Jahleel Brenton House, Newport, Rhode Island

Comments

Transcription

Jahleel Brenton House, Newport, Rhode Island
Jahleel Brenton House, Newport, Rhode Island, 1720, demolished in the 1920s.
Photo: Historic American Buildings Survey.
Sylvester Manor, south elevation. While many early Georgian houses have a
balanced five-bay front facade with a center entrance, it is the hipped roof form
and the placement of a chimney at either end of the ridge that makes the
Jahleel Brenton House a precedent for Brinley Sylvester's house.
All photos by Robert Hefner, unless otherwise noted.
ILLUSTRATION 1
Parlor paneling of the Jahleel Brenton House,
Newport, Rhode Island, 1720, demolished.
Photo: Historic American Buildings Survey.
Original paneling of Brinley Sylvester's hall chamber.
Photo: Jeff Heatley.
ILLUSTRATION 2
Jahleel Brenton House, Newport, Rhode Island, 1720, demolished in the 1920s.
Photo: Historic American Buildings Survey.
Abraham Redwood House, Newport, Rhode Island, 1727, demolished.
The drawing on the left shows the hipped roof terminating at a small gable.
The chimneys are tight to the ridge and the forward face of each chimney aligns
with the ridge, as do those at Sylvester Manor. Drawing and floor plan
(by Jonas Bergner) from Antoinette F. Downing and Vincent J. Scully, Jr.,
The Architectural Heritage of Newport Rhode Island, (New York:
Bramhall House, 1967), plate 72.
ILLUSTRATION 3
Whitehall (Dean George Berkeley's Farm), Middletown, Rhode Island, 1729.
Whitehall was the first house in the region to have a hipped roof rising to a single
ridge and appears to be the precedent for the same type of roof at Sylvester Manor.
The two-leaf door is another shared feature. Photo: Richard Barons.
Whitehall, c. 1837 sketch by Lientenant A. A. Harwood, U.S.N., prepared for the book
Picturesque Illustrations of Rhode Island, and the Town of Newport. From
Desmond Guinness and Julius Trousdale Sadler, Jr., Newport Preserv'd,
(New York: The Viking Press,1982), p. 55.
ILLUSTRATION 4
David Chesebrough House, Newport, Rhode Island, 1737, demolished 1908.
Brinley Sylvester's daughter, Margaret, married David Chesebrough in 1749 and
lived with him in this house. Photo: Courtesy of the Newport Historical Society.
Entry (left) and parlor (right) of the David Chesebrough House, from Antoinette F.
Downing and Vincent J. Scully, Jr., The Architectural Heritage of Newport
Rhode Island, (New York: Bramhall House, 1967), plates 92 and 94.
ILLUSTRATION 5
Foster-Hutchinson House, Boston, Massachusetts, 1690-1692, demolished.
Woodcut (published in The American Magazine of Useful & Entertaining Knowledge,
February, 1836) from Abbott Lowell Cummings, "The Beginnings of Provincial
Renaissance Architecture in Boston, 1690-1725," SAH Journal, March 1983.
Francis Brinley House (Brinley Place), Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1723, demolished.
Wood engraving (published in Francis S. Drake, The Town of Roxbury, 1878)
from Margaretta M. Lovell, Art in a Season of Revolution,(Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), p. 216.
ILLUSTRATION 6
Rampyndene, Burwash, East Sussex, England, 1699.
The hipped roof at Rampyndene rises to a roof-top deck with
a chimney at each end.
Photo: Nathaniel Lloyd, 1922, English Heritage Archives
Nepicar House, Platt, Kent,England, c. 1700.
Nepicar also has a roof-top teck with a
chimney at each end. Photo: English Heritage
Archives, from Daniel D. Reiff, Small
Georgian Houses in England and Virginia,
(University of Delaware Press, 1986), p. 144.
Governor's House, Williamsburg,
Virginia, 1706-1717, reconstructed
in the 1930s. Photo: Howard R. Hollem,
1943, Library of Congress.
ILLUSTRATION 7
RIDGE SMALL
GABLE
HIP RAFTERS
Diagram of the frame of a gable-on-hip roof like that of the Jahleel Brenton and Abraham
Redwood houses in Newport. The four hip rafters rise to the corners of the small roof-top
gable. The chimneys rise between rafters and against the end rafter of the small gable.
