Operating System Software - DEIF Wind Power Technology

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Operating System Software - DEIF Wind Power Technology
Advanced Wind turbine Controller
AWC 500
Operating system software
Document no.: 4189340737
4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
Revision
Revision
A
DEIF A/S
Author
SJE
Date
2012-06-26
Description
Initial release
i of 54
4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
Contents
Contents
Revision
i
Contents
ii
1
Operating system software
1.1 AWC 500 file system overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Storage folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2
Operating system and firmware update
2.1 Firmware update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 CoDeSys SP image update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Operating system image updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3
Basic use of SSH connection
3.1 View directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Change directory . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 View file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Change file mode . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Change file owner . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Copy file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Change time . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Change password . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 See Memory and CPU usage . . . . .
3.10 Shutdown the AWC 500 . . . . . . . .
3.11 Restart the AWC 500 unit . . . . . . . .
3.12 Uptime of system . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 Memory usage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 Disc usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15 Ethercat master control and diagnostics
3.16 View modules on Ethercat network . .
3.17 Changing boot settings . . . . . . . . .
3.18 Start/Stop application mode . . . . . .
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4
How-to
4.1 Access Windows shared folder from the AWC 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Format the SD card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5
Appendix
5.1 Busybox/Linux Command Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Linux system shell commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Command descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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DEIF A/S
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ii of 54
4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
Operating system software
1 Operating system software
For the AWC 500 Operating system DEIF has made a compilation of the best from Linux 2.6 and open source
software, amongst
• busybox – Called the "The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux".
• dropbear – SSH client
• ethercat – Ethercat master
• preemt – real-time kernel patch and others
In the appendix is a list of the enabled commands in the AWC 500 operating system. You also find the most often
used commands in this section. These we have also collected on a single page "DEIF AWC 500 Linux cheat sheet"
with the most common used commands - ready for printout to have on your desktop.
1.1
AWC 500 file system overview
The robust file system of the AWC 500 is structured with user and operating system software folders:
Figure 1.1: Operating system software folders
1.2
1.2.1
Storage folders
Memory (/tmp)
Temporary user files can be stored in the /tmp folder. This could be temporary logging or other data storage. The
folder fwupdates is used as source for firmware updates.
DEIF A/S
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Operating system software
Figure 1.2: The fwupdates folder
1.2.2
Application (/app)
User applications should be stored in the /app folder. You are free to create your own folders here.
Figure 1.3: The user applications folder
DEIF A/S
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4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
Operating system software
Log, service and sysconf are however AWC 500 Operating System software folders. If the "codesys" folder does
not exists on your device eg. if the operating system has been updated, then update the software with the codesys_
control SP runtime(.dupdate file) from the DEIF AWC 500 CoDeSys development package
1.2.3
Operating system software and CoDeSys log files (/app/log)
Log files for the Operating system software and CoDeSys are located in this folder. Refer to these files for status of
system software updates eg. syslog.
Figure 1.4: Log files
1.2.4
C/C++ applications folder (/app/service)
C/C++ applications are stored and started from this location
DEIF A/S
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Operating system software
Figure 1.5: C/C++ applications folder
1.2.5
CoDeSys Control Runtime folder (/app/service/codesys)
Figure 1.6: CoDeSys Control Runtime folder
DEIF A/S
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Operating system software
CoDeSys boot project applications are stored under /app/service/codesys/app and /app/service/codesys/visu folders
if boot projects are created. The binary applications shall be uploaded to these folders (see "Distributing applications"
in "IEC61131-3 programming").
1.2.6
System configuration (/app/sysconf)
The interfaces files placed here is the default active network settings.
Figure 1.7: System configuration folder empty
If it is empty like above, then copy the files etc/hostname-default and etc/network/interfaces-default and use as
templates. Rename them to "hostname-default" to "hostname" and "interfaces-default" to "interfaces":
DEIF A/S
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Operating system software
Figure 1.8: System configuration folder populated
1.2.7
SD card (/mnt/mmc)
The SD card is mounted at boot in the folder (/mnt/mmc).
Figure 1.9: SD card folder
DEIF A/S
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1.2.8
Operating system software
Network settings (/etc/network)
Figure 1.10: Contents of /etc/network
1.2.9
Network settings (/etc)
Figure 1.11: Network settings in /etc
DEIF A/S
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4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
1.3
Operating system software
Partitions
Important: The AWC 500 Operative system files and Applications files are kept in separate folders, thus a full /app
area does NOT affect stability of the system.
The file area is divided like this:
SD card (<64 GB)
RAM (128 MB)
/mnt/mmc
/tmp
Internal Flash (128 MB)
/app
/
All available
Up to 64 MB
128 MB - (/tmp
usage)
64 MB
Folder for temporary files
Working memory for OS and CoDeSys
Application folder
(~x3-x7 with online
compression )
24 MB
24 MB
OS image A (active at start up)
OS image B (fault-back, if OS Image A
fails at start up)
16 MB
Reserved for bad blocks
Table 1.1: Partitioning scheme
This partitioning is default and cannot be changed by the user.
Figure 1.12: Partition overview
DEIF A/S
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Operating system and firmware update
2 Operating system and firmware update
A firmware update can depending on the update package be used for a number of things e.g. update the Linux OS,
update firmware on the IO modules, update of the CoDeSys runtime etc.
It is possible to firmware update while applications are running.
DEIF recommends bringing the running wind turbine application program to stopped/idle state and then stopping the process for application C or CoDeSys.
Update the operating system, IO modules firmware or CoDeSys SP by copying the new firmware to the /tmp/fwupdates folder, and then the system automatically detects a new firmware and updates the contained part.
Make sure your file transfer program copies the entire project
in one. E.g. in WinSCP you need to disable endurance.
Figure 2.1: Disabling endurance in WinSCP
DEIF A/S
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2.1
Operating system and firmware update
Firmware update
The firmware for the AWC 500 modules is packed in the file DEIF_AWC_500_firmware_vx.xx.x.zip. It contains the
dupdate files for each module.
Figure 2.2: Example of dupdate files
To update the modules simply copy the files to the /tmp/fwupdate folder on the AWC 500 , either one by one or all at
ones.
Figure 2.3: Firmware update example
The AWC 500 detects the new update and installs them automatically. Here after they are removed from the fwupdates folder.
A short acknowledge is written to the /tmp folder by "Update_success" file:
DEIF A/S
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Operating system and firmware update
Figure 2.4: The Update_success file in /tmp
Detailed status of the update is written to the Syslog file in /app/log/syslog. Open the file to see the status of the
update.
Figure 2.5: Syslog file
DEIF A/S
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Operating system and firmware update
Figure 2.6: Syslog example
2.2
CoDeSys SP image update
The CoDeSys SP is also updated by copying the new image to the /tmp/fwupdates folder. Status of the update is
written to /app/log/syslog
DEIF A/S
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2.3
Operating system and firmware update
Operating system image updates
The AWC 500 contains two operating system images.
