitive for small or moderate side slip. I have not found the
stall speed to be different enough to distinguish this difference from the small
differences between different center of gravity positions and plainly different days.
Stall speeds with engine on idle rpm, normal upright flight, center of gravity in the
middle.
Flap position
Stall Speed Spoilers
Stall Speed no Spoilers
extended
Km/h
Km/h
- 6 deg
92
90
- 3 deg
90
88
0 deg
86
84
+ 4 deg
84
80
+ 8 deg
78
78
+30 deg
74
72
Stall speeds with engine on 90% Power, normal upright flight, center of gravity in the
middle.
Flap position
Stall Speed Spoilers
Stall Speed no Spoilers
extended
Km/h
Km/h
- 6 deg
92
85
- 3 deg
85
83
0 deg
82
80
+ 4 deg
80
78
+ 8 deg
78
76
+30 deg
76
72
1.5 JAR 22.203 STALL SPEEDS IN 45 DEG TURN
With the center of gravity forward from the center the aircraft will stall very gently in a
turn. You will notice a buffeting and the stall goes into the turn.
Stall speeds in a 45 deg turn, no engine , center of gravity in the middle.
Flap position
Stall Speed Spoilers
extended
Km/h
Stall Speed no Spoilers
Km/h
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Sayfa 29
- 6 deg
- 3 deg
0 deg
+ 4 deg
+ 8 deg
+30 deg
130
128
125
122
119
110
128
125
121
118
114
108
Stall speeds in a 45 deg turn, engine at idle power, center of gravity in the middle.
Flap position
- 6 deg
- 3 deg
0 deg
+ 4 deg
+ 8 deg
+30 deg
Stall Speed Spoilers
extended
Km/h
135
129
126
125
122
114
Stall Speed no Spoilers
Km/h
130
127
124
121
120
112
1.6 JAR 22.181 STABILITY AND JAR 22.251 VIBRATIONS AND BUFFETING
Flutter tests has been performed with hand held stick and hands off the stick, with
and without Spoilers. An introduction of flutter has been performed by hitting the stick
with hands off the stick at all speeds up to 330 km/h. No flutter tendency has been
noticed. The aircraft will respond with a damped, maximum 2 oscillations,
approximately 0.5 seconds oscillation. No flutter is felt in the controls, the oscillation
is caused by torsion of aft fuselage and the tail.
I encountered continuous vibration at speeds over 180 km/h on one flight. After
landing it was found that, a non standard experimental extra glass fiber fairing,
specially built and designed by Jarek, around the wheel was cracked. It probably
happened during the start on the grass strip. This vibration vas visible on the wings.
After removal of this extra aerodynamic fairing the vibration has not reoccurred.
Windex performs well at high speeds. It is stable, the control forces increases with
speed and the aircraft is not overly sensitive even at the top speed. In fact the
Windex do not feel particularly different to fly at maximum speed compared with
cruise speed.
1.7 JAR 22.145 FLAPS
Maneuvering flaps do not cause any trim or other changes in the characteristics other
then a steeper glide path. The control forces are low. It is very difficult to maneuver
the flaps into +30 deg position because of limited elbow room. I have successfully
maneuvered the flaps at low ( 88-110 km/h ) speeds in climb, decent and in aerotow,
with no immediate change in altitude or attitude.
1.8 JAR 22.71 RATE OF DESCEND and JAR 22.75 LANDING GLIDE PATH
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Sayfa 30
Max. Weight, max. forward center of gravity, no engine.
Speed km/h Altitude loss Seconds
m/s
104
100
67
1,49
104
100
35
2,86
104
104
100
100
24
17
4,16
5,80
Flap deg
+
8 no
brake
+ 30
no
brake
+ 8 brake ext
+30
brake
ext
Glide ratio
1:19
1:10
1: 7
1:5
The flaps has been maneuvered successfully with no unexpected or spectacular
effect in aerotow, at 1.1 x Vso, at max. cruise power and 1.1 x Vs1.
1.9 JAR 22.145 SPOILERS
The Spoilers are extremely efficient. The Spoilers can be extended at any speed and
have been tested at all flight conditions with and without power. No trim change or
immediate altitude loss will occur at extension of the brakes and the control forces
are low. The glide path will naturally become steeper with extended Spoilers.