RIDGE
HIP
RAFTERS
Diagram of the frame of a conventional hipped roof rising to a single ridge, such as that of
Whitehall in Middletown, Rhode Island. The hip rafters rise to meet at either end of the
ridge. Chimneys are often placed between rafters inboard of the ends of the ridge.
REAR
HIP RAFTERS
RIDGE
FRONT
HIP RAFTERS
Diagram of the unique roof frame of Sylvester Manor. The front hip rafters reach the ridge,
but the rear hip rafters are cut off by the chimneys and are supported by cantilevered purlins.
ILLUSTRATION 8
BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S c. 1737 HOUSE
A CONJECTURAL RESTORATION OF THE FRONT ELEVATION
The following features are substantiated by physical or documentary evidence:
The hipped roof and chimney placement
The two dormer windows with segmental pediments
The modilion cornice
The location and dimensions of the windows
The clapboard siding, water table and corner boards
The two-leaf front door
There is no documentation of the enframement for the front door.
The pilasters and segmental pediment shown here are purely conjectural.
ILLUSTRATION 9
View showing the hipped roof rising to a single ridge,
with a chimney at either end of the ridge. Photo: Andy Bush.
View of west wall showing the front hip rafter reaching the ridge, the
forward face of the chimney aligning with the ridge and the chimney
stack cutting off the rear hip rafter, preventing it from reaching the ridge.
Photo: Andy Bush.
ILLUSTRATION 10
1'
7"
5'
-
7"
SOUTH (FRONT)
ROOF SLOPE
NORTH (REAR)
ROOF SLOPE
PURLINS
SOUTH
PLATE
VERTICAL SECTION OF ROOF FRAME
(SOUTH TO NORTH)
NORTH
PLATE
WEST
ORIGINAL
DORMER
REAR HIP RAFTER
ORIGINAL
DORMER
CHIMNEY
V
V
IIII
IIII
RAFTER V
RAFTER IIII
RIDGE
SOUTH
(FRONT)
NORTH
(REAR)
III
III
RAFTER III
PURLIN
SUPPORTING
REAR HIP RAFTERS
II
II
I
I
RAFTER II
RAFTER I
ORIGINAL
DORMER
CHIMNEY
REAR HIP RAFTER
ORIGINAL
DORMER
EAST
PLAN VIEW OF ROOF FRAME
SHOWING REAR HIP RAFTERS CUT OFF BY CHIMNEYS
AND SUPPORTED BY CANTILEVERED PURLINS
SCALE: 1/8" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 11
R
AF
TE
R
ORIGINAL TAPERED BLOCK
FLOOR JOIST
PLATE
CONJECTURAL ORIGINAL
CROWN MOLDING
(REMOVED WHEN BRACKETS
INSTALLED C. 1880)
ORIGINAL FASCIA
ORIGINAL DENTIL AND
MOLDING
ORIGINAL BED MOLDING
SECTION OF ORIGINAL ROOF CORNICE, RESTORED
SCALE: 1 1/2" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 12
The entrance door to Brinley Sylvester's house, now hung in a doorway to the
small north attic room. The two-leaf door is hung upside down and the original
bottom panel is sawn off. The weathered exterior face is to the left.
On the right is the interior face of one leaf.
ILLUSTRATION 13
6'-10 1/2"
4'-3"
TWO-LEAF DOOR TO BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S HOUSE
EXTERIOR FACE, RESTORED
SCALE: 1" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 14
5'-3"
3'-1"
WINDOW SHUTTERS OF BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S HOUSE
SCALE: 1" = 1' - 0"
Three window shutters were found in the attic.The drawing shows the
interior of a pair of shutters when closed. The side with raised panels
(photo to the left) was visible from the exterior when open and from the
interior when closed. The opposite side with flat panels (photo on the right)
was visible from the exterior when closed.
ILLUSTRATION 15
C
D
C
E
B
4 1/8"
A
6 3/8"
F
D
16 1/2"
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Board laps over hip rafter
Board laps over rafter
Weathered surface with traces of white and paint edges
at arcs and at bottom
Smooth, planed surface with sawn edge and nail holes
Vertical scribe line at center of circle
Splilt edge of board
FRAGMENT OF FACE BOARD OF ORIGINAL DORMER PEDIMENT
SCALE: 1 1/2" = 1' - 0"
Fragment of face board of c.1737 dormer pediment
that was recycled as a roof sheathing board during the
1840s renovation.The area painted white documents
the pediment's segmental arch.
