Environmental Management Plan - Ministry of Environment and

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Environmental Management Plan - Ministry of Environment and
Environmental Management Plan for Bajoli Holi H. E. Project (180 MW) Chamba, Himachal Pradesh February, 2010
Prepared by:
R. S. Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 402, Radisson Suites Commercial Plaza, Sushant Lok‐I, Block‐B, Gurgaon‐122 009 (Haryana) Ph. +91‐124‐4295383; www.rstechnologies.co.in On Behalf of
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Old Uddan Bhawan, IGI Air Port, Palam, New Delhi CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BIODIVERSITY 1.2 MAJOR THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY 1.3 BIODIVERISTY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 1.4 CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES & DEVELOPMENT WORKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN 1.4.1 Establishment of Botanical Garden 1.4.2 Noise Mitigation and Management 1.4.3 Habitat Improvement Programme 1.4.4 Conservation and cultivation of Medicinal Plants 1.4.5 Eco‐Development Works 1.4.6 Anti‐poaching Measures 1.4.7 Control of Grazing 1.4.8 Control of Forest Fire 1.5 INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT PLAN 1.6 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION MEASURES DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE 1.7 MONITORING OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 1.8 COST ESTIMATES 2 CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT PLAN 2.1 NEED FOR CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT 2.2 APPROACH FOR THE STUDY 2.2.1 Definition of the Problem 2.2.2 Data Acquisition and Preparation 2.2.3 Output Presentation 2.3 ESTIMATION OF SOIL LOSS USING SILT YIELD INDEX (SYI) METHOD 2.4 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES 2.5 CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT (CAT) PLAN 2.6 COST ESTIMATE Page No. 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.10 1.14 1.16 1.17 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.21 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.10 2.10 2.14 2.14 2.21 3
FISHERIES CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 STATUS OF FISHERIES IN HIMACHAL & CHAMBA DISTRICT 3.3 FISH FAUNA OF RAVI RIVER 3.4 ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT ON AQUATIC ECOLOGY & MITIGATION MEASURES 3.4.1 Construction Phase 3.4.2 Operation Phase 3.5 FISH CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 3.5.1 Indigenous Fishes 3.5.2 Exotic Fishes 3.5.3 Management Measures 3.6 COMPENSATION CHARGES & COST ESTIMATES 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.10 4
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN 4.1 INTRODCUTION 4.2 INFLUX OF MIGRANT POPULATION 4.3 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE 4.4 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.5 5
PUBLIC HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM 5.1 THE PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL FACILITIES 5.2 THREATS TO PUBLIC HEALTH 5.2.1 New Diseases due to Migratory Population 5.2.2 Vector‐Borne Diseases 5.3 MEDICAL FACILITIES 5.4 HEALTH EXTENSION ACTIVITIES 5.5 COST ESTIMATES 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 6
ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES 6.2.1 Provisions for Kitchen Fuel 6.3 COST ESTIMATES 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.2 7
MUCK DISPOSAL PLAN 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 QUANTITY OF MATERIAL TO BE EXCAVATED 7.3 DUMPING SITES 7.4 PROCESS OF DUMPING 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.5 7.5
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RECLAMATION MEASURES FOR STABILIZATION OF SPOIL DUMPS 7.5.1 Engineering Measures 7.5.2 Biological Measures FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.8 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.7 8
LANDSCAPING & RESTORATION PLAN 8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.2 LANDSCAPING AND RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION AREAS 8.2.1 Disturbed Sites & their Restoration 8.3 LANDSCAPING & RESTORATION OF QUARRY SITES 8.4 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 8.5 COST ESTIMATES 9
AIR & WATER ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN 9.1 IMPACTS ON PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 9.2 AIR ENVIRONMENT 9.2.1 Impacts on Ambient Air Quality 9.2.2 Mitigation Measures for Air Emissions 9.2.3 Noise Levels 9.2.4 Mitigation Measures for Noise Impact 9.3 WATER ENVIRONMENT 9.4 ACCIDENTAL RISKS 9.4.1 Safety in Explosive Handling 9.4.2 Safety during Construction 9.5 COST ESTIMATES 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.10 9.10 9.11 9.13 10 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 10.1 INTRODUCTION 10.2 DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN BELT 10.3 GUIDELINES & TECHNIQUES FOR GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT 10.4 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT 10.4.1 Roadside plantation 10.4.2 Green belt development along the reservoir rim 10.4.3 Green belt at dam site and Power house site 10.4.4 Green belt around crusher plants 10.4.5 Green Belt around colony area and Office Complex 10.5 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR GREEN BELT PLAN 10.6 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 11 RESERVOIR RIM TREATMENT PLAN 11.1 INTRODCUTION 11.2 REMEDIAL MEASURES 12 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION PLAN 12.1 INTRODUCTION 12.2 ENERGY NEEDS 12.3 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION STRATEGY FOR THE PROPOSED PROJECT 12.3.1 Diversion of Forest Land for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project 12.4 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME 12.4.1 Fuel Wood & Fodder Plants 12.4.2 Fencing 12.4.3 Watch & Ward/ Fire Protection 12.4.4 Sites & Cost of Compensatory Afforestation 12.5 NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) 11.1 11.3 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.3 12.5 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.8 12.8 13 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 13.1 INTRODUCTION 13.2 NEED FOR DAM BREAK MODELING 13.2.1 Emergency Planning 13.2.2 Development Control 13.2.3 Insurance Companies 13.3 DAM BREAK MODEL 13.4 METHODOLOGY 13.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 13.6 DAM BREAK MODELING PROCESS 13.6.1 Hydrodynamic Modeling 13.6.2 Description of Reservoir and Appurtenant Structures 13.6.3 Boundary Conditions for Dam Break Modeling 13.6.4 Specifications of Dam Break Structures 13.6.5 Geometrical Specifications 13.6.6 Breach Characteristics 13.6.7 Failure Moment 13.7 OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT 13.8 INPUT DATA AND MODEL SET‐UP 13.8.1 Input Data Requirement 13.8.2 Design Flood Hydrograph 13.9 DAM BREAK SIMULATION 13.9.1 Selection of Dam Breach Parameters 13.9.2 Critical Condition for Dam Break Study 13.10 ASSUMPTIONS 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.9 13.9 13.10 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.12 13.12 13.13 13.11 DISCUSSIONS ON RESULTS 13.11.1 Dam Break Study for Design Flood Hydrograph 13.12 PREPARATION OF INUNDATION MAP 13.13 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 13.13.1 Surveillance 13.13.2 Emergency Action Plan 13.13.3 Administrative and Procedural Aspects 13.13.4 Preventive Action 13.13.5 Communication System 13.13.6 Merits of Satellite Communication System 13.13.7 Financial Outlay for Installation of VSAT Communication System 13.13.8 Evacuation Plans 13.13.9 Notifications 13.13.10 Cost Estimates for Disaster Management 13.14 13.14 13.18 13.18 13.21 13.21 13.22 13.22 13.22 13.23 13.24 14 REHABILITATION & RESETTLEMENT PLAN 14.1 INTRODUCTION 14.2 LAND REQUIREMENT 14.3 SOCIO ECONOMIC SURVEY 14.3.1 Profile of the Project Affected Villages 14.3.2 Estimation of PAFs category 14.3.3 Demographic Profile of affected families 14.3.4 Educational profile of project affected families 14.3.5 House type of PAFs 14.3.6 Livestock Population 14.3.7 Material Assets 14.3.8 Major crops grown 14.3.9 Kitchen Fuel used by PAFs 14.3.10 Income Pattern 14.3.11 Other Sources of Income 14.4 RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION PRINCIPLES 14.4.1 Objectives of Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan 14.4.2 Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan 14.4.3 Definitions 14.5 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION MEASURES 14.5.1 R & R Benefits 14.5.2 Other Benefits 14.5.3 Procedure for Applying Grants 14.6 EXISTING FACILITIES IN THE AFFECTED AREA 14.7 PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROJECT AREA 14.7.1 Temples 14.7.2 Assistance to Primary Health Centers 14.1 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3 14.4 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.7 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.9 14.11 14.11 14.12 14.15 14.15 14.18 14.19 14.19 14.21 13.24 13.25 13.25 14.22 14.22 14.7.3 Cremation Ghat 14.7.4 Assistance to Project Affected Villages for Fodder 14.7.5 Subsidized LPG for PAF 14.7.6 Economic Development 14.7.7 Income Generation Schemes 14.7.8 Sponsoring Self‐Help Groups 14.7.9 Project Implementation Centers (PICs) 14.7.10 Village industry 14.7.11 Fair price shops 14.8 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR R&R IMPLEMENTATION 14.9 BUDGET FOR R&R 14.22 14.22 14.22 14.23 14.23 14.23 14.23 14.23 14.23 14.24 14.27 15 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME 15.1 INTRODUCTION 15.2 WATER QUALITY 15.3 AIR QUALITY 15.4 NOISE 15.5 MUCK/ DEBRIS DUMPING AND DISPOSAL 15.6 MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW 15.7 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 16 COST ESTIMATES PLATES 1‐ 17 ANNEXURES I‐VI Annexure‐I Annexure‐II Annexure‐III Annexure‐IV Annexure‐V Annexure‐VI 16.1 Supreme Court’s order regarding Net Present Value Payment (Case of T.N. Godaverman Thirumulpad versus Union of India & ors Analysis of Downstream Flood Hydrograph for Bajoli Holi H.E.P. Questionnaire for Socio‐Economic Survey of Affected Villages due to Project related Activities of Proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project Socio‐Economic Survey of Affected Families due to Project related Activities List of Project Affected Families Details of Stakeholders Meeting for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project LIST OF TABLES Table No. Table 1.1: Cost estimation for the Establishment of Botanical Garden Table 1.2: Species suggested for