Tires

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Tires
Forskning på støy og støv i
Finland
Heikki Tervahattu
Trondheim
14 September, 2006
Heikki Tervahattu
1
Contents
1. (Experimental studies on factors influencing
road dust generation)
2. The comparison of studded and friction tires in
the road dust problem
3. KAPU-project: Studies on the impact of winter
maintenance and springtime street cleaning on
the road dust problem
4. VIEME-project: Studies on the impact of road
surfaces and tyres on noise and dust emission
and transmission
Heikki Tervahattu
2
Road dust research performed
At an indoor road simulator
Experimental field studies
Mobile air quality
research laboratory
At the
Nokia
proving
ground
Using data from air quality
monitoring stations
Heikki Tervahattu
3
1. Experimental studies on factors
influencing road dust generation
Heikki Tervahattu
4
Publications
Kupiainen K., Tervahattu H., and Räisänen M., 2003. Experimental Studies about
the Impact of Traction Sand on Urban Road Dust Composition. The Science
of the Total Environment 308, 175-184.
Kupiainen K.J., Tervahattu H., Räisänen M., Mäkelä T., Aurela M., and Hillamo R.,
2005. Size and Composition of Airborne Particles from Pavement Wear,
Tires, and Traction Sanding. Environmental Science & Technology 39, 699706.
Tervahattu H., Kupiainen K.J., Räisänen M., Mäkelä T., and Hillamo R., 2006.
Generation of Urban Road Dust form Anti-Skid and Asphalt Concrete
Aggregates. Journal of Hazardous Materials 132, 39-46.
Kupiainen K. and Tervahattu H., 2004. The Effect of Traction Sanding on Urban
Suspended Particles in Finland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
93, 287-300.
Räisänen M., Kupiainen K., and Tervahattu H., 2003. The Effect of Mineralogy,
Texture and Mechanical Properties of Anti-Skid and Asphalt Aggregates on
Urban Dust. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 62, 359368.
Räisänen M., Kupiainen K., and Tervahattu H., 2003. The Effect of mineralogy,
texture and Mechanical Properties of Anti-Skid and Asphalt Aggregates on
Urban Dust, Stages II and III. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the
Environment 64, 247-256.
Heikki Tervahattu
5
2. The comparison of studded and
friction tires in the road dust problem
Heikki Tervahattu
6
Tires
Studded tire
Summer tire
Nokian renkaat
Z
Heikki Tervahattu
Friction tire
Nokian renkaat
Hakkapeliitta Rsi
7
Nokian renkaat
Hakkapeliitta 4
Wear of road/street surface
On a clean road, studded tires generate much more PM10-dust. Friction
tires wear only little clean asphalt surface. Several factors have an impact
(weather conditions, the quality of the pavement, driving speed, the quality
and amount of studs; wet pavement is weared much more than dry
surface - salting has a great impact by keeping surfaces wet. etc.).
Road surface is never clean.
Mineral dust is generated by
studs, from traction sand and
transported by wind and cars
from unpaved parking plots,
yards, footways etc.
Picture: Sand is transported
from unpaved byways.
Heikki Tervahattu
8
Sanded road/street
• Regardless of the tire type, PM10-concentrations increase several
fold when traction sand is used.
• Asphalt wear is substantially enhanced by the sandpaper effect.
Similar impact is caused by all hard materials on road surface.
• Studs do not have great contribution in the sandpaper effect. The
interaction of the whole tire surface with loose material and road
surface is decisive; similarly the grinding of sand to inhalable dust
is performed by the whole tire surface.
• Friction tires and studded tires act similarly in grinding sand and in
the sandpaper effect and their combined impact is much greater
than asphalt wear by studs. Therefore friction and studded tires do
not have great difference in PM10-production on sanded or
otherwise dirty roads.
Heikki Tervahattu
9
Resuspension
•
Air quality is finally dependant
on the suspension of inhalable
dust from the road surface.
•
Due to uneven road surface,
some amount of dust is always
layed on roads.
•
Under dirty conditions,
resuspension is much greater
than primary emission of road
dust generated by direct road
wear.
•
Are there any differences
between friction and studded
tires in resuspension of this
dust?
Heikki Tervahattu
10
•
Road dust is always layed on
uneven surfaces that are
difficult to clean (SMA-asphalt,
scale circle diameter 30 mm).
Resuspension by friction and studded tires
• We have performed more than 50 tests on 5 different
low-noise pavements +”normal” references studying road
dust concentrations by the Sniffer using 3 tire types.