Figure 2.7: Operating system image
Once the non-active image has been updated the start up to the new operating image can be done via SSH connection to the AWC 500 . / #dboot -ar : Activates the new (non-active) image, and restarts the AWC 500 . The
AWC 500 will now boot with the new updated image. If this fails, it will restart with the previous operating system
image.
If operating system startup is success full it can be made active for every next start up, by writing: / # dboot -s :
This sets the current operating system image active.
For more information see /# dboot -h or the section "Changing boot settings" in the "Basic used of SSH connection".
The network settings defined in /app/sysconf/interfaces will still
be used on after updating the operating system image, if they
have been set.
DEIF A/S
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Basic use of SSH connection
3 Basic use of SSH connection
This sections shows the shell commands for basic operation of the SSH connection and examples on use. For
detailed descriptions see the sections below.
3.1
View directory
ls
3.2
Change directory
cd
3.3
View file
cat
3.4
Change file mode
chmod
3.5
Change file owner
chown
3.6
Copy file
cp
3.7
Change time
time
3.8
Change password
passwd
3.9
See Memory and CPU usage
top
3.10
Shutdown the AWC 500
poweroff
poweroff [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
3.11
Restart the AWC 500 unit
reboot
reboot [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
3.12
Uptime of system
uptime
~ # uptime
12:14:53 up 1 day,
DEIF A/S
4:21, load average: 0.00, 0.18, 0.15
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4189340737A - AWC 500 - Operating system software
3.13
Memory usage
~ # free
total
Mem:
126792
-/+ buffers:
Swap:
0
3.14
used
15688
15688
0
free
111104
111104
0
shared
0
buffers
0
Disc usage
~ # df -h
Filesystem
ubi0_0
tmpfs
tmpfs
tmpfs
tmpfs
/dev/ubi0_2
3.15
Basic use of SSH connection
Size
24.2M
61.9M
61.9M
61.9M
64.0K
62.1M
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6.3M
17.9M 26% /
0
61.9M
0% /var/lock
32.0K
61.9M
0% /var/run
8.0K
61.9M
0% /tmp
0
64.0K
0% /dev
352.0K
58.6M
1% /app
Ethercat master control and diagnostics
ethercat
~ # ethercat
Please specify a command!
Usage: ethercat <COMMAND> [OPTIONS] [ARGUMENTS]
Commands (can be abbreviated):
alias
Write alias addresses.
config
Show slave configurations.
cstruct
Generate slave PDO information in C language.
data
Output binary domain process data.
debug
Set the master's debug level.
domains
Show configured domains.
download
Write an SDO entry to a slave.
eoe
Display Ethernet over EtherCAT statictics.
foe_read
Read a file from a slave via FoE.
foe_write Store a file on a slave via FoE.
graph
Output the bus topology as a graph.
master
Show master and Ethernet device information.
pdos
List Sync managers, PDO assignment and mapping.
reg_read
Output a slave's register contents.
reg_write Write data to a slave's registers.
rescan
Rescan the bus.
sdos
List SDO dictionaries.
sii_read
Output a slave's SII contents.
sii_write Write SII contents to a slave.
slaves
Display slaves on the bus.
soe_read
Read an SoE IDN from a slave.
soe_write Write an SoE IDN to a slave.
states
Request application-layer states.
upload
Read an SDO entry from a slave.
version
Show version information.
xml
Generate slave information XML.
Global options:
--master -m <master> Comma separated list of masters
to select, ranges are allowed.
Examples: '1,3', '5-7,9', '-3'.
Default: '-' (all).
DEIF A/S
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--force
--quiet
--verbose
--help
-f
-q
-v
-h
Basic use of SSH connection
Force a command.
Output less information.
Output more information.
Show this help.
Numerical values can be specified either with decimal (no
prefix), octal (prefix '0') or hexadecimal (prefix '0x') base.
Call 'ethercat <COMMAND> --help' for command-specific help.
Send bug reports to [email protected]
3.16
View modules on Ethercat network
~ # ethercat graph
/* EtherCAT bus graph. Generated by 'ethercat graph'. */
strict graph bus {
rankdir="LR"
ranksep=0.8
nodesep=0.8
node [fontname="Helvetica"]
edge [fontname="Helvetica",fontsize="10"]
master [label="EtherCAT\nMaster"]
master -- slave0[label="MII"]
slave0 [shape="box",label="0\nPCM51\nDC: Delay meas.\nDelay: 0 ns"]
slave0 -- slave1 [taillabel="1 [2915]",headlabel="0 [2915]",label="MII",weight="1"]
slave0 -- slave7 [taillabel="3 [556232267]",headlabel="0 [556232267]",label="EBUS",weight="5"]
slave1 [shape="box",label="1\nGPM5.1\nDC: Delay meas.\nDelay: 0 ns"]
slave1 -- slave2 [taillabel="1 [140]",headlabel="0 [140]",label="EBUS",weight="5"]
slave2 [shape="box",label="2\nIFM5.1\nDC: Delay meas.\nDelay: 0 ns"]
slave2 -- slave3 [taillabel="1 [145]",headlabel="0 [145]",label="EBUS",weight="5"]
slave3 [shape="box",label="3\nIOM5.1\nDC: Delay meas.\nDelay: 0 ns"]
slave3 -- slave4 [taillabel="1 [145]",headlabel="0 [145]",label="EBUS",weight="5"]
etc.
3.17
Changing boot settings
dboot -h
Usage: dboot [OPTION]...
Display and change current dboot settings.
Primary boot selection options (mutually exclusive):
-b, --bl
next (re)boot should be to bootloader mode
-d, --dl
next (re)boot should be to download mode
-o, --os
next (re)boot should be to os mode
Secondary boot selection options (allowed in combination with a primary boot selection option):
-a, --alternative
next (re)boot should go to alternative image
-r, --reboot
reboot NOW!
Default boot selector options:
-s, --set-default[=IMAGE]
set default image (both os and download mode).
DEIF A/S
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Basic use of SSH connection
if IMAGE is not specified, use current image.
otherwise, use the IMAGE specified
-t, --set-default-dl[=IMAGE]
set default download mode image.
if IMAGE is not specified, use current image.
otherwise, use the IMAGE specified
-T, --set-default-os[=IMAGE]
set default os mode image.
if IMAGE is not specified, use current image.
otherwise, use the IMAGE specified
Query
-g,
-h,
-H,
-c,
-D,
-A,
-M,
-n,
-N,
-l,
options:
--get-default
--get-default-dl
--get-default-os
--get-current
--in-dl
--in-alternative
--set-bl=TEXT
--set-os-a=TEXT
--set-os-b=TEXT
--list
-m, --list-bl
-L, --list-os[=IMAGE]
Other options:
-h, --help
get default image (os and download mode)
get default download mode image
get default os mode image
get current image
in download mode (0=no, 1=yes)
in alternative image (0=no, 1=yes)
set bootloader image description/version
set os image a description/version
set os image b description/version
display current dboot status.
list image versions of bootloader and images,
which images are default and current, and if in
os or download mode
display bootloader image version
display os image versions
display this help message and exit
ethercat s1?
ethercat s1 -v | grep "Serial" ?
