Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From - e

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Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From - e
Performance Optimization in
Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field
Edited by
Dr. Monoem Haddad
www.esciencecentral.org/ebooks
Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From
Laboratory to Field
Chapter: Didactics in Taekwondo
Edited by: Dr. Monoem Haddad
Published by OMICS Group eBooks
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Didactics in Taekwondo
Cătălin Păunescu1*, Mihaela Păunescu2, Monoem Haddad3,
Gabriela Gagea4
Medical Rehabilitation Department of Physical Education and Sport,
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest,
Romania
1
Department of Special Motor Capacity and Medical Rehabilitation,
National University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest,
Romania
2
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education (ISSEP) Kef. University
of Jandouba, Tunisia
3
Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Ecological University in
Bucharest, Romania
4
*Corresponding author: Cătălin Păunescu, Medical Rehabilitation
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Medicine
and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania, Tel: 0040723089461;
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
In sports, the athlete’s transition from beginner to high performance is obtained as a result of a lengthy and systematic learning.
To cope with the high demands the continuous improvement of athletic performance is required, by optimizing the transmission of
learning, acquiring the technical and motor skills knowledge base, through methodology and didactics modernization. The essence
of training programs targets and includes the current competitive requirements, through a superior motivation of athletes, who have
a certain amount of knowledge and skills to assimilate and use, in any situation depending on the opponent. Today there are various
methods of physical training that focus on the motor activity regarding the basic movement, enhancing coordination, in order to have
the best athletes later. This chapter aims to highlight the main aspects of didactics in TKD. The concepts contained in the following
pages represent a methodological support targeting coaches, athletes, TKD trainers.
Preamble
Teaching is a part of pedagogy which aims to teach the principles and the methods of teaching and education organization. Most
times the concept of didactics is mainly used in physical education (FE) and less in sport. Teaching in physical education and sport
(EFS) is the basic theory of training and education or the theory of substantiating the training and education in bodily activities.
Ouessleti et al. [1] consider didactic concepts of PSE teachers which form the subject of a deepen analysis because they constitute a
variable that has an impact on the professional practices of teachers.
Didactics in sport is part of sport pedagogy, studying learning issues in a sport subject matter, in this case Taekwondo (TKD). The
educational process is promoted and studied since ancient times until today, a process that contributes to the formation of the human
personality and to the formulation of true scientific foundations, which in turn generate the emergence of Pedagogical Sciences. It is
the practical application of sports science in the educational process, according to age and level of education, as well as the competition
type.
Like all other sciences, didactics has its own conceptual and notional content, classified and accepted by experts in the field. It has
a broad knowledge system and a specialized database, operating in practice and theory. Among the TKD lesson methods, commonly
used in learning situations, many of them have applicability in everyday life. As an example, we mention the observation and attention
exercises which, if included in sessions, act implicitly on other qualities needed daily.
Through its socio-cultural dimensions, TKD offers a unique opportunity to meet other practitioners, to communicate with them,
to assume different roles and to acquire moral attitudes. It makes you become socially active by the performance of others [2].
The Concept of Didactics in TKD
Taekwondo is a unique a sport in that the master and student forge a symbiotic relationship [3]. Through a proper instructiveeducational process, TKD develops a harmonious, balanced individual, the development is physical (“Tae” and “Kwon”) and mental
(“Do”). For those who choose TKD, perseverance, self-discipline and self-control are the main benefits. Practitioners learn a lot about
themselves, about their skills and how to combine physical and mental aspects in solving all the problems of daily living.
So today we are witnessing an increase in sports performance, due to a sweeping knowledge from different fields of science that
have entered the science of training athletes; the entire learning - educational process is conducted to a higher level, taking into
account the body’s biological substrate, the ability to adapt, the biomechanics movement and the effort biochemistry. Athletes are
always facing increased requirements imposed by the evolution of technique and tactics sport.
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TKD is a korean unarmed combat system whose traditional history traces its ancenstray back 2000 years [3]. It is extremely
popular. Since the early 1960’s, TKD has flourished in the United States, and become one of the most common forms of self defense
training, replacing many Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu schools of past decades. Canada has a large TKD following as well as the United
Kingdom. TKD is also very popular in Australia. It is difficult to say where it is “most popular” since you can find very dedicated, loyal,
and skillful practitioners all around the world. Certainly Korea, the US, Canada, and the UK are all very close in their popularity and
practice of TKD. The number of WTF members is currently 205 [4], with an estimated global population practicing TKD of 55 million
practitioners [5].
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Also, TKD is a philosophy of education, the coaches acting as tutors, as moral counselors. In a modern society, learning dangerous
fighting techniques cannot be separated from teaching regulations and dojang moral rules, ubiquitous in the practice of TKD. Furthermore,
TKD is transmitted to practitioners, primarily as a desire for peace and only then as a combat sport [6]. Although students can build
physical strength and skills under the tutelage of a TKD master, it is the philosophical foundation of TKD that makes the student a
“whole athlete” [7]. The learning problems have far exceeded the sports branch framework, a multi-and pluri - disciplinary approach,
linked to concepts such as “development”, “growth”, “adaptation”, “growing up” being necessary today. Development is a generally valid
law, connected to the process of learning, assimilating, selecting, processing and to the processing of basic information on which the
behavioral methods are structured [8].