These spoilers are the most efficient I have come across so far, and I have flown
aircraft with hefty brakes like Puchaes and Pik 20. You will normally need only half or
quarter brakes for a normal final. The control forces are low and there is no noise
with extended brakes. On most aircraft you can hear and feel when the brakes are
extended, not so in a Windex.
1.10 JAR 22.73 HIGH SPEED SPOILERS
Stable end speed with 45 deg diving angle and fully applied Spoilers =260 km/h.
1.11 JAR 22.143 WET AIRCRAFT
Wet aircraft presents no surprises. The gliding performance is slightly reduced but
the aircraft has not shown any spectacular characteristics when maneuvered in wet
condition. The normal precautions should naturally be applied, for example 10-15
km/h extra speed on final.
2. JAR 22.51 START
2.1 JAR 22.65 CLIMB
With 105 kg pilot.
Time from take off to 300 m = 3 minutes and 15 seconds.
Altitude 4 minutes after take off = 410 m.
See also pos 5. Cruise and Climb below.
With 66 kg pilot.
Time from take off to 300 m = 2 minutes and 16 seconds. Altitude 4 minutes after
take off = 450 m.
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Sayfa 31
2.3 GRASS STRIP
The ground roll is very bumpy and it is not possible to do anything about the direction
of the ground roll until you have speed enough to lift the tail wheel. Start from wet
grass strips can not be recommended and you need a long strip or obstacle free
climb path. It can also be recommended to decide a point where you will abandon the
start if not airborne at that point. A good headwind is also one of the prerequisites for
successful grass strip starts.
meters of runway
400
500
600
800
1000
Altitude
lift off
5m
10 m
15 m
25 m
Runway: Dry grass, no wind, climb speed 1.3 x Vs1=104 km/h.
Start can be performed with flaps at 0 or +4 deg. The later will give the best and
shortest start.
2.2 CONCRETE RUNWAY
On concrete runway the aircraft is not steerable at low speeds. When you reach 4050 km/h the tail can be lifted and the aircraft balances well on the main wheel. Heavy
crosswind may cause the fin to move in the downwind direction at the point when the
tail is lifted. This needs to be compensated with the rudder. The aircraft will lift at
about 80 km/h. The climb rate is only 1,5 m/s and the ground roll is around 240 m
until the aircraft gets airborne. The altitude is about 30 m at the end of a 1000 m
runway. Thus a long runway or an obstacle free climb path is required.
It presents no problems to start with one wing on the ground. At the start of the
ground roll the two wheels gives good directional stability and the wing can be lifted
with the ailerons after a short ground roll well before it is time to lift the tail. It is
however important to be careful with the line up of the aircraft before start. The
direction the aircraft is lined up at will be the direction of your first 50 m of ground roll.
meters of runway
240
400
500
600
800
1000
Altitude
Lift off
10
15
20
25
30 m
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Sayfa 32
2.4 JAR 22.145 TOW IN CROSSWIND
I have successfully demonstrated power start and start after a tow plane in crosswind
components up to 30 km/h. Higher crosswind components may well be possible, but
have just not been tested.
At tow starts in heavy crosswinds, it is easy to get a few bounces since the aircraft
gets airborne before the tow plane and compensation for the wind with the rudder will
cause a loss of lift resulting in a bounce back to the earth. This is however not a
problem, just a fact of life with every light airplane towed for start.
The directional stability in the beginning of the start is very good. In fact you can not
steer the airplane the first 50 meters of the ground roll. This is an advantage in
crosswinds since the wind do not effect you at all at low speeds. A dip of the wing
into the ground do not make the aircraft change direction. After reaching 40-50 km/h
you can lift the tail and the aircraft is very easy to control.
2.4 TOWING
I have made tow starts with and without somebody holding the wing. Both ways are
easy. The ground roll is however very bumpy on grass strips. It may scare you if you
do not expect this. I recommend tight straps. The aircraft has a very good
performance and will be airborne well before any tow aircraft gets in the air. It is easy
to control the aircraft during the tow, bearing in mind that the controls are very
precise but sensitive. During the tow you will not see the tow aircraft. The visible part
is two wings sticking out on both sides of the compass if you do not prefer the low
tow concept.
2.4.1 JAR 22.151 TOWING
The aircraft can be towed at relatively high speeds due to its excellent stability and
good maneuverability. I have tested towing between 100 - 180 km/h encountering no
problems. This is not a maximum speed, just the highest speed I so far have tested.
The recommended tow speed is 110-120 km/h.