• Friction tire caused in all tests much greater PM10concentrations than other tire types on all pavements and
all seasons (results in the figure on 25 April, 2006).
25000
20000
15000
Kesä
11438
Nasta
Kitka
10000
5470
5000
1615
Heikki Tervahattu
11
Keskiarvo
Röykkä_W
Röykkä_E
Röykkä_ref_W
Röykkä_ref_E
Klaukka_W
Klaukka_E
Klaukka_ref_W
Klaukka_ref_E
Kolke_W
Kolke_E
Lippa_ref_W
Lippa_ref_E
Konalantie_S
Konala_N
Konala_ref_S
Konala_ref_N
0
”Suction pad” effect
• It was concluded that resuspension of dust
by friction tires is much greater than by
studded tires. --- WHY?
• The anti-slippery impact of friction tires is
produced by great amount of lamells and
softer rubber material.
• When lamells touch the road surface, air
between the lamells is pressed out. When
lamells get unfastened, air is ”sucked”
between the lamells. Loose PM is
consequently lifted from the road surface
and suspended in the ambient air.
• We named this phenomenon as a ”suction
pad” effect.
Heikki Tervahattu
12
Concluding summary
• Studded tires cause greater road surface wear than friction
tires producing more inhalable dust.
• Both tire types act in a similar way in grinding sand and in the
sandpaper effect. This dust production is dominating during
dust episodes.
• Resuspension of dust has much greater impact on ambient air
than current dust generation on dirty roads.
• Friction tires cause greater resuspension than studded tires.
• In urban driving, the total impact of studded tires and friction
tires on air quality may be almost similar.
Heikki Tervahattu
13
3. KAPU-project
Studies on the impact of winter
maintenance and springtime street
cleaning on the road dust problem
Heikki Tervahattu
14
Aims and objectives
• Studies on the impact of winter maintenance
and springtime street cleaning on the road
dust problem, aiming to provide new
information for reducing road dust.
• Objectives
- The effectiveness of present maintenance
measures and cleaning facilities
- Development and testing of new practices and
facilities
Heikki Tervahattu
15
Implementation
• Studies on road dust is mainly performed by the
SNIFFER vehicle, the mobile air quality
research laboratory
• All measures taken for winter maintenance and
road cleaning are carefully registered
• Comprehensive data of air quality and
meteorology is collected by the Sniffer and
environmental authorities to support
conclusions, international data is exploited
• The composition of road dust is studied
• New methods, materials and facilities are tested
Heikki Tervahattu
16
STADIA’s contribution to the
KAPU- and VIEME-projects
• the mobile laboratory Sniffer
• particle mass PM10 is monitored by TEOM
Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance,
Series 1400A, Rupprecth & Patashnick), 20 s
running averages are saved every 10 s
• total particle number concentration and number
size distribution of 7 nm - 10 μm particles are
measured by ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure
Impactor, Dekati Ltd) with 1 s time resolution. In
the future also PM2.5 and PM1 will be calculated
from the ELPI results.
• weather station (relative wind speed, relative
wind direction, temperature and relative humidity)
is located at the roof of the van at 2.9 m altitude
Dust sample
is sucked
from behind
the left tire
• gps saves driving speed, driving route and local
coordinates
Heikki Tervahattu
17
30.8.2006 Liisa Pirjola
Cities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Helsinki
Vantaa
Espoo
Tampere
Riihimäki
Kerava
Heikki Tervahattu
18
Reduction of dust at Vantaa, spring 2006
20.04.
Heikki Tervahattu
27.04.
19
04.05.
31.05.
Reduction of dust at Vantaa, spring 2006
20.04.
27.04.
04.05.
31.05.
Heikki Tervahattu
20
Analysis of Vantaa dust measurements
Kielotie 32
Talkootie 37
μg/m3
Lummetie 27
Talvikkitie 35
Ratatie 34
keskiarvo 33
Tikkurilantie 37
Urheilutie 33
18000
16000
streets cleaned
6.4.-20.4.
14000
12000
salting 19.3.
sanding 20.3.
10000
salting
23.-24.3.
ja 5.4.
8000
no rains 22.4.-13.5.
dust
binding
21.4.
rains 14.5.-26.5.(not 22.5.)
summer
tires 2.5.
6000
4000
2000
Heikki Tervahattu
21
30.5.
22.5.
11.5.
4.5.
27.4.
24.4.
