Raytheon`s International Presence

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Raytheon`s International Presence
Technology
Today
H ighlighting R aytheon ’ s T echnology
2012 ISSUE 2
Raytheon’s International Presence
Providing systems and solutions in all domains
A Message From
Mark E. Russell
Vice President of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance
Raytheon provides systems and solutions to more than 80 nations around the
world, and our international presence is growing. We maintain offices in 19
countries and have established companies in the United Kingdom, Australia,
Spain, France, Germany and Canada to serve our global customers.
In this issue of Technology Today, we highlight the global reach of Raytheon’s
technologies, systems and services, and the strength of our international
relationships.
The applications of our technologies are both global and diverse, addressing
areas such as defense; maritime and border security; sensing and surveillance;
air traffic management; mission support; and command, control, communications, computers and intelligence. The featured articles illustrate the breadth
and impact of Raytheon’s international development and highlight some of
our close partnerships.
In our Leaders Corner, Tom Culligan, Raytheon’s senior vice president of
Business Development and CEO of Raytheon International, provides his perspective on the role that technology plays in the future for Raytheon’s international business. Also, John Harris, president of Raytheon Technical Services
Company, discusses how our international logistics, support and training technologies provide mission-critical solutions for our international customers.
Our Eye on Technology section includes articles from our technology
networks about ongoing materials, manufacturing and computing technology
developments, followed by a summary of our Raytheon Six Sigma™ program,
including perspectives from two of our Raytheon Six Sigma Experts. We close
with our Events section, which presents the 2011 Raytheon Six Sigma and Excellence in Operations and Quality award winners.
Best regards,
Mark E. Russell
On the cover: Australia’s Hobart Class Air
Warfare Destroyer.
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2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
View Technology Today online at:
www.raytheon.com/technology_today
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
Feature: Raytheon’s International Presence
Overview: Raytheon — A World of International Experience and Technology
4
Raytheon Australia’s Expertise in Engineering and Technology
7
Australian Air Warfare Destroyer Combat System
10
Weather Radar Research in Australia
12
High-Temperature Integrated Circuit Technology in Scotland
15
Raytheon Anschütz Synapsis Command Bridge for Protecting Coastal Waterways
18
Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support Program in Germany
21
Raytheon Canada High Frequency Surface Wave Radar 25
Air Traffic Control Wind Farm Interference Mitigation
28
AutoTrac III Next Generation Air Traffic Management System in India
32
Raytheon’s Multi-Spectral Targeting System for ISR 36
Global Patriot: Combat-Proven Air and Missile Defense System
38
Standard Missile: Raytheon’s Evolving Defense Technology for Our NATO Allies
43
Managing Editor
Cliff Drubin
NASAMS Guided Intercept of Evolved Seasparrow Missile in Norway
44
Raytheon’s Worldwide C4I Systems 46
Feature Editor
Mark Hebeisen
Maritime Surveillance for Montenegro
51
Raytheon’s Multimedia Monitoring System
52
Technology Today is published
by the Office of Engineering,
Technology and Mission Assurance.
Vice President
Mark E. Russell
Chief Technology Officer
Bill Kiczuk
Senior Editors
Corey Daniels
Tom Georgon
Eve Hofert
Art Director
Debra Graham
Photography
Jon Black
Fran Brophy
Rob Carlson
Dan Plumpton
Charlie Riniker
Website Design
Nick Miller
Publication Distribution
Dolores Priest
Contributors
Kate Emerson
Kenneth Kung
Lauren Pihokken
Bruce Solomon
Lindley Specht
Frances Vandal
Raytheon Leaders Corner
Q&A With Raytheon International CEO Tom Culligan 56
Q&A With Raytheon Technical Services Company President John Harris
58
EYE on Technology
Monitoring and Managing Cybersecurity Events in Complex Systems
60
Missile Radome Materials Innovations
64
Elemental Zinc Sulfide Provides a Clear View for Tri-mode Seekers66
Resources
Raytheon Six Sigma Promotes Success
68
Events
Raytheon Six Sigma Awards
69
Raytheon Excellence in Operations and Quality Awards
70
Patents72
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2
3
Feature
T
his issue of Technology Today highlights the breadth of
Raytheon’s technologies, providing innovative solutions for
our international customers.
Raytheon Australia is the mission systems integrator of choice
for the Australian Defence Organisation and in 2012 became
Australia’s second largest defense contractor. Several of their
programs are highlighted in this issue, including the largest of their
current development projects, the Hobart Class Air Warfare
Destroyer, designed to protect the air and sea approaches to the
Australian continent.
Also featured is Raytheon’s collaboration with Australian universities
and government institutions — the University of Adelaide, the
University of Melbourne, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the
Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) and the
Defence Systems Innovation Center (DSIC) — in conjunction with
the University of Massachusetts, to develop and distribute a network of phased-array radars to improve the prediction of
severe weather events.
In Glenrothes, Scotland, Raytheon UK is developing integrated circuit technology employing silicon carbide (SiC) capable of operating
at high ambient temperatures, for use in stressing system applications. The U.K. government, recognizing the potential of this
technology as an enabler for higher-efficiency systems, provides
partial support for this development under its Technology Strategy
Board “Materials for Energy” research program.
In Germany, Raytheon Anschütz has developed integrated navigation and bridge systems that provide small patrol craft with the
integrated navigation, command and control capabilities needed to
appropriately handle a broad range of tasks, from police duties to
military operations.
Also, located just outside of Hohenfels, Germany is the Joint
Multinational Readiness Center, where Raytheon, under the
Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support program (Warfighter
FOCUS), provides performance-based training in a genuine tactical
environment for U.S. and coalition forces. Discussed is Raytheon’s
role in developing training technology to ensure warfighter readiness.
Raytheon Canada Limited describes their next generation of High
Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR), which provides persistent,
active surveillance within a nation’s 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). HFSWR is used by coastal nations to monitor
shipping traffic, enabling the efficient and effective deployment of
surface and airborne patrol and interdiction assets.
U.S. Army photo by
Master Sgt. Donald Sparks/Released.
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2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
The worldwide growth of wind turbine farms has introduced new
challenges for air traffic management. The rotating turbine blades in
these wind farms generate radar returns that mask those of aircraft
being monitored by air traffic control radar. Over the past two
years, Raytheon Canada Limited, under contract to the U.K.
National Air Traffic Services, has developed a solution that has been
demonstrated at locations in the U.S., Holland and Scotland. This
system is described and test results are presented.
Raytheon enables safe air travel around the world as one of the
leading providers of Air Traffic Management systems. Raytheon’s
next generation ATM system, AutoTrac III (AT3), now operational
at three Indian airports, is highlighted. The AT3 system is an advanced, cost-effective solution to the challenges facing the ATM
community in the 21st Century — traffic growth outpacing revenue
growth and the drive to increase capacity and productivity in a cost
conscious environment.
Raytheon has a legacy of providing effective and reliable systems for
the defense of our homeland and that of our allies:
• Raytheon’s Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) sensor —
which incorporates visible, infrared and laser-ranging intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities — is described. It is
currently deployed internationally by the U.K. Royal Air Force and
Italian Air Force on UAV platforms like Reaper and Predator, and
on numerous maritime helicopter platforms for Australia, Denmark, India, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore and
Brazil, as well as several Middle East countries.
• For more than four decades, the Patriot system has provided an
international air and missile defense capability for the U.S. and its
allies and has been progressively upgraded to counter evolving
threats. A summary of Patriot’s history and recent modernization
are discussed.
• The European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) is a ballistic
missile defense policy that begins with the protection of Europe.
The EPAA leverages Raytheon’s SM-3 family of missile interceptors,
as well as Raytheon’s AN/TPY2 radar. For SM-3, we are phasing
in progressive upgrades in warhead, propulsion and seeker performance to defeat the latest threats. We discuss SM-3 Block IIA
Continued on page 6
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2
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Feature
International Overview
Continued from page 5
interceptor development, accomplished through a teaming
effort with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagoya, Japan.
• The National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS), jointly
developed by Raytheon and our Norwegian partner, Kongsberg
Defence & Aerospace, provides a state-of-the-art medium-range air
defense system. We feature its expanding capability and flexibility, demonstrated by a recent successful flight test with the Evolved Seasparrow
Missile. This adds another interceptor to the NASAMS and Hawk XXI
family of ground-based air defense systems.
Raytheon provides the glue that binds together layered defense and security systems for U.S. and international coalition partners. A summary of
Raytheon’s technology and solutions for C4I (command, control, communications, computers and intelligence) is provided. In addition, Raytheon
Solypsis discusses their command and control, tracking and visualization
capabilities for state-of-the-art maritime surveillance systems overseas.
Raytheon BBN Technologies, an industry leader in real-time speech recognition for intelligence gathering, provides an overview of their Multimedia
Monitoring System (M3S). This delivers an end-to-end capability for monitoring, translating, storing and searching a wide variety of open source
media across a range of languages. M3S provides users with a real-time
understanding of news, events and perceptions around the world.
The systems and technologies described in these articles are just a sampling to illustrate Raytheon’s global presence and leadership in delivering
innovation to the international community. •
Mark Hebeisen
ENGINEERING PROFILE
security markets, Mark Hebeisen is the
Technical Director for Raytheon Integrated
Defense Systems (IDS), serving on the
Engineering, Technology and Mission
Assurance leadership team. Additionally,
Hebeisen is director of Strategic Architecture for
IDS where he leads a team of chief engineers,
technical directors and industry-recognized
subject matter experts to define the independent research and development strategy for IDS
and to ensure that flawless execution and
affordability are driven into ongoing engineering programs.
Mark Hebeisen
Technical Director, IDS
With more than two decades of experience in
technology innovation, market strategy formulation, and general management of companies
spanning wireless, defense and homeland
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2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Hebeisen has a strong background in the commercial electronics industry, specializing in
high-data-rate communications systems. He
was co-founder and technical director of a successful wireless communications company. He
went on to help pioneer an offshore manufacturing model for high-frequency products to
achieve high-volume production of
millimeter-wave modules in Asia, and he
transformed a wireless telecommunications
product line into a diverse portfolio of highfrequency subsystems.
When asked what career advice he would offer
a Raytheon engineer, Hebeisen's response was,
“Tap into the power of Raytheon in everything
you do. The talent I am surrounded with at
Raytheon is incredible. I try to lean on that
expertise by increasing my internal Raytheon
network well beyond IDS and into all of
Raytheon — to help solve the toughest challenges in front of us.”
Hebeisen earned both a bachelor’s and master’s
degree in electrical engineering from the
University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is a
graduate of Stanford University’s AeA
Executive Institute for Management of High
Tech Companies.
Integrated in Australia
Raytheon Australia’s expertise in
engineering and technology underlines
the importance of having a proven
capability and an experienced,
in-country workforce.
A
s a trusted partner of the
Australian Defence Force,
Raytheon Australia provides
mission assurance to its customers
through the delivery of world-class
mission systems integration and mission
support. Recognized as the second largest
defense contractor in Australia, Raytheon
Australia is underpinned by its unmatched
record of performance and in-country
capability to deliver solutions across
multiple domains.
Raytheon Australia’s approach to mission
systems integration includes:
• Undertaking capability trade-offs and
specifying mission and support systems
requirements.
• Architecting the system and defining the
integration strategy.
• Selecting technologies, subsystems, products and components in partnership with
the customer, and through the use of
trade studies and make/buy/reuse
processes.
Because of this, the company
has been able to draw upon highly
skilled local resources across Australia,
including the services of small to medium
enterprises and universities, in order to
effectively resource and execute programs.
Some of these programs are outlined
below.
Naval Systems Domain
Raytheon Australia’s largest design
and development project is the Air
Warfare Destroyer Combat System.
The Australian Hobart Class Air Warfare
Destroyer is designed to protect the air
and sea approaches to the Australian
continent, denying access to hostile ships
and aircraft, while also providing maximum freedom for action and response by
Australia’s own forces.
Hobart Class Air
Warfare Destroyer
Combat System
Raytheon
Australia also provides
in-service support for
the AN/BYG-1 (V) Combat
System on the Australian
Defence Force’s Collins class
submarine. Raytheon Australia has worked
closely with the Royal Australian Navy over
the last decade to transition the system
from the previous Rockwell/Boeing proprietary combat system to the current variant,
which is the same combat system that was
installed on U.S. Navy Virginia-class submarines. In its current role, Raytheon Australia
performs hardware and software development, as well as integration and test.
Raytheon’s Combat System upgrade exploits the power of sonar, electronic support
measures, radar, navigation, periscopes,
communication, command and control,
along with weapons to provide a fully
integrated combat system.
Continued on page 8
• Integrating, verifying and validating
the system/subsystems, products and
components.
• Maintaining, sustaining, upgrading and
eventially retiring mission
and support systems.
With more than 30 projects distributed
across 22 sites throughout the country,
Raytheon Australia is geographically diversified and often collocated with the customer.
Australian Collins
Class Submarine
Combat System
Images courtesy of the Australian
Department of Defence.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2
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Feature
Australia
Electronic Warfare
Training System
continued from page 7
Naval
Communications
Station
Harold E Holt
Still in the naval systems domain and part of
Raytheon Australia’s base operations portfolio, the company provides maintenance and
support to the Naval Communications
Station Harold E Holt (HEH), meeting stringent operational availability requirements.
This is one of a small number of sites located
throughout the world that provide very low
frequency (VLF) communications to submarines. The low frequency transmission
antennas are more than 1,200 feet tall and
transmit a ground wave trapped within the
duct of the ocean and the ionosphere. The
low frequency transmission penetrates the
surface layer of the ocean, enabling submarines to communicate without surfacing,
thereby avoiding detection.
Aerospace Domain
Raytheon Australia pioneered the Retention
and Motivation Initiative (RMI), providing
the Royal Australian Navy with supported
aircraft to help the Australian Defence
Forces retain pilots and junior qualified
aircrew by enabling them to consolidate
and enhance their skills prior to flying
operational helicopters. Based on a
comprehensive analysis of customer needs,
Raytheon Australia acquired a fleet of Bell
429 world-class helicopters and developed
an efficient performance-based contract,
which provided an affordable turnkey
solution.
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2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
The Electronic Warfare Training
System (EWTS) represents a state-of-theart training system capable of jamming high
frequency through ultra high frequency
communications as well as radars. Raytheon
Australia specified, designed and developed
the system and is now supporting it with
comprehensive systems engineering, aeronautical and avionics expertise. After the
EWTS was integrated into the Lear Jet aircraft under Raytheon Australia’s direction, it
was then qualified and declared in service as
part of a 10-year maintenance and support
contract, which includes providing pilots
and training system operators.
Raytheon Australia’s integration of the
Radar Emulator Pod (EMPOD) provides
a missile radar simulation capability within
a composite pod structure. The emulator
pods are fitted to Royal Australian Air Force
(RAAF) fighter aircraft to support training.
Raytheon Australia performed the overall
integration of the EMPOD and its payload
and, following the successful development
phase, was awarded an ongoing contract
for support and maintenance. The EMPOD
and its payload were designed to replicate
the emissions from airborne and missile
threats during RAAF and Royal Australian
Navy exercises.
The Hornet Aircrew Training System
(HACTS) provides flight simulation of the
F-18 Hornet and, through a visual database, enables missions to be conducted
over local Australian terrains and airports.
Hornet Aircrew Training System
Radar
Emulator
Pod
Retention and Motivation Initiative
Royal Australian Navy Training Program
Feature
In partnership with the RAAF, Raytheon
Australia specified the simulator, conducted data collection, populated the visual
database and now provides ongoing maintenance and support for the F-18 Hornet
Simulation Trainer. Raytheon Australia further managed the selection of the hardware
subcontractor, the overall development and
integration of the hardware and software,
and conducted system integration at the
RAAF base in Williamstown.
Air Traffic Control Domain
Land Systems Domain
Joint Project 2072 Phase 1 is part of a
multi-phase project to digitize battlefield
communication for the Australian Army.
Phase 1 involves the delivery of Enhanced
Position Locating Reporting System
(EPLRS) radios, field support to the end
user, as well as training and in-country
maintenance. To date, more than 1,700
full-size and wearable radios, and more
than 7,000 subordinate items, have been
delivered.
The Australian Defence Air Traffic
System (ADATS) has primary and secondary surveillance radars that are distributed
across Australia. Raytheon Australia provides
maintenance and support for these radars
and the associated air traffic management
system, which includes a C-130 aircraft deployable system. ADATS uses equipment
from Raytheon UK in England, as well as
from Raytheon Network Centric Systems
in Canada and the U.S.
Australian Defense Air Traffic System
(ADATS) Surveillance Radars
EPLRS wearable tactical radio
The Raytheon EPLRS and MicroLight tactical
data radios also form part of the Australian
Army’s Internet Protocol backbone.
Raytheon Australia’s proven record of
performance is substantiated by feedback
from the Defence Materiel Organisation
(DMO) scorecard — a quarterly customer
report that tracks industry deliverables —
that has placed Raytheon Australia well
above its peers. The company’s high level of
performance is bolstered by its integrated
approach to technology and engineering, as
well as its trusted relationships with customers, suppliers and partners. •
Terry Stevenson
ENGINEERING PROFILE
Terry Stevenson
Chief Technology Officer, Raytheon Australia
As Chief Technology Officer of Raytheon
Australia, Dr. Terry Stevenson is responsible
for the introduction of new technology for all
aspects of engineering practice across the business. This includes research and development,
and the development of engineering skills
and processes.
on the staff at the University of Technology,
Sydney, for six years.
Stevenson helps define solutions for the customer by finding the best and most appropriate
technologies and by providing the best and
brightest engineers and technicians.
Stevenson has always been involved in the
developing of talent and the mentoring of
engineers. He offers the following advice to
up-and-coming engineers and technicians:
“Remember that you, and not others, are managing your career. Take every opportunity to
get experience whenever the opportunity presents itself. Do not move into management too
early, so take the time to learn your craft.
One of the great things with Raytheon is the
Engineering Fellows program which allows you
stay technical if you want.”
Stevenson learned to act and react with efficiency early in his life, and he leans heavily on
these experiences when making decisions for
the company. “When in Vietnam with the U.S.
Seventh Fleet, I was maintaining a Gunnery
Fire Control System. If it broke, you had to
react quickly and competently; there was no
time to go off and research the problem. My
team became very innovative and we learned a
lot in a very short time.”
Prior to joining Raytheon Australia, Stevenson
was Technical Director of Boeing Australia.
Before this, he ran his own consultancy while
Stevenson graduated from the New South
Wales Institute of Technology with a BSEE
degree and from the University of Technology,
Sydney, with a doctorate in Telecommunications.
He is also an adjunct professor at the University
of Queensland.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2
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Feature
R
aytheon Australia, the AWD Combat
System Mission Systems Integrator, is
executing an innovative program to design, integrate and test the AWD Combat
System, satisfying the Royal Australian Navy’s
demanding system requirements while working within crew, schedule and budget
constraints. The 6,500 metric ton Hobart
Class AWD is based on the Navantia Spanish
F100 ship design (above). It is being developed and built by the AWD Alliance, with
the Australian Government (represented by
the Defence Materiel Organisation) as
owner-participant, with ASC as the shipbuilder and with Raytheon Australia as the
Mission Systems Integrator. The first ship is
planned to enter service in the middle of
the decade.
The AWD program was defined in the
Australian Government’s year 2000 Defence
White Paper, which noted that the key to
defending Australia is controlling the air and
sea approaches to the Australian continent,
denying access to hostile ships and aircraft,
and providing maximum freedom of action for Australia’s own forces. This paper
announced the development of at least
three new Hobart Class AWD ships to help
reduce vulnerability of the fleet to air attack. Raytheon assisted in the analysis of the
AWD missions (Figure 1), thereby defining
key capabilities for the Hobart Class AWD
Combat System.
The AWD Combat System provides strength
in depth through interoperability with the
10 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Australian Defence Force and regional and
deployed coalition forces, as well as interoperability with U.S. Navy assets as a tactical
area air warfare unit within a U.S. Navy carrier battle group.
The Australian government mandated that
the AWD’s principal air warfare capability requirements must be met by the Aegis
Weapon System in concert with Standard
Missile-2 (SM-2) and Evolved Seasparrow
Missiles (ESSM). Through selection of Aegis,
the Combat System exploits the proven
capability of the Aegis air and missile defense system, which has been deployed on
more than 90 ships worldwide. Maintaining
a baseline Aegis solution that is common
with the U.S. Navy is pivotal to leveraging the opportunities presented by Aegis
for performance upgrades and minimizing
through-life costs.
Raytheon Australia, as the AWD Mission
Systems Integrator, developed the overall
combat system architecture and provides
systems engineering resources to meet the
demanding Hobart class system specification
(HCSS) requirements.
System Architecture and Integration
Raytheon’s combat system architecture
design approach introduced the Australian
Tactical Interface (ATI) to act as a gateway
between other combat system components
and Aegis. This architecture preserves the
integrity of the existing Aegis fire control
system while eliminating any changes to
existing equipment interfaces. The approach
dramatically reduces cost and integration risk and it allows Australia to exercise
self determination over the selection and
through-life support of non-Aegis equipment. Figure 2 shows the interconnection of
the 35 major items of equipment.
The architecture is currently operational and
supporting system integration. This includes
the integration of the Hobart Class AWD
Combat System equipment, integration of
the combat system with the ship, and verification that the installed system solution
meets the HCSS requirements.
To ensure success, the integration and test
program is built around a set of key principles, including early integration and test
activities using physical equipment and highfidelity simulators, globally distributed
integration, evaluation of all interfaces and
the behavior of key functional threads, and a
risk-based prioritization of all tasks. The Aegis
Weapon System, the Australian Tactical
Interface and its associated sensors and effectors, the Navigation Subsystem, and the
Communications and Information Subsystem
are currently in the integration phase.
Raytheon’s responsibilities on the program
extend beyond the AWD Combat System.
Raytheon is also responsible for the development and operation of two key land-based
components located in Sydney, Australia:
• The Combat System Through-Life
Support Facility initially enables AWD
Figure 1. AWD missions are divided into five main areas: air warfare, surface warfare, undersea warfare, land attack and communications.
integration and test, and then transitions
to an engineering support role.
• The Hobart Class Command Team
Trainer is a high-fidelity Combat
Information Center simulator used to
teach ships’ command teams how to
operate the ship’s systems in the most
effective way.
Challenges ahead include completing the
combat system integration onto a ship,
conducting sea trials, and verifying that
the installed combat system meets HCSS
requirements. The program is confident in
its success because the integration and test
strategy has been aligned from the outset
with the program’s architectural vision, principles and key features. The Hobart Class
Combat System promises to be the most
capable surface combatant ever to be put in
operation by the Royal Australian Navy. •
John R. Short, John P. Davis
Figure 2. AWD Combat System architecture. System components are interconnected
through the Australian Tactical Interface. >
Sense
Control
Gun Optical Sight
External Comms
Communications and
Information System
Engage
Gun Fire
Control
Close in Weapon
Data Links
Identification
Friend or Foe (IFF)
Evolved Seasparrow
Missile (ESSM)
Aegis Combat
Management
nt
System
Cooperative
Engagement
Capability (CEC)
Standard Missile-2
Vertical Launch
System
SPY Volume
Search Radar
Harpoon
Control
Gyros
Australian Tactical
Interface
Infrared Sensors
Electronic Attack
Short-Range Gun
Countermeasures
Optical Sensors
Nulka Missile Decoy
Electronic Warfare
Sensors
Towed Sonar Array
Harpoon Missile
Navigation
System
Navigation Radar
Hull Mount Sonar
Fire Control
System
Co
Command
C
Consoles
Horizon Search Radar
Electronic
Chart System
5” Gun
Integrated
Sonar
System
Multifunction
Consoles
Ship Launched
Torpedo
Towed
Countermeasure
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 11
Feature
Weather Radar Research in Australia
Addressing the need for faster, more accurate weather warnings
C
urrent weather monitoring radar systems are large,
high-powered and expensive. They are designed to provide
long-range surveillance over large
areas. Terrain blockage and sighting limitations, including those due
to the Earth’s curvature, result in
less than complete spatial coverage (Figure 1). In addition, radar
images in conventional, mechanically rotating, systems are updated
only every six to 10 minutes. This
can be a problem because the life
cycle of a convective weather cell is
around 30 minutes and its severe
components, such as microbursts, can
develop and dissipate between scans.
This limits the accuracy and timeliness
of weather forecasts and warnings.
Raytheon and its partners are investigating alternative networks of smaller,
less expensive radars to fill these gaps.
Raytheon has been working with
the University of Massachusetts
Collaborative Adaptive Sensing
of the Atmosphere (CASA) center
for the past 10 years to eliminate
this gap. In addition, Raytheon
has recently started a research
relationship with the University of
Adelaide in South Australia to expand this research and to address
weather and hydrology needs
around the globe.
GAP
Weather
We
Wea
W
eat
ea
athe
th
th
he
er Hazards
Ha
azzza
aza
arrds
rd
d
dss
Research Council (ARC) linkage grant
to develop and distribute a network
of X-band* phased array radars to
explore real-time, multi-observation
weather and weather-related events.
This grant focuses on establishing an
experimental network of three fully
polarimetric** digital X-band radars
(described below) in Adelaide. The
radars being demonstrated are separated by 10 to 20 kilometers. They will
overcome the limited vertical coverage
< Figure 1. Conventional
large, long-range weather
radars leave a “gap” in
coverage.
(i.e., fill the gap) of current weather
radar systems, and be able to electronically scan their beams in order
to revisit events much faster than
conventional mechanically scanned
parabolic dish radars. The Adelaide
network (Figure 2) is located in the
vicinity of Adelaide city within the gap
of two long-range weather radars to
the north and south.
The team in South Australia —
which includes Raytheon Australia,
the University of Adelaide, the
University of Melbourne, the
Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the
Defence Science and Technology
Organisation (DSTO) and the
Defence Systems Innovation Center
(DSIC) — in conjunction with the
Figure 2. The Experimental Distributed Weather Radar Network in Adelaide with
University of Massachusetts, has
radar separation of 10 to 20 kilometers. (The airport and hills are located in the gap of
won a three-year Australian
conventional weather radar coverage.)
*X-Band – Electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range of 8GHz to 12GHz.
**Polarimetric – Transmitting and receiving in both horizontal and vertical polarizations.
12 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
The ability to multitask such systems, and
to potentially integrate them with air traffic
control or other similar systems, is an area
of interest for research and development.
The benefits of multitasking could greatly
affect the architecture and efficiency of new
systems. These include the ability to maintain broad and persistent spatial coverage
to detect and track precipitation and other
atmospheric phenomena (e.g., smoke and
insects), while simultaneously providing narrow time resolution data on critical weather
events such as tornadoes and localized
areas of dangerous precipitation. This would
be interleaved with information about aircraft close to these events and potentially in
harm’s way.
Antenna Array Assembly
Includes antenna elements,
transmit/receive modules,
combiner, converter, array controller
Tilt motor/Actuator
Cooling fan and shroud
Interface unit
Power
Pedestal frame
Front of Array
Height:
46 inches/
1.17 meters
The Phase-Tilt Radar
The phased array radar being developed
for this purpose is shown in Figure 3. This
radar, designed for cost and performance,
is called a phase-tilt radar because it scans
electronically in azimuth (horizontal plane)
and it scans mechanically (tilts) for elevation
(vertical plane). The one square meter array
has the capacity for 4,096 transmit/receive
channels if it were fully populated, but to
reduce cost (while still meeting performance
goals), this array employs only 64 transmit/
receive channels along the center horizontal
axis of the aperture, feeding 64 strips of
vertical antenna elements.
Back of Array
Width:
74 inches/
1.88 meters
Depth:
34 inches/
0.86 meters
Figure 3. New X-band phase-tilt radar.
Red indicates
flooding rain
Figure 4 shows the radar mounted on a
truck for mobile weather observation, as
well as a plan position indicator (PPI) plot
generated from the mobile radar during
a severe storm in Western Massachusetts
on August 10, 2012. This radar will be deployed to Adelaide and integrated into the
radar network for a 2013 demonstration.
continued on page 14
Figure 4. Truck mount radar weather research conducted
at University of Massachusetts. The PPI display with the
mobile X-band phase-tilt radar tracks a local storm in
August, 2012, during a severe weather alert issued for parts
of Hampden, Hampshire and Franklin counties in Mass. >
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 13
Feature
Weather Research
continued from page 13
Hook
Figure 5. Long-range radar weather imagery (left) at a height of 3,000 feet exhibits poor resolution when compared to
the image shown on the right that employs smaller gap-filling radar. This gap-filling radar, with 100 meter resolution
of weather at 800 feet, shows the hook of a potential tornado on the ground.
Improving System Performance
Raytheon’s small phased array radars fill the gaps in radar coverage.
This new technology also provides
advanced digital signal processing
techniques to improve performance.
For example, the investigation of
weather effects is enhanced by the simultaneous allocation of phased array
beams to different volumetric regions,
as well as the adaptive allocation of
these beams to track and delineate
weather effects on spatial and temporal scales with resolutions greater than
those in current use. The benefits of
improved spatial resolution can be
seen in Figure 5, with the higher resolution display on the right allowing
improved geographical localization of
weather patterns as compared to the
lower resolution results on the left.
The proposed new approach significantly augments existing systems by
providing high temporal and spatial
resolution and faster scanning at key
locations such as airports and areas
where the views of large radars are
obstructed.
While weather monitoring services
remain a prime application for the
proposed system, another important
application is meteorological research.
Rapid updates provided by the phased
array antennas will give new insights
into cloud processes. Polarimetric
functionality provides more detailed
information on cloud microphysics, including the shape of particles,
which can differentiate rain from
hail. Observations supplied by the
proposed system will enable robust
testing and high spatial resolution
meteorological research models.
Such testing is critical for understanding and monitoring the effects of
climate change and the processes
that affect it.
14 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
A network of distributed phased
array radars provides not only greater
multitasking flexibility, but it also allows for greater spatial coverage.
While there have been some limited
demonstrations in the use of a single
phased array for weather monitoring, there has never been a practical
demonstration of the coordinated
use of networked phased arrays for
monitoring weather phenomena.