Example:
~ # dboot -l
deif-os-u-boot-image-awc500pcm_2003
deif-os-image-awc500pcm_2001
deif-os-image-awc500pcm_2003
3.18
Start/Stop application mode
/etc/init.d# appmode start : starts the application mode (status led becomes green). Log in via CoDeSys
possible.
/etc/init.d # appmode stop : stops the application and enters service mode (status led becomes orange).
CoDeSys control SP runtime is not running, thus log in via CoDeSys is not possible.
DEIF A/S
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How-to
4 How-to
4.1
Access Windows shared folder from the AWC 500
Connecting Windows shared folders can be used to log large files directly from AWC 500 to a windows shared folder
instead for saving the files locally to \tmp\(ram), \app\(internal flash) or \mnt mmc (sd card), and the copy them to the
PC.
Select the Windows folder and enable sharing. E.g. \Documents\Temp
Figure 4.1: Shared folder in Windows
4.1.1
Temporary access to shared folder(disconnects when AWC 500 restarts)
On AWC 500 :
Create folder for mounting of the shared windows folder:
~# mkdir /mnt/my_pc
Then mount the PC folder to the my_pc folder with:
~# mount -t cifs //[IP]/[Folderpath] /mnt/my_pc
-o username=[username],password=[password],workgroup=[domainname]
Alternatively try:
~# mount -t cifs //[IP]/[Folderpath] /mnt/my_pc -o sec=none for annoymous access.
Example:
~# mount -t cifs //192.168.1.106/Temp /mnt/my_pc -o username=usr,password=pwd,workgroup=DK
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How-to
Figure 4.2: Shared Windows folder mounted on AWC 500 file system
Files can then be created and save via /mnt/my_pc/my_data/ like normal file access also via CoDeSys.
4.1.2
Unmounting mounted folder in filesystem
Unmounting manually mounted folder in filesystem is done with the command:
~#umount /mnt/my_pc
4.2
Format the SD card
This section describes how to format the SD-card on AWC 500 PCM5·1 in case of corrupted filesystem.
The following describes how to identify and solve problems with a corrupted file system on the SD-card:
Symptom:
A corrupt file system on the SD-card can result in increased CPU load.
Identification:
A corrupt file system can be identified by looking in the syslog (/app/log/syslog) for log entries like: EXT3-fs error (device mm
The problem can be solved by reformatting the SD-card. The procedure for format for the SD-card is described
below.
Lines staring with # in the description are comments.
# Stop the application services
/etc/init.d/appmode stop
# Un mount the SD-card
umount /mnt/mmc
# Format the SD-card (This may take several minutes)
mkfs.ext3 /dev/mmcblk0p1
# mount the SD-card again
mount -t ext3 /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/mmc
# Start the application services
DEIF A/S
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Appendix
5 Appendix
5.1
Busybox/Linux Command Reference
File commands
ls - directory listing
ls -al - formatted listing with hidden files
cd dir - change directory to dir
pwd - show current directory
mkdir dir - create a directory dir
rm file - delete file
rm -r dir - delete directory dir
rm -f file - force remove file
rm -rf dir - force remove directory dir use with extreme caution.
cp file1 file2 - copy file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 - copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it
doesn’t exist
mv file1 file2 - rename or move file1 to file2
if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into
directory file2
ln -s file link - create symbolic link link to file
touch file - create or update file
cat >file - places standard input into file
more file - output the contents of file
head file - output the first 10 lines of file
tail file - output the last 10 lines of file
tail -f file - output the contents of file as it grows,
starting with the last 10 lines
Process management
ps - display your currently active processes
top - display all running processes
kill pid - kill process id pid
killall proc - kill all processes named proc *
bg - lists stopped or background jobs; resume a
stopped job in the background
fg - brings the most recent job to foreground
File Permissions
chmod octal file - change the permissions of file to
octal, which can be found separately for user, group,
and world by adding:
• 4 - read (r)
• 2 - write (w)
• 1 - execute (x)
Examples:
chmod 777 - read, write, execute for all
chmod 755 - rwx for owner, rx for group and world
chown ?
DEIF A/S
SSH
ssh [email protected] - connect to host as user
ssh-copy-id [email protected] - add your key to host for
user to enable a keyed or passwordless login
Searching
grep pattern files - search for pattern in files
grep -r pattern dir - search recursively for pattern
in dir
command | grep pattern - search for pattern in the
output of command
System Info
date - show the current date and time
uptime - show current uptime
uname -a - show kernel information
cat /proc/cpuinfo - cpu information
cat /proc/meminfo - memory information
df -h - show disk usage
du -h - show directory space usage
free - show memory and swap usage
which app - show which app will be run by default
Compression
tar cf file.tar files - create a tar named file.tar containing files
tar xf file.tar - extract the files from file.tar
tar czf file.tar.gz files - create a tar with Gzip compression
tar xzf file.tar.gz - extract a tar using Gzip
gzip file - compresses file and renames it to file.gz
gzip -d file.gz - decompresses file.gz back to file
Network
ping host - ping host and output results
Shortcuts
Ctrl+C - halts the current command
Ctrl+Z - stops the current command, resume with fg
in the foreground or bg in the background
Ctrl+D - log out of current session, similar to exit
Ctrl+W - erases one word in the current line
Ctrl+U - erases the whole line
Ctrl+R - type to bring up a recent command
!! - repeats the last command
exit - log out of current session
AWC 500 specific
/etc/init.d/appmode [start|stop] - toogles applications mode
dboot - configures boot settings
ethercat graph - shows what is on the network
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5.2
Appendix
Linux system shell commands
The following is a list of the enabled commands in the AWC 500 operative system. The list is based on the documentation available on http://www.busybox.net. It may differ between different versions of the supplied operative
system.
5.3
Command descriptions
[
[[
ash
awk
awk [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...
Options:
-v VAR=VAL
-F SEP
-f FILE
Set variable
Use SEP as field separator
Read program from file
basename
basename FILE [SUFFIX]
Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE
bash
busybox
cat
cat [-u] [FILE]...
Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout
Options:
-u
Use unbuffered i/o (ignored)
chgrp
chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...
Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP
Options:
-R
-h
-L
-H
-P
-c
-v
-f
DEIF A/S
Recurse
Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
Traverse all symlinks to directories
Traverse symlinks on command line only
Do not traverse symlinks (default)
List changed files
Verbose
Hide errors
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chmod
chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst
Options:
-R
-c
-v
-f
Recurse
List changed files
List all files
Hide errors
chown
chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...
Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP
Options:
-R
-h
-L
-H
-P
-c
-v
-f
Recurse
Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
Traverse all symlinks to directories
Traverse symlinks on command line only
Do not traverse symlinks (default)
List changed files
List all files
Hide errors
chpst
chpst [-vP012] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-U USER[:GRP]] [-e DIR] [-/ DIR] [-n NICE] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-o N]
[-p N] [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] PROG ARGS
Change the process state and run PROG
Options:
-u
-U
-e
in
-/
-n
-m
-d
-o
-p
-f
-c
-v
-P
-0
-1
-2
USER[:GRP]
Set uid and gid
USER[:GRP]
Set $UID and $GID in environment
DIR
Set environment variables as specified by files
DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
DIR
Chroot to DIR
NICE
Add NICE to nice value
BYTES
Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES
BYTES
Limit data segment
N
Limit number of open files per process
N
Limit number of processes per uid
BYTES
Limit output file sizes
BYTES
Limit core file size
Verbose
Create new process group
Close standard input
Close standard output
Close standard error
chrt
chrt [OPTIONS] [PRIO] [PID | PROG [ARGS]]
Manipulate real-time attributes of a process
DEIF A/S
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Options:
-p
-r
-f
-o
-m
Operate on pid
Set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR
Set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO
Set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER
Show min and max priorities
cmp
cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]
Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified
Options:
-l
Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
for all differing bytes
-s
Quiet
cp
cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST
Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY
Options:
-a
-d,-P
-H,-L
-p
-f
-i
-R,-r
-l,-s
Same as -dpR
Preserve links
Dereference all symlinks (default)
Preserve file attributes if possible
Force overwrite
Prompt before overwrite
Recurse
Create (sym)links
crond
crond -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR
-f
-b
-S
-l
-d
-L
-c
Foreground
Background (default)
Log to syslog (default)
Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
Set log level, log to stderr
Log to file
Working dir
crontab
crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]
-c
-u
-l
-e
-r
FILE
DEIF A/S
Crontab directory
User
List crontab
Edit crontab
Delete crontab
Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)
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cut
cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output
Options:
-b
-c
-d
-s
-f
-n
LIST Output only bytes from LIST
LIST Output only characters from LIST
CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
Output only the lines containing delimiter
N
Print only these fields
Ignored
date
date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]
Display time (using +FMT), or set time
Options:
[-s] TIME
Set time to TIME
-u
Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
-R
Output RFC-822 compliant date string
-I[SPEC]
Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
time to the indicated precision
-r FILE
Display last modification time of FILE
-d TIME
Display TIME, not 'now'
-D FMT
Use FMT for -d TIME conversion
Recognized TIME formats:
hh:mm[:ss]
[YYYY.]MM.DD-hh:mm[:ss]
YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
[[[[[YY]YY]MM]DD]hh]mm[.ss]
dbclient
dboot
dd
dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N] [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]
Copy a file with converting and formatting
Options:
if=FILE
of=FILE
bs=N
ibs=N
obs=N
count=N
skip=N
seek=N
conv=notrunc
conv=noerror
DEIF A/S
Read from FILE instead of stdin
Write to FILE instead of stdout
Read and write N bytes at a time
Read N bytes at a time
Write N bytes at a time
Copy only N input blocks
Skip N input blocks
Skip N output blocks
Don't truncate output file
Continue after read errors
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conv=sync
conv=fsync
Appendix
Pad blocks with zeros
Physically write data out before finishing
Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576),
GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)
depmod
devmem
devmem ADDRESS [WIDTH [VALUE]]
Read/write from physical address
Options:
ADDRESS Address to act upon
WIDTH
Width (8/16/...)
VALUE
Data to be written
df
df [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM...]
Print filesystem usage statistics
Options:
-P
-k
-m
-h
-a
-i
-B SIZE
POSIX output format
1024-byte blocks (default)
1M-byte blocks
Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
Show all filesystems
Inodes
Blocksize
dirname
dirname FILENAME
Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME
dmesg
dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]
Print or control the kernel ring buffer
Options:
-c
-n LEVEL
-s SIZE
DEIF A/S
Clear ring buffer after printing
Set console logging level
Buffer size
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Appendix
dnsdomainname
doc_loadbios
docfdisk
dropbear
dropbearconvert
dropbearkey
dropbearmulti
dscan
Usage: dscan [OPTIONS] <IP-ADDRESS>*
dscan probe client (version 1.0.0-gb3fabfb-dirty)
Options:
-p,
-t,
-v,
-h,
--port=PORT
--timeout=MSEC
--verbose
--help
to PORT
timeout
verbose
display
(default 7800)
in milliseconds to wait for replies
output
this help message and exit
Copyright 2010 DoreDevelopment ApS
dscand
Usage: dscand [OPTION]...
dscan network daemon (version 1.0.0-gb3fabfb-dirty)
Options:
-d,
-p,
-i,
-h,
--daemon
--port=PORT
--id=STR
--help
run in background
listen to PORT (default 7800)
send STR as identification when replying
display this help message and exit
Copyright 2010 DoreDevelopment ApS
du
du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...
Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory. Disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.
Options:
-a
-H
-L
-d N
-c
-l
-s
-x
-h
-m
-k
DEIF A/S
Show file sizes too
Follow symlinks on command line
Follow all symlinks
Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
Show grand total
Count sizes many times if hard linked
Display only a total for each argument
Skip directories on different filesystems
Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
Sizes in megabytes
Sizes in kilobytes (default)
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dupdate
echo
echo [-neE] [ARG...]
Print the specified ARGs to stdout
Options:
-n
-e
-E
Suppress trailing newline
Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters
egrep
env
env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG [ARGS]]
Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the specified environment
Options:
-, -i
-u
Start with an empty environment
Remove variable from the environment
envdir
envdir dir prog args
Set various environment variables as specified by files in the directory dir and run PROG
envuidgid
envuidgid account prog args
Set $UID to account’s uid and $GID to account’s gid and run PROG
Ethercat
Usage: ethercat <COMMAND> [OPTIONS] [ARGUMENTS]
Commands (can be abbreviated):
alias
config
cstruct
data
debug
domains
download
eoe
foe_read
foe_write
graph
master
pdos
reg_read
reg_write
rescan
DEIF A/S
Write alias addresses.
Show slave configurations.
Generate slave PDO information in C language.
Output binary domain process data.
Set the master's debug level.
Show configured domains.
Write an SDO entry to a slave.
Display Ethernet over EtherCAT statictics.
Read a file from a slave via FoE.
Store a file on a slave via FoE.
Output the bus topology as a graph.
Show master and Ethernet device information.
List Sync managers, PDO assignment and mapping.
Output a slave's register contents.
Write data to a slave's registers.
Rescan the bus.
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sdos
sii_read
sii_write
slaves
soe_read
soe_write
states
upload
version
xml
Appendix
List SDO dictionaries.
Output a slave's SII contents.
Write SII contents to a slave.
Display slaves on the bus.