Low tow, recovery from + 15 deg over the tow aircraft and up to 30 deg turns in tow
has been successfully demonstrated.
2.5 JAR 22.233 DIRECTIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL ON THE GROUND
The directional stability in the beginning of the start is very good. In fact you can not
steer the airplane the first 50 meters of the ground roll at start and at the end of the
landing roll. This is an advantage in crosswinds since the wind do not effect you at all
at low speeds. A dip of the wing into the ground do not make the aircraft change
direction. After reaching 40-50 km/h you can lift the tail and the aircraft is very easy to
control. You can lift the wing and control the aircraft with the ailerons at about 20
km/h.
Taxing is not easy. At low speeds Windex is not steerable because of the fixed tail
wheel. You can change direction by using the brake, giving a power burst and a
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Sayfa 33
rudder input at the same time. This causes the aircraft to balance on the wheel for a
short moment and the direction can be changed blowing on the rudder with the
engine slipstream. The other option is high speed taxing ( 40 km/h ). Any taxing on
grass is extremely bumpy. You need to be well strapped.
3. JAR 22.153 LANDING
Landings has been demonstrated with 30 km/h side wind component, this is probably
not an absolute limit just what we so far has demonstrated. Landing characteristics
are excellent and no tendencies for ground loop has occurred during side wind
landings. When the tail wheel is in contact with the ground it provides good
directional stability. Landing can be performed with flaps in + 8 or + 30 deg position.
The + 8 deg position is recommended at high side wind conditions. Landing can be
made without engine and with engine at idle speed.
Using the wheel brakes is a little noisy but effective. Watch out for keeping full brakes
on at the end of the ground roll. The aircraft can tip to its nose when the aerodynamic
forces are reduced at low speed and the braking force will take over.
4. ENGINE AND PROPELLER HANDLING
When the engine is cold it will start easily. Full choke, ignition on and turn the key.
After ignition reduce choke immediately and control the rpm with the throttle.
If the engine is hot it will give you a lot of trouble to get it started. Even if you may
succeed I would recommend a coffee brake before attempting a restart of a hot
engine on the ground.
I have also noticed that the power of the engine is reduced when it is hot. On one
occasion I only reached 3550 static rpm with full power after a long taxi session. Do
not taxi on the runway for five minutes and attempt a start from a short grass strip
directly after this. It is smarter to tow the aircraft or roll it by hand to the starting point.
I have performed several starts directly after long taxi and hold from full length
concrete runways without problems, but you better be aware of the power reduction. I
have also encountered engine stops when increasing the power from idle after the
landing ground roll leaving me with a hot engine in the middle of the runway. This
seems to happen when the engine has been running on idle for an extended period
of time during the landing pattern. To prevent this, it is wise to give the engine a
couple of power bursts during the landing pattern.
Restart of the engine in the air is very easy. At normal cruise speed you turn on the
ignition and slowly unfether the propeller and the engine starts. I have even started
the engine during aerotowing. I have tested restart of the engine between 140 and
260 km/h. I have lost approximately 30-50 m altitude during the engine start. I have
also tested restart with the propeller adjusted to fine (normal cruise ) pitch. The
engine will restart but you will loose
150 m and you will need 180 km/h for this.
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Sayfa 34
4.1 JAR 22.1041 and JAR22.1047 ENGINE COOLING
The engine cylinder head temperature is 115-125 Degrees C in stable cruise
conditions and remains in the range of 130-140 Degrees C in stable climb conditions.
The current slightly larger fuel nozzle seems to have solved all the early temperature
problems with this engine installation.
The cooling is increased by the opening of the engine cover when the propeller is in
its working position. The cover is closed when the engine is shut off and the propeller
is in fethered glider configuration. This system works well.
5. CRUISE AND CLIMB
Windex will cruise at 200 km/h at 4200 rpm. The engine rpm is controlled by a
variable propeller pitch. The control mounted into this prototype is too heavy to
maneuver and has a big clearance at the change of the direction of rotation, making
the rpm control cumbersome and unprecise. The dead movement when changing
direction of the control is 1,5 turns. I have to constantly monitor the rpm and it is very
easy to overev the engine when increasing the speed or immediately after take off
when the speed builds up and you are occupied with looking out for obstacles and
emergency landing spots.
This control must be changed on future aircraft.