The system being developed places
the current Adelaide facility at the
forefront in the development of
practical weather radar system technology. This radar system will provide
strategic guidance to the Australian
Bureau of Meteorology for future networked radar systems with regard to
monitoring weather events, extreme
phenomena and multitasking. •
Christopher McCarroll and
David McLaughlin
Contributors: Robert Palumbo and
Ken Wood
Feature
High-Temperature Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Providing performance in extreme environments
E
lectronics today are dominated by
semiconductor devices and ICs that
are fabricated on silicon. As a result,
most electronics are limited by the reliability
and efficiency of their silicon devices to
operate in environments where the temperatures of the silicon transistor junctions are
kept below 125ºC, with silicon insulator
forms offering solutions up to 225ºC.
However, there are system applications
where electronics must operate at higher
temperatures for improved system performance. For these applications, alternative
semiconductor materials must be used that
do not have silicon’s temperature limitation.
One of these materials is silicon carbide (SiC).
SiC power components are emerging as
viable alternatives to silicon power components; silicon carbide can also be used to
make integrated circuits, where logic gates
and analog components are combined to
perform sensing and control functions while
operating at high temperatures.
High-temperature SiC integrated circuit
technology (Figure 1) is under development
by Raytheon in Glenrothes, Scotland. The
U.K. government, recognizing the potential
of this technology as an enabler for higher
efficiency systems, provides partial support for development under its Technology
Strategy Board “Materials For Energy”
research program. This technology will
support the manufacture of complementary
metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
integrated circuits that use SiC semiconductor material.
Table 1. Comparison of Silicon and Silicon Carbide Material Properties
Silicon
Si
Silicon
Carbide
SiC
Bandgap energy (eV)
1.12
3.26
Wider bandgap allows higher temperature operation
Breakdown electric
field (kV/cm)
300
2,200
Higher electric fields allow higher voltage
operation
Thermal conductivity
(W/cmK)
1.5
4.9
Higher thermal conductivity allows more
efficient heat removal
1
2
Material Property
Saturated electron drift
velocity (*10^7 cm/s)
SiC Advantage
Allows higher frequency switching and
low diode reverse recovery
Figure 1. Example of a silicon carbide dual
operational amplifier circuit developed at
Raytheon. This circuit is proven to function
at temperatures up to 300ºC.
Table 1 compares selected properties of SiC
with silicon. The wide bandgap property of
SiC corresponds with low leakage current
for SiC transistors at high temperatures,
whereas the leakage current in silicon
transistors (having a narrower bandgap)
increases significantly with temperature,
ultimately causing device failure. It is predominantly this characteristic that enables
silicon carbide devices to operate reliably
and efficiently at temperatures well above
that of silicon devices.
continued on page 16
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 15
Feature
Integrated Circuits
continued from page 15
Gas Turbine Engine Application
Raytheon is applying SiC technology to a
European Union-funded aerospace research
project under the Clean Sky program. One
of the program goals is to develop technologies that reduce aircraft noise and
increase fuel efficiency. If the fuel efficiency
of a jet engine is improved, and its weight is
reduced even by a small amount, total fuel
consumption can be significantly reduced
over the service life of the aircraft. One way
to improve engine efficiency is to better
control the combustion process. This requires accurate temperature sensing of the
hot gases as they flow through the engine.
Raytheon is working with Aero Engine
Controls (Rolls-Royce Goodrich Engine
Control Systems, Ltd) to evaluate materials used in the engine control system.
Raytheon’s high-temperature SiC CMOS
circuits are being evaluated as a way to
improve the accuracy of temperature
measurements taken at critical locations
on the gas turbine engines.
Figure 2. A “see through” image of a gas turbine engine shows the current locations for temperature measurement electronics (red circles). SiC technology enables the electronics to be
mounted closer to the hot engine exhaust. This improves exhaust temperature measurement
accuracy — and better accuracy results in improved engine efficiency.
The temperature of a gas turbine engine
increases from the intake to the exhaust
throughout the length of the engine
(Figure 2). Electronic control of the engine
for efficient operation requires an accurate
measurement of the gas temperatures
Cormack studied integrated engineering
(mechanical and electrical) at Fife College
in Scotland. Prior to joining Raytheon, she
worked for a large semiconductor company in
equipment development and yield improvement, which provided her initial background
and experience in semiconductor processing.
Commenting on key experiences in her career,
Cormack notes that, “Throughout my time
in process engineering, I held a variety of
roles and took on operations management
tasks.” During this time, Cormack and her
team successfully reduced customer returns
and increased process yields. She then took
on a lead role for developing the SiC business
and strategy. Cormack adds, “Moving from a
technical role into more of a business front,
customer-facing role made for a steep learning
curve, but it had a successful outcome leading to the advancement of SiC manufacturing
technology and the achievement of industry
records for high-temperature performance.”
ENGINEERING PROFILE
Jennifer
Cormack
Silicon Carbide
(SiC) New
Technology
Manager,
Raytheon UK
As the SiC New
Technology
Manager for
Raytheon UK, Jennifer Cormack is
responsible for leading SiC semiconductor
business efforts. Being part of a commercial
business within Raytheon, Cormack and her
team develop leading edge SiC device
technology for manufacturers of discrete
power semiconductors, as well as for
Raytheon’s own high-temperature process.
16 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Cormack joined Raytheon in 2001 as a process engineer. From there, she progressed to
become head of process engineering. While at
Raytheon, Cormack continued her education,
receiving her MBA in 2008, with distinction,
from Napier University. This prepared her well
for her current role — driving new technology
development in the silicon carbide business,
working directly with the business lead.
When asked for advice on finding success at
Raytheon, Cormack points out that you must
“Have the correct team players around you.
You can’t solve everything on your own!”
Feature
in the combustion chamber and exhaust
sections. Due to the limitations of current
silicon semiconductor technology, sensitive
temperature measurement electronics must
be remotely located near the cooler intake.
Specialized cabling runs the length of the
engine to the sensing elements near the exhaust. This long cable is expensive and must
be routed through engine compartment
bulkheads, adding extra weight and cost.
Additionally, the long cabling introduces
electronic noise and adds signal loss to the
sensing system, which reduces the accuracy
of the temperature sensing function.
Raytheon and Aero Engine Controls are
working together to develop a thermocouple
signal multiplexing unit that uses high-temperature SiC CMOS technology. When fully
developed, the SiC CMOS circuit should operate reliably and efficiently at temperatures
up to 300ºC, allowing the unit to sit closer
to the sensors at the hot end of the engine.
This facilitates more accurate and failsafe
sensing. After multiplexing and amplification,
the sensor data can be sent via simple and
inexpensive twisted pair cabling back to the
main control electronics module mounted
within the cool section of the engine.
High Temperature Power
Converter Application
SiC is an emerging alternative to silicon
semiconductors for use in the power
switches and rectifiers employed in power
supplies. The SiC material properties of
higher breakdown electric field, higher
bandgap energy, higher thermal conductivity and a higher saturated drift velocity
are desirable because they allow switches
to operate at a higher efficiency with
higher switching speeds, higher voltages
and higher power densities. SiC, which
combines these properties with the ability
to operate and maintain its efficiency at a
higher temperature, represents an enabler
for many new power applications.
In power supplies, the higher (5 to 10 times)
switching speeds of SiC power switches
allow the associated energy storage components (inductors and transformers) to
be proportionally smaller — reducing their
weight and volume by the same factor.1
Power densities of 30 kW/l have been
reported.2 Additionally, higher allowable
device junction temperatures and high thermal conductivity reduce the need for bulky
thermal management solutions, leading to
smaller, lighter and more densely packaged
power converter modules. Dense packaging, in turn, enables the close integration of
control circuitry. This minimizes series inductance, improving stability and efficiency.
Raytheon’s high temperature SiC CMOS
technology will provide solutions to the
challenges of achieving higher performance
with greater energy efficiency in extreme
environments. This new development
provides opportunities with new classes
of products, all enabled by high operating
temperature electronics. •
Ewan Ramsay
1Infineon
“thinQ!™ Silicon Carbide Schottky
Diodes: An SMPS Circuit Designer’s Dream Comes True!”
2SemiSouth press release,“Highest output power density
inverter uses SiC JFETs from SemiSouth,” at http://semisouth.com/archives/1056
© Raytheon Systems Limited 2012
HiTSiC Team Achievement
Semiconductor High Temperature Silicon Carbide (HiTSiC) Team –
Past Recipients of the Excellence in Operations and Quality Team Award
The High Temperature Silicon Carbide (HiTSiC) project created an advanced silicon carbide (SiC) manufacturing technology that enabled the world’s first 400°C complementary
metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors and 300°C CMOS integrated circuits.
At the 2010 European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials in Oslo,
Norway, the team showed logic complexity ten times greater and processing performance
significantly faster than previously reported.
This technology meets the demand for extreme environment sensors and instrumentation
used in aerospace, oil and gas, and geothermal exploration; as well as addressing the need for
next generation high-efficiency, low-weight power conversion products.
< HiTSiC team members Jennifer Cormack (seated), Robin Thompson,
David Clark and Ewan Ramsay.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 17
Feature
Synapsis
Command
Bridge
Integrated Navigation
and Bridge System
combined with command
and control (C2) technology
for the protection of
coastal waterways
T
oday’s modern navies face new challenges. While there continues to be
a need to maintain readiness for
traditional conflicts, navies must also be
prepared to counter smaller and more volatile threats, such as those posed by pirates,
warlords or terrorists, often operating from
remote locations.
To counter these asymmetrical threats, large
ships with complex combat management
systems (CMS) are often deployed. These
systems must be operated by a large number of well-trained and experienced
personnel located in the ship’s combat information center (CIC). This level of
response, however, can be an inefficient and
sometimes inappropriate use of resources.
Smaller vessels (e.g., patrol boats generally
less than 60 meters in length) may be more
suitable for countering these threats, but the
navigation and control equipment on such
vessels typically consists of various highly
specialized individual or loosely integrated
components from different suppliers. This
makes it difficult to achieve an acceptable
level of operational efficiency under the
control of a single operator, or even a
small crew.
To fill this gap, Raytheon Anschütz GmbH
— one of the world’s leading manufacturers of integrated naval bridge systems and
Figure 1. The Integrated Navigation and Bridge System creates a complete, integrated tactical portrayal of a threat situation using all
available information and provides centralized control of the vessel’s defense systems to provide a timely, measured response.
18 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
transmitted from local area radars on land,
commercial vessels or yachts, enhances
situational awareness. Approaching ships,
personnel or, in general, objects of any kind
are detected and traced. When set limits are
exceeded or preset safety zones are violated, an alarm can be programmed to
sound or appropriate countermeasures
(e.g., the creation of a water curtain using
a water cannon) can be initiated.
Civil and Police Tasks
For reconnaissance and coastal protection,
or for action by harbor police, individual
patrol boats can be directed from a land
station via tactical radio data transmission
to particular coastal areas for monitoring
or examination. Suspicious contacts can
then be designated directly on the situation display and the information distributed
across the data network. The integration of
video images from the on-board camera
system with on-board radar data and data
Support operations
Landing operations
Evacuation
Special operations
Anti-terrorism, blockade
Reconnaissance, embargo
Resource protection
Offshore wind farm protection
Oil rig protection
Anti-piracy
Military Tasks
Synapsis Command Bridge Configuration
(EO/IR-camera control and
optional countermeasures)
Deployment Scenarios
The deployment scenarios for the Synapsis
Command Bridge are varied. In general, a
distinction is made among civil, police and
military tasks. Correspondingly, the configuration and function of the bridge can be
adapted to the deployment profile of the
vessel. This means, for example, that the
Integrated Navigation and Bridge System
can be equipped with or without a weapon
function. The range of tasks enabled by the
system is illustrated in Figure 2.
Drug smuggling
Interdiction
Surveillance of shipping routes
Humanitarian tasks
Immigration control
Search and Rescue
Harbor protection
Fisheries protection
Customs
Police Tasks
Coast Guard
Tender/scooter tracking
Civic
Tasks
Perimeter protection
nautical equipment — has introduced an
integrated, scalable navigation system using
commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment (Figure 1). The new bridge system
provides patrol boats — those without
the resources of a large ship — with the
integrated navigation and C2 capability
needed to appropriately handle a broad
range of threats. This includes the capability to acquire, integrate, analyze and act on
data from multiple sensor systems including
tactical radars, the maritime automatic identification system (AIS), electro-optical (EO)
sensors (high definition television [HDTV]
daylight camera, infrared [IR]-night sight
and laser range finder), sonar, electronic
support measures (ESM) sensors and classic
navigation sensors. The Synapsis architecture is the world’s first navigation system
that has been type approved according to
the International Maritime Organization’s
new performance standards for Integrated
Navigation Systems (INS).
Synapsis Command Bridge Configuration
(EO/IR-camera, weapon and
countermeasurement control)
Figure 2. Mission profiles supported by the Synapsis Command Bridge. For civil and most
police duties, in addition to the normal navigation and C2 functions, vessels are equipped, at
a minimum, with an EO/IR camera controlled by the Synapsis Bridge System. For police or
military interdiction, vessels are equipped with a weapon control system as well as a camera.
Interdiction and Military Tasks
For police interdiction and military tasks,
the baseline software package — radar,
Electronic Chart Display and Information
System (ECDIS), conning (display of navigation sensor data/alarms) and the integration
of navigation sensors and steering control — is extended to include additional
functions such as command and control,
electro-optic sensor control and processing,
and weapons control.
The Synapsis Command Bridge configuration can include integrated tactical track
management, a tactical database, a small
target tracker and an optical tracker with a
calculation of the fire control solution for
weapons engagement. All of these systems
can be operated by the Synapsis Command
Bridge. Additional stand-alone consoles for
the camera or the weapon systems are not
necessary because all relevant elements are
already included.
In most cases, all data from the optical
tracker is sent directly through the bridge
system. This leads to a short time delay
between picking up new track information
and sending it to the weapon. When there
is a need to further minimize the time
continued on page 20
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 19
Feature
Command Bridge
continued from page 19
Integrated Navigation and Bridge System
Figure 3. RiverHawk AMP-45, Fast Patrol Vessel
delay between the sensor (camera) and
the weapon, the sensor can be linked
directly to the weapon. This may be used,
for example, to engage very fast targets
such as aircraft.
A significant advantage of this system is
its flexibility. At any time, individual components can be added to or removed from
the integrated navigation system to create
customer-specific solutions. The starting
point is the integrated navigation bridge.
All other hardware and software components can then be integrated into this
baseline capability.
The RiverHawk Advanced
Multi-mission Platform
Raytheon Anschütz has recently tested
and delivered the Integrated Navigation
and Bridge System to outfit a new class
of reconfigurable offshore patrol vessels,
the RiverHawk Advanced Multi-mission
Platform (AMP-45), developed for U.S.
domestic and international customers.
The AMP-45 (Figure 3) was developed by
RiverHawk Fast Sea Frames of Tampa, Fla.,
in partnership with Raytheon Anschütz.
The AMP-45 features a compact, efficient
ship layout for operation by small crew
sizes (generally a two-person bridge crew),
20 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
and it is equipped with the systems needed
for exercising national and multi-national
maritime security responsibilities throughout the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The
RiverHawk AMP series incorporates design
features focused on mission performance,
reconfigurability and low life-cycle cost.
The Synapsis Command Bridge features a
new generation of intelligent multifunctional workstations that combine nautical
functions such as radar, chart radar, ECDIS
and conning, and also permit the integration of additional applications and data.
Its scalability makes it perfectly suitable to
meet any ship type requirements — from
a basic system to more advanced systems
that comply with the new integrated navigation system performance standards. The
Command Bridge can be paired with additional shipboard functionality — such as
the ship’s network, communications and
control systems — to offer a total integrated shipboard electronics capability. It
may also be integrated with a full combat
management system on larger platforms to
provide seamless situational awareness between combat and bridge operations. •
Matthias Buescher and
Dr. Thomas Lehmann
^ A training exercise at the Joint
Multinational Readiness Center in
Hohenfels, Germany, Aug. 5, 2009. (U.S.
Army photo by Pfc. Eric Cabral/Released.)
Warfighter FOCUS
Feature
Raytheon engineers in Germany provide a
broad range of solutions to Warfighters
Through the Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support (FOCUS) program, Raytheon provides
training and training support services to U.S. government agencies and foreign governments.
Warfighter FOCUS provides fully integrated live, virtual and constructive (LVC)1 training operations and
support systems to locations worldwide. Warfighter FOCUS is the first program to provide integrated
support for LVC training environments.
Under the Warfighter FOCUS contract, Raytheon leads the Warrior Training Alliance (WTA), a team of member companies that provides
worldwide integrated training support services for operations, maintenance, sustainment and training for devices, simulators, simulations
and ranges. This total life-cycle contractor support of U.S. Army worldwide LVC training systems, which includes operations and maintenance (O&M) systems integration and engineering support services, is made possible by 7,000 WTA personnel who support soldiers at
more than 600 sites.
continued on page 22
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 21
Feature
Warfighter FOCUS
continued from page 21
The “graduate school” for collective Army
training is the Combat Training Center
(CTC) rotation. In peacetime, a Brigade
Combat Team (BCT) will go through a CTC
rotation approximately every 18 months.
During periods of active conflict, each BCT
that is to deploy into an active combat
theater is required to successfully complete a CTC rotation within 120 days of
deployment. At the CTCs, the Army seeks
to replicate the sights, sounds, smells and
stress of actual combat. The combination
of challenging terrain, full-speed operational tempo, ruthless opponents and an
objective cadre of referees is further augmented by an intrusive press corps and a
culturally accurate indigenous population.
The resulting environment is as realistic
and stressful as possible without the taking of life. This is the precise environment
that the Army has intentionally constructed
and that Raytheon’s Warfighter FOCUS
program supports. With all of these factors
present, the CTCs represent the pinnacle
of live training — where everything is real
except the bullets.
One of the Warfighter FOCUS-maintained
CTCs is the Joint Multinational Readiness
Center (JMRC) located just outside
Hohenfels, Germany (Figure 1). The JMRC
is one of three Army Maneuver Combat
Training Centers (MCTCs) where soldiers
experience near-battle realism and fully
integrated LVC training. The focus on
performance-based training in a genuine
tactical environment measured against
established tasks, conditions and standards
provides U.S. and NATO armed forces
with a realistic, instrumented training environment for conducting full-spectrum
operations. More than 60,000 soldiers
(U.S. and allied) train at the JMRC annually. No other means of training so closely
replicates battlefield conditions, simulates
weapons effects, records results of engagements, allows expert-assisted analysis
22 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Figure 1. The Hohenfels fixed-site training area has 10 military operations on urban terrain
(MOUT) sites, provides 200 square kilometers of instrumented maneuver space and requires
approximately 100,000 square feet of facilities to house the equipment and workforce.
of unit actions and provides the Army with
the ability to efficiently distribute lessons
learned from the battlefield throughout
training.
Due to the extensive scope and reach of
modern combat, simple observation is
insufficient to capture all of the activities
that objectively describe the events of a
training scenario. An instrumentation system (IS) provides this capability through an
integrated system-of-systems comprised
of workstations, databases, voice and
video recording, production and presentation equipment, interface devices, and
communications systems that manage
the tracking and event data for all of the
instrumented participants and constructive
entities (e.g., vehicles).
Raytheon engineers working in Germany
on the Warfighter FOCUS program provide
full life-cycle support to the JMRC IS
through service life extension projects
incorporating capability enhancements
that support the latest military equipment,
tactics and training concepts. The following
are a few examples of how these engineers
have delivered innovative, flexible, costeffective, integrated solutions to meet the
needs of the warfighter.
Instrumentation System Video Control
and Edit Upgrades
There is an abundance of sensors and attendant data; but in order to provide effective
feedback, that data must be assimilated and
analyzed in a timely manner to support the
scenario’s fact-based after-action review
(AAR), which is held while the real events
are fresh in the participants’ minds. The information that AARs provide identifies how
to correct deficiencies, sustain strengths
and focus on the performance of specific
mission-essential training objectives. In an
AAR, soldiers view playbacks of actual footage taken and hear radio communications
recorded during their simulated combat,
which improves soldier and unit readiness
before they deploy to real-world conflict.
The standard for conducting a small unit’s
AAR is two hours, and for a brigade, six
hours, after the conclusion of the training
scenario.
The need to hold an AAR soon after the
completion of a training scenario requires
that the process of preparing an accompanying video proceed quickly. The video
segment of the original IS at the JMRC consisted of an outdated analog video system
that used VHS tape decks for recording and
subsequent playback at AARs. The system
was not portable and required analysts to
develop AAR video in a formal production
Feature
center environment. This labor-intensive
operation required a staff of skilled video
editors and producers working alongside a
training analyst and a feedback analyst.
This process was capable of producing
only a few videos for use in AARs on any
given day.
To reduce AAR production timelines, analyst
workload and specialized staffing requirements, Raytheon engineers developed and
fielded a fully integrated digital video system with record, edit, control and playback
capabilities. This system also routes video
for cutting and editing to a shared server
where it is accessible from any analyst’s
workstation. The system is modular for ease
of maintenance, portable for use at off-site
locations and flexible for use with multiple
computer operating systems.
Due to Raytheon’s improvements, training
analysis and feedback (TAF) analysts can
now capture video that correlates with any
moment in time and can select pertinent
video clips, which are later spliced together
automatically by the new system. TAF analysts can now produce most videos without
any assistance from specialized personnel.
The edited videos are available on all workstations for easy access. The audio selections
presented in the AAR can be chosen in a
similar fashion and linked to the video. The
finished product is easily accessed online
or copied to a DVD. The result is an easy to
use, intuitive system manned by fewer and
less specialized people. Videos are produced
in near real time, giving the soldiers more
timely feedback.
Range Data Measurement Subsystem
(RDMS) Rehosting and Precision RealTime Location System (PRTLS) Tracking
Another key component of the JMRC instrumentation system is the RDMS, which
provides the conduit for carrying time/
space/position information (TSPI) updates
and real-time casualty assessment (RTCA)
messages generated by the participants
Instrumented
Player Unit
(IPU)
Internet
Protocol
RDMS
Servers
TSPI/RTCA
RDMS
Infrastructure
Figure 2. The range data measurement subsystem (RDMS) communicates time/space/position
information (TSPI) and real-time casualty assessments (RTCA) among participants and
central servers.
Radio
Data Communications Interface
Battery
Figure 3. Individual weapons system (IWS) instrumentation: precision real-time position
location system (PRTLS) radio, data communications interface and ultra-life battery. This
configuration provides 64 hours of full IWS instrumentation and tracking. The PRTLS radio
continues to track participants for an additional 24 hours for a total of 88 hours of tracking.
back to the computational and display
portions of the IS. Shown in Figure 2, the
RDMS includes software that enables up to
2,000 live training entities to be tracked and
managed. Raytheon engineers rewrote parts
of the original RDMS software to replace
proprietary, aging and costly-to-maintain
systems with a government-owned openarchitecture solution.
In addition to the renovated software, the
updated RDMS system leverages Raytheon’s
PRTLS radio and software components. The
RDMS extends them for use with vehicle
detection devices (VDDs) and man-worn
individual weapon system (IWS) vest systems
(Figure 3), and is designed to easily interface
with future devices.
The PRTL system is easy to set up and can
be readily adapted to work at other training
areas. The system uses open standards on a
commercial radio and it works well in cluttered environments such as wooded areas.
continued on page 24
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 23
Feature
Warfighter FOCUS
continued from page 23
The software is developed and furnished
with full government rights. The biggest
benefit of RDMS, however, is cost effectiveness. The life-cycle cost of this new system
is approximately one-twentieth of the cost
of the system it replaces.
Pairing the PRTLS with a data communications interface (DCI)-embedded computer
provides translations of routed data from
the detection device to the IS. The DCI is
small, lightweight and can be worn in the
IWS vest along with the soldier’s radio and
battery. All tracking is done from the global
positioning system in the radio. This allows
for tracking, even in situations where the
detection device has failed or no onboard
GPS system exists (Figure 4). With a simple
switch between mounting hardware and
cable, the same DCI and radio can be used
for vehicles or individual warfighter (manworn) devices. This versatility also reduces
life cycle costs and down time.
Exportable Instrumentation
System (EIS)
The EIS was born out of a need to take
the CTC experience to remote locations; in
effect, bringing the training center to the
soldier. Utilizing the EIS can shave weeks
of travel off of a soldier’s time away from
home base, while still providing the fullscale, high-quality combat training ordinarily
experienced at a stationary CTC.
This system includes the ability to equip
participants and provide a tracking and
engagement capability similar to that of the
JMRC instrumentation system’s fixed site.
The EIS fits digital video, digital audio,
observer controller communications and
AAR presentation facilities into portable,
airmobile containers, transportable anywhere in the world by air, truck, rail or
sea. The system is also DoD Information
Assurance Certification and Accreditation
Process (DIACAP) certified for compliance
with DoD security requirements.
24 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Training unit
participant moving to
the urban training area
prior to scenario start
Red = Enemy
Blue = Friendlies
Civilians on the
Battlefield (COB)
participants moving
to the assembly area
prior to scenario start
Figure 4. PRTLS display showing tracks of various training entities.
The EIS is a condensed version of
the infrastructure
that makes up the
instrumentation
system of a CTC
(e.g., towers,
theaters, shelters,
cameras and power
generators) and is
ready for transport
to virtually anywhere
(Figure 5).
Figure 5. The Exportable Instrumentation System is deployed as a mobile combat training center, taking the 100,000 square feet of fixed-site
facilities and equipment and containerizing them in less than 2,000
square feet of airmobile containers.
The Warfighter FOCUS program, through
the Raytheon-led Warrior Training Alliance,
provides support and innovative training solutions to the warfighter when and
where it counts — before the fighting begins — and at more than 600 manned and
unmanned sites worldwide.
organizations. Warfighter FOCUS helps
ensure that our warfighters form the best
trained fighting force in the world. •
Traci Caldwell, Charlie Givens
1
As a result, Warfighter FOCUS has become
the vehicle of choice to deliver full-spectrum, mission-focused, global training
support, and is a best-value solution for
the U.S. Army, as well as other DoD
Live = A simulation involving real people operating
real systems. Virtual = A simulation involving real people
operating simulated systems, exercising motor control
skills, decision skills or communication skills. Constructive
= Simulation training using computers to simulate battle
elements, enabling multiple echelons of command and
staff to execute their normal warfighting tasks in an unconstrained exercise environment.
Feature
P
rotecting a nation’s sovereignty and
effectively managing the natural resources around its coasts place new
demands on the organizations tasked with
surveillance and enforcement. As a general
principle, the level of surveillance required
at any given time depends on the perceived
threat. The ideal surveillance system must
be capable of normal, day-to-day operation
for the lowest possible cost, yet have the
integrity to allow enforcement agencies to
respond decisively and economically when
required.
Until recently, such a surveillance system did
not exist. Now, however, shore-based high
frequency surface wave radars (HFSWR) developed by Raytheon can provide persistent
(continuous), cost-effective, over-the-horizon surveillance up to and beyond the 200
nautical mile limit of the exclusive economic
zone (EEZ*). Surface wave radar developed
by Raytheon Canada Limited, a leader in
surveillance and navigation systems, is the
only land-based radar with this capability.
The need for persistent surveillance is illustrated by an incident that occurred on
July 31, 2011 when a 1,000 ton, general
cargo vessel, the Panama-flagged MV
Pavit, grounded on Juhu beach in Mumbai,
India (Figure 1). It was later determined
that the vessel was abandoned on June
29 near Oman. The vessel drifted into the
Arabian Sea and entered India’s EEZ. The
MV Pavit passed undetected through one
of the world’s busiest shipping lanes during a heightened level of alert following
the Mumbai terrorist attacks. In doing so,
it passed through three tiers of security —
the Navy, the Coast Guard and the Coastal
Wing of the Mumbai Police — before eventually grounding. Had an HFSWR been
installed, this vessel could have been observed as it entered the Indian EEZ and
appropriate action could have been taken.
Surface wave radars operate in the high frequency (HF) portion of the radio frequency
(RF) spectrum. As illustrated in Figure 2 (following page), the lower the frequency of
operation the greater the detection range.
Unlike traditional microwave radars whose
detection range is limited to the line-of-sight
horizon, HFSWR signals follow the curvature
of the Earth due to ionospheric refraction at
the frequencies in which they operate. This
enables the detection of surface vessels at
significantly greater ranges.
HFSWRs operate in a pulse-Doppler mode,
emitting a coherent pulse train where the
phase of the signal is precisely controlled
from pulse to pulse. The radar’s area of
coverage is symmetrical around the radar’s
boresight, where the boresight is perpendicular to the axis of the array. Returns
continued on page 26
*EEZ – An area extending 200 nm beyond a
nation’s shores, for which it has special rights
regarding the use of marine resources.
Figure 1. The MV Pavit
grounded on Juhu Beach,
Mumbai on July 31, 2011. The
vessel went undetected since
being abandoned on June 29.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 25
HFSWR
Feature
continued from page 25
800
500
200
Radar Antenna Elevation (meters)
Coastal Microwave Radar
Only operates in line-of-sight mode.
Generally limited to first 20 or 30 nm.
20
30
40
50
Target range, nautical miles
60
15 MHz
High Frequency Surface Wave Radar
The lower the frequency the greater the
range. Typical minimum range is 20 nm.
Microwave
Radar
20
Figure 3. Receive array of a deployed
Raytheon HFSWR system.
7 MHz
3 MHz
60
120
Target range, nautical miles
200
Figure 2. Comparison of detection range of HFSWR relative to microwave radar.
from beyond +/- 60 degrees in azimuth are
typically not displayed due to a rapid falloff
in system performance. The echoes from
objects within the area illuminated by the
radar are received by a linear array of antennas (Figure 3) and are digitally processed to
enhance detection of the wanted echoes.
The returning echoes are sorted according
to range, velocity (Doppler) and bearing.
The echoes are then compared against a
detection threshold chosen to achieve a
certain value of constant-false-alarm-rate
(CFAR). If the magnitude of an echo exceeds
the threshold, it is declared a detection. A
tracking algorithm associates successive
detections to form a track. The ability to
form tracks enables the radar sensitivity
to be increased by lowering the detection
threshold (thereby increasing the false alarm
rate), since only those detections that are
consistent with the established track are
displayed. In this way, HFSWR conveys to
the user only those tracks corresponding to
real vessels. The track history also allows
the operator to visualize the activity of the
vessel and highlight anomalous or suspicious behavior.
The maximum detection range of HFSWR
depends on many factors. These include
the transmit power, radar frequency, radar
cross section of the target, target range,
background noise, and interference level as
well as sea-state. Of these, only the transmit
power and transmit frequency are under
the control of the radar. Both the noise and
interference levels are dependent on the
geographic location of the radar site, timeof-day and season, and also on the level of
sunspot activity.