Afforestation programme Table 1.3: Estimated cost of habitat improvement for avi‐fauna in the influence zone and catchment area Table 1.4: Medicinal plants species proposed for plantation in project area Table 1.5: Estimated cost of Biodiversity Conservation and Management Plan implementation Table 2.1: Land use classification for free draining catchment at diversion site Table 2.2: Area falling under different slope categories Table 2.3: Soil loss ranges for the river catchment Table 2.4: Criteria for erosion intensity rate Table 2.5: Basis for selection of catchment area treatment measures Table 2.6: Erosion intensity categorization as per SYI classification Table 2.7: Erosion intensity rates in Free Draining Catchment Table 2.8: Sub‐watershed wise proposed treatment measures Table 2.9: Cost estimate for Catchment Area Treatment of Bajoli Holi H. E. Project Table 2.10: Year wise target (physical and financial) for Catchment Area Treatment Plan Table 3.1: Fish fauna reported in Ravi river Table 3.2 Cost estimates for fisheries conservation measures Table 3.3 Cost estimates for compensation charges to be paid to Fisheries Department Table 4.1: Periodic Workforce Requirement during Construction Phase Table 4.2: Calculation of Total Migrant Population (Peak time) Table 4.3: Cost Estimate for Solid Waste Management Plan Table 5.1: Budgetary estimates for developing health care facilities Page No. 1.8 1.10 1.14 1.15 1.21 2.4 2.4 2.10 2.13 2.15 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.21 2.23 3.2 3.10 3.11 4.2 4.2 4.5 5.4 Table 6.1: Financial Provision for Energy Conservation Measures Table 7.1: Quantity estimation for Dumping in identified areas Table 7.2: Quantity of muck to be disposed at different muck disposal sites Table 7.3 Cost of engineering structures to be built at muck disposal sites Table 7.4: Financial requirements for implementation of Muck Disposal Plan Table 8.1: Details of project roads proposed to access various project components Table 8.2: Details of the quarry sites proposed in the Bajoli Holi H.E. Project Table 8.3: Cost estimates for landscaping and restoration works Table 9.1: Impacts during Construction Phase Table 9.2: List of relevant BIS Standards Table 9.3: Estimated cost of implementation of mitigation and safety measures Table 10.1: List of plants species proposed for Green Belt development Table 10.2: Cost estimate for Green belt development in Bajoli Holi H.E. Project Table 11.1: Cost estimate for landslide treatment in reservoir periphery Table 12.1: Details of the forest land to be acquired for construction of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project Table 12.2: Species suggested for Compensatory Afforestation Table 12.3: Cost estimates of Compensatory Afforestation Plan Table 13.1: Elevation‐Volume relationship of the reservoir Table 13.2: Discharge Capacity through spillway Table 13.3: Design Flood Hydrograph (PMF) Table 13.4: Profile of crests and times for Ravi river below Bajoli Holi dam Table 13.5: Estimated cost of setting up of a satellite communication system 6.2 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2 8.5 8.7 9.2 9.12 9.13 10.2 10.5 11.3 12.3 12.6 12.8 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.14 13.26 Table 14.1: Land Requirement for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project 14.2 Table 14.2: List of Project Affected Villages 14.3 Table 14.3: Categories of Project Affected Families 14.4 Table 14.4: Demographic profile of project affected villages 14.4 Table 14.5: Literacy Rate of Project Affected Families 14.5 14.6 Table 14.6: Type of housing structure based on materials used for construction Table 14.7: Livestock population of Project Affected Families 14.6 Table 14.8: Assets owned by Project Affected Families 14.7 Table 14.9: Kitchen fuel used by Project Affected Families 14.9 Table 14.10: Income Pattern 14.8 Table 14.11: Other sources of income of Project Affected Families 14.10 Table 14.12: Resettlement plan including basic facilities for PAFs 14.16 Table 14.13: Rehabilitation Grant for Project Affected Families 14.18 Table 14.14: Existing facilities in the Project Affected Area 14.21 Table 14.15: Summary of budgetary estimates for 14.27 implementation of R & R Plan 15.4 Table 15.1: Cost estimates for Environmental Monitoring Programme Table 15.2: Matrix of Environmental Monitoring Plan 15.5 Table 16.1: Cost Estimates for the Implementation of Various Measures 16.1 under EMP LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Figure 1.1: Nest Box Figure 2.1: Satellite imagery of free draining catchment at diversion site Figure 2.2: Land use/ land cover classification for free draining catchment at diversion site Figure 2.3: Slope map of free draining catchment at diversion site Figure 2.4: Soil map of free draining catchment at diversion site Figure 2.5: Erosion map of free draining catchment at diversion site Figure 2.6: Prioritisation of sub‐watersheds Figure 2.7: Proposed areas to be treated Figure 2.8: Year‐wise Treatment index map Figure 10.1: Plantation techniques for green belt development at different project locations Figure 11.1: Reservoir area Plan of Bajoli Holi H.E. project showing accumulation of Debri material above periphery Figure 11.2: Accumulation of debris material due to road cut in the reservoir area of Bajoli Holi H.E. project Figure 13.1 Inundation map Page No. 1.13 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.11 2.18 2.19 2.20 10.2 11.4 11.4 13.20 GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 1 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 1.0 INTRODUCTION Biodiversity is part of our daily lives and livelihood, and constitutes resources upon which families, communities, nations and future generations depend. Every organism and its variation are unique and have its own role to play in a particular ecological niche. During the last few decades, the pace of species extinction has increased dramatically as a result of human activities. Ecosystems are being fragmented or eliminated, and several species are in decline. The fragmentation, degradation, and loss of habitats pose serious threat to biological diversity. These losses are irreversible and pose a threat to our own well being, considering our dependence on food crop and medicines and other biological resources. Conservation of biodiversity is a global concern and its protection is one of the challenging tasks facing mankind today. One of the key underlying assumptions about biodiversity management is that native species and ecological processes are most likely to be maintained. To maintain and strengthen the biodiversity management recommendations are primarily aimed at managed forests. The recommendations are designed to promote long term stand level maintenance and recruitment of important structural attributes such as: wildlife, diversity of species, special or unique habitats for floral and faunal wealth, riparian areas and wetlands, coarse woody debris, horizontal and vertical structural diversity. The main objective of Biodiversity Conservation and Management plan is sustainable use of natural resources which involves scientific management of natural wealth vis‐à‐vis developmental activities is likely to affect these resources. The threats to natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems generally arise due to by anthropogenic activities that may arise as a result of construction and associated activities of proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project. Therefore, Biodiversity Conservation & Management plan has been formulated for the conservation and management of the forest ecosystems in Bajoli Holi H.E. Project area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 1.1 EMP Report BIODIVERSITY Flora: The forests of the area are rich in biodiversity and play a vital role in preserving the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. The forests in study area are represented by following forest types viz. Moist Deodar forest, Western Mixed Coniferous forest, Moist Temperate forest, Quercus semecarpifolia (Kharsu oak) forest, Alnus nepalensis forest and Alpine pastures at the higher altitudes. In the project study area the tree layer is dominated by Cedrus deodara, Quercus semecarpifolia and Pinus wallichiana followed by Salix denticulata, Acer caesium, Populus ciliata, etc. Shrub layer is dominated by the Desmodium elegans, Sorbaria tomentosa,Indigofera heterantha, Elsholtzia fruticosa, Wikstroemia canescens, Rubus foliolosus, Ephedra gerardiana, Daphne retusa, etc. The ground layer was remains covered with grasses such as Capillipedium parviflorum, Poa annua, Arundinella nepalensis, Microstegium nudum, Themeda anathera and some herbs like Anaphalis triplinervis, Inula royleana, Amaranthus hybridus, Mentha arvensis, Echinops cornigerus, Urtica dioica, Geranium nepalensis, etc. are found. Some principally utilized and locally exploited species of the region Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Abies pindrow, Quercus semecarpifolia, Quercus leucotrichophora, Cornus macrophylla, Morus alba, Pyrus pashia, Ficus palmata, Acer oblongum, Acer laevigatum, etc. As per Red Data Book (RDB) of Indian plants (Nayar & Sastry, 1987‐90) none of the rare, endangered and threatened plant species were recorded within the project area. However, Aswal & Mehrotra (1982) collected a rare species, Delphinium uncinatum Hk. f. & T. (Ranunculaceae), from a patch of Quercus‐
