Escola Secundária José Gomes Ferreira

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Escola Secundária José Gomes Ferreira
Escola Secundária José Gomes Ferreira
1
Index
Introduction........................................slide 3 to 5
History-Work in Portugal..................slide 6 to 7
The April Revolution..........................slide 8
The evolution of the gender roles in the world of
work and difference in wages............slide 9 to14
Nowadays...........................................slide 15 to 18
Interview to Portuguese society........slide 19
To conclude, with this interview.......slide 20 to 24
Keyword of the work..........................slide 25
INTRODUCTION
For a lot of people, work or job are words that scare them
and sometimes are defined getting up early in the
morning, working hard and not getting compensated as
well as they should at the end of the month but it
doesn’t come down to just that.
3
Although many people work just to
bring money home at the end of the month, a
lot of others work because they like it or to
prove that they can and that they are no
different from everybody else. These people
are mainly women and that's going to be the
focal point of our presentation.
Is there really a big gap between women and men
being able to find a job and how much they
earn occupying the same position in a company ?
4
That's what we went to find out and we came up with
some curious points of view and realities.
We hope you enjoy our presentation and that you learn
as much about this subject as we did.
5
HISTORY- WORK IN PORTUGAL
In Portugal the totalitarian regime (1933- 1974) supported
the idea of women being treated as inferior to men. A law
was passed declaring that while there were unemployed
men, women wouldn’t be hired in any circumstances even
when considered cheap labour.
6
In 1950, 22.7% of the
active
population
was
female.
In
textile,
tobacco
and
clothing
industries, there was a
high
percentage
female
of
unskilled
workers.
Women were not allowed to work in local
administration, follow a diplomatic career
or be a magistrate until 1962.
7
THE APRIL REVOLUTION
The April Revolution in 1974, began a new period where the
Portuguese people’s living conditions, mainly the Portuguese
women’s, changed a lot. Many women became aware of the
oppression and discrimination they had faced. Soon they
started intervening in the fight for equality in work,
demanding changes, equalitarian claims and coming out on
the streets.
The New Constitution established gender equality in all fields.
From 1993 onwards, women were able to voluntarily apply in
equal conditions of men to join the Army, the Air Force and
the Navy.
8
Since the turning of the 20th century
that social and political conventions
had been dictating the man as the
breadwinner and conveyed him as the
cornerstone at each household where
there was often an extended family to
support.
9
The woman didn’t need and shouldn’t go out of her house to
earn money. Those who were widows or from the lowest
social class and needed to earn money to support their
families usually made flower arrangements, gave piano
lessons, among other domestic work.
10
But besides being depreciated and
mostly ignored by other social
backgrounds those were
activities often seen as
despicable by the society in
general.
Even though, some women were brave enough to overpass the
social prejudice and barriers of being just wife, mother or
housewife and since the 70’s, after the April Revolution in
Portugal, women have been conquering a bigger merit in the
world of work.
11
Western societies have betted on the women’s value, such
as the capacity of working in a team against the
previous individuality, on the value of persuasion
opposing authoritarianism and on cooperation against
fierce competition.
12
As women started widening the ranges of workforce:
•
gender discrimination;
• sexual harassment;
among others have also begun.
Talking about gender discrimination there have been complaints about
the different positions that men and women occupy in the same firm
or industry and the inequality of women’s and men’s wages,
especially if they have the same qualifications. Men and women
seem to be treated differently from each other in an unfair way.
13
The average salary
1 - Finance and insurance
2 – House and restaurants
Year
Male
Female
Year
Male
Female
2000
745,5
698,9
2000
524,4
422,2
2010
879,4
945,4
2010
742,8
602,5
2011
859,0
919,7
2011
747,8
610,3
3 – Trade
4 – Health care and social support
Year
Male
Female
Year
Male
Female
2000
669,2
519,0
2000
645,3
487,4
2010
923,7
757,9
2010
1066,1
760,9
2011
932,2
770,6
2011
1070,5
767,5
*in euros
14
NOWADAYS
Today, in Portugal, there are still more men than women
leading a political career and again the fact is due to the
unequal quota thought for male and female candidates.
Times have changed but one must always enforce democratic
ideals and principles of humanity based on
•
dignity
•
dialogue
•
•
enthusiasm
cooperation
15
Average monthly wages:
Men are still earning considerably more than women.
16
Employed and unemployed population looking for a job:
Women have better qualifications when it comes to apply for a job.
17
“We are each burdened with prejudice
against the poor or the rich, the smart
or the slow, the gaunt or the obese. It
is natural to develop prejudices. It is
noble to rise above them.”
Unknown author
18
INTERVIEW
TO
PORTUGUESE
SOCIETY
19
TO CONCLUDE, WITH THIS INTERVIEW…
The majority of our interviewees, agree that men
and women are able to perform the same
functions as long as they have:

the same qualifications
for the same job.
20
We have realized that lately there has been an evolution
regarding gender inequalities in workplace. Yet, formerly the
woman didn’t and couldn’t occupy a position in the world of
work, because in many societies it was culturally forbidden.
She would be:

misjudged and humiliated if she dared to do the opposite.

There was, therefore, bigger gender discrimination,

there was sexism and sexist practices along with a glass ceiling
that allowed them to get to a particular level but no further.
Unfortunately, in some places gender stereotyping is still on
people’s agenda.
21
Statistically speaking,

Men earn more than women and only a
few women can get to the top.

Many employers advocate the idea and
explain this fact based on working
mothers asking for maternity leave,
occupying themselves more with the
education and daily guidance of their
children. This same fact can prevent the
woman from reaching a high position in
the firm. How many female CEO’s are
there even in today’s world of work?
22
There still exist traces of discrimination and sexism against women.
As for specific jobs for men and women, men may have more job
opportunities, justified by:

their greater physical strength and

love for challenge and

functioning best under stress.
However, that fact can’t be an obstacle
to impede women to play the same
roles as men in modern societies.
Furthermore, the older generation still
approves of sexist behaviour, for example
in the domestic work which is regarded
a job only by women.
23
To conclude, we have observed that there are different ways of
thinking and acting as for gender roles in workplace being
this the result of some social changes in the world of work.
Thanks to several equal opportunities policies and diversity
initiatives in workplace people’s mentality has been evolving,
as well as women’s presence in the world of work.
24
25
André Vilas
Catarina Gomes
Marta Fernandes
Rita Serrano
Teacher: Rosário Cantante