Nova Scotia
Halifax
50 nm
A
140 nm
D
110 nm
120 nm
C
B
120 nm
140 nm
>200 nm
200 nm
200 nm
Cargo Vessels
Cargo Vessels
C Trawler
A Large
B Commercial
Track range
Track range
Track range
>200 nm day
140 nm night
200 nm day
140 nm night
Figure 4. Day/night performance of Raytheon’s HFSWR.
26 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
200 nm
150 nm
100 nm
200 nm day
120 nm night
D Gillnetter
Track range
120 nm day
110 nm night
Latitude
Feature
2: turn
1: stop
Longitude
Generally, at the lower end of the HF-band
the noise level increases at dusk and remains high through the hours of darkness.
Also, during the hours of darkness there
are high levels of co-channel communication interference from distant HF users. As
a result, the radar operates with a reduced
range at night. Raytheon’s HFSWR system,
however, is equipped with a number of
patented signal processing functions that
mitigate the effects of some of these interferences. Typical performance is illustrated
in Figure 4.
Since HFSWRs are tracking radars, object
classification based on track history is possible. From this track data, anomalistic
vessel behavior can be observed and used
to heighten awareness of suspicious activity.
Examples of anomalistic behavior observed
by the radar are shown in Figure 5. In the
first example, the vessel track was dropped
and subsequently re-acquired. Analysis of
the distance and time between the termination of one track and the initiation
of the new track indicated that the vessel
rapidly slowed down and remained stationary for approximately 10 minutes before
re-embarking on its journey. The system
highlighted this to the operator as being an
anomaly. This behavior was indicative of a
vessel that had transferred cargo to or from
another local vessel. In the second example,
the radar tracks a vessel that left port heading east-north-east. At a range of 70 nm
from shore, the vessel, now well outside
the range of traditional coastal surveillance
radars, made an abrupt 90 degree course
change and began to head in a north-
Figure 5. Examples of anomalistic behavior
observed by an operational HFSWR.
1) Oceangoing vessel stopped for 10 minutes,
60 nm from shore. 2) After leaving harbor, the
vessel took an abrupt turn at 70 nm from shore.
westerly direction, which in this case was a
maneuver that raised security concerns. An
intercept of the vessel was undertaken.
The high frequency surface wave radar
was developed by Raytheon to meet the
need for persistent surveillance of the strategically significant EEZ. It was designed
to convey to the user high-quality tracks
corresponding to real vessels, allowing
anomalous or suspicious vessel behavior to
be readily identified and patrols dispatched
to investigate further. •
Tony Ponsford,
Rick McKerracher, Adeeb Khawja
ENGINEERING PROFILE
Tony
Ponsford
Engineering
Fellow,
Technical
Director,
RCL
Dr. A.M. (Tony) Ponsford is a technical director for Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) at
Raytheon Canada Limited (RCL), specializing
in high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR)
and integrated maritime surveillance (IMS)
technologies. Ponsford addresses the importance of putting the customer first and
foremost: “In my dual role of representing
Engineering and Business Development, I get
to meet customers and their scientific staff.
Together, we develop a solution to the problem
that they are facing. The solution
often encompasses engineering and financial
challenges, as well as cultural. We then get to
transition the solution into a program that
meets the requirements and budget constraints
of the customer. It is rewarding when the relationships developed outlast the project.”
Ponsford’s MDA career started with his serving
in the Merchant Marine, where he worked with
Shell Tankers in developing concepts for MDA.
In the 1980s, working as a research associate at
the University of Birmingham, he initiated the
development of the HFSWR for persistent surveillance of a nation’s 200 nautical mile
exclusive economic zone (EEZ). In 1987, as
senior scientist, manager and technical director
for NORDCO’s newly formed IMS business
unit, Ponsford established Canada’s first
HFSWR test bed facility at Cape Bonavista in
St. John’s, Newfoundland. This effort eventually
progressed into the world’s first shore-based,
real-time, EEZ surveillance sensor used to provide the continuous, all-weather tracking of
ships, icebergs and aircraft within the EEZ.
Ponsford collaborated with NASA, the
Canadian Space Agency and Western
University to develop a high frequency line-ofsight radar to detect and track meteors. He also
designed HF radar systems for the U.S. government to track cruise missiles and theatre
ballistic missiles.
“Engineering is a tough but rewarding profession,” Ponsford relates. “Every day brings new
challenges. The most exciting aspect of this is
when you see one of your projects deployed
and working, with a happy customer. When
your customer gets promoted you know that
the system worked well.”
Ponsford graduated with distinction from
Plymouth Navy College (UK). He earned a
bachelor’s degree with first-class honors in
Maritime Technology from the University of
Wales Institute of Science and Technology. He
was awarded a doctorate in philosophy at the
University of Birmingham (UK) in recognition
of his pioneering work in HFSWR.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 27
T
he wind turbine interference problem
electromagnetic pulses to identify targets
the radar echo from a wind turbine looks
has drawn considerable attention in
in the surveillance area, and secondary sur-
like a real aircraft to the radar. This may
recent years. A number of mitiga-
veillance radars (SSRs) that send out coded
potentially result in the generation of many
tion approaches have been proposed and
messages and receive replies from aircraft
false tracks, the dropping of real tracks
pursued, ranging from special anti-reflective
equipped with appropriate electronic tran-
and the displacement of real tracks to false
coatings on wind turbine blades, to the
sponders. The data collected by PSRs and
locations on the air traffic control display.
fielding of additional gap-fill radars in the
SSRs is usually combined in an automation
Unless this problem is solved, these effects
vicinity of the air traffic control (ATC) radar
system that generates an airspace picture
can result in dramatic restrictions being
site, to data suppression algorithms that edit
used by controllers to maintain separation
imposed on air traffic. The construction
out target detections or inhibit track forma-
between aircraft. Raytheon is a world sup-
of new wind farms may even compromise
tion in wind farm areas. These solutions
plier of PSRs, SSRs and automation systems.
flight safety. Large tracts of airspace above
have demonstrated only limited success to
wind farms are currently designated as
date, as they tend to mask the problem
The wind turbine RF reflection problem
“no-fly zones” because local ATC radars
instead of solving it; moreover, most involve
significantly affects PSRs. PSRs find targets
are effectively blind in these areas. In the
excessive cost as well as further technology
principally by discriminating moving objects
U.K. alone, more than 30 gigawatts of
development.
within the imaged space using the Doppler
wind power are currently prevented from
shift imparted to the radar pulse echo by
coming on-line because of objections raised
ATC radars generally fall into two cat-
the target. Rotating wind turbine blades
by air navigation service providers.
egories: primary surveillance radars
can produce echoes with the same Doppler
(PSRs) that detect echoes of transmitted
frequency offsets as aircraft. As a result,
28 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
Enhancement
Improvement Mechanisms
Operational Impact
Concurrent Beam
Processing
Widening of target
information span used in
processing
Improved detection probability
Improved discrimination of
aircraft from turbines
Clutter Maps
per Doppler Filter
Real-time characterization of
non-stationary clutter
Reduction of false tracks from
turbines and other moving
objects
Enhanced
Threshold
Generation
Prevention of radar
desensitization in turbine
region
Improved detection of small
targets in the presence of strong
clutter
Enhanced
Tracking
Adaptive track logic in high
clutter/turbine region
Dramatic reduction in false tracks
Higher accuracy track output
Table 1. Summary of Wind Farm Mitigation Enhancement Techniques. Four powerful
enhancements work together to improve detection probability while suppressing false alarms.
The Raytheon Solution for Wind
Turbine Interference
Over the past two years, under contract
to the U.K. National Air Traffic Services
(NATS), Raytheon has developed a solution
to the wind farm interference problem for
ATC radars — one that cures the problem
instead of masking it. This solution relies
on four major enhancements in the PSR
signal processing chain that help the radar
differentiate valid aircraft returns from
false turbine returns. The solution has been
incorporated into a prototype radar modification kit that was fielded and tested over
extended time intervals at three Raytheon
ATC radar sites located in dense wind turbine environments. These tests produced
consistently excellent results (high detection
probability and low false alarm rate).
The processing enhancements (Table 1)
span the full extent of the radar data processing chain. The first key enhancement is
the simultaneous processing of data from
multiple receiver beams to improve the
probability of detection. In a traditional PSR
design, radar processing uses returns from
one antenna beam feed for near-range
processing, and then transitions to a second
beam for far-range processing. This transition facilitates ground clutter rejection for
near-range targets while maximizing energy
on target for distant objects. Raytheon has
demonstrated that by processing data from
both beams throughout the instrumented
range of the radar, and optimally combining
detection information from the two data
streams, significant performance gains can
be achieved, especially in high-clutter areas.
The second key enhancement involves advances in the real-time characterization of
the local radar clutter environment. PSRs
typically generate and continually update a
clutter map of the imaged space. This map
represents the strength of radar returns in
any given range/azimuth cell from stationary objects. The prevailing clutter levels in
a given area are used to establish detection thresholds such that when detection
thresholds are exceeded, a high likelihood
exists that a target is located in the area of
interest. The Raytheon wind farm mitigation
radar upgrade extends this technique to
characterize not only clutter from stationary objects, but also clutter from moving
objects such as wind turbine blades. By
doing so, many more appropriate detection thresholds can be produced for cells
containing wind turbines, which, in turn,
dramatically reduces false detections caused
by turbine blades.
The third processing improvement also
relates to the calculation of better detection thresholds. Part of the calculation to
establish a detection threshold for a range/
azimuth cell involves generating an estimate of not only the clutter level at that cell
location in the recent past (as referred to
above), but also the noise and clutter level
in the near vicinity of the cell at the present time. This component of the detection
threshold calculation can be thrown off by
the proximity of a wind turbine to the cell
of interest; the returns from the turbine
can bias the detection threshold to a detrimentally high level. This results in the radar
becoming desensitized in the vicinity of
wind turbines, losing the ability to identify
small targets in these areas. The Raytheon
solution detects and suppresses the influence of strong reflectors, in particular wind
turbines, to significantly reduce the desensitization of the radar in these areas.
The final enhancement provides powerful
mitigation effects at the back end of the
radar processing chain. Drawing from extensive experience in the tracking of small
targets in high-clutter environments for
maritime and over-the-horizon applications,
Raytheon has developed a sophisticated
continued on page 30
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 29
Feature
Wind Farms
continued from page 29
target tracker that forms a final line of
defense against wind turbine interference.
Based on both live real-time radar target detections and a priori information about the
radar environment, this tracker intelligently
identifies areas of high clutter and high
wind turbine activity, and then modifies
processing algorithms to maximize the likelihood of preserving real targets and rejecting
false ones. As an example, the near proximity of a wind turbine may cause the PSR
tracker to require additional corroboration
(e.g., additional detections in subsequent
radar scans) before declaring a valid target,
or to tighten up the boundaries within
which a target echo can be associated with
a track. The tracker also simultaneously
maintains multiple models of target characteristics for each tracked target, and based
on error measurements, combines the
outputs of these models in a statistically optimal way to yield a more accurate estimate
of target position and velocity than is possible with conventional tracking algorithms.
Field Test Results for the
Raytheon Solution
In 2010–2011, Raytheon’s wind farm mitigation kit was installed at three active ATC
radar sites in close proximity to large wind
turbine farms in the U.S., Holland (Figure 1)
and Scotland. The site in Holland had more
than 1,450 wind turbines within the instrumented range of the radar, while the
Scotland radar illuminates Whitelee, the second largest capacity wind farm in Europe.
Typical performance test results at these
sites, located directly over dense wind farm
areas with and without mitigation, are summarized in Table 2. In each case, radar
probability of detection was below acceptable specifications without mitigation, but
was improved to well above specification
with mitigation. Typical ATC customer specifications require a probability of detection
of 80 to 90 percent.
30 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Figure 1. Wind farm mitigation test site at Soesterberg, Holland. This radar is
currently affected by nearly 1,500 wind turbines in its view.
Typical Site Performance Measurements for
Raytheon Wind Farm Mitigation Solution. PD = probability of detection
PD Without
Mitigation
PD With
Mitigation
PD Improvement
Nov. 29–30, 2010
78%
95%
+17%
Soesterberg,
Holland
Nov. 30–Dec. 1, 2010
78%
92%
+14%
Johnstown,
Pennsylvania, USA
Mar. 25–30, 2011
79%
95%
+16%
Radar Site
Date
Soesterberg,
Holland
1. Area of analysis restricted to region of highest wind turbine concentration in radar field of view (typically 140-260 turbines).
2. Performance measures reflect targets at elevations of 0.8° + above wind turbine blade tips.
3. Each analysis segment includes > 1,200 scans of radar data.
Table 2. Test results from active radar installations show dramatic detection performance
improvements to levels exceeding operational specifications.
Feature
Conventional Radar Processing
Enhanced Radar Processing
A1
A1
B1
B1
A2
B2
B3
C
A3
A1 Track A start
B1 Track B start
A2 Track A lost
in wind farm
A3 Track A re-acquired
B2 Track B seduced
by wind farm
B3 Track B re-acquired
Legacy
System Track
Wind Turbine
C Many false
tracks generated
in wind farm
region
B3
A1 Track A start
Track A continuously
A3 tracked through
wind farm
C
A3
Enhanced
System Track
Wind Turbine
B1 Track B start
C Considerably
cleaner track
Track B continuously
picture in wind
B3 tracked through
farm region
wind farm
Figure 2. PSR conventional radar (left) shows false targets due to wind farms (wind farm locations shown in green). The PSR enhanced image
(right) virtually eliminates false tracks over wind farms with mitigation processing.
A qualitative illustration of the degree of
improvement in the radar picture with wind
farm mitigation applied is shown in Figure 2.
This snapshot shows the live data radar
track output at Soesterberg, Holland, with
conventional ATC radar processing in the
left panel and enhanced processing in the
right panel. Current target positions are
shown by dark color dots, with the trails behind these dots indicating track history for
the target. Known wind turbine locations
are depicted as green circles.
The panel on the left contains an overwhelming number of false tracks generated
by wind turbine returns that obscure real
tracks and clutter the display. Close examination shows that several of the real tracks
passing smoothly and continuously through
the wind turbine area in the enhanced processing snapshot (right panel) suffer track
loss, track discontinuity, or track seduction
to false return locations with conventional
processing (left panel). Two such instances,
identified as Track A and Track B, are highlighted in Figure 2.
Deployment of the Raytheon Wind Farm
Mitigation Solution
The Raytheon wind farm interference mitigation solution is now in the deployment
phase. The first production deployment
modification kit was installed for the Royal
Netherlands Air Force at Woensdrecht Air
Force Base in Holland in the summer of
2012. Four additional systems are expected
to be fielded in Holland in 2013, and discussions are under way with defense and civil
aviation agencies in numerous countries (including the U.S., U.K. and Canada) for
upgrades and new radar system installations.
Four live radar demonstrations of this technology are being conducted at ATC radar
sites in the U.S. for the Federal Aviation
Administration and the U.S. Departments of
Defense, Homeland Security and Energy.
The Future of ATC Radar
and Wind Energy
Having successfully proven this technology
at Woensdrecht Air Force Base, Raytheon
is preparing to deliver it in newly deployed
PSRs as an upgrade kit to already installed
Raytheon radars, and even (in limited form)
as an add-on to third-party ATC radars.
Raytheon is building upon the success of the
wind farm solution by adding concurrent
weather radar processing capabilities, with
plans for deploying mitigation-equipped
systems to extend the solution to new application areas throughout this decade and
beyond. This is expected to relax the current
restrictions on the expansion of alternative
energy initiatives, while improving flight
safety and facilitating air travel. •
Andrew Shchuka, Inderbir Sandhu
Contributors: Oliver Hubbard, Derek Yee,
Jian Wang, Jonathan Van Veen,
Mike Waters, Brad Fournier
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 31
Feature
Raytheon’s AutoTrac III
Building the world’s most advanced air traffic management system
R
aytheon’s next generation air
traffic management (ATM) system,
AutoTrac III (AT3), is an advanced,
cost-effective solution to the challenges facing the ATM community in the 21st century
— traffic growth outpacing revenue growth
and the drive to increase capacity and productivity in a cost conscious environment.
levels of growth in the region’s air traffic.
They have also contributed to the achievements that resulted in AAI receiving the
Janes 2012 Air Traffic Control Operational
Efficiency Award. In addition, AT3 is currently being deployed to sites in Dubai and
Hong Kong to manage the ever-growing
traffic in those regions as well.
The AT3 system is now operational at
three Indian centers run by the Airports
Authority of India (AAI) — Delhi, Mumbai
and Chennai — covering three of the four
Indian Flight Information Regions. These
installations are an important milestone in
AAI’s plans for the modernization of India’s
airspace in order to accommodate projected
AT3 is the latest generation of Raytheon’s
AutoTrac series of ATM systems that are
deployed throughout the world in Europe,
Asia (China, Hong Kong and India), Canada,
the Middle East, Africa and Australia.
AutoTrac-based ATM products are also used
extensively by the FAA throughout the U.S.
for terminal and en-route air traffic control.
32 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
System Architecture and Features
The AT3 system, with its modern open
architecture design and high performance
characteristics, is fully adaptable and scalable to any ATM environment, ranging from
a simple tower automation application to a
fully integrated national multicenter system.
AT3 software runs on commercial off-theshelf (COTS) hardware — its middleware
allowing it to be platform independent.
The open distributed architecture (Figure
1) is compatible with Eurocontrol’s (the
European Organization for the Safety of Air
Navigation) overall target architecture for
an ATM system and is designed to support
standardization and interoperability.
Feature
Tactical ATC
• Safety nets
• Conformance monitoring
• 4-D tactical trajectories
Controller-to-Pilot
Datalink
Airport ATC
• Tower automation
• National multicenter
Planning ATC
Arrival/departure
air traffic flow
Functional Components
Deliver safe, efficient, automated user interface, situational awareness, tactical tools and planning tools
Pilot
AT3 System Architecture
Middleware, Communication and Foundation Components
Management Components
Process fundamental system artifacts
Surveillance Manager
Separation between tracks/
terrain/restricted airspace
• Radar inputs
• Automatic Dependent
Surveillance inputs
• Multilateration inputs
Flight Data Manager
Distribution of flight data
objects to workstations
• Flight plans
• Flight states
• Clearances
• 4-D trajectories
Environment
Data Manager
• Aeronautical
• Meteorological
• Airspace
Configuration
Manager
• Airspace
• Resources
Figure 1. The AutoTrac III system is fully adaptable and scalable to any air traffic management environment.
The AT3 system is made up of management
and functional components distributed
across a network of servers and workstations. The components are all controlled
and monitored using standard Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
The management components process
fundamental system artifacts such as tracks,
flight plans, aeronautical and meteorological data, airspace and resources, and are
typically configured in a hot/standby redundant server pair architecture. The functional
components deliver capabilities to the different users (air traffic controllers), such as
situational awareness and tactical and planning tools, via a highly configurable display
component and human machine interface
(HMI) running on the workstations.
The system architecture and middleware
support multiple layers of redundancy that
provide the users with enhanced availability and safety. The hot/standby servers
and workstations are interconnected via
dual LANs. Failure of one server or one
LAN is transparent to the user. In the
unlikely event of a failure of both surveillance managers or both system LANs, the
workstations are also connected to an
independent third LAN and surveillance
manager to allow for the continued display
of surveillance data (tracks).
Flight data objects based on the flight plan
data are distributed to all workstations by
the flight data manager and can be used to
display extrapolated tracks in the total absence of surveillance data. The workstations
are also designed to provide continued
autonomous flight data operations in the
absence of the flight data managers. The
middleware also allows the user to logically
divide the system into two separate partitions temporarily — this is extremely useful
for providing uninterrupted 24/7 operations
while introducing a new software build
“on the fly.” For complete contingency/
backup purposes in the event of total system or facility failure, the AT3 middleware
also supports the ability to keep flight data
synchronized in real time across two independent systems.
Surveillance Manager
The surveillance manager fuses all sources
of surveillance data into a single integrated
display of tracks to provide maximum situational awareness for the controller. In
addition to traditional radar inputs, the
surveillance manager processes enhanced
Mode S, Contract and Broadcast-based
Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-C
and ADS-B) and multilateration inputs. The
surveillance manager employs a front-end
processor to convert surveillance inputs into
industry standard formats to facilitate expansion and the addition of future inputs.
continued on page 34
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 33
AutoTrac III
Feature
continued from page 33
As an alternative to using AT3’s multi-sensor fusion tracker, the surveillance manager
can be configured to support the import
of system tracks using industry standard
protocols from an external tracker, if preferred by the user. AT3’s tracker can then
be used as a backup to the external tracker.
For enhanced situational awareness, AT3’s
surveillance manager can also export its system tracks to other external systems using
standard protocols.
The surveillance manager provides highly
adaptable safety net processing for monitoring all systems tracks to ensure that
appropriate separation is maintained between tracks and surrounding terrain and
reserved/restricted airspace. Additional
safety nets to monitor conformance to predefined approach and departure paths have
also recently been added to AT3. Any predicted or actual violations of separation or
conformance are presented to the controllers in a clear and unambiguous manner.
Raytheon’s surveillance manager is used
throughout the U.S. National Airspace in the
Standard Terminal Automation Replacement
System (STARS) and Enroute Automation
Modernization (ERAM) automation systems.
This same surveillance manager is used in
our AT3 system, ensuring global consistency
in the way aircraft are tracked and managed
by air traffic controllers worldwide.
34 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Flight Data Manager
The flight data manager manages flight
plans, flight states, clearances and 4-D
trajectories. The heart of Raytheon’s next
generation ATM system’s advanced capabilities comes from its highly accurate
4-D trajectories. Trajectories are calculated
and maintained in World Geodetic System
(WGS-84) global coordinates using aircraft
performance data, surveillance data and
4-D meteorological wind and temperature
models. Trajectory information is distributed
internally and is also published to clients
based on European standards for trajectorybased operations. Examples of clients
making use of this trajectory data are Arrival
Management (AMAN) and Electronic Flight
Strip (EFS) systems. In the past, customers
had used such systems in a standalone,
non-integrated manner. Now AT3 provides
an architecture that enables these systems
to operate fully integrated. The use of electronic flight strip data by AT3 allows users
to transition from the traditional paper system to a more advanced, efficient and safer
paperless system.
The 4-D trajectories provide the foundation
for advanced tools and capabilities such as
Medium Term Conflict Detection (MTCD)
with a “what if” probe feature to enable
better strategic planning of the airspace and
various conformance monitoring aids to
alert the controller to any significant deviations of the aircraft from its trajectory.
The flight data manager is also sensitive to
Performance Based Navigation (PBN) and
Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM)
capabilities of the aircraft to further optimize the safer and more efficient use of the
airspace for both controllers and airlines.
Based on how an aircraft is equipped, the
system will allow for different separation or
routing criteria to be applied.
User Interface and Support Functions
AT3’s functional components provide the
user interface to the system. AT3’s user
interface (or HMI) is highly configurable,
based on the role and pre-defined privileges
of the different users. A major advance in
the AT3 HMI is that it is now very intelligent
and interactive. All the data a user needs
to perform their function is readily available
through a “heads up” display that allows
the user to focus on the traffic rather than
on a keyboard. The various display artifacts
allow on-screen interaction through mouse
and point-and-click type actions. Users are
no longer constrained to perform certain
functions at certain positions and have access to a rich toolset to make their tasks
safer, more efficient and, in some cases,
more automated. The advanced HMI also
provides capabilities for controllers to communicate “silently” with each other and
with other external systems, through electronic data exchanges, whereas in the past
a lot more verbal/telephonic communication
was required.
AT3’s support functions include an integrated simulator that generates simulated
surveillance, flight plan and meteorological
data for use by the management and functional components to provide a high-fidelity
replication of the operational environment
for an advanced training experience. The
support functions also provide pseudo-pilot
capabilities, which allow users to act as an
aircraft pilot, maneuver aircraft and talk to
student controllers. In addition, the system
supports an auto-pilot feature and voice
recognition capability, which allows the
system to be used for training without
always needing the support of the pseudopilot personnel.
As an enhancement to the overall training
experience, AT3 also offers an interactive
Computer Based Training (CBT) package,
which allows students to self-train and
familiarize themselves with the capabilities
of the system. The CBT package can also
be linked into COTS Learning Management
Systems to support the development of
training packages and student assessments.
Addressing a Growing Demand
Raytheon has a thorough understanding of
both domestic and international air traffic
management systems based on a 60-year
legacy of industry leadership. Raytheon’s
next generation ATM automation system
provides a high-performance, cost-effective
solution for the world’s rapidly growing
air traffic demands, and contains the most
advanced surveillance and flight data processing systems available today. Raytheon is
working closely with the FAA on the modernization of the national airspace system,
leveraging the technologies and lessons
learned from our long-term modernization
efforts here in the U.S. and from the global
deployment of modern automation systems
such as AutoTrac III. •
Gordon Watson
ENGINEERING PROFILE
Teh-Kuang Lung leads the NextGen ATM
and Advanced Programs business, as well as
International ATM within the ATM business
area. In addition, Lung serves as the ATM technical director, leading the business technology
direction in support of the business strategy.
He is also the business area champion for the
Ground Based Sense and Avoid System, working with the government to create a solution to
enable a national plan for unmanned aerial vehicle operations in the national airspace system.
Teh-Kuang Lung
Director, NextGen
Air Traffic Management
Security and Transportation Systems,
Network Centric Systems
In his international role, Lung is responsible
for introducing new business models to better
serve our customers in the evolving civil and
commercial marketplace. He is also responsible
for bringing NextGen capabilities to our
AutoTrac platforms and is currently engaged in
bringing both new business models and
NextGen capabilities to India and beyond.
Prior to his 11 years at Raytheon, Lung spent
his career in the commercial sector working on
e-commerce and Web-based solutions, and he
co-founded a venture-backed startup in the
Internet business-to-business industry.
On what excites him about his job, Lung
states, “Innovation and growth. I’ve been
fortunate enough to have previously worked
as both a technologist and a business leader in
the commercial technology sector. Having the
entrepreneurial experience of starting a
company also aligns well with my current
role where the promotion of advanced technologies and new business ideas is part of my
responsibilities.”
Lung earned his bachelor’s degree in electrical
engineering and his master’s in computer science, from Johns Hopkins University.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 35
Feature
Raytheon’s Multi-Spectral Targeting System
Providing the finest in
sensor technology for
intelligence, surveillance
and reconnaissance
Photo courtesy U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
T
he Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) has been developed by Raytheon to meet the demand for high-quality
intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) at the
strategic, operational and tactical levels. The turreted “ball” incorporates visible, infrared and laser-ranging capabilities. Contained
within its limited volume is a full-featured sensor suite that provides
long-range surveillance, target acquisition, tracking, range-finding
and laser designation for the AGM-114 Hellfire missile and for all
tri-service and NATO laser-guided munitions. The MTS is deployed
globally on a wide variety of platforms, including the U.S. Air
Force’s MQ-1 Predator, the larger MQ-9 Reaper, the U.S. Army’s
Grey Eagle Common Sensor Platform, MH-60R and MH-60S helicopters, and manned fixed-wing aircraft such as the C130.
The MTS-A and MTS-B variants form the backbone of the MTS
family, incorporating advanced cameras, laser rangefinders/designators and gimbal control. The sensor can operate day or night.
MTS-A is the smaller, lighter ball, while MTS-B is a larger aperture
ball for improved resolution, longer range and better performance
(Figure 1). Some key parameters of the two balls are shown in
Table 1. The sensor offers multiple imagers, multiple fields of views,
and optionally, multiple laser sources. Advanced gimbals are used
on the turrets to provide highly stable platforms for both imaging
and lasing. The MTS-A uses a two-axis gimbal design, while MTS-B
uses a five-axis gimbal design to provide the stability necessary to
accommodate its higher-altitude operation and resolution.
36 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Figure 1. MTS Turrets: MTS-A (left) and MTS-B. The main aperture
faces the viewer. Other apertures are for alternative field of view and
lasing applications.
International Applications
The global market is growing as the need increases for both overland and maritime surveillance capabilities. Raytheon provides a
complete ISR solution that outperforms other turreted balls. The
U.K. has deployed Raytheon MTS products on Royal Air Force
Reapers. These have flown missions totaling more than 25,000
hours from Kandahar airfield in Afghanistan since their introduction in 2007, controlled by a contingent based at Creech Air Force
Base in Nevada. Raytheon also supports multiple operations for the
Italian Air Force with both Predator (MTS-A) and Reaper (MTS-B).
Feature
Multi-Spectral
Targeting System
AN/AAS-52, AN/AAS-44C (MTS-A)
AN/DAS-1 (MTS-B)
Platform
MQ-1 Predator, and MH-60R/S
MQ-9 Reaper and MQ-4C Broad Area Maritime
Surveillance (BAMS)
Payload Weight
155 lbs
255 lbs
Dimensions
18” diameter (Turret)
22” diameter (Turret)
Field of View
1 Ultra-Wide
1 Wide
1 Medium
1 Narrow-Medium
1 Narrow
2 Ultra-Narrow
1 Ultra-Wide
1 Wide
1 Medium
2 Narrow-Medium
2 Narrow
2 Ultra-Narrow
Cameras
Visible (electro-optical [EO]), Infrared, Low Light (LL)
Visible (EO), Infrared, Low Light (LL)
Lasers (Optional)
Designator, pointer, rangefinder
Designator, pointer, rangefinder
Table 1. Key parameters of the MTS-A and MTS-B sensors deployed globally.
of maritime helicopter platforms include
Denmark, India, South Korea and Middle East
nations. Japan is the latest coalition partner
to select and procure the MTS-A in support of
evolving maritime helicopter operations.
Variants of MTS solutions, known as AVES
(Airborne Vision Enhanced System) and EOSS
(Electro-Optical Sensor System) have been
delivered for use in Australia, the Philippines,
Saudi Arabia, Singapore and Brazil. These are
typically hosted on S-70B helicopters as well as
fixed-wing aircraft and aerostats, and they can
be adapted to any airborne platform required
by the customer. These two systems are used
for surveillance purposes only and are not configured to support weapon deployment.
Figure 2. MH-60R helicopter with MTS-A turret mounted on its nose.
The latter was deployed by the Italian Air Force over Libya as part
of Italy’s contribution to NATO’s Operation Unified Protector.
The Italian Air Force also operates MQ-1C Predator A+ aircraft,
which use the MTS-A sensor. These have been in use over Iraq and
Afghanistan since 2005.