Rhododendron forest (ca. 1500 m) which has been listed under "Vulnerable" category of Red Data Book Plants of India. During the field study the species was not recorded from the project area. Like elsewhere in mountains, in this area too, there is heavy dependence of surrounding villagers on the forests for their fuel/fodder requirements. It is possible that due to the project development the nearby forest areas would come under heavy pressure. Hence, to minimize the adverse impacts of project on biological wealth a sound biodiversity plan is essentially required. Fauna: The area is rich in wildlife. Common mammalian species found in the periphery of project area are Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Rhesus RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report macaque (Macaca mulatta), Serow (Capricornis summatraensis), Bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), Himalayan langur (Presbytis entellus), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Marten (Martes flavigula) and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak). Some of the mammalian species found in this area are listed in the threatened and endangered categories. Snow leopard and Musk deer inhabits in the higher reaches of the catchment area and falls into endangered category while Himalayan Goral, Himalayan tahr and Leopard falls into threatened category. Urial, Serow and Himalayan black bear categorized in vulnerable category and other species like, Brown bear, Jackal, Red fox and Wolf falls into least concern category in the Red Data Book of IUCN. During the avifaunal survey in the project site, a total of 122 species of avifauna were sighted. Among these avifauna most commonly found species are Common babbler, Black drongo, Common myna, Black bulbul, House crow, House sparrow, Great tit and Himalayan griffon etc. Some of the birds i.e. Common myna, Sparrow, Red vented bulbul, Jungle babbler, Grey treepie, Yellow bellied blue magpie, Himalayan bulbul and Himalayan griffon migrate from forest to urban area. The birds utilize a range of habitat for their feeding and breeding and most of them are local migrants. However, winter and summer migrants such as, Brown dipper, Large billed crow, White wagtail and White capped water redstart are reported from the area. These birds keep migrating from one habitat to another depending upon the weather condition and availability of food. For example, Grey treepie, Yellow bellied blue magpie, Black bulbul and Hill partridge reside and nest in forested area but visit the crop fields for their food. However, some birds such as, House sparrow, Common myna, Red vented bulbul, Large billed crow reside near the human habitats but visit the forest area in search of food. The project area other than the submerged zone provides a variety of habitat types for the residence and breeding for these birds. Endemism among the birds in this region is higher than among mammals. Two species viz. Cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichii) and Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) are also found in the higher elevations of the region and categorized in vulnerable category as per the Red Data Book of IUCN which makes the area significant from the conservation point of view. Protected Area Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary is the nearest sanctuary from the Bajoli Holi H. E. project which is about 11 km aerial distance from the proposed dam site. None of the project structures fall within the Wildlife Sanctuary. This RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report sanctuary starts from downstream of Bara Bangahal area touching Kullu, Lahaul Spiti, Kangra and Mandi district boundaries and watersheds of Bir Khad up to 3122 m. The total area of the sanctuary is 944 sq km. For administrative convenience, the sanctuary has been divided into four Forest Blocks and thirteen Beats. There are eleven Gram Panchayats and forty four hamlets with a human population of 13922. Most of the sanctuary area remains covered with snow for nearly eight months. Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary is contiguous to Manali, Kugti, Tundah and Nagru Wildlife Sanctuaries which form a unique bio‐geographic location (Western, North‐Western and Trans‐Himalayan Ranges). This area is very important from ecological, geomorphological and geographical point of view and qualifies to be declared as World Heritage site under UNESCO’s recognition. The wide range of altitudinal variations and gradual precipitous slopes combine together makes it very rich in flora and fauna. Moreover, many perennial rivers forming tributaries flowing into the river Ravi originates from this sanctuary. Rich in scenic beauty, lush green forests, endless landscape, snowclad peaks and panoramic views changes from place to place are paradise for the nature appreciators and adventure loving people. The area is rich in medicinal herbs like Braham Kamal (Saussurea obvallata), Kuru (Picrorhiza kurrooa), Patish (Aconitum heterophyllum), Ban Kakri (Podophyllum hexandrum), Guchhi (Morchella esculenta), Dhoop (Jurinea macropoda), Banafsa (Viola canescens), Ban Ajwain (Thymus serphyllum) and Hathpanja (Dactylorhiza hatagirea) etc. which are one of the sources of income for the local inhabitants. Due to wide range of variation in altitude and habitat variety of wildlife are found in the Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary. Goral (Naemorheadus goral), Himalayan thar (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogastor), Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), Common leopard (Panthera pardus), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus), Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Among pheasants, Monal (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklas (Pucrasia macrolopha), Kaleej (Lophura leucomelana), Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus), Cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichii), Chukor (Alectrois chukor), Snow cock (Tetraogallus himalayensis), Common peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus), Snow partridge (Lerwa lerwa), Hill partridge (Arborophilla torqueola) are some of them. A large number of avian fauna both indigenous and migratory comprising over 250 species are found in this sanctuary. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 1.2 EMP Report MAJOR THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Large scale loss of biodiversity has been mainly caused by anthropogenic activities like habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation, biotic interference, grazing, demand for timber, fuel wood, pollution and introduction of exotic species etc. Some of these factors are discussed below in brief. Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation: Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation are important causes of known species‐populations extinctions. The main cause of degradation and depletion of forests and wildlife are the human activity (anthropogenic pressure). Population explosion, over exploitation of forest resources, urbanization, unscientific management, encroachment of forest land, illicit felling, lack of regeneration of forests and outdated laws are major factors responsible for the degradation and depletion of forests in Himachal Pradesh. Deforestation has led to reduction of rainfall, silting of rivers and dams, increase soil erosion, dryness in the air and increase in temperature, adversely affecting not only forestry but also agriculture and horticulture, etc. In the proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project, the threat of habitat disturbance, degradation and fragmentation may not only come from the constructional activities, but also from the population of migrant labourers that will be employed by the project developers from time to time. Biotic Interference: The collection of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) in the form of small timber, fuel wood, and fodder by the people living in the surrounding villages in the project area and areas between the village and Reserved Forests are thereby exerting intensive biotic pressures on these resources. It has often leaded to slope destabilization and soil erosion problems with increasing frequency of landslides. There is likelihood of increase in biotic interference with the influx of labour population during the construction of the project. This floating human population will exert serious pressure on the semi‐natural ecosystems around the activity sites. The pressures may be foreseen in terms of fuel‐wood collection, rearing of livestock and the grazing pressure on the surrounding forest ecosystems. Timber Requirement: There is tremendous pressure on the forests for increasing demand for timber and is growing rapidly. The demand for timber and other wood produce is very high in the state for various activities like the construction of houses, business centers and other development activities owing to rapid population growth. The situation is similar in present project area also. Therefore, the present situation calls for exploring acceptable RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report alternatives for fuel wood, etc. The frequency of occurrence of landslides and soil erosion is increasing with time and in the absence of appropriate measures and steps, it is likely that the construction of the proposed project may add to these problems further. Therefore, the demand of fodder, fuel wood, grass, timber and other natural resources in the project area would be addressed with creation of other alternative schemes. Illegal Removal of NTFP: Non Wood Forest Products (NTFP) constitute an important source of livelihood for the poor and especially landless. There is abundance of medicinal plants and herbs in the project area as well as in the upper catchment. The area is rich in medicinal plants such as Jurinea macrophylla (Dhoop), Aconitum lycoctonum (Mohari), Aconitum heterophyllum (Patis), Picrorhiza kurroa (Kuru), Morchella esculenta (Guchhi) and Saussurea lappa (Kuth). These plants species are illegally and commercially exploited from the region. All species have specific food and habitat needs. The more specific these needs and localized the habitat, the greater the vulnerability of species to loss of habitat to agricultural land, livestock, roads and cities. Grazing Pressure: Livestock play an important role in mountain ecosystem. Various livestock species reared in the study area include sheep, goats and mules. The two common livestock‐rearing systems are the sedentary and transhumant. In the transhumant system sheep and goats are the species preferred. All animals are kept grazing when they stay at high altitudes during summer. During the winter months, animals move to lower altitudes. In the sedentary system, animals are kept in the village throughout the year. Cattle and buffaloes are the preferred species and are mostly stall‐fed. Some families keep small flocks of sheep and goats. The average number of cattle population per household is estimated to be 5‐10 animal heads. The grazing pressure leads to following impacts. • Interference of livestock in the wilderness areas required for wildlife. • Direct competition for forage availability and degraded quality and reduction in the food availability for herbivores. • Transmission of communicable diseases. • Reduction in area of wilderness needed for the wildlife to sustain. Poaching: Poaching is one of the major causes for destruction of wildlife. The poaching has to be checked by regular patrolling and deployment of anti‐