The Principles of Sports Instruction
In sports practice, over time, the principles of didactics, have had specific issues, regulating and directing the work of trainingdeveloping-motor and intellectual education for athletes [9]. These are general rules that guide the whole activity of framework the sports
training. Thus:
• The principle of adaptation to progressive effort - which refers to the gradual increase of efforts and to the compliance with the
didactics principles: from easy to difficult, from simple to complex, from the known to the unknown, giving the body the opportunity
to adapt easily. Initially, we will increase the amount of effort in order to achieve quantitative accumulations of intensities which enable
the subsequent growth and quality leaps. Looking from the point of view of teaching, a TKD instructor or master teaches athletes a wide
range of technical exercises that will form the basis of sports. After the study of Blazquez Sanchez [10], the mechanical approach based on
the model champion, is not possible because a newcomer cannot execute perfectly the procedures, so the technique must be decomposed
into simple, facilitating elements, to gradually return to the complete execution;
• The principle of compensation and over-compensation or restitution - which highlights the importance of the pause (recoveryrestoration) to obtain overcompensation and thus homeostasis, a new equilibrium state superior to the previous one;
• The principle of training cycle - is caused by the phased form of sports, which is the periodization training base (during the
preparatory, competitive, transition phase and off season). These cycles can be repeated several times a year or from one year to the next,
but at a progressively up level;
• The principle of individualization - on which dosing the effort is attempted according to the level and features of each athlete, for
the valuing of all the athlete’s skills, to obtain a maximum output;
• The principle of motivation - comes as a coronation of the other principles, where the capacity of engaging psychic energy can
influence and even determine performance. The reasons for practicing sports activities are intrinsic (the pleasure caused by the respective
work, the need for affirmation, etc.) and extrinsic (recognition, reward, etc.)
These principles regarded as the basic ideas on which the structure of the educational process is founded are inducing the following
characteristics:
1. Objective - through which expresses subjective desires, not the coach’s, formulated as momentary requirements, but the training
needs to scale the learning process, its entirety;
2. Regulatory - revealed by rules and specific requirements and ensuring the correlation between knowledge and action & between
theory and practice educative;
3. Systematical - based on the totality of the interdependence ratio between them and their repetition frequency. In Figure 1 we
present a typical learning schema, applicable also in TKD:
Step I
Step II
Step III
Step IV
Step V
Step VI
Learning the rough movement, through practicig on the representation formed by the explanations receieved and
the (live, movie, photo, video etc..) demonstrations, as well as on the physical support previously prepared; technical,
mental and physical preparation means.
learning aspects of execution fineness, by raising awareness on such landmarks as temporal features (rhythm and
tempo), space features (up, down, sideways, diagonally, forward, backward), kinesthetic diferentiations (straining,
stretching, relaxation), the type of muscle activity (static, dynamic), balance (place, away). the preparation, technical,
physical mental and maintenance means.
strengthening the complete movements, through practicing in full agreement with all the parameters and mechanisms
of each process; means of technical, specific physical and mental training.
learning procedures and movements variants, by perceiving the differences from the basic procedure or movement;
means of technical, specific physical and mental training.
applying the acquired info and abilities under varied, constantly changing and adversity conditions. Means of
modeling technique, mental preparation for competition, maintenance physical training, tactical training.
applying the acquired info and abilities under conditions of competition. Means of tactics, integrating technique and
mental preparation for competition.
Figure 1: The typical learning schema in TKD.
Learning, from the pedagogical point of view, is the work designed by the teacher to determine behavioral changes in the athlete’s
personality, by exploiting their ability to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies [11]. After Forteza de la Rosa [12],
the training methods are internal forms of work between the coach and the athletes to fulfill the tasks set.
The level of learning achieved by an athlete is determined by the ratio of the actual time available and the time necessary to learn the
topic, through motor tasks. In this case, the coach’s job is to find the most suitable route for the transmission of knowledge and especially
the “time required” to achieve the educational process. Thus, the duration of learning, namely the achievement of behavioral changes is
difficult to specify. It depends on the genetic basis, on the athletes’ interest and motivation, on their own involvement in training, and
not least on the coach’s skills.
The main methods used in sports training, and implicitly in TKD are: practicing, individualization, modeling, evaluation (testing)
relaxation. These, along with the teaching methods of transmitting knowledge (explanation, demonstration) form the complex array of
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Sports Training Methods used in TKD
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methods applied in preparing athletes.
The methods mentioned above are used in the various stages of specific TKD content training skills. The TKD training in specific
skills is performed to support a physically well prepared (higher level of manifestation of the motor and psychomotor qualities implied
in the performance of movements, such as: speed of reaction and execution, strength, joint mobility and muscle flexibility, strength,
coordination, spatial orientation, sense of rhythm and tempo, balance), a positive attitude towards effort, the desire to learn, willingness,
perseverance, tenacity, etc.
We present below the most commonly used methods in learning specific TKD technical content.
These methods are based on part-whole relationship (training - competition) - modeling and analogy are used especially for the
technical, artistic, metal and tactical training.
The modeling method involves the transformation of a complex system (competition) in a simpler and easier to study one
(competition model), which consists only of the essential elements of the original that directly influence performance achievement. The
complex system transformation operations (competition) within the model are:
• Establishing the quantitative limits of the original system;
• Obtaining general, essential and non-essential data about the original system;
• Building the model with the essential features;
• Model experimentation, checking its functionality and its data; we can say that the models have a pronounced prospective character.