The Royal Australian Navy recently selected the MTS-A system for
production and deployment on 24 MH-60R helicopters (Figure 2).
Combined with the AGM-114 Hellfire anti-surface missile, MTS-A
enables the MH-60R’s air-to-surface strike capability and antisubmarine warfare. Other ongoing international coalition users
The Raytheon MTS family of turreted sensors
represents some of the most sophisticated
sensors available today. Combining precision
gimbal control, advanced optics and cameras, and advanced lasers, a single MTS turret
can support multiple applications, including
surveillance, targeting, tracking and reconnaissance. Systems currently employ high-definition visible and IR
sensors. Future, more advanced products will include more powerful lasers, improved sensitivity, accurate geo-location tagging,
improved on-board processing and additional spectral coverage.
These airborne sensors, hosted on unmanned aircraft, helicopters
and fixed-wing manned aircraft, will continue to offer worldwide
solutions that provide our warfighters and our allies the actionable
information needed to dominate the 21st century battlespace. •
Andrew Mondy and Gregory Roth
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 37
Feature
Global Patriot
Combat-Proven Air and Missile Defense
T
he Patriot missile system is the
Since Patriot production began, more than
of targets under saturation raid conditions
world’s premier air defense system,
200 Patriot fire units have been delivered to
and can support the simultaneous opera-
effective against low to high altitude
12 nations around the world, including the
tion of multiple Patriot missiles to defend
air threats in defense of ground combat
U.S. and five NATO nations. The growing
against the threat. As the threat grew,
forces and critical assets. It can perform
list of partners includes the Netherlands,
Patriot’s capability was enhanced to sup-
simultaneous engagements against at-
Germany, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia,
port, simultaneously, the operations of the
tacking tactical ballistic missiles, cruise
Kuwait, Taiwan, Greece, Spain, Korea and
evolutionary GEM-T missile and the new
missiles and aircraft. The key features of
the United Arab Emirates. An international
PAC-3 missile.
the Patriot system are its multifunction
industry team of more than 4,000 suppliers
phased array radar, the Guidance Enhanced
and subcontractors support the Patriot air
The main elements of a Patriot missile fire
Missile-Tactical (GEM-T) missile variant with
and missile defense system.
unit are shown in Figure 1. Operators within
the Engagement Control Station (ECS) con-
semi-active homing, the Patriot Advanced
Capability (PAC-3) missile variant with ac-
Patriot began its development in the late
trol the system, communicating with the
tive homing, Patriot’s interoperability with
1960s timeframe to counter a potential
radar, the launcher, other Patriot fire units
other defense systems, and its automated
massive raid against Europe by Soviet
and command headquarters. The multifunc-
operations with human override. Its design
aircraft employing a wide variety of sophisti-
tion phased array radar performs high- and
robustness allows it to be self-contained
cated electronic countermeasures. The radar
low-altitude surveillance, target detection,
and mobile when required.
has the capability to track a wide variety
discrimination and identification, target
A PROUD HISTORY AND A BRIGHT FUTURE
SAM-D
U.S. Army awards
Raytheon the
surface-to-air missile
development (SAM-D)
contract, a system
designed to provide for
the defense of Europe
against a massive raid
of Soviet aircraft
employing ECM.
In development
for nine years,
the SAM-D missile
successfully engages
a drone at the
White Sands
Missile Range.
1967
1975
Patriot
38 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
SAM-D enters
production and
is renamed the
Patriot Air Defense
Missile System.
1976
Patriot Full-Scale
Production
(Milestone III)
Patriot Advanced
Capability
Phase 1 (PAC-1)
Patriot begins to
deploy to U.S.
Army units.
The PAC-1 missile,
The first European upgraded with
anti-tactical missile
Battalion with
Patriot equipment capabilities, intercepts
joins the NATO air and destroys a Lance
defense structure. missile in flight, proving
itself against short-range
ballistic missiles.
1982
1985
1986
Feature
The radar antenna electronically scans the skies
searching with overlapping pencil beams.
Radar:
• Target Search, Detection and Track
• Discrimination and Identification
• Target Illumination
• Patriot Missile Guidance
• Countermeasures Protection
Missile communication
ation
with radar
adar
Track origin
Track,
and identification
Launcher:
Transports
• Aims
• Launches
•
Determines
timing, heading
and command
to launch
Engagement
Control Station
• Battle Management,
Command, Control &
Communications
• Target tracking
• Missile firing alert
• TVM (track via missile)
Guidance
Figure 1. Patriot Air Defense Missile System Operation.
track, missile track and missile guidance.
phases. The GEM-T missile is semi-active,
and number of interceptor missiles needed
Automated operation provides firepower at
employs TVM (track-via-missile) during its
during high saturation conditions. Each
high saturation levels, in addition to provid-
homing phase and utilizes a fragmenta-
launcher can support up to 4 GEM-T mis-
ing a multiple simultaneous engagement
tion warhead to defeat threats. The PAC-3
siles or 16 PAC-3 missiles and is remotely
capability. The missiles, via communication
missile employs an active seeker with a hit-
controlled by a wireless or fiber optic data
from the radar, are guided to their desired
to-kill design to defeat threats. Automated
link from the ECS.
locations just prior to their terminal homing
operation provides the desired missile types
Patriot Advanced Capability Phase 2 (PAC-2)
PAC-2 missiles, upgraded with an improved
warhead, new proximity fuse and greater
anti-missile capability, are deployed to Southwest
Asia and Israel following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
1990
continued on page 40
Upgraded PAC-2 missiles successfully intercept and destroy Iraqi
Scud missiles fired at Israel and Saudi Arabia during the Persian
Gulf War. Credited with saving lives and changing the course of
the war, Patriot earned worldwide recognition as the first missile in
history to successfully engage a hostile ballistic missile in combat.
1991
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 39
Feature
Patriot
continued from page 39
Patriot remains the most advanced combat-proven ground-based air and missile
defense system fielded in the world. It is
the backbone of Integrated Air and Missile
Defense for the U.S. and its allies. It is designed to be interoperable with the THAAD
(Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) missile system, the Hawk missile system and
other systems employed by our coalition
partners. Modernization through the incorporation of new technologies has enabled
Raytheon to evolve and grow the capabilities of this fielded and widely deployed
system to defeat advancing threats. As a
result, the U.S. government commitment to
Patriot has been extended to 2040.
Combat-proven during Desert Storm and
Operation Iraqi Freedom, Patriot has completed greater than 2,500 target search-andtrack tests across the entire range of its performance envelope. In addition, more than
600 highly successful missile firings have
demonstrated Patriot’s performance against
the full range of aircraft, tactical missile,
ballistic missile and cruise missiles threats.
Reliability of Patriot systems deployed
worldwide (measured in “mean time between failure”) remains more than twice
the required system specification.
Patriot Modernization
A comprehensive development program
to address parts obsolescence and to incorporate new technology upgrades was
initiated in 2008 to support a new production build of Patriot fire units for an
international partner. Although Patriot had
received substantial performance upgrades
to address evolving threats since its initial
fielding, it had been more than 12 years
since complete systems were produced.
Modernization has refitted Patriot with an
open, modular architecture. This includes
significant upgrades to the command and
control shelter, man stations, peripherals,
Internet protocol (IP)-based communications
and the radar data processor. In addition,
more than 1,000 existing PAC-2 missiles
have been upgraded to the current GEM-T
configuration to add the desired increase in
capabilities against advanced threats.
Part of Patriot’s ECS, the Patriot Modern
Man Station (MMS) operator-machine interface is used to identify and display airborne
objects; track potential threats; and engage
hostile targets, including aircraft, unmanned
air vehicles, cruise missiles and tactical ballistic missiles.
This modernized system, with its color
graphical user interface (GUI) and touchscreen display (Figure 2), gives the operator
significantly enhanced visual cues for identification of targets and priority alerts, and
it greatly improves battlefield situational
awareness with best-in-class command and
control decision-support tools. The new
A PROUD HISTORY AND A BRIGHT FUTURE
PAC-2 GEM
PAC-3 Configuration 1
PAC-3 Configuration 2
A radar shroud reduces interference and
improves radar multifunction performance.
A low-noise receiver is added to improve
detection range. North-finding and global
positioning systems are added to reduce
system emplacement times. Remote launch
modifications allow launchers to be separated
from the control station, expanding Patriot’s
defended area.
The Patriot Guidance
Enhanced Missile includes
a faster warhead fuse to
improve kill probability
against tactical ballistic
missiles and a new
low-noise missile seeker
section to expand the
missile’s engagement
area.
A new pulse-Doppler radar processor significantly improves
performance. Engagement
Control Station and Information
Coordination Central upgrades improve weapons control, computer
throughput, memory and reliability.
Upgrades also add an optical disk,
decreasing computer access times
and embedded data-recording
equipment.
A communications processor upgrade and Joint
Tactical Information
Distribution System capabilities
are added.
1992
1994
1995
1996
After the Gulf War
40 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
Figure 2. The Modern Man Station (MMS), on the left, features full software management of the display and control functions. A prototype of the
graphical user interface (GUI) referred to by the Army as the “Common Warfighter Machine Interface” (CWMI) is shown on the right.
MMS and Radar Digital Processor (RDP)
are key upgrades that facilitate Patriot’s
new capabilities while reducing total
ownership cost.
The RDP processes commands from the ECS,
controls radar system timing and processes
data received from various radar subsystems.
The RDP is a major upgrade to the radar
set, replacing discrete analog and digital
signal processing components with a ruggedized commercial off-the-shelf processor.
The new RDP increases the reliability of the
digital processing system and related analog
components by 10 fold, resulting in a predicted 40 percent increase in overall radar
reliability. More importantly, it enables future capabilities through software upgrades,
including digital sidelobe cancelling, organic
combat identification, improved target
detection, multifunction surveillance and
the full support of advanced PAC-3 missile
enhancements.
continued on page 42
PAC-3 Configuration 3 Ground Equipment
PAC-3 Missile
Dual travelling wave tube amplifiers and a new low-noise RF
exciter are added to the radar to further improve multifunction performance and detection of small targets in cluttered
environments, allowing significant improvement in radar range
performance to discriminate and identify a tactical ballistic missile warhead from other target debris. Software enhancements
improve radar multifunction performance, determine tactical ballistic missile impact and launch points, and provide interfaces with
the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System. Remote launch
improvements increase the location of launchers from the ECS to
dramatically expand Patriot’s defended area.
Lockheed Martin develops and delivers
the initial PAC-3 missiles incorporated
into the Patriot system. The PAC-3
missile uses an active seeker for terminal guidance and employs hit-to-kill
technology to destroy ballistic missile targets. The U.S. Army plans to
equip each U.S. Patriot fire unit with
six PAC-2 and two PAC-3 launchers.
Raytheon is the overall system integrator for the PAC-3 missile fielding.
2000
2001
Guidance Enhanced
Missile Plus
GEM+ adds a low-noise
oscillator for improved
acquisition and tracking
performance. The GEM+
missile provides an upgraded
capability to defeat air
breathing, cruise missile and
ballistic missile threats, which
complements the PAC-3
missile.
2002
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 41
Feature
Patriot
Continued from page 41
The inventory of PAC-2 missiles is being
refurbished and modernized to the GEM-T
configuration. This provides the U.S. and its
allies with an affordable, robust capability
against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles,
aircraft and remotely piloted vehicles.
The highly successsful Patriot flight test
program includes all of the new equipment
and uses both the new GEM-T missiles and
the PAC-3 missile variant against a wide variety of threats. This modernization provides
the foundation upon which to base new
growth features.
A 12-nation global alliance and future
Patriot partners offer a wide network for
interoperability
and cost-effective solutions
to meet future Air and
Missile Defense requirements.
Into the Future
During the long 45+ year history of Patriot,
the modularity and flexibility inherent in its
original design allowed the Patriot system
to be upgraded and remain one or more
steps ahead of the threats. Future modernization efforts will further expand Patriot’s
capability in the areas of target detection,
engagement envelope and defended
volume. Furthermore, improved warfighter
effectiveness and reduced manning demands are enabled through automated
decision aids and role-selectable command
and control.
With a long history of successful deployments,
evolutionary improvements, recent modernization and the support of its growing list of
partner nations, Patriot is ready to provide
protection from emerging threats to the U.S.
and its allies through 2040 and beyond. •
Norm Cantin
Approved for public release October 18, 2012, control no. 428-2012
A PROUD HISTORY AND A BRIGHT FUTURE
Combat-Proven Again in Operation
Iraqi Freedom, U.S. and coalition
Patriot units are deployed throughout
the Central Command region to protect
forces and populations from the threat
of ballistic missiles. This demonstrates
the enhanced capabilities of Patriot to
protect against threats to both static
assets and forces on the attack. The
Configuration 3 Ground Equipment,
GEM+, GEM and PAC-3 missiles are all
combat-proven.
Guidance Enhanced Missile Tactical
Ballistic Missile
GEM-T is a significant upgrade and, when fielded
in conjunction with the PAC-3 system, provides a
robust capability against ballistic missiles, cruise
missiles, aircraft and remotely piloted vehicles.
GEM-T is made available to both U.S. forces and
international customers, with deliveries to the U.S.
Army beginning in 2006. This capability adds a
low-noise oscillator for improved performance in
heavy clutter and a reduced time constant fuse to
further expand capability.
Patriot Modernization
2003
2006
2012
42 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Raytheon launches a comprehensive program, upgrading U.S. and
partner systems to the modernized
Configuration 3 standard. Twelve
countries, including the U.S., rely on
Patriot as a key component of their
air and missile defense.
Feature
Background image courtesy U.S. Missile Defense Agency.
S
tandard Missile, which first entered
production in 1967 as SM-1, was developed as a replacement for the Terrier,
Talos and Tartar surface-to-air missiles. For
50 years, Standard Missile technology has
evolved from that beginning to keep pace
with new threats and growing missions.
Phase 1 in 2011 included the deployment of
existing Aegis BMD-capable ships equipped
with proven SM-3 Block IA interceptors.
In March 2011, the United States sent the
USS Monterey to the Mediterranean Sea
to begin a sustained deployment of Aegis
BMD-capable ships in support of the EPAA.
On September 17, 2009, President Barack
Obama announced the U.S. decision to
adopt a new approach to ballistic missile defense in Europe. This plan, called
the European Phased Adaptive Approach
(EPAA), uses Raytheon’s Standard Missile-3
as a proven, cost-effective way to protect
our NATO allies and U.S. forces stationed
in Europe against ballistic-missile threats.
Raytheon is developing multiple variants of
SM-3™ (Blocks IA, IB and IIA) as part of the
Missile Defense Agency’s sea-based Aegis
Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) System.
Phase 2 in 2015 will employ the more
advanced Block IB version of the SM-3 interceptor. Block IB maintains the reliability
of the Block IA variant while incorporating a
new two-color infrared seeker, an advanced
signal processor and a new Throttleable
Divert and Attitude Control System
(TDACS), providing the precision propulsion
necessary to intercept incoming ballistic missiles with pinpoint accuracy.
In May 2012, Raytheon achieved a significant milestone with the successful flight
Block IA
Block IB
Block IIA
•Kinetic warhead
with pulse
attitude-control
system
•Throttleable
warhead attitudecontrol system
improves target
acquisition
•Advanced warhead:
– High-divert attitude-control system
improves target acquisition
– 512 x 512 focal-plane array and
advanced signal processing improve
seeker discrimination
•One-color IR
seeker with RF
data fusion
•GPS/INS
guidance
•Dual-thrust
second-stage
rocket motor
•Mission kill
assessment
•Two-color IR
seeker and new
signal processor
enhance seeker
discrimination at
longer range
•Improved
producibility
•Wider airframe and new second- and
third-stage motors increase velocity
and enlarge the battlespace
•Comprehensive built-in-test
•Uploadable software and firmware
•Lightweight canister
•Lower cost
The European Phased Adaptive Approach employs variants of Raytheon’s Standard
Missile-3. The U.S. and Japan are cooperatively developing the Block IIA interceptor,
which builds on proven technologies from the Block IA and IB missiles.
test of SM-3 Block IB, marking the 20th
successful SM-3 intercept. During the test,
the target launched from the Pacific Missile
Range Facility on the island of Kauai. The
USS Lake Erie’s SPY-1 radar acquired and
began tracking the target. Several minutes
after target launch, the ship’s crew fired an
SM-3 Block IB. During flight, the missile’s
kinetic warhead acquired the target with
its two-color infrared seeker and tracked it
through intercept. Commonly referred to as
“hitting a bullet with a bullet,” the SM-3 is
designed to destroy incoming threat missiles
by colliding with them. This collision’s kinetic energy was the equivalent of a 10-ton
truck traveling at 600 miles per hour.
For Phase 3 in 2018, a significantly more
advanced SM-3 Block IIA interceptor is being
jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries (MHI) in Nagoya, Japan. The
partnership began with a 1999 agreement
among the Government of Japan, the U.S.
Missile Defense Agency, Raytheon and MHI
to operate as an integrated team to develop
Block IIA. Japan already deploys Block IA on
its Kongo-class destroyers.
MHI will provide Block IIA’s bigger secondand third-stage rocket motors. Raytheon
will furnish the advanced kinetic warhead,
which combines larger seeker optics, a 512
x 512 focal-plane array and an advanced
signal processor to improve both clutter
discrimination and target-acquisition range.
These enhancements will enable a single
ship to defend a wider region and destroy a
broader range of ballistic missile threats.
SM-3 continues to evolve as a critical resource in the ballistic missile defense of the
U.S. and our allies as it counters increasingly
sophisticated threats. •
Stephen Reidy
Approved for Public Release 12-MDA-6963 (27July12)
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 43
Feature
Guided Intercept Validates Raytheon Evolved Seasparrow
Missile’s Role in Medium-range, Ground-based
Air Defense
NASAMS and Hawk Life Cycle Improvements
R
aytheon and our Norwegian
partner Kongsberg Defence &
Aerospace (KDA), with the
cooperation of the Royal Norwegian
Air Force (RNoAF), achieved an important milestone the spring of 2012
with the successful intercept and destruction of an airborne target with a
guided flight firing of the Evolved
Seasparrow Missile (ESSM™) by the
National Advanced Surface-to-Air
Missile System (NASAMS). The intercept (Figure 1) was part of an
ongoing effort by Raytheon and KDA
to increase the capability and flexibility of the NASAMS, Hawk and
Hawk XXI systems.
The ESSM missile is produced by
Raytheon and industry partners
from member nations of the NATO
SEASPARROW Consortium. The ESSM
missile provides NASAMS with the
proven capabilities of a ship-based
air defense missile in a groundbased system. ESSM is the third
Raytheon missile to be successfully
fired from the NASAMS common
rail launcher, following the AIM-9X
Sidewinder firing in 2011 and the
Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air
Missile (AMRAAM), which has been
deployed with the NASAMS system
since its initial operational capability
in 1994 (Figure 2).
The NASAMS system, jointly developed by Raytheon and KDA, provides
a state-of-the-art medium range
air defense system that can quickly
identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft,
unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise
missile threats. Fielded in Norway for
more than a decade, the RNoAF has
operated NASAMS as the cornerstone
of their airbase and their high value
asset defense. The RNoAF continues
to modernize the system through a
robust system life cycle management
program. Recently, the Norwegian
Defence Logistics Organization contracted Raytheon and KDA for a
modernization program that includes
command and control upgrades as
well as the addition of Raytheon’s
High Mobility Launchers to RNoAF’s
existing canister launcher fleet.
NASAMS is also operationally deployed in the U.S. National Capital
Region, Spain and the Netherlands;
and an initial operational capability is
planned in Finland in 2015.
The guided flight test demonstrated
the potential for ESSM on both the
NASAMS and Hawk XXI systems.
Both the Hawk XXI and NASAMS
systems share a common architecture
today, including the Fire Distribution
Center (FDC) for command and
control and the Sentinel radar for
surveillance and tracking. During the
ESSM guided-flight demonstration,
the FDC used the Hawk High Power
Illuminator (HPI) radar (Figure 3) to
illuminate the target for the ESSM
semi-active guided intercept. For
Hawk customers, the ESSM firing
demonstrated the low risk of integrating the ESSM missile in the Hawk
XXI system. For NASAMS customers,
the ESSM missile offers additional
capability, and the choice of interceptors allows more flexibility in their
defense designs. The ESSM missile
also offers logistic and maintenance
savings for countries that already
use the ESSM missile for Naval air
defense.
44 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Figure 1. Raytheon Evolved Seasparrow Missile fired from
a National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System common rail canister launcher. Photo: Kongsberg Defence &
Aerospace.
Figure 2. Raytheon Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air
Missiles mounted on the National Advanced Surface-toAir Missile System high mobility common rail launcher.
Feature
Figure 3. Hawk High Power Illuminator
radar.
The ESSM guided-flight demonstration consisted of the NASAMS FDC and launcher,
the Sentinel radar (tracking and cueing),
the Hawk HPI radar and the ESSM missile.
The firing demonstrated NASAMS’ capability to acquire and track a target, initialize
and launch an ESSM, cue the HPI, illuminate the target and guide the semi-active
ESSM missile to the intercept. The NASAMS
FDC’s capability to support the current
Hawk launcher, Hawk HPI radar and Hawk
surveillance radar provides an incremental
upgrade path for current Hawk customers
to keep existing assets while modernizing
the overall system.
In less than 10 months from concept
inception to the ESSM guided-flight
firing, the NASAMS team assembled experts
from across Raytheon and KDA to carry
out the development effort. Raytheon provided missile analysis, ESSM Naval missile
integration expertise, Hawk HPI radar support and the software modification to the
NASAMS launcher’s missile interface unit.
KDA provided modifications to the FDC fire
control to accommodate the ESSM performance. Due to the open architecture of the
NASAMS system, no other changes were
necessary to support the firing of the new
missile.
The team was successful in meeting the
aggressive development schedule. The
firing resulted in a direct hit by ESSM, witnessed by government representatives from
Australia, Chile, Finland, the Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United
States.
The ESSM firing is an example of the international cooperation and extensive
customer support for the NASAMS system.
The firing would not have been possible
without the contributions of the Norwegian
Air Force, which provided most of the assets
and the test range for both the guidedflight test in May and the ballistic test
firing in March; the United States Security
Assistance Management Directorate
(SAMD), which provided the Hawk HPI
radar; and the SEASPARROW consortium,
which provided the ESSM missiles. The
ESSM guided-flight firing occurred during
the Norwegian Air Force’s annual live firing exercise of their NASAMS system at the
Andoya Rocket Range in Northern Norway.
In addition to the ESSM firing there were
four NASAMS AMRAAM guided-flight firings against drones, all with challenging
flight profiles.
The ESSM firing is just one example of the
ongoing effort to provide greater flexibility
and capability to our international air
defense customers, in addition to providing
a continually improving system ready to play
a greater role in U.S. defense. •
John Heffernan
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 45
Feature
Command, Control, Communications,
Computers and Intelligence (C4I) Systems
Technology enabling solutions to meet the operational needs
of an evolving worldwide threat
R
aytheon C4I system solutions support
the U.S. military and more than
60 international customers on six
continents, providing a total battlefield
integrated system-of-systems capability.
• Low-flying, slow UAVs and low-flying,
fast cruise missiles are serious and
proliferating threats.
Immediate threats to the security of sovereign nations vary based on the domain,
country or area within a country. There are,
however, the following trends:
• Asymmetric threats on land and sea are
growing at a rapid rate.
• Attack from many small, swarming boats
is an issue both for naval and commercial
vessels.
• Electronic warfare is evolving, increasing
its overall level of sophistication.
• Within the air and space domains, the
ballistic missile threat has expanded to
include rogue nations.
• Cyber warfare is proliferating at an
accelerating pace.
• Many nations are acquiring unmanned
air systems (UAS) intelligence, surveillance
and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms.
• Threats to position location, precision
navigation and timing systems (e.g., GPS)
are likely to have a more widespread
impact.
Air Coalition
Partners
Airborne Early
Warning
The ultimate goal of C4I systems (Figure
1) is to provide commanders with the appropriate and timely information they need
to address these threats. Towards this end,
Raytheon’s C4I systems have a wide range
of capabilities that enable:
• Development of a situation awareness
(SA) or common operational picture
(COP), and the sharing and displaying
of this picture as required by commanders at all levels.
• Efficient communication of tasking to
implement directions and decisions
among the command hierarchy in order
to support their forces in executing
operational plans.
UAV
Reconnaissance
Counter-Air
Aircraft
Elevated
Sensor
Ground
Grou
Grou
Gr
ound
d
Entry
Entr
Entr
En
try
Station
Stattio
ion
ion
Air
Air Defense
Ai
Defe
De
fens
fens
nsee
Weapon
Weap
Weap
We
apo
on
n
Systems
Syst
Sy
stem
ems
Tactical Data Link
Central
Ce
C
ent
n ra
ral
al Control
Conttro
Cont
Co
rol
rol
Station
S attio
St
ion
Land
LLaand
an
nd
d
Operations
Oper
Op
eraatti
tio
ions
on
nss
Center
Cent
Ce
nter
er
Naval
Nava
Na
val Forces
Forc
Fo
rces
ess
Satellite
SSaatte
ell
lliitte
Surveillance
Surrvveeiill
Su
llan
ance
ncce
e
Air
Air
Support
Supp
Su
upp
ppor
ppor
ort
ort
Coalition
Coal
Co
alitio
itio
it
ion
C4I
C4
C
4I Systems
Syst
Sy
stem
st
em
ems
ms
Ground
Gro
Gr
ou
und
un
nd
d
Radar
Rada
Rada
Ra
dar
Air
Aiir
A
Operations
Op
Oper
per
erat
ations
ions
io
ns
Center
Ce
C
en
ntter
er
Naval
Operations
Center
National
Nati
Na
t on
nal
a
Command
Co
C
om
mm
ma
an
nd
Authority
Autth
Au
ho
orrit
ity
National
Na
N
ati
tion
onal
on
a
al
Agencies
Agen
Ag
ncciies
es
(Civil
((C
Civ
ivil
il Aviation)
Avviiat
atio
ion)
io
on))
National
Nati
Na
ati
tion
onall
on
Guard
Gu
G
uar
ard
Rescue
Re
R
esc
scue
ue
Passive
Pass
Pa
ass
s iv
ive
Sensors
Sens
Se
ens
n or
ors
Figure 1. Operational View of integrated air, land, maritime and joint C4I systems. Raytheon’s C4I solutions provide a total battlefield integrated
system-of-systems capability for the U.S. military and our international customers.
46 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
• Analysis of the operational environment to
automatically identify or support the manual identification of threats, and to provide
threat response guidance.
Underlying the above capabilities are tools
and support for comprehensive planning
across three distinct command authority levels
or echelons: strategic C4I (planning weeks
to years in advance by a national command
authority), operational C4I (planning days to
weeks in advance, by an operations center),
and tactical C4I (days to real-time planning,
down to the battalion level).
Raytheon’s C4I Capabilities
Raytheon’s C4I operational capabilities and
enabling technologies are summarized below.
Working in concert, these discriminators
provide the ability to obtain, gather, process
and distribute information to optimize datato-decision effectiveness, thereby enabling
defensive forces to respond promptly and appropriately to the constantly evolving threats.
Common Operational Picture (COP):
C4I provides a common operational picture
(COP) for situational awareness that can be
made available to all command elements.
Key capabilities necessary in developing this
picture include the ability to integrate track
and contact data from a host of sensors
types, and the correlation of that data to address multiple tracks due to sensor overlap.
It is typical for sensors to have various output
formats, periodicity, and error characteristics,
as well as other variables. Within each of the
C4I systems, the track management component, typically consisting of a specific number
of trackers and a correlator, reconcile these
differences to create an accurate integrated
picture. Additionally, C4I systems can include
non-track data that enhances the track picture
(information specific to a commercial vessel
or airliner, for example). Raytheon has long
been a leader in the technology behind trackers, which are enablers for several Raytheon
C4I products, including the Advanced MultiSource Tracker (AMST) used in Sentry® and
the Solipsys Multi-Source Correlator Tracker
(MSCT [domestic] and MSCT-I [international]
version).
continued on page 48
Raytheon Tracker Technology for C4I
A prerequisite to the development of a COP is the ability to accurately track forces
regardless of domain. Raytheon has developed a number of general purpose and
specialized trackers that are the workhorses behind our leading C4I systems. During
tracking, the system must associate multiple source plots with a track, and then smooth
associated plots to estimate the target state in terms of position and velocity. The tracker
must account for targets in close proximity, tracking in two and three dimensions, highG maneuvers and clutter around a target. Different trackers can use different techniques
to develop and maintain a track. Typical among these are statistical data association,
dynamic clutter mapping and track branching (see Figure).
The tracking process typically starts
with Automatic Track Initiation (ATI).
Clutter
ATI enables the operator to establish
Density
zones in which track initiation occurs
Multibranch
without further operator action. The
Dynamic Clutter Map
Correlation
initiation criteria can include miniLogic
Clutter
mum and maximum target speed,
Density
Tracks
altitude and the type of plots used
Tracks
for initiation (primary, secondary or
CONFIRM
both radar returns). The ATI funcPlots
tion controls the false track initiation
Constant Velocity Filter
rate by automatically mapping ATI
DELETE
Maneuver Type 1 Filter
and remote track drop areas and,
SPRT Track Initiation
Maneuver Type 2 Filter
together with category selection,
helps to alleviate operator workload.
Tracks IMM Filter
The system processes and integrates
primary (radar) and/or secondary
C4I Track Processing techniques.
(beacon) plot messages representing
the same target to initiate and maintain a single local track.
Raytheon trackers improve track continuity and accuracy using statistical data association
methods for both active and passive (jamming) data, a variable update filtering schedule,
Sequential Probability Ratio Testing (SPRT) for track initiation, and an Interacting Multiple
Model (IMM) filter for track state estimation.
IMM uses multiple Kalman filters running in parallel to represent different potential maneuver states of the track. This enables the system to continue tracking highly evasive
targets through high-G and high-speed maneuvers. When the plot-track association
probability falls below the confidence level, track branching (two or more tracks that
represent different hypotheses about the target’s motion) revises the decision based on
subsequently processed radar data. A probability is calculated for each branch, based on
correlated plot data. A branch is deleted if its probability falls below an adapted threshold. The most probable branch is made available for display and other system functions.