poaching squad formed for the purpose and enforcement of the Wildlife Protection (Act) 1972. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 1.3 EMP Report BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN Even though no rare, endangered and endemic plant or animal species are likely to be affected by project construction and submergence, the existing natural ecosystems in areas constituting upstream catchment of the proposed project need protection and further strengthening of conservation efforts. In order to facilitate State Forest & Wildlife Department’s ongoing conservation efforts, policies and measures and additional mitigation measures have been formulated for the proposed project. Adequate funding support has been provided to strengthen these efforts in the area. During the construction period various activities like road construction, blasting, excavation for tunnels, quarrying, dumping of excavated material and human population pressure on land and biological resources are likely to exert pressure on the biological resources of the region. Keeping in view of above impacts a biodiversity conservation and management plan has been proposed for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project. The main objectives of said plan are as follows: (i)
Maintenance of ecological balance through preservation and restoration of wherever it has been disturbed due to project developmental activities, (ii) Conservation and preservation of natural habitats in catchment area (iii) Rehabilitation of critical species (endangered, rare and threatened species), if any with provisions for in‐situ or ex‐situ conservation of critical/ important plant/ animal species, (iv) Mitigation and control of project induced biotic and/or abiotic pressures/influences that may affect the natural habitats, (v) Habitat enhancement in project catchment area by taking up afforestation and soil conservation measures, (vi) Creating all round awareness regarding conservation and ensuring people’s participation in the conservation efforts and minimizing man animal conflict. 1.4 CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES & DEVELOPMENT WORKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN 1.4.1 Establishment of Botanical Garden This region is rich repository of plants wealth. Out of about 3500 species of flowering plants reported from Himachal Pradesh (HP) more than 500 species are believed to be of medicinal and economic importance, among which nearly 130 species are in great demand and about 68 have been listed in the various IUCN’S threat categories. It is interesting to note that most of the important and threatened plants come from the alpine areas of the Himalaya. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report The aim of this activity will be to preserve the genetic and species diversity of the entire area. The project proponent only proposes the establishment of a botanical garden at suitable place in consultation with Forest Department. Rare, endangered and threatened plant species like Delphinium uncinatum, Acer caesium, Allium stracheyi, Saussurea bracteata, Berberis apiculata, Erysimum thomsonii, Campanula wattiana, Silene kunawarensis, Carex munroi, Eremurus himalaicus, Calanthe pachystalix, Cypripedium cordigerum, Nardostachys grandiflora, Taxus baccata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Saussurea lappa, Saussurea costus, Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Aconitum spp., Picrorhiza kurrooa, Viola spp., Angelica glauca, Jurinea macrocephala, Swertia spp. etc. would be raised in the proposed botanical garden. Besides, habitats conservation, the cultivation, reintroduction, transplantation and rehabilitation in adjoining areas should be done for improving the population of these species. The land for the creation of proposed Botanical Ggarden will be provided by the Forest Department. Required inputs from different research and development institutions will also be sought for suitable techniques and methods for mass propagation, germplasm conservation and species improvement of these species. The cost estimation for establishment and maintenance of botanical garden has been given in Table 1.1. A financial provision of Rs. 82.30 lacs has been made in the management plan to be implemented for at least 5 years initially for this activity and after 5 years this facility would be handed over to State Forest Department. Table 1.1: Cost estimation for the Establishment of Botanical Garden S. No. Requirement Total (Rs. lacs) 1 Salaries/wages Supervisor (1) @Rs. 12000 p.m. fixed
7.20 Gardner (1) @Rs. 6000 p.m. fixed
3.60 Labour (3) @Rs. 150/day
9.00 2 Collection of seeds and plant species
2.00 3 Development of garden (fencing, manure and 2.00 fertilizers, chemicals and insecticides) 4 Nursery development
0.50 5 Plantation 5.50 6 Support from R&D Institution
2.50 7 Contingencies & maintenance @ Lumpsum Rs.
50.00 10.00 lacs per year Total (Rs. lacs) 82.30 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 1.4.2 Noise Mitigation and Management The studies have indicated harmful effects of high noise levels on the behaviour of wild animals and birds in wilderness areas. Generally during the construction period, the noise levels at a distance of 7 meter vary from 100‐
110 dB at a given time. Such high noise levels for prolonged periods pose a health hazard for wildlife. Therefore, during the construction period, even though forest cover would act as a potential noise absorber to some extent, it will be ensured that the noise levels do not go above 100 dB at any given time in the project area. It is proposed to adopt and implement measures like controlled and regulated blasting with strict surveillance and also to devise schedule of implementation after due consultation with concerned wildlife officials keeping the potential impact on animal behavior and their breeding time, nesting, etc. Some of the suggested measures for mitigation of noise impact are given below: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Regular maintenance of equipment that are potential source of noise. The equipment that needs to be placed permanently at one place like generators, etc. should be housed in enclosures consisting of noise absorbing structures. The heavy equipment like rotating or impacting machines should be mounted on anti‐vibration mountings. Wherever combustion engines are required, they will be fitted with silencers. The traffic generated due to movement of trucks, dumpers, etc. used for the project works will be managed to produce a smooth flow instead of a noise producing stop and start flow. Necessary training/ orientation will be provided to the traffic operators/ drivers to make them aware of the environmental aspects of the traffic movement in the forest areas. Sounding of loud horns, etc. in the forested areas is to be prohibited. During the clearing of vegetation the land for any project work, the project authorities will ensure that the working area has sufficient layers of tree cover around it. It will act as an effective noise and dust absorber. It will be ensured that bigger trees are not lopped or cut around the periphery of the site. The tree layer will act as noise buffer and likely to cut off noise by about 3‐12 dB at a site depending upon the density of vegetation. These measures will be planned in advance and well before starting operation at any site. The project authorities will monitor the noise at critical sites from time to time under the Environmental Monitoring Programme. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report viii) Noise Reduction Barriers shall be created in the project area where heavy machinery shall be installed. It will act as an acoustic barrier so that wild animals are not affected adversely by creation of noise produced by the machinery. A provision of Rs. 20.00 lacs has been made in the budget for implementing these measures. 1.4.3 Habitat Improvement Programme Habitat improvement programme is an integral part of biodiversity management. This programme consists of bringing into useful association of those condition needed by a species to reproduce and survive. The following activities have been proposed for habitat improvement programme: a) Afforestation: Area under forest and tree cover will be expanded through systematic planning and implementation of afforestation and rehabilitation programme in degraded and open forests and available non forest lands. Regeneration of felled areas will be ensured in a time bound manner and productivity of plantations will be increased through use of improved seeds and planting stock. The indigenous fruit bearing plants, vital from wildlife point of view are proposed to be planted so as to enrich the habitat & ensure the sufficient availability of food. Monoculture especially of Chir pine will be discouraged and mixed plantations of broad‐leaved fodder, fuel wood and wild fruit species will be promoted. This activity will increase forest cover and will provide habitat to the animals. Afforestation programme in the degraded Forest Compartments, is proposed to be carried out on 18.00 ha of land. The species suggested for afforestation programme is given in Table 1.2. However, the species to be planted may be finalized by the Forest Department. Table 1.2: Species suggested for Afforestation programme Sl. No Scientific Name
Common Name 1 Abies pindrow
Fir
2 Acer oblongum
Kanchul
3 Acer caesium
Kanchul
4 Aesculas indica
Pangar
5 Albizzia lebbek
Siris
6 Alnus nepalensis
Utis
7 Bauhnia variegata
Guiriyal
8 Betula utilis
Bhoj patra
9 Bombax ceiba
Semal
10 Cedrus deodara Deodar
11 Celtis australis
Kharak
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Sl. No Scientific Name
Common Name 12 Cupressus torulosa
Surai
13 Juglans regia
Walnut
14 Melia azedirach
Denk
15 Myrica esculenta
Kaphal
16 Picea smithiana
Spruce
17 Pinus wallichiana
Kail
18 Populus ciliata
Popular
19 Prunus armeniaca
Apricot
20 Prunus communis
Plum 21 Prunus persica
Peach
22 Punica granatum
Pomegranate
23 Pyrus malus
Apple
24 Quercus leucotrichophora Banj
25 Quercus semecarpifolia
Kharsu
26 Rhododendron arboreum Burans
27 Salix babylonica
Majnu
28 Salix denticulata
29 Taxus baccata
Thuner
30 Toona ciliata
Toon
31 Lyonia ovalifolia
Angyar