Read an SoE IDN from a slave.
Write an SoE IDN to a slave.
Request application-layer states.
Read an SDO entry from a slave.
Show version information.
Generate slave information XML.
Global options:
--master -m <master> Comma separated list of masters
to select, ranges are allowed.
Examples: '1,3', '5-7,9', '-3'.
Default: '-' (all).
--force
-f
Force a command.
--quiet
-q
Output less information.
--verbose -v
Output more information.
--help
-h
Show this help.
Numerical values can be specified either with decimal (no prefix), octal (prefix ’0’) or hexadecimal (prefix
’0x’) base.
Call ’ethercat <COMMAND> –help’ for command-specific help.
Send bug reports to [email protected]
expr
expr EXPRESSION
Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the specified environment
EXPRESSION may be:
ARG1 | ARG2
ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
ARG1 & ARG2
ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
ARG1 < ARG2
1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
ARG1 <= ARG2
ARG1 = ARG2
ARG1 != ARG2
ARG1 >= ARG2
ARG1 > ARG2
ARG1 + ARG2
Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
ARG1 - ARG2
ARG1 * ARG2
ARG1 / ARG2
ARG1 % ARG2
STRING : REGEXP
Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
match STRING REGEXP
Same as STRING : REGEXP
substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
index STRING CHARS
Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
length STRING
Length of STRING
quote TOKEN
Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
it is a keyword like 'match' or an
operator like '/'
(EXPRESSION)
Value of EXPRESSION
Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells. Comparisons are arithmetic if both
ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between and or null; if
and are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.
DEIF A/S
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false
false
Return an exit code of FALSE (1)
fdisk
fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK
Change partition table
Options:
-u
-l
-b
-C
-H
-S
2048
CYLINDERS
HEADS
SECTORS
Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
(for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
file-benchmark
find
find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]
Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory, default EXPRESSION is ’-print’
EXPRESSION may consist of:
-follow
Dereference symlinks
-xdev
Don't descend directories on other filesystems
-maxdepth N
Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
tests/actions to command line arguments only
-mindepth N
Do not act on first N levels
-name PATTERN
File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
-iname PATTERN Case insensitive -name
-path PATTERN
Path matches PATTERN
-regex PATTERN Path matches regex PATTERN
-type X
File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
-perm NNN
Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
or exactly (NNN)
-mtime DAYS
Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
or exactly (N) days
-mmin MINS
Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
or exactly (N) minutes
-newer FILE
Modified time is more recent than FILE's
-inum N
File has inode number N
-user NAME
File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
-group NAME
File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
-depth
Process directory name after traversing it
-size N[bck]
File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.)).
+/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
-print
Print (default and assumed)
-print0
Delimit output with null characters rather than
newlines
-exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
matching files
-prune
Stop traversing current subtree
-delete
Delete files, turns on -depth option
DEIF A/S
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(EXPR)
Appendix
Group an expression
flash_erase
flash_eraseall
flash_info
flash_lock
flash_lock MTD_DEVICE OFFSET SECTORS
Lock part or all of an MTD device. If SECTORS is -1, then all sectors will be locked, regardless of the value
of OFFSET
flash_otp_dump
flash_otp_info
flash_unlock
flash_unlock MTD_DEVICE
Unlock an MTD device
flashcp
free
free
Display the amount of free and used system memory
fsync
fsync [OPTIONS] FILE...Write files’ buffered blocks to disk
Options:
-d
Avoid syncing metadata
ftl_check
ftl_format
fuser
Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs
Options:
-m
-4
-6
-s
-k
-SIGNAL
DEIF A/S
Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
Search only IPv4 space
Search only IPv6 space
Silent: just exit with 0 if any processes are found
Kill found processes (otherwise display PIDs)
Signal to send (default: TERM)
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gdbserver
Usage: gdbserver [OPTIONS] COMM PROG [ARGS ...]
gdbserver [OPTIONS] –attach COMM PID
gdbserver [OPTIONS] –multi COMM
COMM may either be a tty device (for serial debugging), or HOST:PORT to listen for a TCP connection.
Options:
--debug
Enable general debugging output.
--remote-debug
Enable remote protocol debugging output.
--version
Display version information and exit.
--wrapper WRAPPER -- Run WRAPPER to start new programs.
Report bugs to "<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>".
getcap
getty
getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]
Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login
Options:
-h
-i
-L
-m
-w
-n
-f
-l
-t
-I
-H
ISSUE_FILE
LOGIN
SEC
INITSTR
HOST
Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
Do not display /etc/issue before running login
Local line, do not do carrier detect
Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
Do not prompt the user for a login name
Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
Invoke LOGIN instead of /bin/login
Terminate after SEC if no username is read
Send INITSTR before anything else
Log HOST into the utmp file as the hostname
grep
grep [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABCz] PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input
Options:
-H
Prefix output lines with filename where match was found
-h
Suppress the prefixing filename on output
-r
Recurse
-i
Ignore case distinctions
-l
List names of files that match
-L
List names of files that do not match
-n
Print line number with output lines
-q
Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
-v
Select non-matching lines
-s
Suppress file open/read error messages
-c
Only print count of matching lines
-o
Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN
-m MAX Match up to MAX times per file
-w
Match whole words only
DEIF A/S
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-F
PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
-E
PATTERN is an extended regular expression
-e PTRN Pattern to match
-f FILE Read pattern from file
-A
Print NUM lines of trailing context
-B
Print NUM lines of leading context
-C
Print NUM lines of output context
-z
Input is NUL terminated
groups
gzip
gzip [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Compress FILEs (or standard input)
Options:
-c
-d
-f
Write to standard output
Decompress
Force
halt
head
head [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header
giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.
Options:
-n NUM Print first NUM lines instead of first 10
-c NUM Output the first NUM bytes
-q
Never output headers giving file names
-v
Always output headers giving file names
hexdump
hexdump [-bcCdefnosvxR] FILE...
Display file(s) or standard input in a user specified format
Options:
-b
-c
-C
-d
-e
-f
-n
-o
-s
-v
-x
-R
DEIF A/S
One-byte octal display
One-byte character display
Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
Two-byte decimal display
FORMAT STRING
FORMAT FILE
LENGTH
Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
Two-byte octal display
OFFSET
Skip OFFSET bytes
Display all input data
Two-byte hexadecimal display
Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'
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hostname
hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]
Get or set hostname or DNS domain name
Options:
-s
-i
-d
-f
-F FILE
Short
Addresses for the hostname
DNS domain name
Fully qualified domain name
Use FILE's content as hostname
hwclock
hwclock [-r|–show] [-s|–hctosys] [-w|–systohc] [-l|–localtime] [-u|–utc] [-f FILE]
Query and set hardware clock (RTC)
Options:
-r
-s
-w
-u
-l
-f FILE
Show hardware clock time
Set system time from hardware clock
Set hardware clock to system time
Hardware clock is in UTC
Hardware clock is in local time
Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)
id
id [OPTIONS] [USER]
Print information about USER or the current user
Options:
-r
-s
-w
-u
-l
-f FILE
Show hardware clock time
Set system time from hardware clock
Set hardware clock to system time
Hardware clock is in UTC
Hardware clock is in local time
Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)
ifconfig
ifconfig [-a] interface [address]
Configure a network interface
Options:
[add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
[del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
[[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
[netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
[outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
[hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
[[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
[multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
[mem\_start NN] [io\_addr NN] [irq NN]
[up|down] ...