Sensor registration computes and applies corrections to sensor data to compensate for
atmospheric and other biases that affect the accuracy of that data in a systemic and
repeatable way. Collimation computes corrections to range and azimuth needed to
align a radar with its secondary (beacon) returns. Using a real-time, on-line algorithm,
the system estimates and applies radar registration and collimation bias corrections. This
reduces the effect of radar measurement bias errors, minimizes duplicate tracks and improves track accuracy. Together, SPRT track initiation, the multiple branch approach, the
IMM filter, and automatic measurement bias estimation and removal provide superior
tracking performance against small targets, maneuvering targets and targets in clutter.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 47
Feature
C4I Systems
continued from page 47
Situation Analysis: The ability to employ
threat recognition capabilities directly in the
C4I system for threat behaviors as they are
identified offers an additional level of analysis for watchstanders and commanders.
Several approaches to situation analysis are
included in Raytheon C4I systems, including
rule-based analysis of kinematic or track details, analysis of historical data and analysis
of other related data. Examples of these
approaches include:
• Automatic identification (e.g., pending,
unknown, assumed friend, friend, neutral, suspect or hostile) based on either
direct information through identification
friend or foe (IFF), blue force tracking,
automatic identification system (AIS) information and/or selective identification
feature (SIF) code.
automation reduces the response time
for completing a task, ensures that proper
approval has been granted and offloads the
coordination of the process from the staff,
providing more time for operational
activities.
Enhanced Mission Planning: Raytheon
C4I systems provide operational planning
for different command echelons within a
single service branch, across multiple service
branches, and for both military and civilian
agencies. This includes status information
on systems, equipment and personnel that
can be entered into the system and then
automatically distributed to commanders of
other units, services or agencies.
This analysis of track data and enhancement data by the system can bring to light
information not readily discernible by a
watchstander or commander. As threats
evolve, Raytheon C4I systems allow appropriately trained customer personnel to
modify the parameters of threat identification algorithms to counter new threats.
Effective planning involves processing large
amounts of information. This is enabled
by work areas that provide a single, multipanel window displaying the most accessed
information in a concise manner while also
providing access to less commonly used
data. Operator actions are minimized by
automatically linking selected data to other
related panels. Operator efficiency is also increased by anticipating common behaviors,
by automatically populating data entry fields
and by performing tasks (such as creating
a mission) based on the context of the operator’s actions. An associated interactive
graphics information system (GIS) display
provides a graphical representation of a
work area’s information, enabling visual,
graphics-based updates for the many planning tasks. As entered updates appear on
the GIS, the changed data automatically appears at corresponding locations within the
appropriate work area.
Guidance for Threat Response:
Raytheon’s C4I systems are easily adaptable to seamlessly support a customer’s
unique workflows and doctrines within
a system’s perimeter. For example, when
a threat is observed and entered into the
system, the workflow capability guides operators through the additional data entry,
evaluation processing and approval screens
necessary for an appropriate response. This
Raytheon’s multilingual capability makes a
complex system easier to use by operators
of different nationalities. Internationalization
software performs text replacement with
the appropriate lookup translation in the
customer’s language; and, for the Middle
East and other parts of the world that use
right-to-left language flow, the C4I software properly translates the screen layout
and data sequence accordingly.
• Threat identification based on track characteristics and other kinematic data such
as penetration of restricted areas, exceeding specific altitudes/speed criteria for
specific types of tracks, maneuvers not
typical for specific track types, and impossible movements or threat launch point.
• Use of reference databases to identify possible spoofing of identification beacon information (such as a ship previously
reported as “scrapped” showing up in
the COP).
48 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Tactical Edge C4I Platform: Tablets and
smartphones are replacing ruggedized field
laptops for many applications, both civilian
and military. Raytheon’s C4I technology addresses several challenges to their effective
use, such as the security of devices and the
data transmitted, as well as the reliability
of network connections in hostile environments limited by low bandwidth and data
dropouts. Raytheon’s C4I solutions conserve bandwidth, detect and recover data
dropouts, maintain functionality even when
disconnected, and facilitate resynchronization when connectivity has been restored.
Composable C4I: Advanced C4I Systems
are modular within a common service oriented architecture (Figure 2). Composable
systems use functional components that
plug into an open, extensible framework
and become interoperable through the use
of standard rules of the framework services
that support messaging, data transformations and translations by way of publish/
subscribe design patterns.
An example of this is Raytheon’s Athena,
which is a multidomain situational awareness system with capabilities centered on
the maritime environment. Athena has been
deployed in more than 20 locations around
the world as a stand-alone product.
In one instance, a Raytheon customer
requested a solution that would require
a blend of Raytheon’s Command View®
military C4I system planning and battle
capabilities and Athena’s maritime domain
awareness capabilities. It took the program
team very little time to develop a solution that leveraged the capabilities of both
products in a far quicker and cost-effective
way than re-developing those capabilities as
stand-alone products. This was enabled by
the Command View and Athena systems’
open architectures that allowed for a rapid,
efficient, and cost-effective integration of
new capabilities.
Feature
Integrated Human-Machine Interface Framework
External
Agencies
and
Systems
(e.g., ATC
Center)
Land
Force
Ops
Services
Services
C2
Surface
Situat.
Air
Air
Planning Tasking Resource to Air .... AwareMgmt Weapons
ness
Deployment
Services Services Services Services
Monitoring/Execution HMI
Air Operations &
Integrated Air
Missile Defense
Mission Execution
Services
Services
Enterprise Services Bus
High Performance Data Distribution Bus
High Level Architecture/Distributed Interactive Simulation Bus
Services
Others
External
Training
Services
Training
Services
Supervision
and System
Management
Services
Tactical Data Links
(L11, L16, JRE, etc.)
...
Services
Message
Formats and
Protocols
Services
Sensor
Interfaces
Services
C4I Software Components
Test Tools
External Components
Service Adaptors
Figure 2. Common Service Oriented Architecture for C4I Systems. Functional components,
such as situation awareness, plug in to an open, extensible framework to rapidly compose a
system solution.
Joint
Operations
Center
Allied Sources
JOC Situational Display
Common
Operational
Database
Land
Operations
Center
LOC Situational Display
Air
Operations
Center
Naval
Operations
Center
AOC Situational Display
Air
Tactical
C2
Land Forces
Tactical C2
Naval Forces
Tactical C2
NOC Situational Display
Figure 3. Raytheon’s Integrated C4I Solution. Command View C4I capabilities are available
to different command echelons within a single service branch, multiple branches, and military
and civilian agencies.
Raytheon C4I System Solution
Examples
Two examples of Raytheon’s many C4I
system solutions that have a strong
international presence are Command
View — an integrated and scalable military
C4I system, which has air, land, naval
and joint applications for operations
mission planning and tasking at the strategic and operational levels; and Sentry
— the world’s leading real-time air situation awareness and mission execution
system, predominantly operating at the
tactical level.
Raytheon’s Command View is a fullfeatured C4I system, supporting joint,
combined and component operations at
the higher-level strategic and operational
echelons, and providing capabilities for
military operation planning, execution
and monitoring (Figure 3). Its flexible
design enables the system to effectively
synchronize military actions through
network-centric operations. Employing
a service-based, layered architecture,
Command View is scalable to meet any
size requirement. It can run on a variety
of platforms and is adaptable for future
growth and evolution. Command View
provides operators with a multilingual
user interface, multiple decision aids and
a consistent set of features. It includes
adaptable processes that can integrate
with existing systems, and it allows for the
incorporation of factors and conditions
such as operating doctrines and procedures. Variants of Command View are
located in 16 nations around the world.
An air application of Command View,
developed by Thales-Raytheon Systems
(TRS), a joint venture between Raytheon
Company and Thales Group, is integrated
in NATO’s largest software system —
the Air Command and Control System
(ACCS). Initial deployment of five NATO
ACCS sites is currently underway in
Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the
Netherlands, and will be followed by
continued on page 50
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 49
Feature
C4I Systems
continued from page 49
sites in additional NATO countries for a total
of 17 operational European locations. ACCS
provides comprehensive air battle planning
and execution resources at the operational
level. It includes situation awareness, force
development, plan development, targeting,
current operations monitoring, planning
and management of air operations, airspace deconfliction, air-to-air refueling,
weapons tasking, command and control
(C2) and order of battle resources. Similar
capabilities have been tailored for land
and joint domains by optimized Command
View variants. ACCS is standards-based,
being fully compliant with the NATO C3
Technical Architecture (NC3TA) and the
NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). ACCS
includes planning work areas, which provide
optimal operator workflow by harmonizing common data and tasks into a single
display that interacts with the GIS. A current
enhancement is extending ACCS to support
ballistic missile defense as part of NATO’s
Active Layer Theater Ballistic Missile Defense
Program.
Command View Mobile provides
C4I displays and secure voice and
data communications over existing
cellular networks. Command View
Mobile provides a simple, lowcost executive information system
(EIS) at any echelon as well as to a
mobile C4I capability for selected
operations at the tactical network
edge (Figure 4).
Sentry provides a consolidated air
picture with combat identification
for positive control and increased
situational awareness (Figure 5).
Sentry integrates multiple radar/sensors
(such as long-range surveillance radars,
short-range battlefield radars and gap-filler
radars) correlated with civil and military
flight plans and a rich set of tactical data
Figure 4. Command View Tactical and Mobile platforms support the command center
and its soldiers at the tactical network edge
over both tactical radio and cellular networks.
Command View Tactical is a C4I software application integrated into multiple
networks and vehicles. It combines movement and maneuverability, intelligence,
mission command, sustainment and protection capabilities into a single, intuitive,
soldier-operated, Windows-based computer
application. It is easily configured for Tactical
Operations Centers (TOCs) from platoon
through division levels, and it can adapt to
a large range of communications media. A
unique feature of Command View Tactical
is that it is designed to operate within the
limited bandwidth and network reliability of
today’s tactical communications networks
(e.g., Combat Net Radio networks).
Figure 5. Sentry enables real-time tactical air mission execution. Sentry is the core of the USAF
Battle Control System, defending North America from air attack. It is also used by many other
nations around the world.
50 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Feature
links to provide surveillance for acquiring,
tracking and identifying aircraft in low-,
medium- and high-clutter environments.
Sentry also provides threat evaluation and
weapons assignment, interceptor control,
surface-to-air missile control and an automated flight advisory function for operators
controlling aircraft. The U.S. Air Force now
uses Sentry as their primary situational
analysis tool at the air operations command
level. It is deployed to 24 nations around
the world.
Raytheon’s technology enabling solutions continue to meet the increased
demand for robust C4I systems, in order
to remain one step ahead of an evolving
worldwide threat. High-value assets, such
as aircraft, ships, tanks, ambulances and
emergency response vehicles are expensive to acquire, operate and replace; yet
they are put in harm’s way in everyday
operation. Raytheon’s C4I systems enable
organizations to employ their assets more
effectively and economically, achieving a
force-multiplying effect. Modern C4I systems leverage advanced communications
technologies to harness “the power of the
network.” These solutions are integrated
for enhanced collaboration and situational
awareness across all levels,
and Raytheon continues to develop and
improve these capabilities for our
customers. •
John Olsen
Contributors: Bruce Mc Intire, John Rienzo
and Kurt Winckler
Maritime Surveillance for
Montenegro
R
aytheon Solipsys has established itself as one of the industry leaders in tactical
command and control in recent years, deploying systems across multiple U.S.
services and international placements. In August of 2012, Raytheon Solipsys
announced it had been awarded a contract through the U.S. Navy’s Space and Naval
Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) Code PMW-740 to provide a state-of-the-art
maritime surveillance system to the country of Montenegro. The turnkey Maritime
Information Management System (MIMS) is a sophisticated command-and-control capability providing enhanced situational awareness in support of maritime sovereignty and
security challenges. Built upon Raytheon Solipsys’ expertise in tracking and visualization,
MIMS integrates radars and other surveillance sensors, providing sophisticated decision
aids to track objects and assess their behavior (see Figure).
Shared Vessel
and Threat Lists
Vessel Detail
Window
Doctrine and
Detection Zone
Integrated Chat
Correlated
Tracks from
AIS and
Radar
Alert Window
Waypoints
and Routes
Shared Telestration
or Whiteboarding
Activity-Based
Operator Checklists
Filters and
Toggles
Electronic Nautical Chart
The Raytheon Solipsys operational maritime information system (MIMS) display provides
enhanced situational awareness through a correlated radar and automated identification
system (AIS) display with an electronic nautical chart (ENC) and satellite imagery underlay.
The system employs layered, multisensor integration and correlation to support the detection and identification of potential sea-based threats utilizing inputs from maritime
surveillance radars, Automated Identification System (AIS) receivers, GPS-based self-reporting devices, and other external data sources. All information is presented and
managed in real time on maritime display applications and web portals to various operators and government agencies. Intelligent decision aids automatically generate alerts and
responses for anomalous conditions, including intruder detection, unexpected vessel behavior, and other safety or security hazards. Operators can tailor or create new decision
aids to identify objects and recognize situations of concern as required. •
Mark Trenor
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 51
Feature
Raytheon’s Multimedia Monitoring System
enables the automated collection, translation and
analysis of open source multilingual data.
L
anguage is at the heart of human
communications and language can
save lives. Words have infuriated
populations, created misunderstandings,
fueled hatred, and built barriers across cultures and civilizations. At the same time,
words have also opened doors, reconciled
groups, gained peace and created laws for
justice, order, democracy and freedom.
Accuracy and, more importantly, the meaning of a word in context, matter. The U.S.
Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes
Monitoring Components
Internet
Web
Crawler
Web
Harvester
Content
Analyzer
Channel
Scheduler
Broadcast
Recorder
AMC
that purely manual approaches to understanding the discussions happening around
the globe would render us deaf to important messages and themes, and leave us
without a voice in the ongoing discussion.
Workgroup Components
LAN/
WAN
Subscription
Server
Collaborative
Environment
Web Channels
Publication
Tool
Media
Server
Broadcast Channels
Workgroup
Content
Triage
Tool
Editing
Tool
Application Server
Media
Ingest
Archive
Manager
AMC
Media
Server
File Channels
Machine-machine interface
Human-machine interaction
Figure 1. The easily scalable M3S distributed architecture locates components and services near media sources and users.
52 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Analyst
Editor
Linguist
Feature
Advances in automated human language
processing technologies such as speech
recognition and machine translation have
opened up new capabilities in processing
traditional media forms such as broadcast
television and Web content. The GALE
program (Global Autonomous Language
Exploitation), funded by the DoD’s Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA), focused on improving the state
of the art of automatic machine translation.
Numerous human language technology
development programs at the Combating
Terrorism Technology Support Office/
Technical Support Working Group (CTTSO/
TSWG) have transitioned these advances to
operational use. In 2003, the first operational, fully automated media monitoring
systems were deployed.
Multimedia Monitoring System
Raytheon BBN Technologies’ (BBN) commercial off-the-shelf Multimedia Monitoring
System (M3S) delivers an end-to-end capability for monitoring, translating, storing
and searching a wide variety of open source
media across a range of languages. M3S
provides users with real-time understanding
of news, events, and perceptions around
the world. The system can be configured to
process any combination of inputs
(i.e., analog broadcast, Web text, file-based
media) and support any number of channels
and users, giving English speakers direct
access to foreign language multimedia from
a single browser-based user interface.
Distributed Architecture
M3S is designed as a distributed Web-based
system that allows its components and services to be optimally located in proximity
to its media sources and human users. The
distributed design, shown in Figure 1, also
supports easy expansion, robust failure recovery and inter-agency data sharing.
M3S is delivered as a turnkey system, with
all hardware and software, and is composed
of the networked components described
below, which are also available as separate
turnkey offerings. Additionally, the core
analytics can be unbundled and integrated
into other third-party systems either at the
operational level or at the data level.
BBN Broadcast Monitoring
System™ (BMS)
BMS processes television and radio sources
to create a continuous, searchable, one-year
archive of audio/video and its associated
machine transcription and translation metadata for every channel. An audio stream
from ingested video is automatically processed through the BBN Audio Monitoring
Component (AMC), which is the core software solution. AMC includes an integrated
pipeline of advanced natural language
processing (NLP) technologies such as
speech recognition, speaker tracking, sentence boundary detection, named-entity
recognition, and machine translation. BMS
also includes BBN’s state-of-the-art optical
character recognition (OCR) component for
the automatic detection and transcription of
on-screen text in video images.
Figure 2 shows the home screen of the BMS
— the Channel Overview. This screen contains a search box, a list of persistent queries
(the watchlist), and a thumbnail overview
of the available channels. The overall application operates in real time, producing
content that is available for search no more
than three minutes after it is aired. BMS is
available in 15 languages, including Arabic,
Mandarin Chinese, Farsi, Russian, French,
Hindi, Urdu, Cantonese and Pashto. With
this revolutionary system, English speakers
continued on page 54
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 53
Feature
Multimedia Monitoring
continued from page 53
M3S capabilities, their applications are very
diverse. Furthermore, the simplicity of the
user interface has allowed fielded systems
to be used in ways not envisioned when
the system was developed. Intelligence and
learning applications are described below.
Intelligence
Figure 2. BMS channel overview showing thumbnail views of available foreign language
broadcast channels.
with little or no foreign language skills can
get the essence of a foreign TV/radio broadcast and sift through enormous volumes
of media in other languages quickly and
efficiently.
Operational Use
BBN’s Multimedia Monitoring Systems
are widely deployed across a diverse set
of user groups and are used to produce a
rich set of information products. Although
all customers have essentially the same
The J2 Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)
group at the United States Central
Command (USCENTCOM) in Tampa, Fla.
has been using both broadcast monitoring and Web monitoring capabilities since
2004. Initially staffed solely with monolingual English-speaking analysts, this group
was tasked with reporting how foreign
media portrayed U.S. actions in the Middle
East. Since BBN multimedia monitoring
systems were deployed, the group has
increased their reporting from three short
products per week to more than a thousand
requests for information (RFIs) per year,
drawing information from open sources,
using linguists to enrich the translation and
to provide cultural background and insight.
Based on these successes, BBN’s media
monitoring solutions have spread to OSINT
groups at other combatant commands
(COCOMs) and the broader DoD.
BBN Web Monitoring System™ (WMS)
The WMS processes website sources, capturing content from user-selected websites
on a schedule specified by the user organization (Figure 3). The captured sites are
translated, archived and versioned for later
use, so there is always a local copy available,
even when the page has disappeared from
the active Web. Internal links are preserved
in the harvested Web pages so users can
navigate within the archived sites. English
speakers can obtain a basic understanding
of an ingested Web page by reading the
English translation automatically produced
by the Language Weaver MT software
(available in over 30 languages), then reach
through the network for human translation
support when a higher-quality translation
is desired.
54 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Figure 3. Web Monitoring System transcript view showing the English translation
alongside the original Arabic text.
Feature
Language Learning
Future Capabilities
The DoD devotes considerable resources to
teaching people to speak other languages,
and soldiers who have successfully mastered a second language are incentivized
to sustain their fluency. The creation of
current, authentic learning content for the
classroom is a laborious task, and instructors
may spend hours or days preparing a short
video clip for a single lesson. As part of an
effort funded by the Combating Terrorism
Technical Support Office (CTTSO), BBN
enhanced their broadcast and Web monitoring systems to act as a platform for rapid
content creation for language instructors.
Teachers can locate a clip about a particular topic or theme, use a built-in editor to
transform the media into lessons such as
fill-in-the-blank, matching or a flashcard set,
and distribute the lessons to students on the
desktop or a handheld device. These capabilities have been deployed at the Defense
Language Institute and other DoD and intelligence community learning centers.
The media monitoring suite of technologies
is now a platform for deploying new human
language analytics and technologies to operational users, as well as for applying them
to new and varied media types.
Automatic Topic Detection and Tracking
allows processed media assets to be
automatically labeled with human-readable
tags, and then grouped with other, similar
media assets. This allows analysts to rapidly
find content using a “more like this” style
of search.
Entity Profiles automatically build biographies of a person or organization from
open source information. Biographies might
include statements made by or about the
specified person, links to other entities and
past/present affiliations. The profiles will
enable users to quickly discover new specific
facts, rather than dredging through unrelated content.
LocalISR™ allows thematic geotagging of
news articles, deconflicting common place
names (i.e., Georgia, United States, and
Georgia, the former Soviet Republic) and
assigning the most relevant location to a
news story.
Automated Sentiment Analysis
determines whether a block of text
expresses opinions for or against a
particular entity or topic, and identifies
who is expressing that opinion.
The capabilities and advances described
here will enable more effective use of open
source data for collecting information from
emerging Internet and public news media
sources worldwide. A few years ago, English
was by far the dominant lingua franca of
the online world. Today, the majority of
new online content is in languages other
than English. As a result, machine translation technology is poised to play a key role
in the years to come. •
Premkumar Natarajan and Amit Srivastava
ENGINEERING PROFILE
acquisition of new international clients; and
the launch of computer vision, human socialcultural behavior modeling and document
image processing business lines.
Premkumar (Prem) Natarajan
Executive Vice President and Principal
Scientist, Raytheon BBN Technologies
Dr. Premkumar Natarajan leads business and
technical operations for BBN’s Speech,
Language and Multimedia Technologies.
His key contributions include establishing a
diverse products/solutions business line; the
Natarajan’s technical activities and accomplishments span a range of multimedia processing
and pattern recognition areas, including speech
recognition, language understanding, speechto-speech translation, video analysis and
content extraction, machine learning and
optical character recognition. He served as
principal investigator or program manager on
numerous research and deployment projects
sponsored by the DoD and the intelligence
community, including the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA)-sponsored
programs such as Spoken Language
Communication and Translation System for
Tactical Use (TRANSTAC) and Multilingual
Automatic Document Classification, Analysis
and Translation (MADCAT), as well as
Intelligence Advanced Research Projects
Activity (IARPA)-sponsored programs,
including Video Analysis and Content
Extraction (VACE) and Automated Low-Level
Analysis and Description of Diverse Intelligence
Video (ALADDIN). He also serves as a senior
advisor to several ongoing BBN projects,
including the DARPA Broad Operational
Language Translation program, the IARPA
Open Source Indicators program and the Army
Machine Foreign Language Translation program.
On what led him on his career path, Natarajan
comments, “Growing up in a multilingual
and multicultural environment, I was often
intrigued by the similarities and differences
between languages. Quickly, I discovered that
language and culture share a symbiotic relationship. That early curiosity grew into an
abiding interest in my current field of work.”
Natarajan holds a BSEE degree from Pune
University in India and master’s and doctorate
degrees in electrical engineering from Tufts
University.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 55
LEADERS CORNER
Tom Culligan
Senior Vice President of Business Development and
CEO of Raytheon International
For nearly 40 years, Tom Culligan has held some of the most significant
positions in the aerospace and defense industry, as well as on Capitol
Hill. At one point early in his career, he was one of the youngest senior
executives at McDonnell Douglas Corporation, serving as corporate vice
president of Program Development and Marketing.
Culligan moved forward from there to AlliedSignal as vice president of
Government Operations and to Honeywell as vice president and general
manager of its Defense & Space business.
Today, as Raytheon’s senior vice president of Business Development and
CEO of Raytheon International, Culligan melds years of business wisdom into a unique perspective of what it takes to remain successful in
the global aerospace and defense market. At Raytheon, he is responsible
for worldwide sales and marketing, our international business, government relations and for developing and leading the execution of the
company’s business strategy. He is the senior executive at Raytheon’s
corporate office in Washington, D.C.
Culligan’s career has been characterized by a willingness to step up to
diverse challenges. Prior to his corporate career, he was the legislative
director for a member of the U.S. Congress and served as chief of staff
for Florida’s secretary of state.
N
ow in his 12th year with
Raytheon, Culligan took
some time to share his
views with Technology Today on
Raytheon’s business activities in
more than 80 nations around the
world, as well as the current business cycle and the unique market
challenges that lie ahead.
TT: What do you see as the future for
We have participated vigorously in the
Raytheon's international business?
international market for decades and
TC: Raytheon has steadily increased
our commitment is enduring, providing
Here is what he had to say.
market in particular has provided a
international business to 25 percent of
sales. As the U.S. defense and security
market has increasingly grown more
competitive, as the result of increased
financial pressures stemming from the
federal budget deficit, the international
strong line of profitable growth. In fact,
today Raytheon enjoys the largest percentage of international business among
all U.S. defense contractors.
56 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
an edge that many of our competitors
do not enjoy and could not easily replicate. For example, we’ve done business
in the Middle East for nearly 50 years.
Our customers in the region respect
the fact that we have stayed the course
through many challenging cycles, and
our sustained record of commitment
and performance yields an incredible
competitive advantage.
TT: How does technology play into Ray-
TT: What are some of the key differences,
TT: How does Raytheon’s commitment to
theon’s long-term international business
culturally or in terms of how to do busi-
being a good corporate citizen, including
strategy?
ness, in the various international markets
providing support to education, help us
TC: Raytheon has the broadest range of
and regions where Raytheon operates?
achieve international business growth?
technology in the industry and we use our
TC: It would probably be easier to answer
TC: The best way to brand Raytheon
extensive portfolio to our advantage in
the question “what are the similarities”
as a business that cares is to be a good
the international market. Unlike many of
because they are fewer, apart from the
corporate citizen. It molds our image as
our competitors, we can forward-fit our
fact that all of our customers want the
a partner with whom governments and
technology onto new platforms, like ships
finest defense and security technology in
people want to associate … over the
and aircraft, just as easily as we back-fit
the world and a trusted partner to work
long haul.
technology onto legacy platforms that are
with. Beyond that, each region or nation
being upgraded. Since many of the world’s
demands a unique understanding of the
For example, the Middle East has the
militaries are in the process of moderniza-
culture, business environment and govern-
youngest population in the world and
tion, this is a distinct advantage.
ing laws.
our customers want Raytheon to support
education and the development of the
Raytheon’s technology is in the sweet
In the Middle East, for example, relation-
regions’ technology industrial base. They
spots of the international market, in sen-
ships must be cultivated and developed
want us to help create opportunities and a
sors and radars, C4I [command, control,
over long periods of time, building trust
skilled workforce. That’s why we’re invest-
communications, computers and intel-
and respect along with proven perfor-
ing in a series of programs to support
ligence], missile systems, surveillance and
mance. Our customers expect to receive
education and technology development
reconnaissance. Whether in peacetime
the best products and services from a
in the region. Our customers are seeing
or war, most nations would like to have
committed partner who understands and
the efforts, and I can assure you that their
a high degree of certainty about what
appreciates their full range of concerns,
appreciation is very genuine, while their
their neighbors are doing, using ISR [intel-
business or otherwise. They want a partner
perception of Raytheon is growing from
ligence, surveillance and reconnaissance]
who knows what is on their minds and
great to even better.
and C4I with the requisite sensor and
takes a holistic approach to the relation-
radar technologies to remain vigilant. They
ship, keeping every aspect of their goals
TT: Given your background in both the
also want a range of precision effects to
and challenges in focus.
commercial and government aerospace
deter aggression in the face of danger.
and defense market sectors, what attracts
you most to Raytheon?
The fact is that the world remains a very
dangerous place. And our customers
respect the fact that Raytheon’s technology can contribute to peace and stability
today and for years to come.
TC: That’s an easy question: the people
and technology of Raytheon make this a
special company. We apply our technology
to save the lives of people who put themselves in harm’s way to protect us. Few
things could be better than that. •
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 57
LEADERS CORNER
John Harris
President, Raytheon Technical Services Company (RTSC)
John D. Harris II is the president of Raytheon Technical Services Company
and is a Raytheon Company vice president. RTSC specializes in training,
logistics and engineering solutions for the mission support, homeland
security, space, civil aviation and counterterrorism markets.
In 2010, Harris received the Black Engineer of the Year Award. He serves on
the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics NextGen Advisory
Committee, the Board of the USO of Metropolitan Washington, D.C., the
National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise with the U.S.
Department of Commerce, and he is a member of the Council of Trustees for
the Association of the United States Army.
T
echnology Today recently spoke
with Harris about Raytheon
Technical Services Company’s business, priorities and long-term strategies.
TT: What are your top priorities for RTSC?
JH: Our three keys to success are focus,
leverage and innovate. To excel in a
dynamic and volatile market, RTSC must
focus on our customers, leverage our
capabilities with existing and emerging markets and innovate for profitable
growth. Ultimately, executing on a path
to growth is a top priority — delighting
our existing customers with innovative
solutions and flawless performance, and
winning new customers.
As a business, we must constantly challenge ourselves to learn the business, be
adaptable, and empower others for decision making. It is imperative to continue
educating on who we are and what we
do and facilitate sharing across RTSC, and
the enterprise, to expand our portfolio and
drive growth.
58 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
The top-line challenge around reducing budgets is an opportunity for RTSC
because we have proven to our customers
time and time again that we can bring new
ideas to the table that cost less — we are
willing and flexible enough to try something new.
We offer solutions tailored to the specific requirements of our customers and
integrated tools and processes that equal
cost-saving solutions, while continuing to
invest to address customers’ current and
future needs. Listening to our customers
has helped us go beyond what we normally
do to innovate and create new and different products and services. I am nothing
less than amazed at the work that we do
at RTSC.
TT: Could you expand upon the three key
areas of RTSC’s business: training, logistics
and engineering solutions?
JH: RTSC provides defense, government
and commercial customers with mission
support across all domains, including
integrated training solutions; logistics and
product support; engineering solutions;
homeland security, counter-proliferation
and counter-terrorism solutions; and
range operations. Our three primary core
competencies are training, logistics and
engineering solutions.
RTSC is the world’s largest provider of fullservice learning solutions in our chosen
domains — we train more than two million
people every year. RTSC trains every U.S.
air traffic controller and Army soldier and
we train every technician and salesperson
for one of the world’s largest automotive
manufacturers.
As one of the world’s largest providers of
mission-critical operations solutions in the
defense and civil government markets, we
have served customers on all seven continents plus the Arctic region. Our proven
systems engineering approach enables
us to handle the largest operational challenges cost-effectively and safely.
RTSC provides value-based and cost-effective upgrades to military systems in the
air, land and sea domains — total lifecycle
support across all domains. We have a
proven track record of transforming
operations and maintenance services to
dramatically improve efficiency and
reduce costs.
Our push is international, with four major
geographic focus areas including: North
America, the Middle East, Australia and
Europe. As the business looks ahead, we are
positioning for great efficiency and competitiveness. We are preparing our people for
tomorrow’s challenges. We are expanding
in core and adjacent markets. And we are
extending our global penetration and building capabilities to sustain growth.