b) Pasture Development: Shepherds exert tremendous impact on pasturelands of the division by way of grazing their sheep, goat and cattle. In order to improve the pasture and to make pastures sustainable against grazing pressure the low lying areas will be taken up for pasture development. It is proposed to increase the forage availability in all the Forest Compartments by patch sowing of high yielding variety of grass such as Cocks foot (Dactylis glomerata), Perennial Rye grass (Lolium perenne), Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea), Brome grass (Bromus inermis), Timothy grass (Phleum pratense), Poa grass etc. Accordingly, 10 ha area is proposed to be taken for pasture development. c) Nursery Development: Out of the reserve forest area at least 2 nurseries shall be established. Also, the seed sowing by way of dibbling of environmentally and ecologically interactive species in the compartment prone to man‐animal conflict zones is proposed. Accordingly sowing of 50 quintals of high quality seeds is proposed for sowing during the action plan period. The cost of implementation of Habitat Enhancement in the catchment has been covered in CAT plan cost. d) Removal of unwanted plants (weeds) from the habitat. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report e) The human intervention will be regulated in such areas where wild animals concentration is high especially during breeding season f) Habitat Improvement Avi‐fauna: Forests are vital for the survival, foraging, breeding and nesting of avifauna. Natural forests provide a variety of food materials to the birds not only in the form of nectar of flowers, fruits, seeds etc. in the trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses but they also contain a large number of insects eaten by birds. In the forests, food is always available for the faunal component. Although most floral species flower during spring through summer but fruit maturation and seed ripening takes place in them throughout the year. Therefore, the first strategy of improvement of habitat for birds is avoiding nest predation or brood parasitism through maintenance of large contiguous forest tract. These areas have the ability to support the largest number of forest interior birds and will also be more likely to provide habitat for area sensitive species. It is more practicable to protect the existing forest area rather than creating new forest area. Another measure for habitat improvement for avifauna is to be installation of artificial nest boxes in the influence zone and catchment area of the project after consultation with the forest department as well as local NGOs and VCCs. These nest boxes has been found to be quite beneficial for attracting hole nester birds. The size and capacity of boxes vary from one species to another. Provision for providing the same is given in Table 1.3 along with overall budget estimates. Feature of a Nest Box: The characteristic features of nest box are listed below and shown in Figure 1.1. ¾ Untreated wood (Jamun, mango, pine, cedar or fir) ¾ Thick walls (at least ¾ inches) ¾ Extended, sloped roof ¾ Rough or grooved interior walls ¾ Recessed floor, coated with primer and paint ¾ Drainage holes ¾ Ventilation holes ¾ Easy access for monitoring and cleaning ¾ Sturdy construction ¾ No outside perches The nest boxes would be made up of Cypress spp., Mangifera indica and Syzygium cumini wood. The entrance hole should have a 2‐inch diameter and RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 6 inch depth from entrance hole. Nest boxes are placed on trees at height from 10‐12 ft. Such nest boxes designs have been used with success. Figure 1.1: Nest Box Maintenance of well developed woody understorey forest vegetation would be another consideration for facilitating nesting of birds. In the uneven aged forest, the availability of food and shelter is ensured for a longer run. Afforestation along forest edges with the native species is also necessary to increase the interior depth of the forest stand. Similarly, another important aspect pertains to adoption/ reorientation of management strategies for the nesting requirement, food habits understanding and breeding behaviour, etc. of the avifauna. It is therefore, proposed that one qualified person would be hired at a consolidated salary of Rs. 12,000 per month for at least five years. In addition, contingencies would be required for running and implementation of the plan; therefore a lump sum provision of Rs. 25,000 per annum for 5 years is suggested. Butterflies: It is evident from the faunal characterization of the region that the area in general possesses ample diversity of butterflies. The creation of Bajoli Holi reservoir will act as water body i.e. habitat for migratory birds and the valley as such. With the increased moisture regime in the vicinity of dam site number of insects’ species, fishes, reptiles and amphibians having affinity with water bodies may be attracted to the area after creation of the reservoir. The conservation measures in the form of plantation along the reservoir rim and in the barren or degraded patches around the reservoir will enhance the habitat conditions. This measure will ensure the influx of butterflies, other insects and amphibians to maintain the food chain. In addition to this, plantation of wild fruit bearing plants, if carried out will provide food as well as nesting facilities to avifauna. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 1.3: Estimated cost of habitat improvement for avi‐fauna in the influence zone and catchment area Sl. No. Particulars A 1 Non‐recurring Cost Cost of nests of different sizes (10”x10” to 20”x20”; average cost Rs. 300 per wooden box) and installation in the area along with the green belt (1000) 2 Repair and maintenance of the nests B Recurring Cost (for 5 years)
1 Salary for one skilled person @ Rs. 12,000/ month for implementation and data collection 2 Contingencies (including avifaunal biodiversity awareness programme for the local inhabitants) Total Cost (A+B) Amount (Rs. lacs)
3.00 0.50 7.20 1.25 11.95 1.4.4 Conservation and cultivation of Medicinal Plants Medicinal herbs are considered as major components of non‐timber forest produce. The flora of Himachal Pradesh consists of around 3300 species of plants of these about 150 species are considered to have high medicinal value. About 35 plant products of medicinal value are regularly supplied by the state. The resource of medicinal species is declining at a very fast rate due to unsystematic, unscientific and inadequate policy decisions and considerations. The medicinal plant usage is highly decentralized system of health care in hilly areas and is community based and region specific. For the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants ethno‐botanical survey should be conducted wherein study about harvesting, collection, drying and storage practices and market issues should be done. In situ conservation practices can be accomplished by the active support of people of nearby communities in the area. Herbal nursery should be established in every Gram Panchayat Unit. The Herbal Plant Conservation Group at local level can tie up with the ayurvedic companies in the nearby cities. Under this, group training to farmers should be given to make them aware of the use of herbal plants in animal health care also. Self help groups formed by women should be involved for the promotion of herbal drugs from the kitchen stock and rare medicinal plants. Species of medicinal plants proposed for plantation in the project area is given in Table 1.4. For this programme to be undertaken on 10 ha land and creation of at least one herbal garden an amount of Rs. 5.00 lacs has been proposed. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 1.4: Medicinal plants species proposed for plantation in project area Botanical name Aconitum heterophyllum Aconitum violaceum
Ajuga bracteosa Allium humile Anemone rivularis Angelica glauca Arnebia benthemii
Asparagus adscendens
Asparagus filicinus Atropa acuminata Berberis lycium Bergenia ligulata Carum carvi Dactylorhiza hatagirea Delphinium denudatum Digitalis purpurea Elaeagnus parviflora Geranium wallichianum Hypericum perforatum
Inula racemosa Juglans regia Jurinea macrocephala Lyonia ovalifolia Mentha longifolia Nardostachys jatamansi Origanum vulgare Picrorhiza kurroa Plumbago zeylanica Podophyllum hexandrum Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Potentilla nepalensis Rheum australe Rheum webbianum Rubia cordifolia Salvia officinalis Saussurea costus Sedum rosulatum Swertia chirata Tagetes patula Tanacetum longifolium Taxus baccata Valeriana wallichii Viola biflora Viola serpens RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Common/Local name Atis Dudhia mohra, Mitha atis Neel kanthi Farn Jakari Chora Balchhari Safedmusli
Sari Jharka Masholi Pashanbhed Kali jeera Salampanja Nirbishi Tilpushpi Chharola Rakt jadi Vasant
Pushkarmool
Akhrot Dhoop Anyar Pudina Jatamansi
Ban tulsi Kutki, Karoo Chitrak Bankakri Mahamaida Dora Dori Revandchini Dolu Mangistha Sefakush
Kuth Pathar chatta Chirata, Chirayita Genda, Zandu
Gugal Rakhal, Talispatar Sugandhwalla, Mushakwalla Banafsha Vanafsha 1.15
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Botanical name Zanthoxylum armatum EMP Report Common/Local name Tejbal 1.4.5 Eco‐Development Works The Eco‐development Committees and Village Conservation Committees (VCCs) will be constituted for this purpose which will help State Forest Department in capacity building and microplanning of the various eco‐