DEIF A/S
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ifdown
ifdown [-ainmvf] ifaces...
Options:
-a
De/configure all interfaces automatically
-i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
-n
Print out what would happen, but don't do it
(note: doesn't disable mappings)
-m
Don't run any mappings
-v
Print out what would happen before doing it
-f
Force de/configuration
ifplugd
ifplugd [OPTIONS]
Network interface plug detection daemon
Options:
-n
-s
-i IFACE
-f/-F
-a
-M
-r
-x
-I
-p
-q
-l
-t
-u
-d
-m
-k
PROG
ARG
SECS
SECS
SECS
MODE
Do not daemonize
Do not log to syslog
Interface
Treat link detection error as link down/link up
(otherwise exit on error)
Do not up interface automatically
Monitor creation/destruction of interface
(otherwise it must exist)
Script to run
Extra argument for script
Don't exit on nonzero exit code from script
Don't run script on daemon startup
Don't run script on daemon quit
Run script on startup even if no cable is detected
Poll time in seconds
Delay before running script after link up
Delay after link down
API mode (mii, priv, ethtool, wlan, auto)
Kill running daemon
ifup
ifup [-ainmvf] ifaces...
Options:
-a
De/configure all interfaces automatically
-i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
-n
Print out what would happen, but don't do it
(note: doesn't disable mappings)
-m
Don't run any mappings
-v
Print out what would happen before doing it
-f
Force de/configuration
inetd
inetd [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]
Listen for network connections and launch programs
DEIF A/S
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Options:
-f
Run in foreground
-e
Log to stderr
-q N
Socket listen queue (default: 128)
-R N
Pause services after N connects/min
(default: 0 - disabled)
init
init
Init is the parent of all processes
inotifyd
inotifyd PROG FILE1[:MASK] ...
Run PROG on filesystem changes. When a filesystem event matching MASK occurs on FILEn, PROG
<actual_event(s)><FILEn>
< subf ile_name >
is run. Events:
a
c
e
w
0
r
D
M
u
o
x
File is accessed
File is modified
Metadata changed
Writable file is closed
Unwritable file is closed
File is opened
File is deleted
File is moved
Backing fs is unmounted
Event queue overflowed
File can't be watched anymore
If watching a directory:
m
y
n
d
Subfile
Subfile
Subfile
Subfile
is
is
is
is
moved into dir
moved out of dir
created
deleted
inotifyd waits for PROG to exit. When x event happens for all FILEs, inotifyd exits
insmod
insmod [OPTIONS] MODULE [symbol=value]...
Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel
Options:
-f
Force module to load into the wrong kernel version
-k
Make module autoclean-able
-v
Verbose
-q
Quiet
-L
Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
-m
Output load map to stdout
-o NAME Set internal module name to NAME
-x
Do not export externs
DEIF A/S
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ionice
ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]
Change I/O scheduling class and priority
Options:
-c
-n
Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
Priority
ip
ip [OPTIONS] address | route | link | tunnel | rule COMMAND
ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT COMMAND where OBJECT := address | route | link | tunnel | rule OPTIONS :=
-f[amily] inet | inet6 | link | -o[neline]
jffs2dump
kill
kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs
Options:
-l
List all signal names and numbers
killall
killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] process-name...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes
Options:
-l
-q
List all signal names and numbers
Do not complain if no processes were killed
killall5
killall5 [-l] [-SIG] [-o PID]...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to all processes outside current session
Options:
-l
List all signal names and numbers
-o PID Do not signal this PID
klogd
klogd [-c N] [-n]
Kernel logger
Options:
-c N
-n
DEIF A/S
Only messages with level < N are printed to console
Run in foreground
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last
last [-HW] [-f file]
Show listing of the last users that logged into the system
Options:
-W
Display with no host column truncation
-f file Read from file instead of /var/log/wtmp
less
less [-EMNmh I?] [FILE]...
View a file or list of files. The position within files can be changed, and files can be manipulated in various
ways.
Options:
-E
Quit once the end of a file is reached
-M,-m
Display status line with line numbers
and percentage through the file
-N
Prefix line number to each line
-I
Ignore case in all searches
-~
Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file
ln
ln [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK|DIRECTORY
Create a link LINK or DIRECTORY/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)
Options:
-s
-f
-n
-b
-S suf
Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
Remove existing destination files
Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files
logger
logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]
Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.
Options:
-s
Log to stderr as well as the system log
-t TAG Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
-p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)
login
login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]
Begin a new session on the system
Options:
-f
-h
-p
DEIF A/S
Do not authenticate (user already authenticated)
Name of the remote host
Preserve environment
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ls
ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [FILE]...
List directory contents
Options:
-1
List in a single column
-A
Don't list . and ..
-a
Don't hide entries starting with .
-C
List by columns
-c
With -l: sort by ctime
--color[={always,never,auto}]
Control coloring
-d
List directory entries instead of contents
-e
List full date and time
-F
Append indicator (one of */[email protected]|) to entries
-i
List inode numbers
-l
Long listing format
-n
List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
-p
Append indicator (one of /[email protected]|) to entries
-L
List entries pointed to by symlinks
-R
List subdirectories recursively
-r
Sort in reverse order
-S
Sort by file size
-s
List the size of each file, in blocks
-T NUM Assume tabstop every NUM columns
-t
With -l: sort by modification time
-u
With -l: sort by access time
-v
Sort by version
-w NUM Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide
-x
List by lines
-X
Sort by extension
-h
List sizes in human readable format (1K 243M 2G)
lsmod
lsmod
List the currently loaded kernel modules
md5sum
md5sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]... or: md5sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
Print or check MD5 checksums
Options:
-c
-s
-w
Check sums against given list
Don't output anything, status code shows success
Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
mdev
mdev [-s]
-s
Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot
It can be run by kernel as a hotplug helper. To activate it: echo /bin/mdev >/proc/sys/kernel/hotplug It uses
/etc/mdev.conf with lines [-]DEVNAME UID:GID PERM [>|=PATH] [@|$|*PROG]
DEIF A/S
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memory-benchmark
memtester
microcom
microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY
Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout
Options:
-d
Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
next byte to it
-t
Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
-s
Set serial line to SPEED
-X
Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin
mii-diag
mii-tool
mkdir
mkdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...