ILLUSTRATION 16
OFFICE
KITCHEN
BEDROOM
COOKING HEARTH
& BAKE OVEN
BACK
STAIRS
DARK ROOM
PARLOR
ENTRY
HALL
N
E
W
S
BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S HOUSE
A CONJECTURAL RESTORATION OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN
SCALE: 1/8" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 17
MEEL ROOM
KITCHEN CHAMBER
BEDROOM CHAMBER
GIRT BETWEEN
CHIMNEY-BAY POSTS
UP
DOWN
PARLOR CHAMBER
HALL CHAMBER
N
E
W
S
BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S HOUSE
A CONJECTURAL RESTORATION OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN
SCALE: 1/8" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 18
NORTH
ROOM
C. 1737 TWO-LEAF FRONT DOOR
RECYCLED TO THIS LOCATION
DURING FIRST HALF OF 19TH CENTURY
DOWN
SOUTH
ROOM
DORMER WINDOW
DORMER WINDOW
N
E
W
S
BRINLEY SYLVESTER'S HOUSE
A CONJECTURAL RESTORATION OF THE ATTIC PLAN
SCALE: 1/8" = 1' - 0"
ILLUSTRATION 19
These baulsters from the stairway of Brinley Sylvester's
house were found stored in the attic (above).
The early-eighteenth century stairway of the WantonLyman-Hazard House in Newport (left), illustrates the
type of stairway built by Brinley Sylvester. The bottoms
of the turned balusters were fastened to a molded stringer
and the tops were nailed to a handrail.
Photo: Historic American Buildings Survey.
ILLUSTRATION 20
Seventh Day Baptist Meetinghouse (Sabbatarian Meetinghouse), Newport,
Rhode Island, 1730. The stairway to the gallery has a closed stringer as did
Brinley Sylvester's stairway. The turned balusters of this stairway have
the same 22" height as those found in the attic at Sylvester Manor.
Photo: Historic American Buildings Survey.
ILLUSTRATION 21
The fireplace wall in Brinley
Sylvester's parlor (above).
The mantel is a later alteration.
The back stairway and passage
from Brinley Sylvester's kitchen
(now the dining room) to his parlor (left).
ILLUSTRATION 22
Fireplace wall paneling in Brinley Sylvester's hall. The mantel, the panel above the
mantel and the arched doorway to the left are later alterations. Photo: Jeff Heatley.
6'-7"
2'-5"
SCALE: 1/2" = 1' - 0"
This is the door to the beaufat that was in Brinley Sylvester's hall.
The beaufat, or china cupboard, was to the to the left of the fireplace,
about where the arched doorway is presently. This door was found
stored in the attic.
ILLUSTRATION 23
Fireplace wall paneling in Brinley Sylvester's hall chamber.
Photo: Jeff Heatley.
This shelf, found stored in the attic, is from the closet to the left of the fireplace.
This window seat panel, found stored in the attic, appears to be
from the hall chamber.
ILLUSTRATION 24
West board partition of the small south room in the attic and the orginal batten door.
6'-6"
2'-8 1/2"
SCALE: 1/2" = 1' - 0"
East board parition of the south attic room with a paneled door recycled to this
doorway from an unknown location.
ILLUSTRATION 25
WEST HALF
IN POSSESSION
OF SAMUEL S. GARDINER
DOWER RIGHTS
OF ESTHER S. DERING
IN THE EAST HALF
FRONT DOOR IN
THE SOUTH WALL
Sylvester Manor, first floor plan sketch, 1828. This sketch is part of the court
papers related to an 1828 dower dispute between Samuel S. Gardiner and
Esther Sarah Dering. The sketch documents the one kitchen in the north wing,
the expansion of the original kitchen into the north wing and the conversion of
the original kitchen into a dining room by this date.
ILLUSTRATION 26
This photograph, from about 1880, is the earliest of Sylvester Manor.