developmental activities formulated for community development. The activities under this programme are aimed at improvement of livelihood of people living in the project area. Under this programme, number of activities have been proposed and are described in the following paragraphs. Compensation: Ex‐gratia payment to the victims of crop damage, cattle lifting and human life loss/injury: Ex‐gratia payment to the victims of crop damage, cattle lifting and human life loss/injury is also a management tool for conserving the wild animals. The compensation to the owners for loss of their crop / livestock by wildlife, if any, is proposed under this scheme on humanitarian grounds. An amount of Rs. 5.00 lacs is proposed for victims of the legal heirs. Publicity and Awareness: Education and awareness generations programmes for garnering public support for biodiversity conservation is the need of the day. Community education and involvement is a crucial component of a biodiversity conservation strategy because the condition of the environment is reflected by the manner in which the communities treat and mange the natural resources. Under this programme, various activities viz. trainings, publishing of research documents, pamphlets, brochures, hoardings, etc. shall be carried out during the implementation period of operations. Training should be imparted to the school teachers in the project area for introduction of environmental education among the school children and exchange to knowledge on environment and ecology between the monastic and village schools. The basic purpose of this is to create awareness among young generation and also among the local villagers so as to protect the wildlife for future generation. Biodiversity education and community awareness will therefore be strengthened in a variety of ways to reach people of all sections. Activities like opening of biodiversity register in every village and promotion of traditional farming, advertisement of hazardous effect of fire through press, sign boards and public meetings will form the important activities under this component. For this an amount of Rs. 5.00 lacs is proposed. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Observance of Wildlife Week: Every year wildlife week in the month of March will be observed to assess the all the tasks set aside for wildlife management. Under this programme, seminars, art competitions and awareness campaigns are proposed will be held. Nature Club: Under this activity nature clubs shall be constituted at higher secondary and high school level. The target groups shall be the students and local public. They shall be provided with audio visual aids so as to brief them about importance of wildlife conservation. Involvement of NGOs: Some of the active NGOs in the project area can be involved to disseminate the knowledge about the benefits of the proposed project and ensuring greater participation in the conservation efforts and safeguard the environment of the area. Creation of Website to boost Eco‐tourism: The geophysical setting of the state offers a lot of potential for hydro projects and tourism development. Whereas the rivers are being harvested for power generation, the richness of flora, fauna, waterfalls, hot springs, rhododendrons, snow capped mountains, adventure trekking, customs and culture offer a great potential for eco‐
tourism development. Therefore, Environment Management Plan proposes to develop a website dedicated to boost the ecotourism in the region. An active NGO in area can be involved in the preparation of content for the website. In order to implement above mentioned activities, an amount of Rs. 10.00 lacs is proposed. 1.4.6 Anti‐poaching Measures For the improvement of vigilance and measures to check poaching number of measures described below would be undertaken. Intensive Patrolling: Provision of long and short distance frequent patrolling is made in the Biodiversity Management Plan. Based on the assessment of the strength and the workload of the staff, additional staff will be deployed for watch and ward, long and short range of patrolling for surveillance and detection of wildlife crimes. Engagement of part time informers: The engagement of part‐time informers is proposed in this plan so as to strengthen the network of anti‐poaching activities. It is obvious that during winters the high altitude wild animals and pheasants migrate from high altitude towards lower altitude and venture into human habitations. This proposed activity shall check poaching activities during lean periods. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Engagement of Staff on contractual basis: It is proposed to engage local youth who are well acquainted with the area and are resourceful in gathering the information for anti‐poaching and other parameters besides better vigilance. It will also provide employment to the local educated youth for the period under plan. An amount of Rs. 5.00 lacs is proposed for above activities. Purchase of anti‐poaching kits: To capture and translocate wild animals out of human habitations or agricultural lands, various trapping equipments pertaining to anti‐poaching activities are needed. In the absence of these the staff faces difficulties and all efforts made on this behalf are futile. For this an amount of Rs. 2.00 lacs has been earmarked. The anti‐poaching kits will include equipments for self defense of the staff as well. Infrastructure Development: This includes antipoaching huts, rock shelters development and residential quarters for forest guards. For effective monitoring, one watch tower is also proposed to be established at an identified place having high pressure of biotic interference. These basic amenities for the field staff to enable them to do effective patrolling in the areas. For watch tower and accommodation an amount of Rs. 15.00 lacs is proposed. Purchase of Survey equipment & Vehicle: In order to improve network and vigilance it is required to procure equipment like V‐SAT and to document and develop a database IT infrastructure like laptops, L.C.D. projectors, altimeters, G.P.S., spotoscope, binoculars, video as well as digital still cameras are essential. Purchase of field vehicle will help in increased vigilance. For better communication and purchase of survey equipment an amount of Rs. 15.00 lacs has been proposed. Construction of Check posts: To improve vigilance for anti‐poaching, better protection, enforcement for control grazing practices the construction of control‐grazing‐cum‐anti poaching check posts (Prefabricated Dome House – 200 sq ft one room set each) is proposed to be constructed at a cost of Rs. 5.00 lacs during the implementation period. This activity is aimed to control movement of smugglers / thieves during night hours. It is recommended that check posts be installed near major construction sites and labour camps. It is proposed to develop 1 check post near dam site, which shall be operational during construction phase. The check post will have 2 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report guards and a range officer to ensure that poaching is strictly checked in the area. The range officer will supervise the guards of check post. It is also recommended that the staff managing the check post will have adequate communication equipment. It is proposed that one wireless sets will be provided at check post. Apart from inter‐linking of check posts, the wireless link needs to be extended to Divisional Forest Office and the local police station also. 1.4.7 Control of Grazing Regulating and controlling grazing and improving the quality of both grazing as well as cattle will lead to stall feeding and reduce incidence of open grazing and thus improve the health of the forest. Migratory grazing poses another significant impact on the forests. Extensive grazing of livestock and severe lopping of trees for fodder had adversity affected the forests of project area. Overgrazing will be controlled by following measures: • Plantations of fodder trees will be promoted in the community forests and fodder production will be increased on farm lands. • The breed‐upgradation programme for cattle will be intensified and delivery of veterinary services at the doorsteps should be introduced by the Animal Husbandry department. • In the permitted grazing areas, the animals will be allowed to enter the forests well after the rains so that grasses would have grown sufficiently to withstand grazing and trampling. • Programmes for augmenting the productivity of grazing lands including alpine pastures will be implemented through introduction of better quality nutritious grasses and legumes, rotational closures, and eradication of obnoxious weeds and shrubs. • To reduce the dependency of grazing on forest, stall feeding, balanced animal nutrition, improved cattle varieties application of concentrates etc. will be encouraged 1.4.8 Control of Forest Fire Forest fires cause irreparable damages to forests, biodiversity, wildlife, water sources and forest based livelihoods and well being. Forest fire is commonly recorded throughout the forest area. Most of the fires are due to local incendiaries with the belief that burning forest areas improve the resources by getting fresh grass & tender herbages. The hazardous effect of the fire will be widely advertised through newspaper, signboards and public meetings in the village. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Effective fire protection measures like early detection systems, communications systems, equipment and public awareness will be implemented for forest fire control. Village Panchayats and Van Panchayats will be involved to take care of the forest fire. Forest department can also introduce incentives schemes to local communities for participation in fire management including its prevention. 1.5 INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT PLAN Following institutions may be in seeking guidance and technical support during implementation of the Biodiversity Conservation & Management Plan: • Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun for providing the technical guidance regarding the monitoring and evaluation of the faunal diversity in the area. • Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur for guide conservation and development of medicinal plants. Besides these organizations/ institutes Gram Panchayats, Mahila Mangal Dals, Yuvak Mandals, Ex‐servicemen’s Bodies, Schools, Village Forest Development Societies, local user groups, other Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and NGOs would also be actively involved in sustainable management of biological resources. 1.6 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION MEASURES DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE The following activities and safeguards measures will be undertaken during construction phase: i) To strictly monitor and impose restrictions on the activities and movement of labourers and associated workers to avoid disturbance in the habitat of wild animals and birds. ii) To monitor noise levels during construction activities that are required to be maintained wherein only restricted/essential activities will be allowed and carried out at night in areas wherever the project work and activity is undertaken in the vicinity of animal/bird habitats. iii) To make provision for the supply of the free or subsidized kerosene/LPG from the depots to be set up for this purpose to minimize the pressure on forests and animal habitats. iv) To keep the interference of human population to the minimum and ensure that the contractors do not set up labour colonies in the vicinity of forests and wilderness areas. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report v) The improvement of existing infrastructure with conservation and protection in addition to new strategies. vi) To enforce mix of incentives and strict regulatory framework for protection of wildlife. vii) To enforce the rules and regulations of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 for the preservation of habitats and protection of wild animals. 1.7 MONITORING OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN Monitoring is an important part of the Biodiversity Management Plan. All the activities of BMP will be closely and regularly monitored in terms of physical, financial progress and quality by the project proponent and officers of Forest Department. The State Government shall set up a Biodiversity Conservation Committee (BCC) under the chairmanship of the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh. The committee shall review and oversee the conservation work to be undertaken. 1.8 COST ESTIMATES It is proposed that the project authorities will provide funds to the tune of Rs. 206.25 lacs as outlined in Table 1.5 for the conservation works over a period of five years. Table 1.5: Estimated cost of Biodiversity Conservation and Management Plan implementation Particulars