Altitude in m
0m
100 m
200 m
300 m
500 m
1000 m
1500 m
1800 m
2000 m
time to altitude
1 min
2 min
3 min
4,5 min
10 min
15 min
23 min
25 min
Indicated
sped m/s
1,9 m/s
1,9 m/s
1,9 m/s
1,9 m/s
1,9 m/s
1.8 m/s
1,8 m/s
1.8 m/s
1,7 m/s
climb Comments
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
4200 rpm
This table has been performed with the 105 kg pilot. Climb performance is better with
a lighter pilot. Rune Ingman has reported an indicated 2 m/s climb speed compared
to my 1.5 m/s.
6. GLIDING
After engine shut down and feathering of the propeller the aircraft becomes an
excellent glider with characteristics well known to anyone accustomed to modern
glass fiber gliders. I have tested thermals with flaps at 0, +4 and +8 deg. It is easiest
to fly in thermals with + 8 deg flaps and speeds around 90-100 km/h in narrow
thermals, The best performance is achieved with 90 km/h using +4 deg flaps, if the
thermal is large enough. 0 deg flaps do not give the best performance but is feasible
to do.
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7. JAR 22.255 AEROBATICS
I have flown the aircraft in approximately 250 aerobatic maneuvers, stressing the
aircraft between +6 and -3 g. I have also participated in the Swedish national
championships. With only 5 h of aerobatics experience in the Windex I ended up
second. This is a very promising competition aircraft. Everybody were very impressed
by the performance of this aircraft in competition flight. In my opinion this is the very
best existing competition aircraft with performance well in excess of the today
popular Fox and Swift aircraft.
The stick forces increases in a very pleasant way with increasing g forces giving the
pilot an excellent feel for the aircraft in aerobatics maneuvers.
7.1 ROLLS
Good rolling characteristics. Windex makes one slow roll in 6 seconds.
Recommended entry speed is 180 km/h.
7.2 JAR 22.147
The time for change between right and left 45 deg turns with 0 flaps and 1.4 x Vs1 is
3 seconds. At higher speeds it can be lower then 2 seconds.
7.3 LOOPS
Loops has been performed with entry speeds ranging from 180 km/h to 280 km/h and
with 4g to 6 g entry. The loop has conventional characteristics. Recommended entry
speed is 180-200 km/h, 4 g and 0 flaps. I have tested loops with negative flap
positions. With negative flaps the aircraft becomes more sensitive to g-stall. I
recommend 0 deg flaps when flying aerobatics. A skilled pilot may find some benefits
using the flaps in the low speed portions of some of the maneuvers. However for me
and most pilots the benefits are probably not worth the complication.
7.4 SPINS JAR 22.221
Spins with the center of gravity fully forward, full rudder, stick fully straight back, no
engine, no brakes, flaps 0 deg and a 105 kg pilot.
Number
turns
Pos ½
Pos 1
Pos 1 ½
Pos 2
Pos 3
of time
in sec
3
4
6
8
Altitude
loss
60 m
100 m
150 m
200 m
After
Rotation
40 deg
40 deg
40 deg
40 deg
spin
angle
45 deg
65 deg
75 deg
85 deg
Comments
The spin is very ”Steep”
I can not make the Aircraft to
spin more then 2 turns with
C/C in the middle or in front of
the middle
Spins have stopped by itself after two turns, still with full spin rudders applied, when
the center of gravity has been at the forward extreme. It is very difficult to make the
aircraft to spin with the center of gravity in front of the center position. The way to do
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this is as follows. Ease the stick back gently, with neutral airlerons, until you feel the
beginning stall not letting the aircraft start to sink before the stall. At this point, apply
full rudder into the desired direction. Hold the stick fully back and give airlerons
inwards the spin together with full rudder. The aircraft has also recovered when the
stick is moved against the spin with the center of gravity at the forward extreme. (
Ex. left rudder and right airleron). Remember that this is not a recommended
recovery procedure, the normal recovery procedure of neutral airlerons and opposite
rudder followed by forward stick, shall always be applied.
The aircraft will spin better with the stick inwards into the spin. ( Ex. Left rudder and
left stick, for an upright spin )
Left spins with the center of gravity at max. aft pos, full left rudder and a 66 kg pilot.
Number
Aileron Air
Altitude After
Comments
of turns
Brakes loss
rot
Pos 3
Neutral No
400 m
Flaps 0 deg
Pos 4
Neutral No
500 m
Flaps 0 deg
Pos 3
Neutral No
500 m
Flaps – 6 deg
Pos 4
Neutral No
600 m
Flaps - 6 deg
Pos 3
Left
No
300 m
Flaps 0 deg
Pos 2
Left
No
250 m
Flaps – 6 deg
Pos 4
Left
No
400 m
Flaps –6
The aircraft do not spin with opposite airlerons ie. Left rudder and right airlerons.