It shows the original cornice, before E. N. Horsford installed brackets and
extended the eaves. Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
This 1890s photograph, from a similar viewpoint, shows the wide overhanging
eaves added by Professsor Horsford. The wood terrace on the west wall and the
two doors leading to it from the dining room are other changes made by
Eben N. Horsford. Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
ILLUSTRATION 27
This 1890s photograph provides a good view of the Greek Revival porch, doorway,
corner pilasters, windows with louvered shutters and dormer windows installed by
Samuel S. Gardiner in the 1840s. Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
Samuel S. Gardiner's two-story kitchen wing is seen to the right in this 1890s
photograph. The hooded doorway and the one-story extension to the far right
are the result of E. N. Horsford's remodeling of the service wing in 1888.
Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
ILLUSTRATION 28
SOUTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
WEST ELEVATION
Three images from sheet number 10 entitled "Sylvester Manor. Showing Alterations
and Additions," dated April 24, 1908, by Henry Bacon, Architect.
The SOUTH ELEVATION shows Gardiner's Greek Revival porch being retained and
proposed east and west terraces with paneled railings following the example of the
front porch balustrade.
The EAST ELEVATION shows the proposed wood terrace and the new entrance,
in the Greek Revival style, to the music room in the expanded north wing.
The WEST ELEVATION shows the proposed wood terrace off the dining room,
windows replacing E. N. Horsford's doors, and the proposed glazed door to the
terrace from the passage.
ILLUSTRATION 29
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
SHOWING ACTUAL STATE
Henry Bacon Architect, May 1, 1908
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
SHOWING ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS
Henry Bacon Architect, May 1, 1908
ILLUSTRATION 30
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
SHOWING ACTUAL STATE
Henry Bacon Architect, May 1, 1908
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
SHOWING ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS
Henry Bacon Architect, May 1, 1908
ILLUSTRATION 31
This photograph, taken shortly after the 1908 remodeling, shows the rebuilt chimneys,
the new front porch, the new east and west porches and the expanded north wing.
Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
This photograph, from an album dated 1914, shows Henry Bacon's arched
passageway from the east parlor to the library and the 1908 wallpaper in
the entrance hall. Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
ILLUSTRATION 32
This c. 1914 photograph shows the view from the dining room looking into the hallway
to the pantry. The 1830s stairway installed by Samuel S. Gardiner
is seen to the right. Photo: Sylvester Manor Archive, Fales Library, NYU.
This view of the landscape parlor dates from about 1914.
Photo: photo album in the library at Sylvester Manor.
ILLUSTRATION 33
ROOM C4
ROOM C8
UP
ROOM C5
ROOM C7
ROOM C3
ROOM C6
UP
ROOM C2
BRICK
ARCH
ROOM C1
CELLAR PLAN
ILLUSTRATION 34
ROOM 110
ROOM 111
ROOM 112
ROOM 109
DOWN
ROOM 107
ROOM 108
UP
NORTH WALL OF ORIGINAL HOUSE
ROOM 105
ROOM 104
UP
ROOM
106
UP
ROOM 102
ROOM 101
ROOM 103
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
ILLUSTRATION 35
ROOM 208
ROOM 211
DOWN
ROOM 210
ROOM 207
ROOM 209
NORTH WALL OF ORIGINAL HOUSE
DOWN
ROOM 205
ROOM 204
UP
ROOM
206
DOWN
ROOM 202
ROOM 201
ROOM 203
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
ILLUSTRATION 36
Sylvester Manor today has features from various periods. The form, hipped roof, chimney
placement, modillion cornice and balanced five-bay facade with center entrance are original.
The windows with six-light sash and louvered shutters, the gabled dormer windows, the
corner pilasters and the wall shingles were installed in the 1840s by Samuel S. Gardiner.
Professor Eben N. Horsford was responsible for the wide, bracketed eaves and the tradition
of yellow paint on the shingles. The front porch, front door and side porches, designed by
Henry Bacon, were added by Cornelia Horsford in 1908.
The dining room, with its 1830s mantel and door trim, is the room that best
represents the interior renovations of Samuel S. Gardiner.
ILLUSTRATION 37
The period of ownership by Professor Eben N. Horsford is represented by the southwest
bedroom where he installed paneling salvaged from the General Ward House in Cambridge,
Massachusetts (top) and by the scenic wallpaper in the landscape parlor (bottom).
ILLUSTRATION 38
Cornelia Horsford's 1908 interior renovation and the contribution made by
Henry Bacon, architect, to the interior is best represented by this wall of
paneling in the library.
ILLUSTRATION 39

Similar documents