The Analogy method - works with similarities and aims to establish closer relations between the two quantitatively and qualitatively
different systems (training and competition, or competition phase - attack or defense and the means or the drive systems used during the
sessions). Exercising drills in some systems, as the competition one, (rhythm, tempo, conditions, etc.) is the concrete application of the
method of analogy, while modeling is the method that involves the transformation of complex systems in simpler systems, called models.
The border between the two methods, based on part (analogy) and whole (modeling) is sensitive, so that the two methods are commonly
mistaken, the analogy being the one to be actually applied in most of the cases.
Partial and whole practice methods
Beginners are introduced to overall movements via demonstration and then partial movements are taught. When partial movements
become familiar, parts can be combined one at a time until the entire unit is integrated. The unit is then practiced until the beginner can
competently perform the movement as a whole.
The global method is used according to the difficulty of movements and coordination. In this case, the method is applied for the
learning of simple movements, in point of structure and coordination. According to Kil [8], whole practice - the whole method is best
for practicing poomsae, combination kicks, or multiple step and kick strategies. In this method, trainees repeatedly practice one unit.
Athletes should have good physical conditioning and an understanding of circumstances in which techniques are used. In the partial
method, one combination, such as the fake, step, and double round spin back combination, is used to demonstrate how a technique can
be broken down. In the whole method, this combination is practiced in its entirety. For the competitive athlete, whole practice turns
complex movements into smooth, rhythmic reactions to particular match circumstances. That is why it is imperative for competitive
fighters to gain experience in the ring and then bring those circumstances back to the dojang for analysis and improvement.
The partial method involves dividing the movements into parts, according to the mechanisms of movement execution and to the
key moments. The division into parts is logically performed and practicing the parts must comply with the structure of the movements
to be learned. Partial practice is best for beginners. However, even seasoned athletes can use this method in order to glean the most
efficiency in a particular technique. In preparation for a match an athlete may want to break a strategic move into parts and practice each
part independently. For example, a fake, step, and then double round spin back combination would be broken down into three or four
segments. For partial practice the athlete might practice just the fake, making sure the whole body exhibits a perceived motion. Then the
athlete might work on the step in connection with the fake for quickness and distance control. Third, practicing the double round kick
(Dolyo Chagui) as a segment helps to prepare the athlete for the combined motion. Finally, the athlete works in the spin back kick as a
separate item or links it to the double round kick. Mastering a particular skill will help the athlete to feel more comfortable by reducing
anxiety and confusion [8].
Methodological Stages In Specific TKD Skills Training
Learning the techniques of attack, defense and counterattack, as well as their transformation into perfected motor skills and abilities,
is the fundamental problem of taekwondo methodology. Three distinct phases with differing methods and pedagogical tasks are
characteristic to this process.
The Initiation Stage
During the assimilation of the motor actions, we should not exaggerate on expertise, as they make it difficult for processing and
selection of information by the beginners. Even when they are given some explanation, it should be short, clear, precise focused on
essential issues with spotted structure differences and similarities, against the items and procedures previously learned. Regarding
terminology, it will be taught progressively, while they learn the technique of the motor action. It is also essential that during the first
learning phase, in the case of motor actions with a certain degree of complexity, these should be the first to be acquired. With the first
exercises, we will require the performers to remain immobile for a while, in certain positions, to hold the orientation of each body
segment in space, to make it easier for the teacher to be noticed and corrected. Once working frontally, we can continue practicing the
topic individually, by working first in the air and then with various devices, as shown and under strict supervision of the teacher. In the
initial stage of skill training and preliminary execution of a technique, correcting mistakes is just as important as preventing them. If
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From the pedagogical point of view, learning is a process of assimilation of knowledge, training, skills and abilities necessary for the
development of practical activities. An element or technique is considered to be assimilated when the one who appropriates it can run
it on the spot, on both sides, without hesitation, interruption or essential procedural mistakes, but with a low repetition rate due to the
effort of thinking, designed to control movements and their correct sequence. The initiation stage/learning is essential for the further
development of each student, as the elements and processes learned properly represent the basis for the future tactical combinations. The
content of training for the early stage will be systematized on compact groups of techniques, according to similarities in structure and
mutual interactions of various forms of movement, in order to ensure a higher positive transfer, with as little interference as possible.
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possible correct any mistake from the beginning, not turning it into a habit, as remediation efforts are much higher than those of learning.
Obviously, attention will be focused firstly on basic mistakes, common to all practitioners, then on the simple individual ones. Note that:
the working on devices (bag, palm equipment, blades) can be programmed, at this stage, only for the correct practice of movements, only
after their acquisition.
The consolidation stage
This stage is of paramount importance in stabilizing the correct movements, which is why its duration is longer than the previous
stage. Its initial objective is the transformation of the ability into skill basic.
The improving of the pace of movement and of the precision, the creation of premises to perform various actions and the constant
development of the psycho-physical abilities to allow the repetition of the motor ability to high quality indices, are priority stages of
the consolidation phase. One of the basic conditions for the formation of the ability is the long and continuous repetition of the action,
maintaining the initial conditions of work. After fixing the technical details and highlighting them in a correct, natural execution, the
overall repetitions will be performed with gradually increased speed and workforce, while preserving the stability and the position of
the body from beginning to the end. In addition to the strength and speed of movement execution, the difficulties can increase the
diversity of the training media (smaller targets on which blows can be practiced, speed, force targets) according to the problems that the
training partner can impose (taller, heavier, with reverse guard) and, also, to the change in phases prior to and which complete an actual
procedure.