In all these ways and more, we are leading
the market, both domestically and internationally. I am very proud of our commitment
and performance.
TT: How does technology play into your
long-term strategy?
JH: Technology plays a key role in our longterm strategy. For example, RTSC is working
with the commercial industry to bring the
latest 3D synthetic scene generation technologies to the warfighter to create a more
realistic training experience at home and
better situational awareness in the field.
For the field, our newest innovations and
products include smart displays for ground
vehicles designed with gaming industry 3D
graphic technology to allow for real-time
processing of high definition video and 3D
synthetic scenes to provide the finest tactical situational awareness displays available.
Other innovations include the use of
helmet-mounted displays to present 3D synthetic scenes to pilots and adding 3D audio
generation for a true multisensory approach
to increasing situational awareness. These
systems are designed to be easily installed
on platforms such as the F-16, which are
part of air forces around the world. For
helicopter platforms, we have developed
an Aviation Warrior product consisting of
a wearable computer linked to a display
device worn on the wrist, which allows for
situation awareness for the helicopter pilot
even after they disembark from the cockpit
— which is revolutionary.
A further example of an innovative software
engineering solution we’ve developed is
the Precision Real Time Location System
[PRTLS] for use at one of the U.S. Army’s
Combat Training Centers, the Joint MultiNational Readiness Center [JMRC]. PRLTS
provides a cost-effective option using commercial off-the-shelf [COTS] products and
existing Range Data Management Systems
[RDMS] infrastructure for instrumenting
large numbers of players to track positions
within the entire training area covered by
the site’s Instrumentation System. The JMRC
extended training area includes Hohenfels
and Grafenwohr, Germany.
Finally, in order to affect training transformation we have the Architect and Catapult
products. Architect is a powerful analysis
tool that applies a systems approach to
reengineer large-scale, highly-complex
training programs and curriculums. We
are currently using this with the FAA and
General Motors, as well as the Universal
Technical Institute. Catapult is a Learning
Content Management System that allows
our development teams to produce Webbased training and mobile learning courses
in reduced time, at lower cost and in
multiple languages.
TT: What are you doing to make RTSC
more competitive in today’s marketplace?
JH: As I mentioned earlier, in order to excel
in a dynamic marketplace we must focus,
leverage and innovate.
We must focus on our customer by aligning our business development team around
domains to be certain that we are offering our customers our best thinking across
capabilities, while being certain that we
raise our value proposition, moving from
a transactional approach to an enterprise
approach, to provide the best possible
solutions. Additionally, we must focus on
the regions in which we presently do business to see what other solutions we can
provide in the more than 80 countries in
which we operate.
We must leverage what we do in our offerings of training, logistics and engineering
solutions. How do we leverage the training
we do with the military to grow the civilian
training business in the healthcare arena,
and how do we leverage the training we do
with General Motors to improve our military
training? How do we leverage the logistics
work we do for our military customers to
attract new business from customers around
the world? And finally, how do we leverage
our engineering solutions offerings, such as
aircraft upgrades, to include more platforms
for our military customers and maybe find
civilian uses for these solutions?
Finally, we must innovate our practices,
our tools and our business structure to
remain lean and forward thinking. We must
challenge ourselves to constantly generate
and be open to new ideas, use collaboration
and remain positive to find those new solutions to our customers’ issues and explore
areas for new business development. •
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 59
on
Technology
Monitoring and Managing
Cybersecurity Events in Complex Systems:
A Multidimensional Approach
• Protect the systems and the data they
carry against cyberattacks, including recognition of the onset of a cyberattack in
a timely manner and with cost-effective,
threat-appropriate (cyber) protection and
mission or policy-appropriate responses.
Current attempts to overcome CS threats
include intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDS/IPS), firewalls and packet
scanning software.1,2 Individually, these
approaches are challenged to prevent or
provide sufficient countermeasures to
overcome and resolve the wide spectrum
of CS threats that affect the multiple and
diverse components that compose a
complex enterprise system.
To meet this need, Raytheon has proposed
a new multidimensional CS approach
to monitor, manage and respond to CS
events. This approach extends Raytheon’s
End-to-End Enterprise Monitoring
(E2E-EM) Reference Architecture,3 developed under the guidance of the Defense
Information Systems Agency (DISA), to
include a new response dimension that
activates countermeasures to prevent or
limit the effects of cyberattacks. This new
60 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Business as a Service
Applications as a Service
Infrastructure as a Service
Domains
Cybersecurity (Information Assurance Perspective)
• Fulfill service-level agreements.
Governance as a Service
Management (Operations Perspective)
• Maintain system operational availability
and integrity.
multidimensional framework (Figure
1), called Enterprise Monitoring and
Management Response Architecture
for Cybersecurity (EMMRA CS),4
includes: the X dimension (measurement time intervals), which defines
time-based events; the Y dimension
(domains), which addresses events
that are detected and responded
to using similar techniques and
instrumentation; and the Z dimension (enterprise perspective planes),
which introduces structures within
which particular end-to-end events
are monitored and managed, possibly spanning multiple time intervals
and domains. The Cybersecurity
Plane, highlighted in red (Figure 1),
enables end-to-end, enterprisewide detection and response for
CS events, by applying CS metrics,
correlation and countermeasure
response.
Usage (End User Perspective)
he increasing frequency, rising costs, and
growing sophistication of cybersecurity (CS)
attacks on Department of Defense (DoD),
agency and commercial enterprise systems
are dramatically reducing the quality of
end-user services and compromising mission
effectiveness. Organizations that manage
these complex enterprise data systems must
simultaneously pursue three goals to minimize the adverse effects of a cyber attack.
In order of precedence:
Control (Systems Signaling Perspective)
T
Measurement Time Intervals
ys)
ds)
ds)
(da
con secon ours)
e
g
s
n
e(
cro
t (h lanni
(mi al Tim Effor
P
e
&
e
t
m
l Ti
Bes rends
ar R
T
Ne
Rea
Enterprise
Perspective
Planes
Figure 1. EMMRA CS is a multidimensional reference
architecture comprising three dimensions: domains to
account for traditional monitoring layers such as infrastructure, network and applications; enterprise perspective monitoring planes to account for enterprise
monitoring and management across these traditional
domains; and measurement time intervals to account
for response time to mitigate CS events.
EMMRA CS is realized using CS
agents that are deployed throughout the enterprise hardware and
software components (including IDS, IPS
and firewalls), where they continuously
monitor the enterprise system for CS metrics. Distributed agents have previously
been used to combat cyberattacks, such
as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS).5,6
However, EMMRA CS adds a new collaboration capability called collection and
analysis nodes (CANs), which correlate the
CS metrics information collected by CS
agents to provide an end-to-end picture
across multiple, diverse administrative domains for security responders. The CANs
are distributed throughout the enterprise in
various operations (Ops) centers, according
to the domains of the EMMRA CS architecture, such that the missions they support
determine the CS agents they use and the
metrics they analyze. For example, Figure
2 shows a CAN located at the Local Ops
Center that could collect/analyze infrastructure domain CS metrics from distributed
EMMRA CS agents. Both the collected metrics and the analysis of these metrics would
then be stored in the Local Ops Center
database that could be exposed over the
enterprise system to authorized subscribers,
such as security responders and other Ops
centers. An authorized Regional Ops Center
could then subscribe to the published data
from the Local Ops Center’s CAN database
and collect/analyze additional applications domain CS metrics from distributed
EMMRA CS agents. Likewise, an authorized
Enterprise Ops Center could subscribe to
published data from Local and Regional Ops
Centers’ CAN databases and collect/analyze
Information Systems and Computing
Cybersecurity Event
Detection with
EMMRA CS Agents
continued on page 62
Regional Ops Center
(Application Collection
and Analysis Node)
Usage
Figure 3 shows a representative enterprise
system that includes strategic network components and interconnection points where
EMMRA CS agents can effectively observe
the relevant, trusted and high value CS
metrics of Table 1, and then report them
to CANs distributed within local, regional,
enterprise and global Ops centers. In this
example, there are three administrative
domains represented by the three circles:
Help Desk, Operations and Engineering.
End users also publish and subscribe within
the enterprise system. The network edge
(small circle) comprises client workstations
and a Customer Edge (CE) router attached
to a High Assurance Internet Protocol
Security
Responder
Management
In addition to segregating metrics according to EMMRA CS domain, the network
also categorizes the metrics within those
domains so that the individuals responsible
for resolving the CS threat may be identified
(Table 1).7
Local Ops Center
(Infrastructure Collection
and Analysis Node)
Control
The CS agents and CANs communicate over
an out-of-band (OOB) network, such as the
wireless mesh network shown in Figure 2;
therefore they do not impact transport
latency or bandwidth over the production
network. The integrity of the OOB data is
maintained using continual asset discovery
to ensure comprehensive agent deployment
throughout the enterprise system.
1
Cybersecurity
additional business/collaboration domain CS
metrics from distributed EMMRA CS agents;
and an authorized Global Ops Center could
subscribe to published data from Enterprise,
Regional and Local Ops Centers’ CAN
databases and collect/analyze additional
governance domain CS metrics from distributed EMMRA CS agents. By distributing
collection and analysis responsibility, data
processing speed and storage requirements
are minimized at each CAN, and operator
and analyst work load efficiencies may be
realized across the mission.
Enterprise Ops Center
(Business Collection
and Analysis Node)
Global Ops Center
(Governance Collection
and Analysis Node)
Wireless Mesh Links
Figure 2. Operations Center Hierarchy Security Response. EMMRA CS enables each Ops
center to focus CS event monitoring, management and response on security events related to
its respective mission.
CS Category Example Metrics
Responsibility
Authentication
Password change attempts, key exchange frequency
System Administrator, CS
Tools / Services Provider
Authorization
No. of successful or failed access
attempts, No. of concurrent logons
System Administrator, CS
Tools / Services Provider
Non-repudiation No. of times user denies origin or receipt System Tools / Services
of information after operation performed Integrator Integrity
No. of times data are modified,deleted or System Tools / Services
replicated during transit or in storage
Integrator Information
Availability
No. of information packets not
accessible due to security-related event
System Tools / Services
Integrator Certification,
Accreditation &
Configuration
Management No. of risks, deficiencies and
vulnerabilities detected that must be
corrected to ensure safeguarding
system
Certification Authority
(e.g., Defense Security
Service)
Physical
Security
No. of actions taken to ensure
Site Physical Security Force
protection of assets and personnel from
unauthorized access to facilities, equipment,
material, data, information or documents.
No. of concurrent authorizations to
a facility by same personnel.
Table 1. CS metrics categories, examples and responsibilities.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 61
on
EMMRA CS
Technology
EMMRA CS Authentication Agent
EMMRA CS Authorization Agent
EMMRA CS Certification
and Accreditation Agent
Engineering
EMMRA CS
Non-repudiation Agent
Operations
Help Desk
App
Server
Publisher
Message
Queue
Cluster
Base/Camp/Post
Station
Client
Workstations
Cache
Customer Haipe Provider
Edge
Edge
Router
Router
EMMRA CS Physical
Security Agent
Multiprotocol
Label Switched
Optical Cloud
Provider Haipe DECC
Edge
Edge
Router
Router
Exception Error Handler
Software Components
Application Server
Virtual Machine
Process/Thread
Nonvolatile Memory
Operation System
Hardware
Database
Web Svr. Service Security/
Node
SSO
DECC
LAN
DNS
Typical Server
Subscriber
Portal
Discovery
DHCP
EMMRA CS Integrity Agent
EMMRA CS Information Availability Agent
Figure 3. Enterprise Monitoring and Management Response Architecture for Cybersecurity (EMMRA CS) agents are embedded at locations within
a typical data enterprise system to best enable operators to observe the CS metrics for applications services.
continued from page 61
Encryptor (HAIPE) through which data are
passed to a Provider Edge (PE) router and
stored in cache. In the core network (center circle) a Multiprotocol Label Switched
(MPLS) optical cloud, Dense Wavelength
Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
transport information. The network terminates at a Defense Enterprise Computing
Center (DECC) with the connection from
a second PE router to a HAIPE device, and
then to a DECC Edge router (DE) and a
DECC LAN. The large circle contains computing services and components, including
those for Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP), Distributed Names System
(DNS), Discovery, Cluster, Apps Server,
Portal, Message Queue, Web Server, Service
Node, Security/Single-Sign-On (SSO) and
Database.
62 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
EMMRA CS Verification
A large-scale simulation that emulated the
EMMRA CS architecture of Figure 1 was
performed in collaboration with Queen
Mary University of London, on the U.K.
national supercomputing service, HECToR.8
Running this simulation over the network
topology shown in Figure 4 verified that the
EMMRA CS inter-domain and inter-plane
information sharing between CANs enables
detection of CS events originating in one
plane or domain anywhere within the enterprise system. For example, the simulation
was run for Voice over Internet Protocol
(VoIP) scenarios in which the enterprise system was subjected to Denial of Service (DoS)
security threats. For these scenarios, DoS
events detected in the Cybersecurity Plane
resulted in a loss of network connectivity.
Those detected in the Control Plane caused
the reconfiguration of physical network
links. Those detected in the Usage Plane
caused degradation of voice service, and
those detected in the Management Plane
initiated bandwidth re-provisioning. Each
of these security events was stored in the
CAN database for later analysis, such as
total cost impact due to the threat and
cost savings based on the EMMRA CS
response. Note that the CAN database is
not format sensitive, and therefore will not
limit the compatibility of appliances and
other security tools with the EMMRA CS
framework. EMMRA CS provides operators
with visibility across traditional boundaries
that enable them to proactively respond to
security events before they compromise the
Information Systems and Computing
Amsterdam
Berlin
Paris
Features/Benefits
Collection
and
Analysis
Node
New
York
Collection
and
Analysis
Node
Los Angeles
London
Edinburgh
Washington, D.C.
Dublin
Figure 4. EMMRA CS Enterprise Simulation Network Topology.
enterprise, including the attack scenario of
a rogue user from within or outside their
administrative domains.
EMMRA CS Realization
A unique contribution of EMMRA CS is its
ability to leverage new and existing tools
and methodologies for application to cybersecurity. For example, EMMRA CS adapted
a methodology that was previously used to
evaluate Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms to support VoIP services based on a
voice delay metric, called the R-factor,9 to
create a novel “whole-of-network” visualization capability from which CS agents can
detect and respond to a DoS attack. This
new software tool, called the Real-Time
Monitoring and Response Tool (RTMRT),
supports both manual and automated
observation, interpretation and response
capabilities for real-time applications.
The manual feature is used for addressing unique problem symptoms that have
not previously occurred and for which no
automated response has yet been determined. In this case, the tool would permit
the network operator to manually click on
a real-time contour, representing the metric
category of interest, and then “push down”
into the next level of monitoring for that
metric category.
At this next level, the structure of the
EMMRA CS framework and reference
architecture directs the network operator
to the most likely place in the enterprise
system where the CS event could have
occurred. At this monitoring level, specific
CS metrics names are applied to permit the
operator to quickly distinguish the exact
problem; thereby enabling faster problem
resolution and QoS restoration.
The tool automates the manual process
for problem symptoms with known resolution approaches, thereby permitting faster
response and resolution for time-critical
issues. Now that RTMRT software has been
tested in a simulated environment, the
next step is to deploy this software in an
operational environment. Instances of the
EMRMA CS hardware agents and CANs
have been designed for and deployed on
operational and experimental networks that
transport data over fiber optic connections
at rates of up to 40 gigabits per second.10
Through its unique approach to cybersecurity event monitoring, management and
response, EMMRA CS addresses the key
enterprise systems service provider goal of
protecting their systems and the data they
carry against cyberattacks. EMMRA CS enables operators and analysts to recognize
the onset of cyberattacks in a timely manner
by proactively identifying the threat(s) and
recommending response countermeasures
to thwart them. Based on the distributed
architecture approach, EMMRA CS is scalable and it enables cost avoidance by not
requiring all capabilities to be implemented
within every operations center. It provides a
cybersecurity solution that applies to DoD,
agency and commercial complex enterprise
systems. •
Paul C. Hershey
1
Defense Information Security Agency, “Network Infrastructure Technology Overview." Version 8, Release 5,
27 April 2012.
2 Defense Information Security Agency, “Enclave Security Technical Implementation Guide,” Ver. 4, Rel. 3,
Jan. 2011.
3 P. Hershey, D. Runyon, and Y, Wang, “End-To-End
Enterprise Monitoring Framework for NetOps,” Proc.
of MILCOM 2006, Washington, D.C., Oct. 25, 2006,
pp. 1–7.
4 P. Hershey and C. Silio, “Procedure for detection of
and response to distributed denial of service cyber
attacks on complex enterprise systems,” in 6th Annu.
IEEE Intl. Systems Conf. (IEEE SysCon 2012), Mar.
2012, pp. 85–90, doi:10.1109/SysCon.2012.6189438.
5 A. Kumar and S, Selvakumar, “Distributed Denial of
Service (DDoS) Threat in Collaborative Environment
– A Survey on DDoS Attack Tools and Traceback
Mechanisms,” Proc. of 1st Intl. Advance Computing
Conf., Chennai, India, Mar. 2009, pp. 1275–1280.
6 U. Akyazi and A. Uyar, “Distributed Intrusion Detection Using Mobile Agents Against DDoS Attacks,”
23rd Intl. Symp. on Computer and Information Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey, Oct. 2008.
7 P. Hershey, D. Runyon, Y. Wang, “Metrics for EndTo-End Enterprise Monitoring of Enterprise Systems,”
Proc. MILCOM 2007, Orlando, FL, Oct. 19, 2007, pp.
1–7.
8 P. Hershey, J. Pitts, and R. Ogilvie, “Monitoring RealTime Applications Events in Net-Centric Enterprise
Systems to Ensure High Quality of Experience,” Proc.
IEEE MILCOM, Boston, MA, Oct. 2009.
9 J.M. Pitts, J.A. Schormans, “Configuring IP QoS
Mechanisms for Graceful Degradation of Real-time
Services,” Proc. IEEE MILCOM, Washington, D.C., Oct.
2006.
10P. Hershey and C. Silio, “Surmounting Data Overflow
Problems in the Collection of Information for Emerging High-Speed Network Systems,” IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, ISJEB2, June 2010, ISSN 1932-8184,
pp 147–155.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 63
on
Technology
Mission Challenges Spur
Next Generation Missile Radome Materials Innovations
espite their seemingly simple shapes,
radomes are complex components that
have competing design requirements. The
radome forms a part of the aerodynamic
structure of the missile, and must be able
to support the aerodynamic and structural
loads placed upon it. A radome must protect the sensitive guidance and electronic
components from the captive carry or flight
environment (e.g., sand, rain, hail), while
resisting high flight temperatures. A radome
must also provide an environment that the
seeker can operate in, which may include
low levels of moisture or a prescribed
operating pressure. And, of course, it must
be transparent to the radio frequency (RF)
wavelengths of interest to meet the performance objectives of the missile. Finally, a
radome is no different than any other
missile component in that it must be affordable and lightweight — particularly
important for a radome since it is located so
far from the missile’s center of gravity.
A successful radome design must optimize
the balance of competing requirements. For
example, although higher frequencies or
multiband performance would favor thinner radome walls, thicker walls are desired
to enable the missile to endure the higher
speeds and the larger aerodynamic forces
planned for next-generation missiles.
The ideal material for a radome has the
following properties:
• It has a low dielectric constant and loss
tangent, both of which are constant over
the temperature range of interest.
• It is strong enough to sustain structural,
aerodynamic and aerothermal loads, as
well as resist impacts from adverse environmental agents over all speeds and
flight durations.
• It is lightweight and affordable.
• It is impermeable to water and able to
support a pressure differential between
the radome’s interior and exterior.
64 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
• It has consistent material properties
from radome to radome and is easily
manufactured.
The two materials that currently meet many,
but not all, of the ideal characteristics described above are Pyroceram® and slip cast
fused silica (SCFS).
Pyroceram (a glass-ceramic material with
cordierite as its main crystalline phase) and
SCFS (a porous material comprising small
grains of silica glass sintered together) are
currently used at Raytheon for high-temperature missile radomes. Pyroceram is strong
and impact resistant, has good thermal
shock resistance, is water impermeable, and
has a reasonably low dielectric constant and
a low loss tangent. SCFS has a low dielectric
constant and a low loss tangent over a very
wide temperature range, as well as excellent
thermal shock resistance and low thermal
conductivity.
1600
Stagnation (Maximum Flight) Temperature (ºC)
D
1400
1200
Slip Cast Fused Silica
Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride
New mission profiles for the next generation
hypersonic interceptor missile push the radome requirements into trade spaces where
Pyroceram and SCFS will not meet the system performance. The main disadvantages
of Pyroceram are that the dielectric constant
and loss tangent increase with temperature,
and the changes become great enough at
temperatures above approximately 800°C
that compensation to account for boresight
error is no longer accurate. The thermal
shock resistance of Pyroceram is also limited and would not support the expected
thermal profiles for planned new rocket motors. Thermal shock stress may be mitigated
somewhat by controlling the flight speeds
or flight profile, especially during the initial
launch portion of the flight, but this is not a
desirable alternative.
The main disadvantages of SCFS are the
porous nature of the material and its
mechanical properties. The mechanical
0
6 12
18
24
Altitude (Km)
30
Aluminophosphate CMC
Alumina CMC
Mach 5 at sea level
In Situ Reinforced Barium Aluminosilicate
1000
800
Pyroceram®
600
Polysiloxane/Quartz
400
Organic Polymer Matrix Composite
200
0
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
Mach Number
7.00
8.00
Figure 1. Stagnation (maximum flight) temperature as a function of speed and altitude.
Approximate upper-use temperatures of various materials for missile radomes are shown. As
a missile flies at higher speeds (and lower altitudes), the radome’s high-temperature tolerance
must increase. Few materials can sustain speeds above Mach 5 at sea level.
Mechanical, Materials & Structures
properties of SCFS limit the aerodynamic
forces that can be imparted to the radome,
as well as the radome’s performance when
exposed to environmental agents, particularly
rain. SCFS is not fully dense and can transmit
water vapor readily from the atmosphere
into the interior of the radome. Attempts to
create a “hermetic” SCFS radome have not
been entirely successful.
The drawbacks of Pyroceram and SCFS have
led to research and development activities at
Raytheon, and at several radome suppliers,
with the goal of producing a material that
meets all of the requirements imposed by
a next generation high speed, all weather
missile. Figure 1 shows the expected thermal environment that the radome must
withstand based on the speed and altitude
of a missile. As the speed increases, and
the altitude decreases at a given speed, the
expected temperature that the radome will
be exposed to increases. The high temperatures that next generation missiles must
endure limit the choice of available materials
to ceramics or ceramic matrix composites.
There are several materials being developed
that may offer the potential for an improved
radome. None of these yet meet all the
desired requirements of an ideal radome.
Three of them are based on composite
technologies, and one is a monolithic ceramic material.
Polysiloxane is a polymer resin containing
silicon that converts to silicon dioxide when
exposed to high temperatures in an oxygencontaining environment. It can be used with
quartz fibers to create a composite, and it
can be processed in a number of different
ways, like traditional organic composites. It
has good dielectric properties and reasonable mechanical properties, but unproven
high temperature, rain impact and hermetic
performance.
A second intriguing material is a ceramic
matrix composite (CMC) with an aluminophosphate matrix and alumina fibers. The
matrix phase is a very stable high-temperature amorphous material that bonds well
to the fiber reinforcement. This material has
reasonably good dielectric and mechanical
Paint
Hermetic Coating
Reaction Bonded
Silicon Nitride (RBSN)
Tuning Feature
RBSN or Thermal Protection
Hermetic Coating
Figure 2. Radome concept showing various
components required for an advanced highspeed multiband radome. Multiple materials
and manufacturing technologies are needed
to produce an advanced multiband radome.
properties, but with yet unproven rain impact and hermetic performance.
A new oxide-based CMC based on a radome material used in production of the
Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile
uses alumina fibers in an alumina matrix.
This CMC overcomes the traditional challenge of fiber matrix interface issues by
using nearly identical materials for both. It
has reasonably good dielectric properties
and good mechanical properties, but its
cost may be high and its producibility and
hermeticity are currently unproven.
Raytheon is developing a monolithic ceramic
material called reaction bonded silicon
nitride (RBSN) for high-temperature missile
radomes. It is produced by forming fine
grains of silicon in the shape desired, then
carefully converting it to silicon nitride
through an extended heating cycle in a
nitrogen atmosphere. This is accomplished
without causing significant changes in shape
or dimensions. The resulting product is a
strong, fracture-resistant material with
excellent rain impact and thermal shock
resistance. The material is porous, and due
to this porosity has an effective dielectric
constant similar to Pyroceram, which is adjustable by controlling the material's overall
density. Since it is porous, RBSN requires a
coating to provide hermeticity. Raytheon is
developing several different methods to
form the silicon nitride, including isostatic
pressing and injection molding of the silicon
powder.
Since it is likely that no material, by itself, can
satisfy all of the desired radome requirements, the next-generation radome will likely
be a material system composed of several
technologies. Raytheon’s system approach to
developing such a high speed missile radome
is illustrated in Figure 2. The radome will be
based on reaction-bonded silicon nitride, as
it can withstand the high temperatures, adverse environmental agent impacts and
structural requirements. Hermetic coatings
will be applied to limit the water vapor permeation for the expected environmental
conditions over the life of the missile.
The expected temperatures that a highspeed missile radome will experience are
above 1,000°C with flight times of several
minutes. Heating of the entire radome will
occur, which in turn will heat the interior
space within the radome. Therefore, an
insulation or thermal protection system will
be needed in the radome interior to limit
heat flow from the radome to the seeker.
The insulation must be RF transparent and
not produce debris during use, which
would impair the performance of the
seeker assembly.
To accommodate missiles that operate at
multiple frequencies, properly designed tuning features can be incorporated into the
radome structure to control its electrical
characteristics. This will allow any combination of RF frequencies to effectively transmit
through the radome to successfully guide
the missile to its target.
Drawing on more than 50 years of radome
development, design, manufacturing and
fielding experience, Raytheon is developing
radome materials, hermetic coatings, RFtransparent insulations and tuning features
to develop and produce the best and most
affordable radome assemblies that will meet
the needs of our customers for the next
generation of high speed missiles. •
W. Howard Poisl, Christopher Solecki,
Joseph M. Wahl
Approved for Public Release 12-S-2070 (23May12)
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 65
on
Technology
Elemental Zinc Sulfide (eZnS®)
Provides a Clear View for Missile Systems’ Tri-mode Seekers
R
aytheon’s recently revived elemental
80
potentially benefit many current infrared (IR)
70
imaging systems and, with further process
60
improvements, ensure high quality and
low cost dome solutions for Raytheon’s
advanced missile systems that use tri-mode
seeker technology.
The Legacy
The requirement that missile IR domes used
in advanced seekers be highly transmitting
across a wide range of wavelengths while
also retaining high mechanical durability
is challenging for either of the two commercially available grades of zinc sulfide
(ZnS). Though chemical vapor deposited zinc
sulfide (CVD-ZnS) exhibits good mechanical strength and adequate transmission at
mid and long wavelengths in the infrared
(MWIR and LWIR), transmission at shorter
wavelengths (near infrared [NIR] and visible)
is insufficient for multimode applications.
However, by further processing CVD-ZnS
at high temperatures and pressures, the
crystalline micro-structure is transformed,
leading to a dramatic increase in transparency across the entire spectral range. This
transformed, highly transparent grade of
ZnS is referred to as Multispectral Grade®
ZnS. It was invented at Raytheon in 1992
(U.S. Patent No. 5126081) and is used today
in high-resolution infrared imaging systems.
Unfortunately, this post-CVD treatment
also reduces the material’s strength and
hardness.
A few years later, Raytheon began work on
a third variant of ZnS to reduce the environmental health and safety risks of growing
ZnS from gaseous precursors like hydrogen
sulfide gas. This material was coined
elemental zinc sulfide or eZnS, since it is
66 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Transmittance (%)
zinc sulfide manufacturing capability can
Zinc Sulfide Transmittance
M/S ZnS
eZnS
50
CVD-ZnS
40
30
20
10
0
NIR SWIR
0
1
2
MWIR
3
4
LWIR
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12
Wavelength (microns)
Figure 1. Transmittance comparison of three
zinc sulfide variants. Chemical vapor deposition
(CVD) process control and post-processing can
increase transmissivity of ZnS materials in the
wavelengths of interest. Multispectral Grade®
ZnS (M/S-ZnS), also known as Cleartran®, is
far more transparent than standard CVD-ZnS.
Elemental zinc sulfide (eZnS)is a compromise
between the two.
synthesized directly from the elemental
constituents zinc and sulfur. This new
material has the strength and hardness
of CVD-ZnS. Surprisingly, however, the
transparency of eZnS is significantly
higher than the previous CVD material,
particularly in the near infrared (NIR). The
transmittance of all three variants of ZnS
is illustrated in Figure 1. Note that the
narrow absorption band evident in this
figure at six micrometers in wavelength
does not affect either the MWIR or LWIR
transmittance in eZnS. While the beneficial properties of this new material were
recognized, eZnS was produced for only
a brief time. However, the need for a
strong, multispectral infrared material
remained, and in fact intensified with the
advent of multimode seekers.
Figure 2. Chemical vapor deposition system for producing elemental zinc sulfide. In situ gas
generation and immediate consumption of the hydrogen sulfide precursor distinguish elemental zinc sulfide from traditional CVD-zinc sulfide materials.
Manufacturing
Figure 3. As-deposited eZnS domes. The current reactor configuration can produce multiple
dome blanks simultaneously; future production-capable furnaces increase the quantity tenfold
and significantly decrease cost per dome.
Reviving the Capability
Early in 2009, a Raytheon team of scientists and engineers, including engineers
who were instrumental in the original
process, began the recovery of the eZnS
process that was first demonstrated almost
fifteen years earlier. This team designed
and supervised the installation and process
prove-in of a new eZnS manufacturing facility (Figure 2).
This was done to meet the urgent need
for a durable, multispectral infrared transparent material. The effort was part of
Raytheon’s collaboration with the Aviation
and Missile Research Development and
Engineering Center (AMRDEC), through
the Army Manufacturing Technology
(ManTech) Program Office. The focus of
this ManTech effort was the implementation of advanced manufacturing and
process improvement methods to reduce
the cost of multimode missile seeker components. An added benefit is an increased
defense industry production capability for
a critical infrared optical material. For this
work, the Raytheon/AMRDEC team was
awarded the 2011 Defense Manufacturing
Excellence Award for Large Business by
the National Center for Manufacturing
Sciences.