20.4.
11.4.
22.3.
0
Analysis of Vantaa dust measurements
Road dust and suspended PM
-
High concentrations of suspended PM10 after street cleaning
Additional impact from long-range transport of field fire smoke
3
road dust mg/m
Mean/Vantaa
Tikkurilantie
PM10Vantaa
PM2,5Luukki
3
suspended PM μg/m
12
120
dust binding 21.4.
no rains 22.4.-13.5.
10
100
Streets cleaned by 20.4.
8
80
rains 14.5.-26.5.(not 22.5.)
6
60
4
40
2
20
0
0
4.3.
Heikki Tervahattu
9.3.
14.3. 19.3. 24.3. 29.3.
3.4.
8.4.
13.4. 18.4. 23.4. 28.4.
22
3.5.
8.5.
13.5. 18.5. 23.5. 28.5.
4. VIEME-project
Rolling Noise Abatement - R & D Project
• The impact of road surfaces and tyres on noise
and dust emission and transmission
• Emission and transmission of noise and dust
are studied simultaneously and at the same
locations
• Better understanding of the connections of the
two problems as well as the road-tyre
interaction will be produced
• The goal is to reduce exposure to noise without
increasing dust problems and weakening traffic
safety
Heikki Tervahattu
23
Implementation
• Emission and propagation of noise and dust are
measured during different seasons at road and street
strips having surfaces with different noise contribution
• The transmission and distribution of noise and dust are
studied also by models
• The impact of different tyre types on rolling noise and
dust emissions is studied at selected locations and on
the proving ground
• Researchers
Heikki Tervahattu and Kaarle Kupiainen, Nordic Envicon Oy
Panu Sainio, Helsinki University of Technology
Tapio Lahti, Akukon Oy
Mika Räisänen, Geological Survey of Finland
Liisa Pirjola, Helsinki Polytechnic
Leena Kangas, Finnish Meteorological Institute
Heikki Tervahattu
24
Dust emissions from low-noise and normal
pavements 1/4.
•
16000
14000
12000
μg/m3
10000
ref
8000
hil
6000
4000
2000
Heikki Tervahattu
25
keskiarvo
Riihi
Röykkä
Klaukka
Lippa/kolke
Konala
0
•
•
•
•
Sniffer
measurements on
April 13, 2006
Studded tyres
ref = reference
hil =low-noise
keskiarvo= mean
Dust emissions from low-noise and normal
pavements 2/4.
Kesärengas ref
Nastarengas ref
Kesärengas hil
Nastarengas hil
9000
3500
8000
7000
6000
3000
2500
5000
2000
4000
3000
2000
1500
1000
1000
0
500
0
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
keskiarvo
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
keskiarvo
Studded tyre
Summer tyre
Kitkarengas ref
Konala
Kitkarengas hil
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Sniffer measurements
April 25, 2006
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
keskiarvo
Friction tyre
Heikki Tervahattu
26
Dust emissions from low-noise and normal
pavements 3/4.
Kesärengas ref
Kesärengas hil
Nastarengas ref
3000
Nastarengas hil
7000
2500
6000
2000
5000
1500
4000
3000
1000
2000
500
1000
0
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
keskiarvo
Pirkkola
Summer tyre
Kitkarengas ref
0
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
keskiarvo
Studded tyre
Kitkarengas hil
10000
9000
8000
Sniffer measurements
May 3, 2006
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
Keskiarvo
Pirkkola
Friction tyre
Heikki Tervahattu
27
Pirkkola
Dust emissions from low-noise and normal
pavements 4/4.
Kesärengas ref
Kesärengas hil
Nastarengas ref
1600
Nastarengas hil
3500
1400
3000
1200
2500
1000
2000
800
1500
600
1000
400
500
200
0
0
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Röykkä
Keskiarvo
Pirkkola
Konala
Summer tyre
Kitkarengas ref
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Heikki Tervahattu
Klaukka
Röykkä
Keskiarvo
Kitkarengas hil
•
Lippa/Kolke
Klaukka
Studded tyre
6000
Konala
Lippa/Kolke
Röykkä
Friction tyre
Keskiarvo
28
Pirkkola
Sniffer measurements
May 31, 2006
Pirkkola
Dust emissions from a low-noise and a
reference pavement
Heikki Tervahattu
29
Conclusions
•
•
Differences in dust level between low-noise and normal
pavements are varying and no clear tendency could be shown
More intensive research is needed
Hypothesis
Having a smoother surface, low noise asphalt has
smaller volume for depot of PM. It may be better
cleaned by traffic, wind and rain as well as better
cleanable by maintenance. PM emissions would
thus be lower.