The improvement phase
During the learning process, the volume of the skills and abilities to be acquired is not the only one that makes the difference, but
rather their quality, efficiency, and consistency. The increasing of fighting mobility, of the specific taekwondo skills is done progressively,
generally using the following operating systems:
• The global repetition, from movement, attack, defense and counter attack procedures, including variants and techniques derived,
while manifesting the maximum physical qualities; fighting without protective equipment.
• Of course, at this stage, the execution improvement of the technical procedures learned and enhanced in the first two phases, will
be permanently targeted at meeting the circumstances of increasingly concrete situations, which has as an effect over time, a certain
abstraction and moderation of the technical-tactical baggage. The main indicators against which the work assessment is made, at the end
of the improvement stage are:
• The degree of technique execution stability against the internal conditions change (fatigue, stress) or the external ones (corporal
difference against the performer, the complexity of technical and tactical combinations), phase variation, preparatory and ending, for
each technical procedure separately, the efficiency in fighting.
In all cases of recurrence, with the initial conditions change, we will seek not to cause any distortion in the basic structure of that
ability. The training exercises that best serve this stage remain the study with partner and the situational fight.
The Means of Sports Training
The means are practical tools providing the athletes’ training to achieve/develop certain abilities, capacities or sports performances.
Starting from the main forms of sports activity organization, we find that each of them requires some means, appropriate to the related
proposed objectives. Thus, we can talk about:
• General training means: they are named after the goals they achieve, namely: the development of functional capacities, generally
the basic motor qualities, of varied motor abilities and other learning skills. They hold the largest share in the preparation of beginners,
generally, who, for the subsequent increase in performance capacity, need a major multilateral development of the superior functions,
of the musculoskeletal system and other systems and organs, but they should not be neglected, also, in consecrated athletes training (in
a lesser extent) in the preparatory periods, i.e. at the beginning of them. We find these means, to a high frequency, in situations that are
seeking the general capacity development (through large amounts of effort to create the body’s availability to consume oxygen) or to
encourage the progressive start of the activity.
• Specific training means: not to be confused with the sports branch. They are selected to have a precise, as targeted on specific TKD
skills or qualities. In this category approaching exercises are included - especially contributing to learning specific TKD techniques and
tactics and they are directed towards the development of motor skills and specific TKD effort capacity. They hold the largest share in
the macro-cycles, meaning that in the first micro-cycles their presence is reduced, then to be repeated more often and to become more
numerous as we approach the mid-stage of pre-competition training. During the competition, the specific means are reduced, leaving
the main place for the competitive nature means. These means will not be excluded from the TKD lesson, but they will no longer have
the leading role. They provide preparation for all training factors (physical, technical, tactical, etc.) ensuring correction of any training
minuses.
The Lesson in Taekwondo
During the lesson, we shall ensure the transmission of knowledge, skills and abilities, developing and improving motor skills, the
body morphological and functional indices and theoretical-methodological, as well as the psychological preparation of athletes. Surely,
during a lesson we cannot solve all the tasks aimed at achieving the objectives of a microstructure, meso-structure or period. For this
purpose, the classes are interrelated and are based on each other to constitute a lesser or greater period of preparation.
Some coaches and athletes prefer two training sessions per day, with duration of 3-4 hours each. However, the experts argue that 5-6
hours per day in 3 to 4 cycles would be more effective [13]. In any case, coaches should take care about gender, age and expertise and
physical level when they program TKD training sessions. These training sessions correspond to centralized periods and to cantonments
preparation. Such training, with every day sessions, must be well planned and monitored, especially for two or three sessions a day, and
is very important for the successful achievement of the objectives set [14,15].
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Planning TKD training is the action plan that is made along with the TKD instruction process in order to achieve a certain goal and
athletic shape for an important competition. The training activity is the basic organizational form of the lesson; this is the most concrete
and real activity planning document because the coach must know the working conditions and the availability of the athlete’s lot for
drawing up the summary of the lesson.
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To achieve the objectives and expected results, throughout the process of preparation, the athlete and the coach are required to
collaborate, in order to increase the functional possibilities of the body, to develop motor skills and for the refinement of technique and
tactics. Methods of controlled training load, recovery and Upper respiratory Infection should presenting an interaction between coaches
and athletes for the best monitoring [16].
In terms of didactics and methodology, the training lesson in the combat subjects will differentiate among beginners, advanced
and elite athletes [17]. During each phase, learning and practice should be conducted according to didactics and training principles
distributed over the period from 10 to 18 years old or until the moment that young players pass to adult category [18].
Type of sessions
From the pedagogical point of view, the types of lesson that we can meet in practice are:
• The learning sessions: aimed at developing multilateral athletes are characteristic to the training period. These sessions are aimed
at acquiring the new techniques, the formation of specific motor skills, new technical and tactical improvement, and developing and
improving the motor skills. To solve these tasks under the best conditions, the coach will organize and supervise the work of the entire
team working, also, individually, with the athletes. The training sessions are aimed particularly at learning varied techniques and tactics.