The rotational speed is 3 seconds per turn and the aircraft generally speaking “Spins
better” with the center of gravity aft of center.
7.4 HAMMERHEADS AND HUMPTY BUMPS
The hammerhead is very conventional with the exception that with an entry speed
exceeding 180 km/h the vertical line becomes much longer then you are accustomed
to in gliders. With 250 km/h the vertical line is more similar to a Pitts special rather
then to a glider. The vertical is easy to find and hold. I have given rudder at indicated
airspeed of 70 km/h. It still remains to be tested which speed is the best. The humpty
bump is equally easy to perform.
Recommended entry speed is 200 km/h. I have tested entry speeds up to 280 km/h.
Vertical rolls on the down line is very pleasant since you do a good marginal to the
maximum speed.
7.5 TAIL SLIDES
Tail slides has very conventional characteristics.
7.6 EIGHTS AND 45 DEG LINES
The low drag and good speed performance gives you an excellent opportunity to
impress your glider aerobatic friends with long and consistent lines on half cubans
and other combinations of lines and loops. Recommended entry speed for a half
cuban 8 is 200 km/h and for an reversed half cuban 8 230 km/h.. If you prefer, it is
feasible to increase these speeds to 250 km/h for longer lines.
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7.7 INVERTED FLIGHT
I have demonstrated inverted straight flight and 30 deg turns inverted so far. It
handles very well so far.
Comments by Windexair AB
Pekka Havbrandt wrote this flight-report. Windexair has not cut, added nor changed
the contents of the report but we would make some comments.
·
Regarding the problem Pekka Havbrandt had to reach the control knob:
The Windex SE-XSP that Pekka Havbrandt was flying was built by Jarek Bator
that has a completely different body constitution than Pekka Havbrandt and
one solution is to put in a back and head rest which Pekka did propose in the
report.
·
Regarding the take-off and climb performance: Both the engine and
engine-installation are redesigned to enhance the engine performance.
·
Regarding the roll rate (slow roll): Pekka Havbrandt had no complains
about the roll rate but it is possible to increase the roll rate quite a bit for pure
aerobatic competition pilots but you will get more adverse yaw and higher stick
forces. This has been done on two Windex 1200C with good results.
The major organisation for experimental aircrafts in the world.
Have chapters in;
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Grand Cayman,
Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Turkey and USA.
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Sayfa 38
Development of the SWIFT
-- A Tailless Foot-Launched Sailplane
by Ilan Kroo and Eric Beckman
with Brian Robbins, Steve Morris, and Brian Porter
version first published in Hang Gliding Jan. 1991.
The SWIFT is a high performance foot-launched sailplane, designed to combine some of the
convenience of hang gliders with the soaring performance of sailplanes. It takes off and lands
like a hang glider, yet maintains exceptional performance at high speeds, achieving a lift-todrag ratio of about 25:1. Although it is a fully-cantilevered rigid wing with aerodynamic
controls and flaps, it weighs only about 100 lbs and is easily transported on the top of a car.
This article summarizes the design, construction, and initial flight testing of this ultralight
sailplane.
History
This sailplane represents the marriage of two projects with similar goals undertaken by two
groups with different expertise. In January of 1986, Brian Robbins, Craig Catto, and Eric
Beckman set out to build a new hang glider with better performance than other gliders
available at the time. As BrightStar Hang Gliders, Brian and Eric, with Craig's help, began the
development of the Odyssey, a rigid wing hang glider. The Odyssey utilized a molded "D"
tube of fiberglass, Kevlar and carbon fiber with aluminum and foam ribs supporting a mylar
skin. The first prototype was finished in March of 1986, and a program of flight and vehiclebased testing led to its rapid development over the next two years. Brian Porter joined
BrightStar as a team pilot in 1988 and went on to pilot the glider to first place in the 1989
U.S. National Hang Gliding Championships at Dunlap, California. Despite this success, it was
apparent that there was much left to be done in the development of high performance rigid
wing hang gliders.