Heikki Tervahattu
30
Noise and wear measurements by HUT*
Panu Sainio
1. Noise from CPX alias trailer method with 3 tyres, 50km/h
(normal summer, Nordic non-studded and studded winter tyre), 5
silent pavements +references
2. Wear measurements done by Lab. of Highway Engineering with
profilometer from one old and well know test area
*Helsinki University of
Technology
www.tkk.fi/units/auto
NOTRA CPX-trailer
Heikki Tervahattu
31
www.tkk.fi/units/auto
1. Noise emission
-Tyre-road noise emission decreases during summer period with
all types of tyres
- Silent pavements do not lower stud-related noise
-Type of tyre is more important than type of asphalt
dB(A)
- Noise
emission from
friction tyres
much lower
than from
studded tyres
and even lower
than from
summer tyres
average values of different pavements with different tyres
99
avg stud silent
avg stud ref
97
95
avg sum ref
93
avg sum silent
avg fric ref
91
avg fric silent
5.8.
29.7.
22.7.
15.7.
8.7.
1.7.
24.6.
17.6.
10.6.
3.6.
27.5.
20.5.
13.5.
32
6.5.
29.4.
22.4.
Heikki Tervahattu
15.4.
89
Wear measurements
www.tkk.fi/units/auto
- One aspect of the project is to follow older test sections from
previous projects as for wear and noise
- Silent pavement are made from "best available" material to gain
max wearing resistance. The mass used for silent pavement 60
kg/m2 ~ for conventional AB16 100 kg/m2.
mm
autumn02
spring03
spring04
spring05
spring06
14
12
Collector road
on residential
area with
average
daytime
traffic~4500
10
8
6
4
2
0
Heikki Tervahattu
Hiltti-mix
33
SMA6
SMA8 ref
AB16 ref
Noise emission from aging pavement
www.tkk.fi/units/auto
• Old silent pavement (left), SMA 6 in the previous
slide
• Noise emission substantially lower than in the reference
(right) with summer tyres
Heikki Tervahattu
34
Noise emission & propagation
Dr. Tapio Lahti, Akukon Oy
• Measurement setup:
– Pass-by
– 4 simultaneous synchronised microphone channels
(low, standard, high & far)
– Full phase-locked signal information recorded for
post-processing
– In addition to standard measurements:
• Nearfield radiation of emission
• Vertical directivity
• Close-distance propagation
Heikki Tervahattu
35
Microphone positions
High
Heikki Tervahattu
Standard
36
Far
Low
Basic measurements
• Low-noise and reference pavements
• Relation to standard methods:
–
–
–
–
Common statistical pass-by (SPB)
+ Nordtest standard: determination of noise emission
+ Nordtest extension (under preparation)
+ EU Harmonoise: complement method for directivity
of emission
– + Determination of the ground attenuation of noise
propagation
Heikki Tervahattu
37
Special measurements
• Nokia proving ground (normal pavement)
– 3 types: summer, friction, studded
– fully controlled conditions (e.g. geometry, asphalt
surface & vehicle speed)
– repeated single-vehicle coast-by with motor idling
Heikki Tervahattu
38
Examples of pass-by time histories
100
AF sound level, dB
low
std
high
far
passing by
90
80
approaching
driving away
70
60
50
0
Heikki Tervahattu
5
10
39
15
time, s
Examples of pass-by spectra
80
Aeq sound level, dB
low
std
high
far
70
60
50
40
30
100
Heikki Tervahattu
1000
40
frequency, Hz
10000
Some preliminary results
• Basic noise emission:
– absolute emission of the pavement test sites
determined in terms of the Nordic noise prediction
models
• Additional information of emission:
– spectrum and directivity of noise radiation
• Comparison of tyre types:
– the studded winter tyre is ”several” dB noisier than the
summer and friction tyres
Heikki Tervahattu
41
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !
Heikki Tervahattu
42
Mineralogy of the aggregates (2001-2002)
Traction sands
•
•
•
•
Minerals >5%
presented in table
Hornblende tracer
Mineral size in
aggregates 0.1-10
mm
Mineral types
identifiable in PM
with individual
particle analysis
(SEM/EDX)
Granites
Heikki Tervahattu
Diabase
Mafic vulcanite
29.4
Quartz
30.4
K-feldspar
29.6
Plagioclase
32.4
57.4
Biotite
5.9
3.8
53
Hornblende
Clinopyroxene
17.3
Olivine
17.5
CummingtoniteGrunerite
43
Asphalt
12.8
Individual particle analysis
•
Based on the analysis of
individual particles by
SEM/EDX. The chemical
composition of particles is
analysed and the mineral type
of each particle is identified.