The intensity of the instruction lesson, when working with beginners should be small and medium, and when working with athletes
advanced, should be large and maximum. These sessions lead to a multilateral training and to a technical-tactical training, ensuring a step
forward on the road to the mastery of the rhythmic sports.
• The consolidation sessions: mainly aimed at preparing for the competition, which is achieved through the physical, technical,
tactical, psychological and theoretical development and strengthening. Within these sessions, we shall not teach new technical elements,
the athletes being unable to improve them, until the competition ahead. Thus we will avoid the situations where the athletes use procedures
insufficiently acquired, in competition, which may result in the loss of the game. As mentioned above, these sessions are characteristic of
pre-competitive and competitive periods. In this category we can have review / consolidation sessions, mainly aimed at further learning
and are often encountered in the training of beginners where the limiting factor is usually the technique progress.
• The improvement sessions: are found only in the case of athletes, who have achieved a certain level of technical and sporty
craftsmanship, and are prevalent in high performance training, where athletes must master the technique, tactics and the physical
preparation [19-21].
• The evaluation/control sessions: to monitor the level of athletes training, at some point, or the individual achievement through tests
and control parameters. These sessions can be used in any period of the training, but especially at the end of the pre-competitive and
at the start of the competitive one, where athletes will be tested and will participate in a special competition to verify the preparedness
achieved [22].
• The recovery sessions, aimed at restoring the body after previous efforts, designed largely for the transitional period. These comprise
low intensity exercises, therapeutic means (hot shower, 32-36 degrees, about 15 minutes; 8-10 minutes sauna, massage - 15-20 minutes;
fluid resuscitation - 300 ml fruit juice + 15 to 20g glucose or honey; diet; medication - optional; passive rest-sleep), the practice of
complementary sports (volleyball, basketball, swimming, table tennis and adapted rugby). Also in the recovery sessions from the
transition period, we meet the athlete’s guided removal from the sports fitness, which provides recreation, and not least the restoration
of health, during this period the working capacity of the body, that should not fall less than 3/4 of the capacity obtained during the
competitive season, being essential.
The lesson structure
The training Lesson is conducted on parts, in a certain methodical sequence, these constituting the lesson rings, as follows: preparing
the body for effort (limbering up), the fundamental part (planned objectives achievement) and the final part (closing). Depending on
the content of the training (physical training, technique, tactics, etc..), the structure and content of TKD sessions can vary from one to
another.
• Preparing the body for effort begins with general exercises and ends with the specific ones, so as to reduce the risk of injury and
increase the maximum level of implementation of various techniques. The time allotted for this part is 20 - 40 minutes. According to
Table 1, the limbering up occurs also with athletes that are to take part in a competition, and hasthe following form.
Time
Content
7:45
The athlete reaches the competition room
8:00
begins the limbering up - easy run
8:05
gradually working all muscle groups
8:20
rhythm breaks and changes of direction
8:25
varied runs with jumping and acceleration
8:30
Short exercises through various technical actions and gradual increase in the speed of execution
8:38
Work with a partner: the implementation of the various technical actions at high intensity
8:45
simulating a fight with a partner. Exercise and mobility and the speed of reaction.
8:55
end of limbering up
9:10
start of the first match
• The concluding part includes all measures necessary for the gradual recovery of the body, after the work done. This part takes about
10 minutes and may include: jogging and mobility. We further illustrate a pattern of ongoing training lesson during the pre- competitive
meso-cycle (Table 2).
Sports Club: ____________________
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Table 1: TKD competitions limbering up model [13].
• The fundamental part of the lesson is the essence of training, and aims to solve two themes and simultaneously designates also
the lesson type. The time allotted to this part is 65-90 minutes and includes the training and development of motor qualities, skills, the
learning and improvement of techniques, the education of tactical and mental qualities and the development of the organism effort
capacity. The moment of learning new motor actions is almost always placed at the beginning of the fundamental part, because the body
is less tired and therefore more responsive. The content will be based on the practitioners’ age, gender, level of preparation, performance
goals and training period.
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Subject: WTF Taekwondo
Coach: ________________
Date-Time: Tuesday - 19 to 21
Time: 120 minutes
Venue: Hall TKD
Team: 8 athletes
Materials and resources: blades, training cushion, training bag, protection equipment, timer
Methods: explanation, demonstration, practice.
The theme of the lesson: - speed of reaction
- Increase the lactic anaerobic capacity
Training Objectives
a. Psychomotor objectives
- The strengthening of the basic mechanism to the technical actions: bandal chagi, mireo chagi, dollyo chagi, naeryo chagi and jireugi,
in different situations,
- Improving the ability to use spatial cues.
b. Cognitive objectives
- Acquisition of specific terminology in TKD,
- Recognition of the notions used in commands.
c. Affective objectives
- Participate with pleasure to the lesson
- show the spirit of collaboration in motor tasks
- Participate in correcting colleagues, who are learning more difficultly the exercises
Objectives:
- Improve responsiveness, anticipation and perception of time
- Improving the explosive strength under stress,
- Tolerance to the lacto acid
- Develop perseverance, courage and self-control.
Table 2 illustrates a lesson plan - mesocycle pre-competitive.