The new facility began operation in the
spring of 2009, adding yet another chapter
to Raytheon’s record of infrared materials
innovation. Using a 10-factor, reducedmatrix design of experiments, the Raytheon
team was able to increase the eZnS deposition rate while maintaining the high
optical quality of the material, thus driving
down the production cycle time for domes
by over 30 percent. Elemental ZnS missile
domes produced using the new process are
shown in Figure 3.
ZnS dome post-processing improvements
were also identified during detailed valuestream analyses. Cycle-time reduction
opportunities were found in the milling,
grinding and polishing processes, which,
if implemented even as early as low
rate initial production (LRIP), could additionally reduce dome fabrication costs.
Improvements to the anti-reflective coating
process to address durability of the ZnS
domes in the harsh environments of Army
and Air Force theaters are also underway
(Figure 4).
Figure 4. Polished eZnS dome.
Post-processing includes hot isostatic pressing and grind/polish process improvements
that enable a low-cost dome solution for the
current Small Diameter Bomb (SDBII) and
potentially for the Joint Air-to-Ground
Missile (JAGM).
technology through advanced manufacturing methods and processes. Thus, the
legacy that began over forty years ago with
the deposition of the first infrared missile
dome using the CVD process continues.
The results of this work will provide a capability to produce affordable multimode
windows and domes for the new generation of sensors for missiles, munitions and
surveillance systems. •
Teresa J. Clement
Acknowledgement: This work is supported in part by
the Army Manufacturing Technology Program. The
author would like to thank Anthony Haynes of AMRDEC
for his support during the ManTech effort.
Approved for Public Release FN5859 (23May12)
These efforts by Raytheon demonstrate a
continued commitment to advancing the
state of the art in multimode missile seeker
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 67
Resources
Raytheon Six Sigma™ Promotes Success
R
aytheon Six Sigma (R6s®) has a
legacy of contributing to the success
of our company. In keeping with that
rich heritage, we recently launched our
Raytheon Six Sigma Rethink Success campaign, which ushers in a new era for R6s.
Based on employee and customer input,
we’ve implemented improvements during
the past year that make the program even
more rewarding for practitioners and more
successful for Raytheon and our customers.
Our programs, customers, suppliers and
partners are all being challenged to do more
with the same — all with greater agility. In
essence, R6s continues to improve.
productivity, positively impact the business
and achieve customer satisfaction.
R6s is Raytheon’s disciplined, knowledgebased approach empowering us to increase
From helping teams reach organizational
goals, to reducing program risk, to ensuring
The classic Six Sigma approach, developed
by Motorola, has its underpinnings in hardware design and manufacturing. Traditional
Lean aspects are derived from the Toyota
Production System and also trace back to
a manufacturing environment. In 1998,
Raytheon introduced a consolidated approach to applying these two tool-based
methods and added customer and culture
as focal points. This comprehensive and
unique approach to process improvement
was named Raytheon Six Sigma.
robust products and services, the R6s strategy gives every employee the tools and
resources needed to improve results and
deliver greater value. Each stage of the R6s
journey challenges team members to think
differently. As they progress, they acquire
new insights that allow them to improve efficiency and produce impactful results.
R6s and engineering go hand in hand.
Engineers are routinely tasked to lower
cost and maintain performance, to increase
yield and to reduce the impact of variation. Applying R6s makes managing this
responsibility easier. Its evolving resources
help engineers deliver data-driven, analytical solutions; robust designs with sufficient
margins; and cost-effective products and
PROFILING RAYTHEON SIX SIGMA EXPERTS
Brian Depree
Director of Business
Development
Operations,
Raytheon Australia,
Raytheon Six SigmaTM
Expert
As director of Business
Development, Brian
Depree works closely
with present and prospective customers to
satisfy their needs through the application of
Raytheon’s technologies using sound and reliable processes enabled by R6s®. Prior to this,
he held a variety of lead roles in program management, R6s and risk management. Before
joining Raytheon, Depree spent 24 years with
the Royal New Zealand Air Force as an aircraft
maintenance engineer. He has expertise in the
fields of project and risk management; continuous improvement; cultural change; six sigma;
aeronautical maintenance; management of
workshops, contracts and project teams; as well
as expertise in training and quality assurance.
On having recently received his expert certification at Raytheon, Depree comments, “the
R6s Expert role was a unique opportunity
68 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
to become involved across the business and
understand the company at a strategic level.
I would encourage people to consider becoming involved in the R6s community for
two reasons: the opportunities they will be
exposed to throughout the Raytheon business
and the personal development opportunities
for their career.”
One of the highlights of Depree’s expert journey was working with on-site teams, managers
and customers to introduce improvements
to maintenance processes on the Squirrel
Light Utility Helicopter Servicing (SLUHS)
program. This work resulted in enhanced
program performance and, most importantly
— a satisfied customer.
On his R6s experience, Depree remarks,
“R6s has exposed me to a wide variety of
people and functions within Raytheon
Australia — all have added to the challenge
and enjoyment of taking the R6s journey. I
enjoy the variety that comes with the operations role and the opportunity to develop this
role so it continues to provide value to both
Raytheon Australia and our customers. R6s
is instrumental in helping me to support the
business development team and to deliver the
results our customers require.”
Joanna Wood
Head of Performance
Excellence,
Raytheon UK
Raytheon Six SigmaTM
Expert
Joanna Wood is the
head of Performance
Excellence and a member of the Raytheon
UK Engineering,
Technology and
Quality Assurance leadership team.
In this role, Wood has overall responsibility for
ensuring cross-site governance of all engineering
processes and tools, and for deploying continuous improvement initiatives across the whole of
Engineering in the U.K. She is also responsible
for creating and driving the engineering strategy
to transform the engineering function from the
as-is to the desired to-be state.
“I enjoy looking after the strategy for Engineering
in addition to the governance for the same reason
that I became a systems engineer,” Wood states.
“I love to be able to see the big picture and break
it down into initiatives we can run to transform
and improve the Engineering and Quality function.”
Events
2011 Raytheon Six Sigma™
President’s and CEO Awards
processes. Examples of engineering
activities supported by R6s include:
Fourteen teams selected for R6s® President’s Award.
Seven honored with prestigious R6s CEO Award.
• Developing trade studies and cost as an
independent variable (CAIV) analysis.
• Developing design margin analysis and
yield improvement projects.
• Performing test optimization using
design of experiments (DOE).
• Optimizing processes using statistical
methods.
• Performing root cause analysis (RCA).
• Designing and analyzing simulation
experiments.
• Applying agile engineering methods
(Scrum, Extreme Programming, Unified
Process, Evolutionary Project Management).
R6s is here for us and for our customers as
we work together to meet the challenges
of today’s environment. •
Prior to her current role, Wood was formerly
the head of Engineering for the Raytheon
Uxbridge site, also in the U.K. In this role, she
held the responsibility for managing resources
associated with all engineering projects and
bids at the Uxbridge facility, as well as ensuring that bids, estimates and engineering work
from this site were accurate and reflected engineering best practices and implementation.
Wood speaks to the importance of process:
“I love to work across the diverse range of
technologies that we have in the U.K., and
across Raytheon as a whole. My training as a
Raytheon Six Sigma Expert has really helped
me with everything that I do in my day-today role. Managing every task and initiative,
considering how it relates to the Raytheon
bottom line, and being able to carry out improvements in a systematic and controlled
manner are very important to me and the
work that I do.”
Wood earned her bachelor’s degree in physics with Space Science from the University of
Kent at Canterbury, and she holds a master’s
degree in nuclear physics.
O
n June 19, more than 150 Raytheon leaders, awardees, Raytheon Six Sigma Experts,
customers, partners and suppliers gathered to honor the achievements of Raytheon Six
Sigma teams across the enterprise for delivering substantial and measurable results for
Raytheon’s businesses and customers.
The recognition event took place at the Westin Waltham Boston where two types of awards
were bestowed: the Raytheon Six Sigma President’s Award for overall excellence to the top
projects within a business and the Raytheon Six Sigma CEO Award for projects personally
selected as best-in-class by Raytheon Chairman and CEO, William H. Swanson. Fourteen
teams were recognized for the Raytheon Six Sigma President’s Award and seven of those
were honored with the prestigious Raytheon Six Sigma CEO Award. The selection criteria
included project value to the customer, measurable business results and potential for future
application across the enterprise.
2011 Raytheon Six Sigma Award Winners
Corporate Raytheon International Enterprise Support Service Team - CEO Award
Paul Clemente, James Cronin, Jack Prior, Rae Rottman, Bob Shanks
Corporate New Investment Manager Onboarding Process Team
Erica Abbruzzese, Paul Clemente, Steven Linkovich, Lisa Menelly, Paula Sasso
IDS ALFS Single Fleet Driven Metric R6s Blitz Team - CEO Award
Matt Holbrook, Jim Hopkins, Wally Massenburg, Joe Monti, Kathy Pilotte, Cmdr. Nick Rapley (U.S.
Navy), Cmdr. Matt Wells (U.S. Navy)
IDS DDG 1000 Program Software Affordability Team
Daniel Booth, Phil Cole, Richard Dumas, Adrienne Wojtaszek, Tommy Wong
IIS Using Critical Chain to Reduce Risk and Increase Customer Confidence Team
Jim Lillwitz, Ken McConnell, Tami Nichelson, Glenn Reker, Rob Vecchiarell
IIS Streamlining Proprietary Customer Process Directives Team - CEO Award
Brian Bevan, Terry Godwin, Tim Reichart, Carol Veltri, Kevin Wagner
MS The Amazing Schedule RAACCE Team
Sobia Amin, Barbara Harrison, Trish Mosher, Kevin Oxnam, Elle Warner
MS Standard Missile 6 Seeker Antenna Defect Elimination Team - CEO Award
Ryan Cutshall, Robert Greene, Brandon King, Tyler Vogt, Matthew Wargo
NCS Long Range Radar System and Transistor Improvements Team - CEO Award
Paul Ackroyd, Jim Arena, Jack Campbell, Otilia Vandici, Joseph Wilde, Mark Carmouche (FAA),
Charlie Leader (Microsemi Corp.)
NCS Navy Multiband Terminal Execution Improvement Team
Jim Ellis, Jim McGrath, John Shea, Tom Stump, Tim Vinciullo
RTSC The Power of Cross-Business Collaboration: Commericalization of NASA’s
Neutral Buoyancy Lab Team
Tracy Cox, Cindy Hendershot, Kathy Jones, Kristi Kyhl, Johnny White, Trey Hall (Rothe),
Angie Prince (NASA), Dan Sedej (NASA), Susan Sinclair (NASA)
RTSC Philips Healthcare Learning Solutions Raytheon Professional Services Team CEO Award
Jeanine Crane-Thompson, Susanne Frank, Russ O’Brien, Bill Russell, Bernie Saboe, JoAnne Bolas
(Philips Healthcare), Theresa Dolbert (Philips Healthcare)
SAS AN/APY-10 Multi-Mode Array India Critical Chain Team - CEO Award
Richard Doty, Robert Feifarek, Vijay Sardeshpande, John Ward, Dianne White
SAS F-15 Receiver Rework Reduction Team
William “Mack” Garner, David Hotaling, Tim Jumper, Denise Meredith, Ken Robinson
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 69
Events
2011 Raytheon Excellence in
Operations and Quality Awards
Celebrating our newest winners across the enterprise
Raytheon’s Excellence in Operations and Quality Awards recognize those who demonstrate the pursuit of
excellence, dedicated leadership and a commitment to customers by providing the best solutions. In all, 20
teams were honored at the Westin Waltham Boston on June 18, 2012.
Mark E. Russell, vice president of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance, acknowledged 89 award
recipients for their achievements. Each recipient contributes to Raytheon’s business by improving processes,
reinforcing the Operations and Performance Excellence culture, and achieving customer satisfaction.
“Our focus on excellence in all that we do is reflected in our continued success and recognition by our customers,” said Russell, as he noted several recent examples of program wins and positive reviews across the
enterprise. “Tonight’s winners have demonstrated leadership by addressing the challenges and supporting
Raytheon’s mission for customer success.”
All Raytheon businesses were represented. Of the winning teams, six were recognized for Accelerating
Knowledge Transfer – projects that leverage knowledge and lessons learned across the enterprise; and one
was recognized for Energy Conservation – projects that result in energy conservation within a business or
across the enterprise.
The EiOQ award winners were joined by members of the ET&MA leadership team and the business vice
presidents for Operations and Mission Assurance.
Raytheon congratulates all winners of the 2011 Excellence in Operations and Quality Awards. •
70 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Events
2011 Raytheon Excellence in Operations and Quality Award Winners
INTEGRATED DEFENSE SYSTEMS
NETWORK CENTRIC SYSTEMS
Safety Cultural Transformation Team
Thomas Caty, Catherine Donahue, Tonjia Harris, Anny Sanchez, Yves Viaud
Instilled a culture of safety at a grass roots level throughout the Integrated
Air Defense Center — a very large manufacturing facility.
Evolved Seasparrow Transition To RPM Team
Thomas Boyle, Gary Fugate, Lindsey Shaw, Toni Terhune, Jeffery Tietjen
Transitioned antenna assembly manufacturing to Raytheon Precision
Manufacturing to consolidate the value stream, thereby shortening cycle
times and reducing costs. This resulted in a 35 percent recurring cost
reduction, 100 percent on time delivery and zero line returns.
Strategic Talent Resource Realignment Team
John Cogliandro, Tom Criscione, Michael Houston, Patricia Quinn, Kim Simon
Improved competitiveness and affordability by mapping IDS’ real estate
portfolio to business needs with a focus on people and core capabilities.
RTN/DCMA Surveillance Approach For Product Acceptance Team
Steve Bisson, David Cook, Fred Lombardi, David Magee, Anny Sanchez
Ensured alignment with the DCMA’s surveillance plan to support on-time
product acceptance, achieving a 77 percent cycle time improvement in the
Product Acceptance process.
Smartview — Smart Sampling Team
Timothy Delaney, Cheryl Drake, William Jones, Sean Seymour, Simon Yeo
Achieved enhanced inspection efficiency through sampling plans
automatically adjusted using statistical methods based on historical
performance of parts quality.
INTELLIGENCE & INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Sustainability Team
James Fraser, Kelly Lei, Brian Moore, Debora Shows, Karen Tempkin
In partnership with the Enterprise Green Information Technology team,
reduced energy costs by $770,000, greenhouse gases by seven percent, and
water consumption by 14 percent (a savings of $65,000).
Algorithm Development Library Team
Kevin Bisanz, Kelly Boswell, Bryan Henderson, Brian Hurley, Tim Jensen
Improved the ADL tool for ease of conversions, which ultimately led to
significant NASA savings of more than $5 million.
Wafer Fabrication Cycle Time Reduction Team
Rico Casillas, Betty Castillo, Allen Paneral, Chris Tacelli
Achieved a reduction in cycle times for detector wafer fabrication
from 20 weeks to six weeks or less.
Raytheon UK Glenrothes Manufacturing Defect Reduction Team
Margaret Beveridge, Alex Fleming, John Murphy, Alexander Purves
Improved its quality approach and won the praise of the British Ministry
of Defense and other customers for reducing variability, improving yields
and reducing costs.
RAYTHEON TECHNICAL SERVICES COMPANY
Counter Improvised Explosive Device Program Team — CIEDS
Indianapolis
Barry Ingram, Charles Kern, Danny Miller, Diana Padgett, Angela Upton
Met an aggressive nine-month delivery schedule for 250 units with a 16
percent reduction in labor hours and a cost savings of nearly $1 million. In
the field, the CIED system achieved 100 percent success and was named by
the U.S. Army as one of 2011’s most innovative advances.
U.S. Marine Corps Secondary Repairable Logistics Integration
Support Program
Charles Bushnell, Kevin Keele, Gregg Spence
Significantly reduced SecRep inventory and improved on-time delivery and
reliability for the USMC SecRep Logistics Integration Support Program.
NPOESS Preparatory Project Launch Team
Michael Andrews, Wil Asuncion, Dan Linebarger, Tina Lombard
Overcame significant challenges to maintain the schedule to launch
without delays and received high praise for their program achievements.
SS-25 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Systems Elimination Project
Maria Berezina, Nikolay Dulesov, Mikhail Fyodorov, Fyodor Lapin,
David Scheetz
Effectively employed Raytheon Six Sigma™ tools in response to cost and
schedule impacts caused by program uncertainties.
MISSILE SYSTEMS
SPACE AND AIRBORNE SYSTEMS
Principles of Excellence Team
Jack Deasey, Patricia Ernst, Julie Goswick, Steven Kitterman, Diana Stock
Applied an overarching approach to drive innovation, process improvement
and cost reduction into the fiber of Missile Systems’ Operations culture.
Advanced Product Center Manufacturing Systems Support Team
Roby Martin, Jason Samuels, Christopher Smith, Brett Stinson, Subi Thayamkery
Created and executed a manufacturing system that has been adopted by
several manufacturing processes across Raytheon, and was designated by
Industry Week as an “industry best practice.”
Electro-Optical Fusion Team
Dennis Barents, James Edwards, Deanna Jenia, Chad Spalt, Adrian Verduzco
Implemented a cross-functional EO product manufacturing system, resulting in the delivery of high quality solutions with an affordable cost model.
Energetics Campaign Team
Lisa Block, Ronald Orr, Steven Steuer, Kirk Stuessel, Kristy Tanner
Institutionalized a businesswide culture change for handling all dangerous
goods, helping to assure that Missile Systems continues to maintain their
standing as a world-class provider of energetics.
Sentinel Finland Lean Team SAS/NCS
Felino Bautista, Vicki Harris, Rodney Hillman, Mac Mcilwain, Stephenton Shoto
Used Lean manufacturing principles to revamp the manufacturing and
procurement phases of the program, achieving 100 percent on-time
delivery and $720,000 in waste reduction.
F-15SA LANTIRN Production Cold Start
Kent Jacobson
Successfully led a cold production restart as the quality engineering
manager of the F-15SA LANTIRN Terrain Following Radar Program.
Joint Strike Fighter Program Quality Team
William Gallagher, Jr., Andrew McGill, Raymond Plummer
Prepared and implemented a tool for successfully identifying and
controlling escaped workmanship defects, improving program output
yields without defect escapes throughout 2011.
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 71
U.S. Patents
Issued to Raytheon
At Raytheon, we encourage people to work on
technological challenges that keep America
strong and develop innovative commercial
products. Part of that process is identifying and
protecting our intellectual property. Once again,
the U.S. Patent Office has recognized our
engineers and technologists for their contributions in their fields of interest. We compliment
our inventors who were awarded patents
from January through June 2012.
CONRAD STENTON, STAN SZAPIEL
8087197 method and apparatus for influencing reflections from
an optical surface
MARK BARNETT, BORIS S JACOBSON
8089331 improved planar magnetic structure
ANDREW HAUTZIK, JON MAENPA, PATRICK SAIN
8089402 system and method for correcting global navigation
satellite system carrier phase measurements in receivers having
controlled reception pattern antennas
GUSTAVO A BURNUM, RAYMOND D EPPICH,
JAMES MASON, RICHARD NICHOLS, JOEL C ROPER,
GILBERT M SHOWS
8089404 partitioned aperture array antenna
DAVID U FLUCKIGER
8089617 energy efficient laser detection and ranging system
DAVE S DOUGLAS, JINGNING PAN
8090220 resolution enhancement of video sequences with
arbitrary enhancement factor
IAN S ROBINSON
8090312 system and method for observing a satellite using a
satellite in retrograde orbit
BASEL Y MAHMOUD, ROY P MCMAHON,
CHARLES K ROGERS
8090481 manual human interfaces to electronics
TIMOTHY J IMHOLT, MICHAEL NOLAND,
ALEXANDER F ST. CLAIRE
8091464 shaped charged resistant protective shield
ANDREAS HAMPP, AMANDA HOLT,
JUSTIN GORDON ADAMS WEHNER
8094361 polymer shutter compositions and devices for IR systems
RONALD COLEMAN, JOHN SCOTT KNIGHT,
RICHARD MADDEN, GEORGE W SHEPARD
8095367 methods and systems for parasitic sensing
THOMAS G LAVEDAS
8098161 radio frequency identification inlay with improved readability
DANIEL W OTTS
8102305 filtering sensor data to provide estimates of structures
KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN, MARY KRIKORIAN,
ROBERT A ROSEN
8102310 dismount step discrimination with temporal adaptive
matched filtering of Doppler spectral features
LACY G COOK
8102583 real time optical compensation of orbit-induced
distortion effects in long integration time imagers
PATRICK M PETERSON
8102973 systems and methods for presenting end to end calls
and associated information
RICHARD J KENEFIC
8103532 method and system for fast local search and insertion
heuristics for vehicle routing
JASON REDI, RICHARD D ROCKWELL,
MITCHELL P TASMAN
8103792 systems and methods for forwarding data units in a
communications network
RUDY A EISENTRAUT, DAVID B HATFIELD,
TERRY M SANDERSON
8104713 reinforced inflatable wings for fitment-constrained
air vehicles
ANDREW B FACCIANO, CHIN SHIAU
8104719 digital interface unit (DIU) and method for controlling
stages of a multi-stage missile
DAVID H ALTMAN, STEVEN D BERNSTEIN,
ROBERT P MOLFINO, ERIK F NORDHAUSEN,
STEVEN B WAKEFIELD
8106510 nano-tube thermal interface structure
72 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
JAMES W CASALEGNO, MICHAEL F JANIK,
THOMAS MCHALE, KENNETH J MCPHILLIPS,
ARNOLD W NOVICK, ILYA ROZENFELD, JOHN R SHORT
8107320 autonomous sonar system and method
ANDREW K BROWN, KENNETH W BROWN, WILLIAM
E DOLASH, TRAVIS B FEENSTRA, DARIN M GRITTERS,
REID F LOWELL, MICHAEL J SOTELO
8107894 modular solid state MMW RF power source
JOSEPH SCATES
8112304 method of risk management across a mission support
network
KENNETH D CAREY, GREGORY LEEDBERG,
GEORGE W SPENCER JR
8112487 XMPP message filtering
BRIAN RICHARD BOULE, JONATHAN T LONGLEY
8113526 self-adjusting vehicle and wheel suspension system
FRANCIS J MORRIS
8114576 method for fabricating electrical circuitry on ultra-thin
plastic films
CARLOS R COSTAS
8115678 generating an array correlation matrix using a single
receiver system
QIN JIANG, SHUBHA KADAMBE
8116169 active sonar system and active sonar method using noise
reduction techniques and advanced signal processing techniques
WILLIAM J MINISCALCO, ROBERT D OSHEA,
IRL W SMITH, HOWARD L WALDMAN
8116632 space-time division multi-access laser communications
VINCENT C HOUGO, JACK E WHITE
8116966 low power microwave vehicle stopper with feedback
DANIEL CHASMAN, STEPHEN D HAIGHT, JUAN A PEREZ
8117847 hybrid missile propulsion system with reconfigurable
multinozzle grid
RICHARD JANIK, DORON STRASSMAN
8119956 multi-stage hyper-velocity kinetic energy missile
ROHN SAUER
8120544 compact continuous ground plane system
RIC ROMERO
8121562 transmitter and hybrid communication method for
capacity optimization and outage minimization
BRIG ELLIOTT
8121563 configurable patch panel system
JAMES E CLINGENPEEL, BRENT E HENRY
8122122 event monitoring and collection
BRIG ELLIOTT
8122242 method and apparatus for controlling the flow of data
across a network interface
LACY G COOK
8123371 all-reflective afocal telescope derived from the first two
mirrors of a focal three-mirror anastigmat telescope
ROGER C ESPLIN, JOHN M OLDHAM
8123556 low profile compact RF coaxial to planar transmission
line interface
STEPHEN E BENNETT, CHRIS E GESWENDER
8124921 methods and apparatus for guidance of ordnance
delivery device
WILLIAM M BOWSER, MATTHEW T KUIKEN,
TODD E SESSLER, ROBERT M STOKES
8124937 system and method for athermal operation of a focal
plane array
RAYMOND D EPPICH, JAMES M IRION II
8125292 a coaxial line to planar RF transmission line transition using
a microstrip portion of greater width than the RF transmission line
DAVID D CROUCH, WILLIAM E DOLASH
8125402 methods and apparatus for multilayer millimeter-wave
window
DEVON G CROWE
8125644 magnetic field sensor with optically sensitive device and
method for measuring a magnetic field
ISIDRO M CASTINEYRA, REGINA HAIN, CHRISTINE
JONES, RAJESH KRISHNAN, WILLIAM STRAYER
8125898 method and system for detecting attack path connections in a computer network using state-space correlation
BRIG ELLIOTT
8126016 method and apparatus for information dissemination
MELVIN CAMPBELL, ETHAN S HEINRICH,
KEVIN C ROLSTON, ROSALIO S VIDAURRI,
ALBERTO F VISCARRA, DAVID T WINSLOW
8127432 process for fabricating an origami formed antenna
radiating structure
ROBERT CAVALLERI, THOMAS A OLDEN
8127534 pellet loaded attitude control rocket motor
RICHARD M LLOYD
8127686 warhead with aligned projectiles
TIMOTHY P DONOVAN
8130135 bi-static radar processing for ADS-B sensors
RANDY C BARNHART, CRAIG S KLOOSTERMAN,
MELINDA C MILANI, DONALD V SCHNAIDT,
STEVEN TALCOTT
8130692 data handling in a distributed communication network
YURI OWECHKO
8131074 specific emitter identification using histogram or oriented
gradient features
MICHAEL R KAYSER, RALPH M WEISCHEDEL, JINXI XU
8131536 extraction-empowered machine translation
STEPHANIE L HARTMAN, RICHARD M HOWARD,
LISA JOHNSON, JACKSON S LACY,
SHANE P MCMURRAY, MICHAEL L RUEHL
8131579 web-based system and application for collaborative
planning of a networked program schedule
DANIEL MITCHELL
8133367 sputtering system and method for using a loose granular
sputtering target
DUNCAN L CRAWFORD, JEFFREY M GUILD,
WILLIAM B NOBLE
8134493 system and method for precision geolocation utilizing
multiple sensing modalities
ROBERT S ISOM, GORDON R SCOTT
8134494 simulating the mutual perfomance of an antenna array
coupled to an electrical drive circuit
DAVID D CROUCH, MICHAEL J SCHWEIGER
8134510 coherent near-field array
PAUL HERZ, DANIEL SIEVENPIPER
8134521 electronically tunable microwave reflector
TONI S HABIB, WASSIM S HABIB
8138918 intrusion detection and tracking system
TIMOTHY P DONOVAN
8138964 tracking air and ground vehicles
CHADWICK B MARTIN, KENNETH E SCHMIDT
8139298 optically measurable mounting structure
KAREN HAIGH, DAVID MANKINS, GREGORY TROXEL
8139504 system, device and method for unifying differently-routed
networks using virtual topology representations
TIMOTHY R MORRIS
8140289 network-centric processing
JAMES E CLINGENPEEL, BRENT E HENRY
8141149 keyword obfuscation
ROBERT A BAILEY, JEFFREY VANLIEW
8141468 adjustable bomb carrier
ROBERT D TRAVIS
8141491 expanding tube separation device
KEITH BROCK
8141819 modular aircraft with removable spar
SCOTT M JOHNSON, DANIEL MORSE,
JUSTIN GORDON ADAMS WEHNER
8143687 multi-band, reduced-volume radiation detectors and
methods of formation
KAICHIANG CHANG, YUCHOI F LOK,
JEROME H POZGAY
8144051 adaptive sidelobe blanking for motion compensation
CHRIS E GESWENDER, JAY A STERN
8144054 satellite receiver and method for navigation using
merged satellite system signals
STACY E DAVIS, TIMOTHY R HEBERT, ROBERT WELSH
8144073 a portal structure providing electromagnetic interference