Create DIRECTORY
Options:
-m
-p
Mode
No error if exists; make parent directories as needed
mke2fs
mkfifo
mkfifo [OPTIONS] name
Create named pipe (identical to ’mknod name p’)
Options:
-m MODE Mode (default a=rw)
mkfs.ext2
mkfs.ext3
mkfs.ext4
mkfs.ext4dev
mkfs.jffs2
mkfs.ubifs
mknod
mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR
DEIF A/S
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Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)
Options:
-m
Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)
TYPEs include:
b:
Make a block device
c or u: Make a character device
p:
Make a named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)
mktemp
mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]
Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its name. TEMPLATE must end with
XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).
Options:
-d
Make a directory instead of a file
-t
Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
-p DIR Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)
For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows: $TMPDIR if set, else -p DIR, else /tmp
modprobe
modprobe [-knqrsvb] MODULE [symbol=value...]
Options:
-k
-n
-q
-r
-s
-v
-b
Make module autoclean-able
Dry run
Quiet
Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean
Report via syslog instead of stderr
Verbose
Apply blacklist to module names too
more
more [FILE]...
View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time
mount
mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o OPT,OPT]
Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.
Options:
-a
-f
-i
-r
-w
-t FSTYPE
-O OPT
Mount all filesystems in fstab
Dry run
Don't run mount helper
Read-only mount
Read-write mount (default)
Filesystem type
Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
-o OPT:
DEIF A/S
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loop
[a]sync
[no]atime
[no]diratime
[no]relatime
[no]dev
[no]exec
[no]suid
[r]shared
[r]slave
[r]private
[un]bindable
bind
move
remount
ro/rw
Appendix
Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
Writes are [a]synchronous
Disable/enable updates to inode access times
Disable/enable atime updates to directories
Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
(Dis)allow use of special device files
(Dis)allow use of executable files
(Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
Bind a directory to an additional location
Relocate an existing mount point
Remount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags
Read-only/read-write mount
There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem You’ll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems
mountpoint
mountpoint [-q] <[-dn] DIR | -x DEVICE>
Check if the directory is a mountpoint
Options:
-q
-d
-n
-x
Quiet
Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
Print device name of the filesystem
Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice
mtd_debug
mtdinfo
mv
mv [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTIONS] SOURCE... DIRECTORY
Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY
Options:
-f
-i
DEIF A/S
Don't prompt before overwriting
Interactive, prompt before overwrite
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nanddump
nandtest
nandwrite
netperf
netserver
netstat
netstat [-laentuwxrWp]
Display networking information
Options:
-l
-a
-e
-n
-t
-u
-w
-x
-r
-W
-p
Display listening server sockets
Display all sockets (default: connected)
Display other/more information
Don't resolve names
Tcp sockets
Udp sockets
Raw sockets
Unix sockets
Display routing table
Display with no column truncation
Display PID/Program name for sockets
nftl_format
nftldump
nohup
nohup PROG [ARGS]
Run PROG immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
nslookup
nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]
Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a specified DNS server
ntpd
passwd
passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]
Change USER’s password. If no USER is specified, changes the password for the current user.
Options:
-a
-d
-l
-u
DEIF A/S
Algorithm to use for password (choices: des, md5)
Delete password for the account
Lock (disable) account
Unlock (re-enable) account
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ping
ping [OPTIONS] HOST
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
Options:
-4, -6
Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution
-c CNT
Send only CNT pings
-s SIZE
Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
-I IFACE/IP
Use interface or IP address as source
-W SEC
Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
(after all -c CNT packets are sent)
-w SEC
Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
(can exit earlier with -c CNT)
-q
Quiet, only displays output at start
and when finished
poweroff
ps
ps
Report process status
Options:
-o col1,col2=header
-T
Select columns for display
Show threads
pwd
pwd
Print the full filename of the current working directory
rdev
reboot
recv_image
reset
reset
Reset the screen
rfddump
rfdformat
DEIF A/S
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rm
rm [OPTIONS] FILE...
Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). Use ’–’ to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.
Options:
-i
-f
-r,-R
Always prompt before removing
Never prompt
Remove directories recursively
rmdir
rmdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...
Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty
Options:
-p|--parents
Include parents
--ignore-fail-on-non-empty
route
route [add|del|delete]
Edit kernel routing tables
Options:
-n
Don't resolve names
-e
Display other/more information
-A inet{6}
Select address family
run-parts
run-parts [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY
Run a bunch of scripts in a directory
Options:
-t
Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
-a ARG Pass ARG as argument for every program
-u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program
-l
Print names of all matching files even if they are not executable
runsv
runsv dir
Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service
runsvdir
runsvdir [-P] [-s SCRIPT] dir
Start a runsv process for each subdirectory. If it exits, restart it.
-P
-s SCRIPT
DEIF A/S
Put each runsv in a new session
Run SCRIPT <signo> after signal is processed
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scp
sed
sed [-efinr] SED_CMD [FILE]...
Options:
-e CMD Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
-f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
-i
Edit files in-place
-n
Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
-r
Use extended regex syntax
If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed command to interpret. All remaining
arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read. Source
files will not be modified unless -i option is given.
seq
seq [-w] [-s SEP] [FIRST [INC]] LAST
Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INC. FIRST, INC default to 1
Options:
-w
Pad to last with leading zeros
-s SEP String separator
serve_image
setcap
setconsole
setlogcons
setlogcons N
Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)
setuidgid
setuidgid account prog args
Set uid and gid to account’s uid and gid, removing all supplementary groups and run PROG
sfdisk
sh
sha256sum
sha256sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]... or: sha256sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
Print or check SHA256 checksums
Options:
-c
-s
-w
DEIF A/S
Check sums against given list
Don't output anything, status code shows success
Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
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sleep
sleep [N]...
Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds,
(m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays
smemcap
softlimit
softlimit [-a BYTES] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-s BYTES] [-l BYTES] [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] [-r BYTES] [-o
N] [-p N] [-t N] PROG ARGS
Set soft resource limits, then run PROG
Options:
-a
-m
-d
-s
-l
-o
-p
BYTES
BYTES
BYTES
BYTES
BYTES
N
N
Limit total size of all segments
Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES -a BYTES
Limit data segment
Limit stack segment
Limit locked memory size
Limit number of open files per process
Limit number of processes per uid
Options controlling file sizes:
-f BYTES
-c BYTES
Limit output file sizes
Limit core file size
Efficiency opts:
-r BYTES
Limit resident set size
-t N
Limit CPU time, process receives
a SIGXCPU after N seconds
ssh
start-stop-daemon
start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [– arguments...]
Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching processes. -S: start a process unless a
matching process is found.
Process matching:
-u,--user USERNAME|UID Match only this
-n,--name NAME
Match processes
in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
-x,--exec EXECUTABLE
Match processes
in /proc/PID/cmdline
-p,--pidfile FILE
Match a process
All specified conditions must match
user's processes
with NAME
with this command
with PID from the file
-S only:
-x,--exec EXECUTABLE
-a,--startas NAME
-b,--background
-N,--nicelevel N
-c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]]
-m,--make-pidfile
DEIF A/S
Program to run
Zeroth argument
Background
Change nice level
Change to user/group
Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
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-K only:
-s,--signal SIG
-t,--test
Signal to send
Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found
Other:
-o,--oknodo
-v,--verbose
-q,--quiet
Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
Verbose
Quiet
strings
strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...