Amount (Rs. in lacs) Establishment of Botanical Garden
82.30 Noise Mitigation & Management
20.00 Habitat improvement (30 ha) ‐ (Cost covered under CAT)
Afforestation ‐ 18 ha Pasture Development ‐ 10 ha
Nursery Development ‐ 2 ha
Habitat improvement for Wildlife
11.95 Medicinal Plants Cultivation and Conservation: 1 no. of 5.00 herbal garden in 10 ha Eco‐Development Works Compensation 5.00 Publicity & Awareness 5.00 Observance of Wildlife Week, Nature Club & Website 10.00 development Anti‐poaching measures RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Engagement of part‐time informers & Engagement of contractual staff Purchase of anti‐poaching kits
Construction of watch towers & quarters Purchase of survey equipment, vehicle & communication system Construction of check posts
Miscellaneous expenditure @Rs.5.00 lakh per year for 5
years Total (Rs. in lacs) EMP Report 5.00 2.00 15.00 15.00 5.00 25.00 206.25 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 2 CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT PLAN 2.1
NEED FOR CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT It is a well‐established fact that reservoirs formed by dams on rivers are subjected to sedimentation. The process of sedimentation embodies the sequential processes of erosion, entrainment, transportation, deposition and compaction of sediment. The study of erosion and sediment yield from catchments is of utmost importance as the deposition of sediment in reservoir reduces its capacity, and thus affecting the water availability for the designated use. The eroded sediment from catchment when deposited on streambeds and banks causes braiding of river reach. The removal of top fertile soil from catchment adversely affects the agricultural production. Thus, a well‐designed Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan is essential to ameliorate the above‐mentioned adverse process of soil erosion. Soil erosion may be defined as the detachment and transportation of soil. Water is the major agent responsible for this erosion. In many locations, winds, glaciers, etc. also cause soil erosion. In a hilly catchment area, as in the present case, erosion due to water is a common phenomenon and the same has been studied as a part of the CAT Plan. Soil erosion leads to: • loss in production potential • reduction in infiltration rates • reduction in water‐holding capacity • loss of nutrients • increase in tillage operation costs • reduction in water supply The CAT plan highlights the management techniques to control erosion in the catchment area of a water resource project. The life span of a reservoir is greatly reduced due to erosion in the catchment area. Adequate preventive measures are thus needed for the treatment of catchment for its stabilization against future erosion. CAT Plan has been formulated for free draining catchment i.e. up to the proposed upstream Bara Bangahal H. E. Project on Ravi River. Free draining catchment area for this CAT Plan is 254.45 sq km. The total catchment area at RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report proposed Bara Bangahal HEP site is 647.5 sq km while at proposed Bajoli Holi HEP is 902 sq km. The catchment area considered for the present study is given in Figure 2.1 as raw satellite imagery. The catchment area treatment involves • Understanding of the erosion characteristics of the terrain and, • Suggesting remedial measures to reduce the erosion rate. In the present study `Silt Yield Index’ (SYI), method has been used. In this method, the terrain is subdivided into various watersheds and the erodibility is determined on relative basis. SYI provides a comparative erodibility criteria of catchment (low, moderate, high, etc.) and do not provide the absolute silt yield. SYI method is widely used mainly because of the fact that it is easy to use and has lesser data requirement. Moreover, it can be applied to larger areas like sub‐watersheds, etc. 2.2
APPROACH FOR THE STUDY A detailed database on natural resources, terrain conditions, soil type of the catchment area, socio‐economic status, etc. is a pre‐requisite to prepare treatment plan keeping in view the concept of sustainable development. Various thematic maps have been used in preparation of the CAT plan. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computerized resource data base system, which is referenced to some geographic coordinate system. In the present study, real coordinate system has been used. The GIS is a tool to store, analyze and display various spatial data. In addition, GIS, because of its special hardware and software characteristics, has a capacity to perform numerous functions and operations on the various spatial data layers residing in the database. GIS provides the capability to analyze large amounts of data in relation to a set of established criteria. In order to ensure that latest and accurate data is used for the analysis, satellite data has been used for deriving land use data. Ground truth studies, too, have been conducted. The various steps, covered in the study, are as follows: • Definition of the problem • Data acquisition and preparation • Output presentation The above mentioned steps are briefly described in the following paragraphs: RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 2.2.1 Definition of the Problem The requirements of the study were defined and the expected outputs were finalized. The various data layers of the catchment area to be used for the study are as follows: • Slope Map • Soil Map • Land use Classification Map • Current Management Practices • Catchment Area Map. 2.2.2 Data Acquisition and Preparation The data available from various sources has been collected. The ground maps, contour information, etc. were scanned, digitized and registered as per the requirement. Data was prepared depending on the level of accuracy required and any corrections required were made. All the layers were geo‐referenced and brought to a common scale (real co‐ordinates), so that overlay could be performed. A computer program using standard modeling techniques was used to estimate the soil loss. The formats of outputs from each layer were firmed up to match the formats of inputs in the program. The grid size to be used was also decided to match the level of accuracy required, the data availability and the software and time limitations. Ground truthing and data collection was also included in the procedure. For the present study, IRS P6‐LISS III digital satellite data was used for interpretation & classification. The data has been procured in raw digital format and has been geo‐referenced using Survey of India topographical sheets with the help of standard data preparation techniques in standard image processing software. The interpretation of geo‐referenced satellite data has been done using standard enhancement techniques, ground checks and experiences of qualified professionals. A detailed ground truth verification exercise has been undertaken as a part of field survey to enrich the image interpretation process. The classified land use map of the free draining catchment area, considered for the study, is shown as Figure 2.2. The land use pattern of the catchment area is summarized in Table 2.1. Derived contours from topographical maps were used for preparation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the free draining catchment area and to prepare a slope map. The first step in generation of slope map is to create surface using the elevation values stored in the form of contours or points. After marking the catchment area, all the contours on the topographical maps were derived. The output of the digitisation procedure was the contours as RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report well as points contours in form of x, y & z points. (x, y ‐ location and z ‐ their elevation). All this information was in real world co‐ordinates (latitude, longitude and height in meters above sea level). Table 2.1: Land use classification for free draining catchment at diversion site Area (%) Area (ha) Land use/Land cover River/Water Bodies 0.70 179.25 Open Areas 9.61 2444.91 Agricultural Areas 8.63 2196.61 Dense Forest 36.63 9321.57 Open Forest 15.07 3833.59 Shrubs/Bushes/Grasses 24.85 6323.72 Snow Covered Areas 4.13 1050.33 Settlement/Exposed rocks 0.37 95.12 Total 100.00 25445.10 A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the area was then prepared, which was used to derive a slope map. The slope was divided in classes of slope percentages. The areas falling under various standard slope categories have been tabulated below in Table 2.2. The slope map is enclosed as Figure‐2.3. Table 2.2: Area falling under different slope categories Slope category (%) Area (%) Area (sq km) 0‐10 17.10 43.51 10‐20 4.55 11.57 20‐30 8.95 22.77 30‐40 21.77 55.39 40‐50 30.73 78.19 > 50 16.91 43.02 Total 100.00 254.45 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.1: Satellite imagery of free draining catchment at diversion site RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.2: Land use/ land cover classification for free draining catchment at diversion site RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Soil map has been digitized and produced using soil maps collected from Natural Resources Atlas of Himachal Pradesh. Various layers, thus prepared, were used for Modeling. Soil map has been shown as Figure 2.4. The legend for soil classes has been given subsequently. Soil series and their description Description Soil Order Rock outcrops associated with medium deep to shallow, excessively Typic drained, loamy‐skeletal calcareous soils on very steep slopes with loamy Cryorthents surface, severe erosion and moderate stoniness. Rock outcrops; associated with shallow to deep, well drained mesic, coarse Typic loamy‐skeletal soils on very steep slopes with loamy surface, severe Udorthents erosion and strong stoniness. Shallow, well drained, mesic, loamy soils on steep slopes with loamy Lithic surface, very severe erosion and severe stoniness associated with medium Udorthents to shallow deep, well drained, coarse‐loamy soils with loamy surface and severe to very severe erosion. Deep, well drained, fine‐loamy soils on steep slopes with loamy surface Typic and severe erosion; associated with deep excessively drained, sandy‐