Rings and duration
Content
30”
• Checking the equipment (Dobok) and the health status
30”
• Announcement of the lesson topics
2.Preparation
of
organism for effort 16’
3. Fundamental Part 16’
Dosing
• Alignment and salute
Work formulas
1’
line in a row
10’
column by one
• Breathing exercises
1’
column by one
• Mobility
5’
the • Continuous running
I.
• Sprints on a length of 6-7 m on audible and visual command, in different positions
in a circle
4 in two rows
2’ x 2
4 in a row
• Squat, from standing : frontally, with the back, left side laterally, the right side on the 2’ x 2
direction of advance
4 in a row
• Sitting with arms up over the knees: frontally, with the back, left side laterally, the right 2’ x 2
side on the direction of advance
4 in a row
• Ventrally lying with support on hands: frontally, with the back, left side laterally, the right
2’ x 2
side on the direction of advance
4 in a row
the entire hall space
• Standing with the soles on the same line: frontally, with the back, left side laterally, the
right side on the direction of advance
3’
• Stretching
OMICS Group eBooks
1. Team organization 2’
008
4. Fundamental Part 65’ II.
volum 80%, intensity 95 - • 15 assaults to double jackets, 1 minute break and 5 minutes recovery, after the third
100%
assault
• 3 rounds of 2 minutes with 1 minute rest between them, technical measures on attack 2’ x 3
and counter attack, the combatants having two vests
1’ x 2
• 5 minutes break
5’
the entire hall space
2’ x 3
• 3 rounds of 2 minutes with 1 minute rest between them, technical measures on attack
1’ x 2
and counter attack, the combatants having two vests
5’
• 5 minutes break
the entire hall space
• 3 rounds of 2 minutes with 1 minute rest between them, technical measures on attack 2’ x 3
and counter attack, the combatants having two vests
1’ x 2
• 5 minutes break
• 3 rounds of 2 minutes with 1 minute rest between them, technical measures on attack 2’ x 3
and counter attack, the combatants having two vests
1’ x 2
• 5 minutes break
5’
• 3 rounds of 2 minutes with 1 minute rest between them, technical measures on attack 2’ x 3
and counter attack, the combatants having two vests
1’ x 2
• 5 minutes break
5’
5.Fundamental Part 12’
the entire hall space
5’
the entire hall space
the entire hall space
III.
• Contact combat
10’
the entire hall space
1’
6. The recovery of the body • Relaxation and recovery:
after the efort 7’
- breathing exercise
4’
- lying in ventral decubitus they execute:
4 in two rows
- Massage with the soles on the posterior thigh muscles
- Massage with the heels on the soles
4’
7. The organised closing of • Assessments on the lesson development
the lesson 2’
- recommendations for the future and the independent activity
- salute
30”
1’
30”
line in a row
Table 2: Lesson Plan - mesocycle pre-competitive. [23]
To achieve the objectives and expected results throughout the process of preparation, the athlete and the coach are required to
collaborate, in order to increase the functional possibilities of the body, to develop motor qualities and improve the technique and tactics.
The athletes want to participate in training, yet they need free time for their personal life, which must be proportionate, adequately,
in their daily schedule. In Table 3 we present an example of a 3-cycle daily training program, applied in a training camp, for the athletes
of the national group.
An example of 3-cycle daily training
06:00
getting-up
06:30 - 07:30
first cycle of training (low-intensity tng)
07:30 - 08:30
Breakfast
08:30 - 10:00
Repose
10:00 - 12:00
second cycle of training (physical strength training)
12:00 - 13:00
lunch
13:00 - 14:30
repose
14:30 - 17:30
3 rd cycle of training (technical training)
17:30 - 18:30
taking a shower
18:00 - 19:00
dinner
19:00 - 22:00
free time
22:00
going to bed
Table 3: 3-cycle daily training program. [24]
Some coaches or players prefer 2 cycles of daily training, each time lasting 3 to 4 hours. However, experts say that training of 5 to 6
hours a day in 3 or 4 cycles is more effective. They insist that training lasting over 2 hours or 2 and a half is not an effective one because a
long training period may cause over training, thus rather decreasing the effect of training and lessening biomotor abilities [25].
This is part of the training program in TKD, being a scientific enterprise able to lead us to determine the degree to which the
objectives set have been achieved in advance or not, if decisions made are justified or not [22]. In this regard, TKD instructors must
understand that: athletes are formed with the desire to provide courses TKD, the Black Belt they want as an aim for life, as recreational
sport or future champions [26].
For didactic purposes evaluation can be:
a) Formative - the focus is more on learning-correcting-improving, of the observable behavior (executions of jireuji, chagi, makki,
seogi, tactical actions, mental states, attitudes) than on the manifested performance (speed, strength, number of repetitions).
b) Summative - is achieved after a long period of training and it tests the knowledge gained; it is also performed using the standard
tests and norms marking the minimum expected level or some final “scales” expected.
c) normative - means the testing of all athletes through the same test and the comparison of a subject’s performance with the results
obtained by others. Usually it is done in accordance with a standard scale expressed in units of subjects’ value classification.
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Evaluation in TKD lesson
009
d) criteria - of different nature (physical, technical, tactical, psychological) the tests ignore the average value of the group and highlight
the “distance” of the individual performance against the established standard performance.
e) Quality - covers only positive teaching strategies that always achieve the objective pursued and not the probable components.
For more information you can study the chapter “Evaluation & Assessments in Taekwondo.”