Two hours South of BrightStar, at Stanford University, work had been underway since 1985
on the design of a very high performance glider with some of the same objectives as those of
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the Odyssey project. Ilan Kroo, a professor in the aeronautics department, got Stanford to
offer course credit for the preliminary design work and soon a group of graduate students
began running a lot of computer programs, generating a lot of paper, and coming up with
some interesting aerodynamic design ideas along the way. Although the performance
estimates looked impressive and the design became perhaps the world's most thoroughly
analyzed glider, time and building experience were in short supply and the Stanford SWIFT
design appeared as though it might become just an academic excerise.
Steve Morris, one of the Stanford Ph.D. students, met Brian Porter at a Fly-In at McClure
reservoir and soon the "gang of five" gathered at Brian Robbin's house to discuss the Odyssey
and the SWIFT and Brian's mother's pizza. Brian thought that perhaps Ilan and Steve could
improve the Odyssey's airfoils somewhat; Ilan and Steve thought that Brian might try out the
aerodynamic controls to improve hang glider handling. As Brian talked about the Odyssey
and Ilan described the aerodynamic design options, it became clear that a radically new design
was possible - and Brian could build it. Four months later, in December of 1989, the SWIFT
took to the air over a small hill in Marin County.
Figure 1. First prototype.
Aerodynamic Design
Sizing and Performance Limits
The design of the SWIFT began with a study of the requirements for cross-country soaring.
Ilan had written an article in a 1982 issue of Hang Gliding Magazine describing what sort of
glider would be needed for extended cross-country soaring based on distributions of thermals
and interthermal downdrafts measured by Dick Johnson. One of the conclusions of that study
was that interthermal glide ratios of at least 15 to 18 in the presence of 0.5 kts of sink was
needed to make this kind of soaring easily attainable. At that time, only a dozen 100 mile
flights had been made by hang gliders. Today, although flights approaching 300 miles have
been made, most pilots (even most advanced pilots) have not flown 100 miles. One of the
factors limiting the flight distances of hang gliders is their speed. Thermals are commonly
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encountered for a rather limited time during daylight hours and with average cross-country
cruising speeds of less than 20 kts, one needs to fly for five hours to go 100 miles. Thus,
extended cross-country soaring requires not only a good enough glide to make it to the next
thermal, but a fast enough glide to get there quickly and in the presence of headwinds or sink.
This is easily done by making large span sailplanes with high wing loading. But if the glider
is to be foot-launched, it must be light (span not too large) and have a low wing loading. More
refined studies of Johnson's data and baragraph records from George Worthington's Mitchell
wing flights in the Reno area suggested that a foot-launched sailplane with the required
performance was just barely possible. The following target performance figures were
established and work began to define the aircraft geometry.
Target Performance for Foot-Launched Sailplane
1.
2.
3.
4.
Minimum Sink Rate in 100' radius turn: 200 ft/min
Maximum L/D: 20:1
L/D at 60kts: 15:1
Stalling speed: no higher than existing hang gliders for safe foot-launching and
landing
5. Weight: less than 90 lbs
6. Exceptional controllability for safe flight at low speeds
The fourth constraint meant that even with large flaps, the wing area would be 120 to 140 sq
ft. With this constraint, the third goal would be very difficult, requiring an unprecedented
level of aerodynamic streamlining. To achieve the desired performance, low drag airfoils and
an extremely clean pilot fairing would be required. The sink rate polars in figure 2 illustrate
the importance of streamlining, especially for light weight gliders at high speed. The figure
also shows how the predicted sink rate of the SWIFT compares with other gliders; it is clearly
in a class above hang gliders and compares very favorably with the Schweizer 1-26 sailplane
at speeds up to about 60 kts.
Figure 2. Performance Comparison
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Configuration Studies
Unless one does something very wrong, the performance of a glider is determined primarily
by its span, area, and streamlining. The selection of the configuration, whether conventional,
canard, tailless, or something else, is based more on issues such as packaging, handling
qualities, manufacturability, transportability, etc.. In the development of the SWIFT, several
possible configurations were studied. The results indicated very small performance
differences between tailless, conventional and canard designs; however, the conventional
design suffered some from the short tail length required for landing flair and take-off ground
clearance. The directional stability of a slightly-swept canard was poor, and performance was
also compromised by the short coupling. The tailless design was statically-balanced, compact,
and did not pay the weight penalty that would be associated with a tail boom. (Note that even
a 5 lb boom represents more than 5% of the empty weight and a very large fraction of the
wing bending weight.)