shielding features
SUBRAMANIAN RAMANATHAN, GREGORY TROXEL
8144595 variable translucency no-sight routing for ad-hoc networks
JAMES BALLEW, SHANNON DAVIDSON
8144697 system and method for networking computing clusters
JASON REDI
8145201 methods and apparatus for reduced energy
communication in an ad-hoc network
JAMES BALLEW, SHANNON DAVIDSON
8145837 computer storage system
JOSE E CHIRIVELLA, ANTON VANDERWYST
8146862 active vortex cooling system (AVOCS) and method for
isolation of sensitive components from external environment
JOHN BEDINGER, MICHAEL A MOORE
8148830 environmental protection coating system and method
WASSIM S HABIB, YUCHOI F LOK
8149154 system, method and software for performing dual
hysteresis target association
DAVID D CROUCH
8149179 low loss variable reflect array using dual resonance
phase-shifting element
JAMES BARGER, MARSHALL BRINN,
STEPHEN D MILLIGAN
8149649 self calibrating shooter estimation
PRITHWISH BASU, REGINA HAIN, RICHARD
HANSEN, CHRISTINE JONES, RAJESH KRISHNAN,
SUBRAMANIAN RAMANATHAN
8149716 systems and methods for adaptive routing in mobile
ad-hoc networks and disruption tolerant networks
PRITHWISH BASU, LILLIAN L DAI, JASON REDI,
WILLIAM TETTEH
8149733 systems and methods for synchronizing communication
networks
ANTHONY PAUL BATA, KEN CRISMON,
RANDY LYLE ENGLE, DAVID KRAMER
8149748 wireless data networking
BRIEN ROSS, PETER ROZITIS
8151509 method and apparatus for adjustably supporting a
component in an optical sight
DAVID U FLUCKIGER
8151646 differential mode laser detection and ranging device
DAVID W FORE, MARK SVANE, KEVIN UNDERHILL,
RICHARD C VERA
8152064 system and method for adjusting a direction of fire
MICHAEL G ADLERSTEIN, FRANCOIS Y COLOMB
8153449 microwave integrated circuit package and method for
forming such package
ANDREAS HAMPP, HEATHER D LEIFESTE,
TAMARA H WRIGHT
8154099 composite semiconductor structure adapted to alter the
rate of thermal expansion of a substrate
SHAUN L CHAMPION, PHILIP H IVES,
THO X NGUYEN, NICK J ROSIK, MARK E STADING,
REZA TAYRANI, RICHARD D YOUNG
8154402 wireless temperature sensor networks
JOHN P BETTENCOURT, VALERY S KAPER
8154432 digital-to-analog converter having high dynamic range
MICHAEL G ADLERSTEIN
8154439 integrated circuit for phase coherent sub-MMW
detection
ANDREW M HAUTZIK, RICHARD KEEGAN,
JON E MAENPA
8154445 system and method for frequency domain correction of
global navigation satellite system pseudorange measurements in
receivers having controlled reception pattern antennas
KENNETH M WEBB
8154452 method and apparatus for phased array antenna field
recalibration
PETER D MORICO, JOHN D WALKER
8154891 methods and apparatus for selectable output DC/DC
converter
TIMOTHY D SMITH, NINA L STEWART
8155027 dynamic system and method of establishing
communication with objects
DAVID M DORIA, ROBERT T FRANKOT
8155807 fusion for automatic target recognition
MICHAEL A BARKER
8155819 system and method for effecting vehicle maneuver to
compensate for IMU error
DAVID ALLEN, KRZYSZTOF PRZYTULA, STEVEN B SEIDA
8156069 decision support tool
JAMES E TABER
8156133 modifying an electonic graphics file to be searchable
according to annotation information
MICHAEL STIMPSON
8156867 methods and apparatus for multiple part missile
ROBERT P JOHNSON, THOMAS A OLDEN
8157169 projectile targeting system
LLOYD KINSEY JR, PATRICK D KRANKING
8157203 methods and apparatus for transforming UAVs
CONRAD STENTON
8157428 multiple source reticle illumination
QINGCE BIAN, ERIC R DAVIS, JEFFREY DECKER,
BRADLEY HUANG, GILES D JONES, WILLIAM PRICE,
CHRISTOPHER A TOMLINSON, PETER WALLRICH
8157565 military training device
ALEXANDRE LIFCHITS
8157979 film having cobalt selenide nanowires and method of
forming same
MATTHEW S EARLE
8158915 canard-centric missile support
KENTON VEEDER
8158923 time-frequency fusion digital pixel sensor
STEPHEN J SCHILLER
8158929 specular array for radiometric calibration and method
GRAHAM GINTZ, TIMOTHY J IMHOLT
8159157 nanotubes as linear accelerators
ABRAHAM CRAIG, WILLIAM F DIXON, TROY FUCHSER
8159390 temporal CW nuller
PATRICK W CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM P HAROKOPUS
8159409 integrated patch antenna
STACY E DAVIS, TIMOTHY R HEBERT, ROBERT WELSH
8159411 rotary connector providing electromagnetic interference
shielding features
ROLAND TORRES
8159808 +28v aircraft transient suppression
ARNOLD W NOVICK
8159901 system and method for discriminating a subsurface
target in the water from a surface target in the water
JAMES BALLEW
8160061 redundant network shared switch
DAVID G MANZI, STEVEN E SHIELDS,
JAMES A WURZBACH
8160189 method and system for communication channel
characterization
ERIC P LAM, CHRISTOPHER A LEDDY,
STEPHEN R NASH, HARRISON A PARKS
8160364 system and method for image registration based on
variable region of interest
JOHN PATTISON
8161879 methods and apparatus for sensing acceleration
DAVID G JENKINS, DAVID J MARKASON,
BYRON B TAYLOR
8164037 co-boresighted dual-mode SAL/IR seeker including a
SAL spreader
BENJAMIN M HOWE, DANIEL W OTTS,
WINTHROP W SMITH
8164507 fusing multi-sensor data to provide estimates of structures
THOMAS BIDIGARE, ROBERT D PREUSS
8165171 methods and systems for distributed synchronization
PRITHWISH BASU, JASON REDI
8166204 systems and methods for automatically placing nodes in
an ad-hoc network
MATTHEW A OFFOLTER, WILLIAM S PETERSON
8166861 shock reduction muzzle brake
STEPHEN A GABELICH
8167057 intrusion detection apparatus and method
AHMAD K AMAN, JOHN M BOURDELAIS
8169358 coherent multi-band radar and communications transceiver
SCOTT E ADCOOK, CARL D COOK,
MENA J GHEBRANIOUS, MICHAEL LEE
8169362 mobile sense through the wall radar system
GEORGE F BARSON, TRAE M BLAIN
8169378 system and method for stabilizing an electronic array
GERARD DESROCHES, CONRAD STENTON
8169609 system and method for improving performance of optical
systems with tilted windows
BRIAN KEITH MCCOMAS, KENT P PFLIBSEN,
DARIN S WILLIAMS
8169623 optical apparatus and method for measuring the
attitude of an object in outer space
STEPHEN POLIT, SUBRAMANIAN RAMANATHAN,
GREGORY TROXEL
8170018 no-sight routing for ad-hoc networks
ALBERT EZEKIEL, BRENT MCCLEARY
8170279 adaptive match metric selection for automatic target
recognition
THOMAS R BERGER, SAMI DAOUD,
MICHAEL J VILLEBURN
8172965 explosive compositions and methods for fabricating
explosive compositions
JAMES M COOK, JAMES H DUPONT,
GARRETT L HALL, HENRI Y KIM, RICHARD D LOEHR,
WILLIAM N PATTERSON
8173946 method of intercepting incoming projectile
STEVEN D BERNSTEIN, RALPH KORENSTEIN,
STEPHEN J PEREIRA
8174024 fabricating a gallium nitride device with a diamond layer
MICHAEL HOUGH
8174433 bias estimation and orbit determination
AMIR W HABBOOSH, NICHOLAS F WILLIS,
THOMAS E WOOD
8174435 methods and apparatus for non-isotropic sea clutter
modeling
MICKY HARRIS, JOHN L VAMPOLA
8174602 multiple, low noise gain utilizing programmable MOSFET gates
CONRAD STENTON
8174749 light-beam-scanning system utilizing counter-rotating
prism wheels
PRITHWISH BASU, JASON REDI
8175016 systems, methods and computer readable media for
energy conservation in sensor networks
DARRYN A JOHNNIE, SUNG I PARK
8175101 multicasting in a network using neighbor information
KEVIN KIRBY, DAVID SUMIDA
8175131 laser media with controlled concentration profile of
active laser ions and method of making the same
IAN S ROBINSON
8175393 multi-phenomenology object detection (MPOD)
JAMES WHITTY
8175428 optical communications system with selective block/add
capability of an optical channel
WILLIAM J DAVIS, WARD G FILLMORE,
SCOTT MACDONALD
8178391 method for packaging semiconductors at a wafer level
KENNETH W BROWN, DAVID D CROUCH,
VINCENT GIANCOLA
8178792 combined environmental-electromagnetic rotary seal
ERICK M HIRATA, LLOYD LINDER
8179173 digitally calibrated high speed clock distribution
DELMAR L BARKER, WILLIAM RICHARD OWENS,
ABRAM YOUNG
8180213 methods and systems for optical focusing using negative
index metamaterial
GERALD E KAAS, KEVIN E PAYNE, LANCE C STACK
8180982 archival and retrieval of data using linked pages and
value compression
JAMES H DUPONT, RICHARD D LOEHR, ROBERT RENZ
8181444 solid propellant rocket motor with notched annular fuel
BRIAN L COCHRAN, MARK A DEBAKE,
STEVEN J ELDER, JEFFREY H KOESSLER
8181906 method and apparatus for RAM deceleration in a
launch system
ANDREW K BROWN, KENNETH W BROWN,
DOMINGO CRUZ-PAGAN, WILLIAM E DOLASH,
DARIN M GRITTERS, JAMES MASON,
THOMAS L OBERT, MICHAEL J SOTELO
8182103 modular MMW power source
BERNARD HARRIS, DAVID R RHIGER
8183537 neutron detection system
RICHARD A POISEL
8185077 method and system for noise suppression in antenna
STEPHEN JACOBSEN
8185241 tracked robotic crawler having a moveable arm
RACHEL E BEITZ, MICHAEL J CAMPO, ROBERT J
FLOYD, PETER D KRAUS, NEAL A MACKERTICH
8185428 method and apparatus for predicting project cost
performance
DANIEL MITCHELL
8186113 building window having a visible-light-refelective optical
interference coating thereon
ROBERT W MARTIN, PHILIP S RICE
8186260 translating adjacent-blast shield and method for
protecting external slots of missiles in launcher tubes
CHARLES HOWLAND, ROBERT P JOHNSON,
THOMAS A OLDEN
8186276 entrapment systems and apparatuses for containing
projectiles from an explosion
PATRICK L MCCARTHY
8188411 projectile guidance system including a compact semiactive laser seeker with immersed filter stack and field lens
KEVIN W AYER
8188434 systems and methods for thermal spectral generation,
projection and correlation
MARK B KETCHEN, SHWETANK KUMAR,
RICHARD LAZARUS, CHRISTOPHER LIRAKIS,
MATTHIAS STEFFEN
8188752 yield improvement for Josephson junction test device
formation
JAMES R GALLIVAN
8188905 target tracking system and method with jitter reduction
suitable for directed energy systems
ERIC M MOSKUN, JOHN F SILNY
8189179 system and method for hyperspectral and polarimetric
imaging
BORIS S JACOBSON, JOHN D WALKER
8189306 dynamic grounding system and method
ROBERT BYREN, DAVID SUMIDA, MICHAEL USHINSKY
8189634 method of manufacturing a laser gain medium having a
spatially variable gain profile
CHARLES ANTHONY ASHCROFT, COLIN LAW
8189969 trustworthy optomechanical switch
continued on page 74
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 73
continued from page 73
JERRY D BURCHFIEL
8190093 spectrum-adaptive networking
SHANNON DAVIDSON, ROBERT J PETERSON
8190714 system and method for computer cluster virtualization
using dynamic boot images and virtual disk
JEREMY C DANFORTH, RICHARD D LOEHR,
GERALD M TURNER
8191351 insensitive rocket motor
STEPHEN JACOBSEN, TOMASZ J PETELENZ
8191421 digital ballistic impact detection system
JAMES H DUPONT
8191454 canisterized interceptor with embedded windings and
method for safe round detection
BAHRAM A ADLY, FRANK P LABARBA,
JASON A RATHBONE
8191683 height reducible electronic enclosure compatible
entrance platform
ROBERT CAVALLERI, LLOYD KINSEY JR,
THOMAS A OLDEN
8193476 solid-fuel pellet thrust and control actuation system to
maneuver a flight vehicle
GEOFFREY LONG, FELIX SASSO
8193883 rotary switching mechanism
K BUELL, JIYUN C IMHOLT, MATTHEW A MORTON
8193973 multilayer metamaterial isolator
JOHN A MACK, DAVID ROCK, MARION TODD
8194125 large-angle uniform radiance source
IVANS S CHOU, FREDERICK C MERTZ,
ROBERT K PINA, KARLEEN G SEYBOLD
8194952 image processing system and methods for aligning skin
features for early skin cancer detection systems
RICHARD L TIMMERHOFF
8195437 systems power distribution tool
DANIEL R FARMER
8197285 methods and apparatus for a grounding gasket
JOHN P BETTENCOURT
8198942 integrated themoelectric protection circuit for depletion
mode power amplifiers
MICHAEL J HIRSCH, RAKESH NAGI, DAVID SUDIT
8199643 optimization strategies for resource management and
course of action analysis
KENNETH D CAREY, GREGORY LEEDBERG
8200751 system and method for maintaining stateful information
MICHAEL HAMPTON, ANTHONY M JANOSO,
DUONG NGUYEN
8201181 system and method for sensor scheduling using fuzzy
cognitive maps
CHRIS E GESWENDER, CESAR SANCHEZ,
MATTHEW A ZAMORA
8203108 fuze guidance system with multiple caliber capability
ANEES AHMAD, DWIGHT L DENNEY,
DAVID G JENKINS, DANIEL J MOSIER, DAVID J PARK,
JOHN R RUTKOWSKI, BYRON B TAYLOR,
DANIEL VUKOBRATOVICH
8203109 high energy laser beam director system and method
IAN S ROBINSON, ANTHONY SOMMESE
8203114 adaptive spatial-spectral processing (ASSP)
CHING-JU J YOUNG
8203116 scene based non-uniformity correction for infrared
detector arrays
IAN S ROBINSON
8203472 compensation of clock jitter in analog-digital converter
applications
IAN S ROBINSON
8203715 knowledge based spectrometer
JONATHAN D GRAY, DEANNA K HARDEN,
FERNANDO J HERNANDEZ, RUSSELL W LAI,
MICHAEL J MEIER, JYOTI D PANJWANI, DORI RUSTE
8203942 communications resource management
WALTER C MILLIKEN
8203956 method and apparatus providing a precedence drop
quality of service
CHRISTINE JONES, GREGORY TROXEL
8204069 systems and methods for queue management in
packet-switched networks
JAMES H DUPONT
8205537 interceptor projectile with net and tether
CHRISTOPHER HIRSCHI, STEPHEN JACOBSEN,
BRIAN MACLEAN, RALPH PENSEL
8205695 conformable track assembly for a robotic crawler
74 2012 ISSUE 2 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY
DAVID E BOSSERT, RAY SAMPSON, JEFFREY N ZERBE
8205829 submersible transport and launch canister and methods
for the use thereof
BRUCE W CHIGNOLA, DAVID J KATZ, DENNIS R
KLING, JORGE M MARCIAL, LEONARD SCHAPER
8207021 low noise high thermal conductivity mixed signal
package background of the invention
DAVID A LANCE, STEVEN T SIDDENS
8207480 methods and apparatus for fire control during launch of
an effector
DAVID G JENKINS, MICHAEL P SCHAUB,
BYRON B TAYLOR
8207481 projectile guidance system including a compact
semi-active laser seeker
ANTHONY ROSS
8209071 methods and apparatus for aircraft turbulence detection
MICHAEL B BAILEY
8209140 cooperative calibration of heading sensors
CHERYL R ERICKSON, JOHN J LIPASEK,
JEFFERY A STANFORD, BARRY E THELEN
8209208 control succession
ANTHONY RICHOUX
8209395 scheduling in a high-performance computing system
International
Patents Issued to Raytheon
Titles are those on the U.S.-filed patents; actual titles
on foreign counterparts are sometimes modified and
not recorded. While we strive to list current international
patents, many foreign patents issue much later than
corresponding U.S. patents and may not yet be reflected.
AUSTRALIA
TIMOTHY D SMITH, NINA L STEWART
2006269862 dynamic system and method of establishing
communication with objects
MARK L BOUCHARD, MATTHEW B CASTOR,
AARON HEIDEL, CHARLES D LYMAN
2006312257 ejectable aerodynamic stability and control
LORA J CLARK, JEAN HAGAR, DARRELL K HENSON,
WARREN J KLINE, DIANE M MCCREA,
CHARISSE A MCLORREN
2006270407 system and method for schedule quality assessment
MONTY D MCDOUGAL, JASON E OSTERMANN,
WILLIAM E STERNS
2007305073 configurable data access application for highly
secure systems
DEREK C CRESS, ZHEN-QI GAN, MAX W NORTHUP
2007275428 system and method for providing remote access to
events from a database access system
LAWRENCE E FARIA, EMMANUEL J PERROTTI,
DAVID R SAR
2008304346 system and apparatus for preventing freezing of crops
CRAIG BRADFORD, MARC A BROWN, FRANK HITZKE,
WILLIAM E KOMM, MICHAEL W LITTLE, DOMENIC F
NAPOLITANO, DAVID A SHARP, DOUGLAS VEILLEUX
2009258095 autonomous data relay buoy
DAVID E BOSSERT, RAY SAMPSON, JEFFREY N ZERBE
2008338937 methods and apparatus for marine deployment
AUSTRALIA, FRANCE, UK
JAMES BARGER, MARSHALL BRINN,
STEPHEN D MILLIGAN, RICHARD MULLEN
2010236048 systems and methods for disambiguating shooter
locations
AUSTRALIA, ISRAEL
JAMES BARGER, MARSHALL BRINN,
STEPHEN D MILLIGAN
2009200778 self-calibrating shooter estimation
KEVIN J HIGGINS
2006312257 ejectable aerodynamic stability and control
AUSTRALIA, JAPAN
JOSEPH M CROWDER, PATRICIA S DUPUIS,
MICHAEL C FALLICA, JOHN B FRANCIS,
JOSEPH LICCIARDELLO, ANGELO M PUZELLA
2007297507 tile sub-array and related circuits and techniques
SHAWN W MILLER
2005327183 simulating a sensing system (RIMS)
AUSTRIA, FRANCE, GERMANY, GREECE, IRELAND,
ITALY, POLAND, SPAIN, TURKEY, UK
JAMES BARGER, MARSHALL BRINN,
STEPHEN D MILLIGAN, RICHARD MULLEN
2199817 method for determining an unambiguous projectile trajectory
CANADA
YUCHOI F LOK
2503581 weather and airborne clutter suppression using a cluster
shape classifier
SHARON A ELSWORTH, MARVIN I FREDBERG, THAD
FREDERICKSON, WILLIAM H FOSSEY JR, STUART PRESS
2513865 high strength, long durability strutural fabric/seam system
STEVEN G BUCZEK, STUART COPPEDGE,
ALEC EKMEKJI, SHAHROKH HASHEMI-YEGANEH,
WILLIAM MILROY
600627 true-time-delay feed network for CTS array
REZA TAYRANI
2539776 miniature broadband switched filter bank
REZA DIZAJI, RICK MCKERRACHER, TONY PONSFORD
2567572 system and method for concurrent operation of multiple
radar or active sonar systems on a common frequency
REZA TAYRANI
2595944 two stage microwave Class E power amplifier
PATRICK M KILGORE
2659847 system and method for adaptive non-uniformity
compensation for a focal plane array
JIM HAWS, BYRON E SHORT JR
2383703 method and apparatus for cooling with a phase change
material and heat pipes
LLOYD LINDER
2502451 mixed technology MEMS/BICMOS LC bandpass sigmadelta for direct RF sampling
CANADA, FRANCE, GERMANY, UK
RUSSELL BERG, KENNETH W BROWN, DAVID J CANICH
2669898 multifunctional radio frequency directed energy system
CANADA, JAPAN
PETER BARBELLA, TAMARA L FRANZ,
BARBARA E PAUPLIS
2513883 technique for non-coherent integration of targets with
ambiguous velocities
ELI BROOKNER
2541434 efficient technique for estimating elevation angle when
using a broad beam for search in a radar
WENDELL D BRADSHAW, MICHAEL HOWARD,
DAVID PAYTON, TIMOTHY D SMITH
2569480 system and method for automated search by distributed
element
CHINA
JAMES BARGER, MARSHALL BRINN,
STEPHEN D MILLIGAN
ZL201010290628.1 self calibrating shooter estimation
JOHN BEDINGER, ROBERT B HALLOCK,
MICHAEL A MOORE, KAMAL TABATA
ZL200880011449.0 passivation layer for a circuit device and
method of manufacture
DANIEL FLOYD, DOUGLAS HALL
ZL200780032768.5 method and apparatuses for squelch break
signaling device to provide session initiation protocol
STEPHEN JACOBSEN
ZL200780049707 versatile endless track for lightweight mobile robots
EDWARD KITCHEN, DARIN S WILLIAMS
ZL200580036562.0 flir-to-missile boresight correlation and
non-uniformity compensation of the missile seeker
DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, SWEDEN
DELMAR L BARKER, MEAD MASON JORDAN,
HOWARD W POISL
2257496 particle beam carbon nanotube growth method
EGYPT, TAIWAN
WILLIAM T STIFFLER
25533, 358376 programmable cockpit upgrade system
FINLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, SWEDEN, UK
TAMRAT AKALE, EDUARDO D BARRIENTOS JR,
MICHAEL T CRNKOVICH. LAWRENCE DALCONZO,
DAVID J DRAPEAU, CHRISTOPHER A MOYE
1927154 compact multilayer circuit
FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, UK
KERRIN A RUMMEL, RICHARD M WEBER,
WILLIAM G WYATT
2024692 method and apparatus for cooling electronics with a
coolant at a subambient pressure
FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, UK
KENNETH W BROWN. REID F LOWELL,
ALAN RATTRAY, A-LAN V REYNOLDS
2336709 weapon having lethal and non-lethal directed-energy
portions
STEVEN D BERNSTEIN, WILLIAM E HOKE,
RALPH KORENSTEIN, JEFFREY R LAROCHE
2082431 boron aluminum boron nitride diamond heterostructure
transistors
FRANCE, GERMANY, JAPAN, UK
RICHARD T KARON, MICHAEL E LEVESQUE
1749287, 4989464 event alert system and method
FRANCE, GERMANY, UK
RICHARD L SITZMANN, GREGORY A WILKINSON
1743135 launcher with dual mode electronics
GEORGE F BARSON, JIM HAWS, RICHARD M WEBER
2112875 thermal management system and method for electronic
equipment mounted on coldplates
ALEXANDER A BETIN, KALIN SPARIOSU
2284966 high energy solid-state laser with offset pump and
extraction geometry
ALEXANDER A BETIN, KALIN SPARIOSU
1816713 laser with spectral converter
FREDERICK A AHRENS, KENNETH W BROWN,
JEFF L VOLLIN
2232296 system and method for diverting a guided missile
ALEXANDER A BETIN, DAVID A ROCKWELL,
VLADIMIR V SHKUNOV
2260550 method and apparatus for generation and amplification
of light in a semi-guiding high aspect ratio core fiber
FRANCIS J MORRIS
2127506 method for fabricating electrical circuitry on ultra-thin
plastic films
MARK C DIETRICH, CHARLES N TREPANIER,
TIMOTHY R WERCH
2279116 aircraft flight termination system and method
DELMAR L BARKER, MEAD MASON JORDAN,
WILLIAM RICHARD OWENS
2262726 system and method for low-power nanotube growth
using direct resistive heating
DANIEL D GEE, MIN S HONG, CHARLES F KAMINSKI,
JUAN F LAM, HAROLD B ROUNDS,
ROBERT SHUMAN, SCOTT D WHITTLE
2251705 system and method for operating a radar system in a
continuous wave mode for data communication
DELMAR L BARKER, ANDREW GREENTREE, NITESH N
SHAH, HARRY SCHMITT, DONALD E WAAGEN
2310874 system and method of orbital angular momentum (OAM)
diverse signal processing using classical beams
ROBERT CAVALLERI, LLOYD KINSEY JR,
THOMAS A OLDEN
2297543 solid-fuel pellet thrust and control actuation system to
maneuver a flight vehicle
ROBERT HARROVER, JOHN S LEAR, JOHN E STEM,
KENNETH W WRIGHT
2249515 monitoring communications using a unified
communications protocol
MARK S HAUHE, CLIFTON QUAN
2230713 switchable 0/180 degree phase shifter on flexible
coplanar strip transmission line
DAVID A ROCKWELL, VLADIMIR V SHKUNOV,
JOSHUA N WENTLANDT
2211216 monolithic pump coupler for high-aspect ratio solid-state
gain media
FRANCE, SPAIN, TURKEY, UK
KENNETH J MCPHILLIPS, ARNOLD W NOVICK
2030041 methods and systems for passive range and depth
localization
GERMANY
JAMES WHITTY
102006021364 telescopic sighting device with variable exit pupil
WILLIAM MOSLEY JR, DONALD STEPHENS
19755897 noise estimator
ISRAEL
RICHARD M LLOYD
185239, 185240 warhead with aligned projectiles
ROBERT W BYREN, DAVID FILGAS, ROBIN A REEDER
172951 slab laser and method with improved and directionally
homogenized beam quality
ANDREW B FACCIANO, ROBERT T MOORE,
JAMES E PARRY, JOHN T WHITE
173568 missile with multiple nosecones
LE T PHAM
181274 method and apparatus providing single bump, multi-color
pixel architecture
WESLEY DWELLY, VINH ADAMS
177147 short pulse/stepped frequency radar system and method
of sensing using the same
ROBERT W BYREN
179315 beam control system with extended beacon and method
QUENTEN E DUDEN, ALLAN T MENSE
182473 catalyzed decomposing foam for encapsulating spacebased kinetic objects
DANIEL CHASMAN, STEPHEN D HAIGHT,
MICHAEL A LEAL
183001 missile control system and method
ALEXANDER A BETIN, VLADIMIR V SHKUNOV
189448 laser amplifier power extraction enhancement system
and method
LACY G COOK
193179 pointable optical system with coude optics having a short
on-gimbal path length
LEONARD P CHEN, DAVID R RHIGER
192510 multi-layer pixellated gamma-ray detector
MARY ONEILL, WILLIAM H WELLMAN
152185 a system and method for time-to-intercept determination
ISRAEL, SOUTH KOREA
SHANNON DAVIDSON, ROBERT J PETERSON
178607 system and method for computer cluster virtualization
using dynamic boot images and virtual disk
ITALY, SPAIN, TURKEY, UK
KARL G DAXLAND, FREDERICK FRODYMA,
JOHN R GUARINO, NAMIR W HABBOOSH.
WILLIAM HORAN, RAYMOND JANSSEN,
LEONARD V LIVERNOIS, DAVID A SHARP
1941298 method and apparatus for acoustic system having a
transceiver module
JAPAN
JAMES SMALL
4970697 optical magnetron for high efficiency production of
optical radiation
GIB LEWIS
4913756 overlapping subarray architecture
WESLEY T DULL, JEROME H POZGAY
4988596 system and technique for calibrating radar arrays
RUDOLPH RADAU JR, PHILIP C THERIAULT
4991539 imaging optical system including a telescope and an
uncooled warm-stop structure
JOHN S ANDERSON, JAMES ANDREW, ROBERT K
DODDS, ADAM M KENNEDY, TODD E SESSLER,
DMITRY SHMOYS, DAVID VAN LUE
4903578 thermally stabilized radiation detector utilizing
temperature controlled radiation filter
HAROLD FENGER, MARK S HAUHE, CLIFTON QUAN,
KEVIN C ROLSTON, TSE E WONG
5015607 circuit board assembly and method of attaching a chip to
a circuit board with a fillet bond not covering RF traces
ROBERT P ENZMANN, FRITZ STEUDEL,
GEORGE THOME
5009282 system and method for coherently combining a plurality
of radars
MICHAEL K BURKLAND, DAVID B HATFIELD,
ELAINE E SEASLY
4965262 molecular containment film modeling tool
JAMES BALLEW, SHANNON DAVIDSON
4986844 system and method for detecting and managing HPC
node failure
ROBERT ALLISON, RON K NAKAHIRA, JOON PARK,
BRIAN H TRAN
4927758 micro-electrical-mechanical device and method of
making same
JAMES HOLDERLE, JAMES A KEEBAUGH,
JEFFREY W LEWELLEN
4909282 determining a predicted performance of a navigation system
JAMES FLORENCE, CLAY E TOWERY
4965457 method and apparatus for safe operation of an
electronic firearm sight
MICHAEL B SCHOBER
4955668 system and method for passively estimating angle and
range of a source using signal samples collected simultaneously
from a multi-aperture antenna
DAVID D HESTON, JON MOONEY
5011312 method system for high power switching
WILLIAM COLEMAN JR, MARK A GLOUDEMANS,
WILLIAM MOSLEY JR, JAYANTI PATEL,
BROR PETERSON
5011317 reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of a signal
ANDREW B FACCIANO, GREGG J HLAVACEK,
ROBERT T MOORE
4861406 separable structure material
STEPHEN JACOBSEN, DAVID MARCEAU,
DAVID MARKUS, SHAYNE ZURN
4939547 ultra-high density connector
ROBERT CAVALLERI, THOMAS A OLDEN
5016134 pellet propellant and composite propellant rocket motor
GARY A FRAZIER
4944617 method and apparatus for detecting radiation at one
wavelength using a detector for a different wavelength
WILLIAM E HOKE, THEODORE KENNEDY,
PETER LEMONIAS
4912558 high electron mobility transistor
SHIN-TSON WU
5015402 colorless and low viscosity compounds for low voltage
liquid crystal operation
HOWARD S NUSSBAUM, WILLIAM P POSEY
4949597 DDS spur mitigation in a high performance radar exciter
ROY P MCMAHON
4903363 electrical cable having an organized signal placement
and its preparation
KENNETH W BROWN, THOMAS DRAKE
4933020 folded cavity-backed slot antenna
JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA
JOHN P BETTENCOURT, ALAN J BIELUNIS,
KATHERINE J HERRICK
4902533 microstrip power sensor
KIUCHUL HWANG, ELSA K TONG
4988703 semiconductor devices having improved field plates
MICHAEL G ADLERSTEIN, KIUCHUL HWANG
4965463 monolithic integrated circuit having enhancement mode/
depletion mode field effect transistors and field effect transistors
JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA, TAIWAN
KIUCHUL HWANG
4913046 field effect transistor
MEXICO
BENJAMIN DOLGIN
296102 positioning, detection and communication system
and method
NORWAY
ROBERT ALLISON, RON K NAKAHIRA, JOON PARK
332052 micro electro-mechanical system device with piezoelectric
thin film actuator
SOUTH KOREA
MICHAEL G ADLERSTEIN, KATHERINE J HERRICK
10-1121769 broadband microwave power sensor
DAVID D HESTON, JON MOONEY, JOHN SELIN
10-1121772 quadrature offset power amplifier
KATHERINE J HERRICK
10-1126642 reflect antenna
ROBERT E LEONI
10-1149889 optical link
JAMES BALLEW, GARY R EARLY
10-1159377 high performance computing system and method
MICHAEL G ADLERSTEIN, THOMAS E KAZIOR,
STEVEN M LARDIZABAL, CHRISTOPHER P
MCCARROLL, JEROME H POZGAY
10-1148888 MMIC back-side multi-layer signal routing
ANTHONY RICHOUX
10-1160721 scheduling in a high-performance computing system
SHANNON DAVIDSON
10-1159386 on-demand instantiation in a high performance
computer system
WILLIAM E HOKE, JOHN MOSCA
0-1157921 gallium nitride high electron mobility transistor structure
JOHN C TREMBLAY, COLIN S WHELAN
10-1116776 method for designing input circuitry for transistor
power amplifier
EDWARD M JACKSON, HEE KYUNG KYUNG KIM,
CLIFTON QUAN, KEVIN C ROLSTON,
FANGCHOU YANG
10-1139581 multi-layer microwave corrugated printed circuit
board and method
TAIWAN
MICHAEL K HOLZ, IRL W SMITH
358552 wide-angle beam steering system
BORIS S JACOBSON
358186 method and apparatus for converting power
UNITED KINGDOM
RANDALL S BROOKS
2471971 system and method for transferring information through
a trusted network
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RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2012 ISSUE 2 75
Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.
Approved for public release. Printed in the USA.
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