Priorities methodical in organizing and conducting of the learning sessions the
topics
• Announcement of the topic;
• Updating prior knowledge needed to carry out new tasks, by checking the essential elements of the previous sessions;
• Ensuring the necessary conditions, the accomplishment of the task of learning or the continuous adaptation to the increasingly
complex tasks, through: updating psychophysical capacity and favorable execution rules to the new learning, widening the coordinative
capacities, the major functions according to the particular demands of new tasks;
The presentation of the topic and its objectives:
• The terminology,
• The clear and concise enunciation of the technical- tactical features of the technical procedure to be taught - learned, to raise
awareness of the purpose, to capture attention and trigger a strong motivation to athletes about the topic of the lesson. Illustration of great
champions who have achieved success using these techniques;
• Training in athletes of the ideomotor representation by stating the theoretical and the practical demonstration of the optimal model
execution by the coach through:
• Overall demonstration of the technique, to real combat speed;
• Overall demonstration of the technique slowly;
• Demonstrate the technique on parts, with an explanation of each of the elements, separately, with emphasis on “key” elements;
• Tracking boards and video projections with the respective technical processes;
The basic rule is that it must be demonstrated from multiple angles, and explained as many times as necessary for athletes’ fair
representation of the “model”.
Checking of understanding of the process of learning by:
• Athletes’ reproduction of what they have learned, from the verbal explanations and the practical demonstration of the model by the
coach (by offering a voluntary or by the appointment of an athlete by the coach);
Rule: If there are major uncertainties, the demonstrations are repeated and the explanations of the technical procedure elements by
the coach. Otherwise, we shall pass to the trials by athletes.
The technical procedure execution in parts:
• The coach establishes the working conditions, in which the athletes will practice the first motor act (material, workspace couples,
groups working rules to be followed during training, start and stop signals, working techniques, the time and number of repetitions, etc.).
• Firstly the athlete’s ideomotor (mentally) execution of the act to be learned and, then, the physical trials under standard conditions;
• With every execution we follow the achievement of the optimum parameters fixed in that motor act;
• During the executions we give the urgent information on how to achieve the topic; general mistakes are corrected immediately,
stopping all the team work, while the irrelevant errors are performed in intervals between repetitions, the correct executions are
exemplified (indicating those athletes that execute properly);
• Athletes self evaluate themselves and correct each other, in relation to the theoretical and practical model offered by the coach;
• We shall provide motor assistance (directly or indirectly);
• We shall simplify the tasks or the training conditions for the people with learning difficulties to their full integration into the team;
• The athletes will practice equally on both the skilful and on the unskillful part, to train the bilateral stereotypy.
The formative evaluation of the progress made in relation to the first topic will be considered a
complete success and we can proceed to the next objective acquisition, each time using the same
methodology to the full process in place. It can switch to the teaching and learning of another
technique if:
• All athletes demonstrate the correct technical process, in overall shape, standing, on both sides without form or fundamental
mistakes;
• They use the proper terminology;
• They describe and explain the key components of the technical procedure and identify key elements that confer efficiency to the
whole action (explaining the rules along with the demonstration);
• They can identify it correctly in a drawing or video with technical procedures from several groups;
• They classify it properly within the groups of techniques to which it belongs.
Towards the end of the lesson topics acquisition, as well as during it, the coach will use, as methodical procedures, the race, the
competition (who executes the most properly on both sides, who strikes above and who performs the technical process in a shorter
time). The successful exercises will be reinforced (positively valued) immediately and the relevant act or action will be demonstrated to
the entire team.
Assessments on the efficiency and effectiveness of the action of mastery, highlighting the active and creative athletes, during the
execution of the topics. At the end of the lesson the recap of the topics and goals achieved in the training process, to secure a better
OMICS Group eBooks
• They know the purpose for which they learn it;
0010
long term memory. Fixing the assignments for independent work. The next training topic announcement. In terms of motor capacity, a
technique is studied in kibon under three stages.
• In the first stage, the movements are executed separately, slowly and standing, the athlete having the opportunity to focus on every
detail and the coach to observe and correct mistakes more easily.
• In the second stage, the movements are executed chained firstly on the spot, afterwards moving until executions become fluid and
natural.
• In the last stage, the movements are executed with power and speed, while maintaining perfect stability and accompanied by deep
abdominal breathing, like in a real fight. Patience and perseverance characterize fully kibon. In kibon we will work equally on both the
right and the left side, in advance and in retreat. After learning and repeating each technique, we can move to the chained execution of
two or more techniques. First, the athlete should chain the same technique moving both on the left and on the right, after that going to
the concatenation of two or more different techniques, standing and finally moving.
From the methodological point of view, the chaining of different techniques, which are obligatory only techniques learned, will be
as follows: at first we will work slowly and detached, focusing on learning the sequence and coordination of movements, then move to a
flexible linkage but necessarily synchronized with a correct movement. In the end, every concatenation will be executed with power and
speed, no downtime, just a pause after each concatenation (combination). These combinations are starting to prepare the athlete for the
free combat.
In poomsae, at first we will work slower, to acquire fully the movements, after which we will pass to the correct movements chaining,
with balanced and moderate speed, in the end we will gradually increase the speed. The execution of a poomsae ceremony begins with the
greeting, followed by stating the name, we continue its execution according to the pace imposed by teacher / coach, and ends still with the
greeting (as a very important rule, the place to start is the same place to end). To increase the difficulty of execution and for the ownership
of good spatial - temporal orientation and not only the athletes can be blindfolded with their belts during the execution of poomsae.