Display printable strings in a binary file
Options:
-a
Scan whole file (default)
-f
Precede strings with filenames
-n LEN At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
-o
Precede strings with decimal offsets
stty
stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...
Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane
Options:
-F DEVICE
-a
-g
[SETTING]
Open device instead of stdin
Print all current settings in human-readable form
Print in stty-readable form
See manpage
su
su [OPTIONS] [-] [username]
Change user id or become root
Options:
-p, -m
-c CMD
-s SH
Preserve environment
Command to pass to 'sh -c'
Shell to use instead of default shell
sumtool
sv
sv [-v] [-w sec] command service...
Control services monitored by runsv supervisor. Commands (only first character is enough):
status: query service status up: if service isn’t running, start it. If service stops, restart it once: like ’up’, but
if service stops, don’t restart it down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run exits, start ./finish if it exists.
After it stops, do not restart service exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they
exit, runsv exits too pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM,
INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service
DEIF A/S
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svlogd
svlogd [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...
Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally filter log messages, and write the data to one or
more automatically rotated logs
switch_root
switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]
Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:
chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_
ROOT must be a mountpoint.
Options:
-c DEV
Reopen stdio to DEV after switch
sync
sync
Write all buffered blocks to disk
sysctl
sysctl [OPTIONS] [VALUE]...
Configure kernel parameters at runtime
Options:
-n
Don't print key names
-e
Don't warn about unknown keys
-w
Change sysctl setting
-p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
-a
Display all values
-A
Display all values in table form
syslogd
syslogd [OPTIONS]
System logging utility. Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.
Options:
-n
-O FILE
-l n
-S
-s SIZE
-b NUM
-R HOST[:PORT]
-L
-D
-C[size(KiB)]
DEIF A/S
Run in foreground
Log to given file (default:/var/log/messages)
Set local log level
Smaller logging output
Max size (KB) before rotate (default:200KB, 0=off)
Number of rotated logs to keep (default:1, max=99, 0=purge)
Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
Drop duplicates
Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)
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tail
tail [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header
giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.
Options:
-c N[kbm]
-n N[kbm]
-f
-q
-s SEC
-v
Output the last N bytes
Print last N lines instead of last 10
Output data as the file grows
Never output headers giving file names
Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
Always output headers giving file names
If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a ’+’, output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file,
otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (10242̂).
tar
tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)]...
Create, extract, or list files from a tar file
Options:
c
x
t
Create
Extract
List
Archive format selection:
z
j
a
Z
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter
the
the
the
the
archive
archive
archive
archive
through
through
through
through
gzip
bzip2
lzma
compress
File selection:
f
Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin
O
Extract to stdout
exclude File to exclude
X
File with names to exclude
C
Change to directory DIR before operation
v
Verbose
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\subsubsection{tee}
\begin{itemize}[leftmargin=\tmpleftmarginsmall,label=\empty]
\item tee [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
\item Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output
\item Options:
\begin{itemize}[leftmargin=\tmpleftmarginsmall,label=\empty]
\item \begin{verbatim}
-a
Append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite
-i
Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)
test
test EXPRESSION ]
Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code depending on logical value of EXPRESSION
DEIF A/S
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tftp
tftp [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]
Transfer a file from/to tftp server
Options:
-l FILE Local FILE
-r FILE Remote FILE
-g
Get file
-p
Put file
-b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets
time
time [OPTIONS] PROG [ARGS]
Run PROG. When it finishes, its resource usage is displayed.
Options:
-v
Verbose
timeout
timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG [ARGS]
Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds. Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.
tlog
Usage: tlog <DEVICE> [OPTION]...
Display and reset temperature log.
DEVICE character device to read statistics from
OPTION:
-a,
-t,
-p,
-r,
--display-both
--display-total
--display-trip
--reset-log
display total and trip log
display the not resettable log
display the resettable log
reset the trip counter
Other options:
-h, --help
display this help message and exit
tlogd
top
top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS] [-m]
Provide a view of process activity in real time. Read the status of all processes from /proc each SECONDS
and show the status for however many processes will fit on the screen.
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touch
touch [-c] [-d DATE] FILE [FILE]...
Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]
Options:
-c
-d DT
Do not create files
Date/time to use
true
true
Return an exit code of TRUE (0)
ubiattach
ubicrc32
ubidetach
ubiformat
ubimkvol
ubinfo
ubinize
ubirename
ubirmvol
ubirsvol
ubiupdatevol
udhcpc
udhcpc
udhcpc [-Cfbnqtvo] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTERFACE] [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] [-O
dhcp-option]...
-V,--vendorclass=CLASSID
Vendor class identifier
-i,--interface=INTERFACE
Interface to use (default eth0)
-H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME
Client hostname
-c,--clientid=CLIENTID Client identifier
-C,--clientid-none
Suppress default client identifier
-p,--pidfile=file
Create pidfile
-r,--request=IP
IP address to request
-s,--script=file
Run file at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script
-t,--retries=N
Send up to N request packets
-T,--timeout=N
Try to get a lease for N seconds (default 3)
-A,--tryagain=N
Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
-O,--request-option=OPT Request DHCP option OPT (cumulative)
-o,--no-default-options Do not request any options (unless -O is also given)
-f,--foreground Run in foreground
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-b,--background
-S,--syslog
-n,--now
-q,--quit
-R,--release
-a,--arping
Appendix
Background if lease is not immediately obtained
Log to syslog too
Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
Quit after obtaining lease
Release IP on quit
Use arping to validate offered address
umount
umount [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY
Unmount file systems
Options:
-a
-r
-l
-f
-d
Unmount all file systems
Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
Free loop device if it has been used
uname
uname [-amnrspv]
Print system information
Options:
-a
-m
-n
-r
-s
-p
-v
Print all
The machine (hardware) type
Hostname
OS release
OS name (default)
Processor type
OS version
uptime
uptime
Display the time since the last boot
ustctl
ustd
usttrace
vconfig
vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]
Create and remove virtual ethernet devices
Options:
add
[interface-name] [vlan_id]
rem
[vlan-name]
set_flag
[interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
set_egress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
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set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
set_name_type [name-type]
vi
vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Edit FILE
Options:
-c
-R
-H
Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
Read-only - do not write to the file
Short help regarding available features
vsftpd
watchdog
watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV
Periodically write to watchdog device DEV
Options:
-T N
-t N
-F
Reboot after N seconds if not reset (default 60)
Reset every N seconds (default 30)
Run in foreground
Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds
which
which [COMMAND]...
Locate a COMMAND
yes
yes [OPTIONS] [STRING]
Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or ’y’
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DEIF A/S reserves the right to change any of the above.
DEIF A/S
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