Some of the well-known disadvantages of tailless aircraft were alleviated by the careful 3-D
aerodynamic design of the wing. The combination of sweep, taper, and twist was arranged so
that rather conventional airfoil sections with negative pitching moments (not reflexed airfoils)
could be used. The penalties associated with too much twist were eliminated by changing the
effective twist with trailing edge trim and control surfaces. One of these trim surfaces is a
large (45% span) flap. When deflected down for higher lift, the glider noses up slightly and
trims at a lower speed. It may be deflected downward as much as 45° for landing and
approach, cutting the L/D down to a managable value and slowing the glider down for standup landings. This use of the inboard flap surface for pitch trim gives the aircraft its name. At
the risk of confusion with the long line of Swift aircraft, including one infamous hang glider
and another "rigid" wing recently anounced (Owens Swift), the BrightStar SWIFT stands for
Swept Wing with Inboard Flap for Trim.
Figure 3. SWIFT Layout
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Stability and Control
As anyone who has ever tried to fly a very stiff, 38 ft span hang glider will attest, performance
is not usable if the glider doesn't handle well. One of the major goals of this project was to
provide vastly improved handling qualities to a foot-launched glider, and many of the
SWIFT's features are there to improve stability and control. The large tip chord provides
additional pitch damping to increase the aircraft's dynamic stability and reduce the possibility
of tumbling in extreme conditions. It also gives the elevons increased control authority
especially at low speeds. The use of aerodynamic pitch controls (actuated by a side-stick
controller) makes it possible to trim the glider over a very large speed range without large
stick forces or low stability and gives the pilot positive control in very rough conditions when
weight shift would do little good. The stalling characteristics are also improved by the
moderate taper, high effective twist, and vortilons - vortex generators originally invented in
the development of the DC-9.
The SWIFT's winglets are fixed surfaces, not rudders. They increase the effective span of the
wing, but more importantly interact with the ailerons to produce favorable yawing moments
and increase the roll control authority. Half-span elevons provide the large roll control
moments that could not be achieved with weight shift. These surfaces, in combination with
the fixed winglets produce a nicely-coupled rolling and yawing motion without the delay or
performance loss associated with drag rudders. The size of the winglets and elevons were
determined from computer simulations of the glider's dynamics and from flight tests of two
radio-controlled models built by Steve and Ilan.
Figure 4. Photo of RC Model over Stanford
Airfoil Development
Airfoils were designed by the Stanford group especially for the SWIFT. The sections have a
small negative pitching moment and were designed to operate in the Reynolds number range
of 700,000 to 2,000,000. They make use of laminar flow over the first 25% of the chord, if
they can get it, but are explicitly designed to experience little performance degradation if the
flow is made turbulent by rain or surface irregularities. This amount of laminar flow was
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selected based on the idea that the first 25% of the airfoil could be quite smooth and
accurately constructed. The airfoil thickness at the flap and elevon hingelines was originally
quite large to provide strength in this area. Tests on the first prototype suggested that the
strength in this region was not a problem, but the gaps created by control deflections added a
great deal of drag. The airfoils were redesigned with very thin trailing edges which
successfully reduced the control surface gap drag. Except for the analysis of these sections
using an airfoil design program on Apple Macintosh and a NASA program, the airfoils were
not tested before the first prototype was built. Truck-mounted tests of the glider suggest that
the airfoils are working as predicted, but accurate performance verification remains to be
done. The airfoil is shown in figure 4, for illustration purposes only. (Scaling this section up
from this drawing would be a real mistake.)
Wing Optimization
The final step in the SWIFT's aerodynamic design involved complex trade-offs between wing
taper, twist, flap size, flap deflections, elevon deflections, and wing area. Changes that might
benefit high-speed performance might hurt thermalling ability or increase stall speed above
acceptable limits. The final trade-offs were made by simulating a long cross-coutry flight on
the computer and using a numerical optimizer to select the design with the best overall
soaring performance. The simulation included thermal models, inter-thermal sink, and a
relatively complete aerodynamic analysis (panel model) of the design.