We firmly underline the obligation to require from the athletes, at the stage of initiation, practicing the same number of repetitions
of a technique on both sides, for the bilateral stereotypy formation. Each motor execution will be preceded by the mental execution of
the technique.
Conclusions
Didactics organizes and directs both the coach’s activity and the athlete’s. Before making a training program for a particular
competition, we should gather information about the event, such as the environment and climate, the number of athletes participating in
the event and the time available for training.
To speak of training in TKD it is necessary to understand and analyze the biochemical, physiological, technical and tactical
phenomena, observed in prestigious competitions that are detailed in other chapters of the present eBook. Thus, we should proceed from
the implementation of means and methods used to volume and intensity.The biological factor must be the key issue in making decisions
by the coaches in a modern TKD teaching design. Also, the efficiency of the educational process decreases if the teaching principles are
not respected during activities and sessions.
References
1. Ouessleti N, Guinoubi C, Bennour N, Zghibi M (2013) Didactic concepts of Physical and Sportive Education teachers: The Characterization
and the impact on teachers’ professional skills. Education Research Journal 3: 145-152.
2. Păunescu C (2011) Taekwondo curs de bază. Editura Printech, București.
3. García RS, Spencer DC (Eds.) (2013) Fighting Scholars: Habitus and Ethnographies of Martial Arts and Combat Sports. Anthem Press,
London, UK.
4. Capener SD (2000) Taekwondo: the spirit of Korea. Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Republic of Kores.
5. http://www.worldtaekwondofederation.net
6. Păunescu C (2013) Taekwondo manual. (Edn). Didactica si pedagogica.
7. Kil YS (2006) Competitive Taekwondo: Winning training and tactics. Human kinetics, Illinois, USA.
8. Grigore V (2001) Gimnastică artistică - Bazele teoretice ale antrenamentului sportiv. Editura Semne, Bucureşti.
9. Rață G (2008) Didactica Educației Fizice și Sportului: ediţia a II a. PIM- Iaşi (Ed).
10.Sanchez B (1995) La Iniciacion Deportiva y el Deporte Escolar, editorial Inde, Barcelona, Spain.
11.Cristea S (1998) Dicționar de termeni pedagogici. (ed.) Didactică și Pedagogică.
12.Forteza de la Rosa A (1999) Direcciones del entrenamiento deportivo: metodología de la preparación del deportista, Ed. CientíficaTécnica.
13.Fargas I (1993) Taekwondo. España, Editado por el Comité Olímpico Español.
15.Haddad M, Chaouachi A, Castagna C, Wong del P, Chamari K (2012) The convergent validity between two objective methods for
quantifying training load in young taekwondo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 26: 206-209.
16.Haddad M, Behm D, Tebben M, Chamari K (2014) Monitoring Training Load, Recovery, Overtraining and Upper respiratory Infection in
Taekwondo. In: Monoem Haddad (ed.). Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field, OMICS Group Incorporation,
Nevada, USA.
17.Dan D (2008) Antrenamentul sportiv în disciplinete de combat. Bren (ed.). Bucureşti.
18.Pill S (2009) Sport teaching in physical education: Considering sports literacy in Creating Active Futures. 26th ACHPER International
Conference, Brisbane, pp: 123-133.
OMICS Group eBooks
14.Haddad M, Chaouachi A, Castagna C, Wong del P, Behm DG, et al. (2011) The construct validity of session RPE during an intensive
camp in young male Taekwondo athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6: 252-263.
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19.Ouergui I, Haddad M, Hammami N, Chamari K (2014) Time Motion and Technical and Tactical Analysis of Taekwondo Competition. In:
Monoem Haddad (ed.). Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field, OMICS Group Incorporation, Nevada, USA.
20.Haddad M, Ouergui I, Hammami N, Chamari K (2014) Physical Training in Taekwondo: Generic and Specific Training. In: Monoem
Haddad (ed.). Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field, OMICS Group Incorporation, Nevada, USA.
21.Behm D, Haddad M (2014). Stretching during the Warm-up and to increase Flexibility for Taekwondo. In: Monoem Haddad (ed.).
Performance Optimization in Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field, OMICS Group Incorporation, Nevada, USA.
22.Păunescu C, Păunescu M, Haddad M (2014) Evaluation & Assessment in Taekwondo. In: Monoem Haddad (ed.). Performance
Optimization in Taekwondo: From Laboratory to Field, OMICS Group Incorporation, Nevada, USA.
23.Păunescu C (2011) Contribuţii la ameliorarea pregătirii sportivilor de Taekwondo WTF prin selecţia adecvată a acţiunilor eficiente din
competiţiile de prestigiu. Teză de Doctorat, UNEFS, Bucureşti.
24.Kukkiwon (2011) Taekwondo Textbook I. (ed.). O-Sung publishing Company, Seoul, South Korea.
25.Kukkiwon (2013) Taekwondo Textbook II. (ed.). O-Sung publishing Company, Seoul, South Korea.
OMICS Group eBooks
26.Akilian FJ (2009) Taekwondo Olimpico. editorial KIER, Buenos Aires.
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