Heikki Tervahattu
44
•
The road dust particle in the
photo was identified as
potassium feldspar for its high
content of K, Si, Al, and O.
Composition of particles
•
>90% mineral particles, others: bitumen, tires, carbonates.
•
Hornblende (red) as a tracer, because the asphalt stone contained
53% hornblende (right column) and the sanding materials (left) did
not contain it.
All hornblende particles originated from asphalt – this was the basis
for calculating the shares of asphalt and sanding material.
•
100%
?
34
80%
33
19
60%
17
15
40%
14
13
12
20%
11
2
Heikki Tervahattu
45
asfaltti
Ki0
Na0
Mna4
Mna2
Dlna2
Dki2
Dna4
Dna2
Arna2
Anna2
Aki2
Ana4
Ana2
Ämmässuo
0%
The test conditions
• Indoor road simulator
(passenger car weight)
• 2-5ºC, RH 50-75%
• 59 tests (2001-2003)
–
–
–
–
48 with traction sand
11 without
studded/non-studded
speed (15-30 km h-1)
• 28 tests with a new
asphalt in 2003
Heikki Tervahattu
46
PM sampling
• 2 Virtual-impactors (PM2.5-10
and PM2.5)
• 2 SDI cascade-impactors
(12 stages, 0.06-10.7 μm)
• TSP and PM10 hi-vol
samplers
Heikki Tervahattu
47
Emission levels affected by (1/4):
- amount of sand aggregate
- sand aggregate properties
The aggregate with the lowest resistance against fragmentation
(Granite 1) caused higher emissions especially when more
sand was dispersed
-3
PM10 [mg m ]
(Figure: only studded tests with 2/5.6 sand)
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Other
Granite1
y = 0.0026x + 0.1765
2
R = 0.688
y = 0.002x + 0.3566
2
R = 0.9335
0
500
1000
1500
2000
-2
Heikki Tervahattu
Amount
of traction sand [g m ]
48
2500
Sanding experiments in field conditions (1/2)
Effect of traction sanding on PM emissions
•
•
Sanded surface = 9 x clean
Tire type seemed not to play a big role after sanding
PM9 before and after dispersion of traction sand
µg m
-3
30000
25000
40 kph - non-studded
20000
40 kph - studded
50 kph - non-studded
15000
50 kph - studded
10000
70 kph - non-studded
5000
70 kph - studded
Heikki Tervahattu
49
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before
0
Sanding experiments in field conditions (2/2)
Effect of traction sanding on PM emissions
•
•
•
•
Highest difference immediately after sanding (max 15x)
4 hours after sanding the difference had decreased substantially
Emissions decreased as sand was swept aside by traffic
Result in line with US studies where PM levels decreased to presanding levels 8 hours after sanding (Kuhns et al., 2003. Atm. Env.37,
4573-)
PM9 at 40 kph after sanding
(15:28 and 18:40 tests with studded tires)
20000
Before sanding
After sanding
µg m
-3
15000
10000
5000
0
14:11
14:55
15:28
16:57
Start time
Heikki Tervahattu
50
18:10
18:40
Studies on the sources of the particles
• Sanding increased PM from asphalt: indication of the
abrasive wear of the pavement by sand grains under the
tires (the sandpaper effect).
mg m -3
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Traction sand
Asphalt
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Test
Tests 1-2 without sand, 3-8 appr. 900 g m-2 sand, 9-14 appr. 1900 g m-2 sand
Heikki Tervahattu
51
14
The sandpaper effect
• The asphalt wear by
tires is greatly
increased by the
sand between the
asphalt and the
tires.
• This impact is not
much effected by
studs.