Figure 5. Vortex Lattice Model of Swift
Structural Design and Construction
The structure of the SWIFT is designed to meet the demanding
requirements of very low drag (fully cantilevered, accurate airfoil
definition for laminar flow) and light weight. The wing structure
uses a D-tube covering the first 25% of the chord with ribs
extending from there back to the control surface hinge line at
75% chord. The prototypes were constructed with an Aluminum
D-tube and mylar covering to reduce costs and one-off construction time. This made it
possible to refine the design before committing to the molds from which production versions
will be built. While the prototypes weigh about 100 pounds, production gliders should be
substantially lighter with their Kevlar skins and graphite spar caps. The loads that need to be
carried by the glider are very large. Because of the low wing loading and high design
airpseeds, the effect of gusts is amplified. To comply with FAA sailplane criteria* the glider
must be capable of withstanding positive and negative vertical gusts of 24 ft/sec up to VNE.
Since the maximum speed of this sailplane is above 60kts, the required limit load is about 6
g's. The prototypes were static loaded to 5 g's to be sure that they could be test flown.
The pilot fairing is another important aspect of the design. Based on Brian Porter's experience
with the Voyager and Odyssey, a fully-enclosed fuselage was constructed with 14 mil Lexan
surrounding a cage of aluminum tubing. The pilot supports the glider with shoulder straps on
the ground and sits in a reclining position in flight, supported by a fabric sling ala Mitchell
Wing.
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Flight and Vehicle Testing
The first glider was mounted on Brian Robbin's pickup truck, and was instrumented with a
load cell to measure total lift. The glider was free in pitch so that stick and elevon positions
for trim could be measured. The glider was also covered with yarn tufts so that we could
observe where stall first began and adjust the vortilon position if necessary. Apart from some
early separation associated with large flap gaps (eliminated in the second prototype), the tests
held few surprises and flight testing began in December 1989.
Eric and Brian Porter made the first flights from a 50 foot hillside in Marin County. The
elevons made control on the ground very easy as the wing could be rolled easily even in the
very light breezes that day. Despite the high wing loading of the first glider, take-off was not
difficult and a few test glides showed that the wing was stable and controllable with a glide
that wouldn't quit.
Flights at Mt. Tamalpais and Ft. Funston on the Northern California coast soon followed and
we learned more about the glider performance and controllability. The first prototype had an
excellent glide at high speeds, but with the flaps defelected at low speeds, did not do much
better than good flex-wings in terms of minimum sink. Roll response was also not as snappy
as Eric would have liked, so we took advantage of a bonked landing to retire the first wing
and begin work on a second prototype. The new wing had somewhat larger control surfaces,
revised airfoils, improved winglet sections, and a bit less wing area. The first flights at Ft.
Funston proved that it was a big improvement.
After 10 or so hours of flying time we were quite happy with the design. It had been flown in
relatively turbulent conditions, out-flew all flex wings by a wide margin, and proved to be a
pleasure to fly. But coastal ridge sites are one thing, real cross-country conditions are another.
So to determine the wing's performance and controllability, we took it to a real cross-country
area: the Owens Valley. With a complete pilot fairing, radios and instruments, oxygen system,
parachute, and water, the SWIFT took off at a gross weight of over 300 lbs from the 10,000 ft
launch at Horseshoe Meadows. Pilots began leaping at about 10 AM, but Eric waited until
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Sayfa 45
most others had launched; he was in the air at 11, late by Horseshoe standards. Flying north
along the Sierras, he passed most of the conventional gliders. "I'm only getting to 13-5," Eric
heard over the radio. "Yeah, no one seems to be getting any higher than that," said another
pilot. Eric replied, "I'm at 15-5 and I haven't been circling." Just south of Bishop, Eric and the
SWIFT crossed the valley to the White Mountains, passing the first of the hang gliders who
had a 1 hour head start. Continuing north passed Boundary Peak, Eric began to feel hypoxic.
(We later found an obstruction in the oxygen system.) He decided that he should cut the flight
short because of this and began his final glide. When he reached Minas he was stll at 14,000 ft
and went looking for sink. Finding a bit, he lowered the flaps to act as drag producing dive
brakes and landed. The first Owens Valley SWIFT flight covered about 140 miles. The idea
of a true foot-launched sailplane has finally come to pass.
Concluding Comments -- Future Work
Where do we go from here? The basic aerodynamic characteristics of the SWIFT have proven
very satifactory. BrightStar Gliders plans to certify and produce these wings in the next year.
In the meantime, we will continue flying and testing the prototype and working on the
composite version with the idea of keeping weight and cost to a minimum. The SWIFT
promises to usher in a new generation of foot-launched sailplanes that will provide a
continuum of soaring machines: from paragliders and flex-wing hang gliders to high
performance rigid wings and conventional sailplanes.
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