Heikki Tervahattu
52
Emission levels affected by (2/4):
-
sand aggregate grain size
-
all fine-grained hard material on the streets enhances asphalt wear
PM 10 vs grain size of traction sand
10
Grain size
2/5.6 mm
Grain size
1/5.6
3
PM 10 [mg/m ]
12
8
6
4
2
0
Heikki Tervahattu
Sand: 300 g/m2
53
Sand: 1000 g/m2
Sand: 2000 g/m2
Emission levels affected by (3/4):
- Tire type: studded/friction tire
-
Statistically significant differences: higher concentrations with
studded tires (Sign test, p=0.016):
(Nokian tyres 175/70R13, studded: Hakkapeliitta 1; friction: Hakkapeliitta Q)
Tire type vs PM 10
PM10 [mg/m 3]
3
Studded tire
2
Friction tire
1
0
Sand: 300 g/m2
Without sand
Heikki Tervahattu
54
Sand: 1000 g/m2
Emission levels affected by (4/4):
- Asphalt composition
PM10
PM10-concentrations between two asphalts with Diabase as
an anti-skid aggregate. Asphalt was made out of Mafic
Volcanic Rock (2001-2002) and out of Granite (2003).
μg/m
3
6000
From traction sand
Studded tires 2000
From asphalt
g/m
3
sand
5000
4000
Studded tires, 1000
g/m
3000
3
sand
Friction tires, 1000
g/m
3
sand
2000
1000
0
A1
(2001)
Heikki Tervahattu
A1
(2002)
A2
(2003)
A1
(2001)
55
A1
(2002)
A2
(2003)
A1
(2001)
A1
(2002)
A2
(2003)
Conclusions
• Both tire studs and the use of traction sand increase PM
emissions.
• Sanding increases PM10-concentrations several fold
independantly from the tire type.
• The emission levels with traction sand are affected by the amount
dispersed, by the grain size, and by the quality of the sand.
• Sanding increased PM from asphalt: abrasive wear of the
pavement by sand grains under the tires (the sandpaper effect).
All hard material on road surface has a similar impact.
• PM mass is mainly in coarse fraction, some contribution also to
fine and submicron fractions
• The results emphasize the interaction of tires, anti-skid
aggregate, and asphalt pavement in the production of dust
emissions. They all must be taken into account when measures
to reduce road dust are considered.
Heikki Tervahattu
56
• another ELPI is sampling background air in front of the van
• data were preprocessed
• time series of PM10 were plotted with the help of lognotes
On-going developments of the sampling system
• to be able to make stationary PM10 measurements for dispersion studies
the combustion engine located on the roof of the vehicle (provides constant
flow rate of 2000 lpm in the sampling tube) was changed to electric engine to
avoid engine’s own emissions and a new sampling line through the roof of
the van was built
• validation of the sampling system
• gravimetric mass measurements of the ELPI stages to estimate densities
and further PM2.5 and PM1
Heikki Tervahattu
57
30.8.2006 Liisa Pirjola
Heikki Tervahattu
58
18:22:40
18:10:10
W
18:23:32
17:57:40
17:45:10
F
18:12:20
Klaukkala
18:01:08
S
17:49:56
17:32:40
17:20:10
17:07:40
S
17:38:44
17:27:32
17:16:20
16:55:10
16:42:40
16:30:10
W
17:05:08
16:53:56
16:42:44
16:17:40
16:05:10
F
16:31:32
16:20:20
15:52:40
S
16:09:08
Espoo
15:57:56
15:40:10
S
15:46:44
14:39:40
14:27:10
W
15:35:32
14:36:04
14:14:40
14:02:10
13:49:40
F
14:24:52
14:13:40
Helsinki 2
14:02:28
13:37:10
13:24:40
13:12:10
12:59:40
S
13:51:16
13:40:04
13:28:52
13:17:40
15000
10000
5000
0
12:47:10
20000
S
13:06:28
12:55:16
25000
W
12:34:40
12:22:10
F
12:44:04
12:32:52
12:09:40
11:57:10
11:44:40
S
12:21:40
Helsinki 1
12:10:28
11:59:16
11:32:10
11:19:40
11:07:10
W S
11:48:04
11:36:52
11:25:40
F
11:14:28
10:54:40
10:42:10
S
11:03:16
10:52:04
10:29:40
PM10 (ug/m3)
30000
10:40:52
10:29:40
Speed (km/h)
S = summer tire
F = friction tire
W = winter tire with spikes
VIEME 20060503
S
Time
Röykkä
Sniffer's speed
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Tim e
30.8.2006 Liisa Pirjola
Some expected results
• Pavement wear and generation of inhalable
particles from different low-noise and ”normal”
asphalts
• Comparison of summer, friction and studded
tires in producing noise and dust
• The properties of low-noise asphalts in winter
maintenance and cleaning
Heikki Tervahattu
59