Cryochrepts skeletal soils with sandy surface, very severe erosion and moderate stoniness. Software was prepared using standard modeling techniques to calculate the soil loss using input from all the layers as described below: Modelling: The river catchment area has been divided into small grids of 25m*25m. The vector layer so generated of 25 m grid size was updated by landuse/landcover details, soil information and slope values in GIS software using different maps as generated above. Soil loss has then been calculated for each grid using modelling techniques through information derived from updated grids with the help of a customized computer software/program. A thematic map has been prepared using these calculated soil erosion values for delineating areas prone to soil erosion in the free draining catchment. The percentages of free draining catchment area falling in different soil vulnerability classes are given in Table 2.3 and shown in Figure 2.5 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.3: Slope map of free draining catchment at diversion site RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.4: Soil map of free draining catchment at diversion site RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 2.3: Soil loss ranges for the river catchment S. No. Soil loss range in Area Area tonnes/acre/annum (sq km) (%) 1 < 1 54.76 21.52 2 1 – 2.5 29.05 11.42 3 2.5 – 6.0 114.99 45.19 4 6.0 – 10.0 41.41 16.27 6 > 10.0 14.25 5.60 Total 254.45 100.00 2.2.3 Output Presentation The result of the modeling was interpreted in pictorial form to identify the areas with high soil erosion rates. The primary and secondary data collected as a part of the field studies were used as an input for the model. 2.3
ESTIMATION OF SOIL LOSS USING SILT YIELD INDEX (SYI) METHOD In `Silt Yield Index’ (SYI), method, the terrain is subdivided into various watersheds and the erodibility is determined on relative basis. SYI provides a comparative erodibility criteria of catchment (low, moderate, high, etc.) and do not provide the absolute silt yield. SYI method is widely used mainly because of the fact that it is easy to use and has lesser data requirement. Moreover, it can be applied to larger areas like sub‐watersheds, etc. The SYI model, considering sedimentation as product of erosivity, erodibility and arial extent was conceptualized in the All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS) as early as 1969 and has been in operational use since then to meet the requirements of prioritization of smaller hydrologic units within river valley project catchment areas. The erosivity determinants are the climatic factors and soil and land attributes that have direct or reciprocal bearing on the unit of the detached soil material. The relationship can be expressed as: Soil erosivity = f (Climate, physiography, slope, soil parameters, land use/land cover, soil management) Silt Yield Index SYI is defined as the Yield per unit area and SYI value for hydrologic unit is obtained by taking the weighted arithmetic mean over the entire area of the hydrologic unit by using suitable empirical equation. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.5: Erosion map of free draining catchment at diversion site RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Prioritization of Watersheds/Sub‐watersheds The prioritization of smaller hydrologic units within the vast catchments is based on the SYI of the smaller units. The boundary values or range of SYI values for different priority categories are arrived at by studying the frequency distribution of SYI values and locating the suitable breaking points. The watersheds/ sub‐watersheds are subsequently rated into various categories corresponding to their respective SYI values. The application of SYI model for prioritization of sub‐watersheds in the catchment areas involves the evaluation of: a) Climatic factors comprising total precipitation, its frequency and intensity, b) Geomorphic factors comprising land forms, physiography, slope and drainage characteristics, c) Surface cover factors governing the flow hydraulics and d) Management factors. The data on climatic factors can be obtained for different locations in the catchment area from the meteorological stations whereas the field investigations are required for estimating the other attributes. The various steps involved in the application of model are: ‐ Preparation of a framework of sub‐watersheds through systematic delineation ‐ Rapid reconnaissance surveys on 1:50,000 scale leading to the generation of a map indicating erosion‐intensity mapping units. ‐ Assignment of weightage values to various mapping units based on relative silt‐yield potential. ‐ Computing Silt Yield Index for individual watersheds/sub‐watersheds. ‐ Grading of watersheds/sub‐watersheds into very high, high, medium, low and very low priority categories. The area of each of the mapping units is computed and silt yield indices of individual sub‐watersheds are calculated using the following equations: a. Silt Yield Index To calculate SYI, the methodology developed by All India Soil & Land Use Survey (Department of Agriculture, Govt. of India) has been followed, where each erosion intensity unit is assigned a weightage value. When considered collectively, the weightage value represents approximately the relative comparative erosion intensity. A basic factor of K = 10 was used in determining the weightage values. The value of 10 indicates a static condition of equilibrium between erosion and deposition. Any addition to the factor K RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report (10+X) is suggestive of erosion in ascending order whereas subtraction, i.e. (10‐X) is indicative of deposition possibilities. Delivery ratios were adjusted for each of the erosion intensity unit. The delivery ratio suggests the percentage of eroded material that finally finds entry into reservoir or river/ stream. Area of each composite unit in each sub‐
watershed was then estimated. SYI was calculated using following empirical formula: SYI = Σ (Ai * Wi ) * Di * 100 ; where i = 1 to n Aw where Ai = Area of ith unit (EIMU) Wi = Weightage value of ith mapping unit n = No. of mapping units Aw = Total area of sub‐watershed. Di = Delivery ratio Delivery ratios are assigned to all erosion intensity units depending upon their distance from the nearest stream. The criteria adopted for assigning the delivery ratio are as follows: Nearest Stream Delivery Ratio 0 ‐ 0.9 km 1.00 1.0 ‐ 2.0 km 0.95 2.1 ‐ 5.0 km 0.90 5.1 ‐ 15.0 km 0.80 15.1 ‐ 30.0 km 0.70 The SYI values for classification of various categories of erosion intensity rates are given in Table 2.4. Table 2.4: Criteria for erosion intensity rate Priority categories SYI Values Very high > 1300 High 1200‐1299 Medium 1100‐1199 Low 1000‐1099 Very Low <1000 The erosion category of various watersheds in the catchment area as per a SYI index has been estimated. The objective of the SYI method is to prioritize sub‐
watershed in a catchment area for treatment. The area under very high and high erosion categories is to be treated at the project proponent’s cost. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Hence, CAT plan shall be suggested for very high and high erosion categories, as a part of the EIA study, the expenses of which have to be borne by project proponents. 2.4
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES Watershed management is the optimal use of soil and water resources within a given geographical area so as to enable sustainable production. It implies changes in land use, vegetative cover, and other structural and non‐structural action that are taken in a watershed to achieve specific watershed management objectives. The overall objectives of watershed management programme are to: ‐
increase infiltration into soil; control excessive runoff; ‐
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manage & utilize runoff for useful purpose. Following Engineering and Biological measures shall be suggested for the catchment area treatment depending upon the requirement and suitability: a. Engineering measures ‐ Step drain ‐ Angle iron barbed wire fencing ‐ Stone masonry ‐ Check dams b. Biological measures ‐ Development of nurseries ‐ Plantation/afforestation ‐ Pasture development ‐ Social forestry The basis of site selection for different biological and engineering treatment measures under CAT are given in Table 2.5. 2.5
CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT (CAT) PLAN In the present report, CAT Plan as per the slope, land use pattern, soil characteristics has been suggested based on the prioritization of sub watersheds using SYI method (Table 2.6). The CAT plan has been suggested for Sub‐watersheds with very high and high erosion categories as the cost for treatment for such watersheds is to be borne by the project proponents. The objective of the SYI method is to prioritize sub‐watershed in a catchment area for treatment. The area under very high and high erosion categories have to be treated by the project proponents, which accounts for about 37.85% of the total free draining catchment area. (Table 2.7, Figure 2.6). Sub‐watershed wise RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report proposed treatment measures in these sub watersheds superimposed over SOI toposheets are given in Table 2.8 and have been shown in Figure 2.7. It is proposed that treatment measures shall be implemented over five years and shall be co‐terminus with the construction of dam. Phase wise treatment plan has been shown in Figure 2.8 and has been tabulated in Table 2.10. Table 2.5: Basis for selection of catchment area treatment measures Treatment measure Basis for selection Social forestry, fuel wood and Near settlements to control tree felling fodder grass development Contour Bunding Control of soil erosion from agricultural fields. Pasture Development Open canopy, barren land, degraded surface Afforestation Open canopy, degraded surface, high soil erosion, gentle to moderate slope Barbed wire fencing In the vicinity of afforestation work to protect it from grazing etc. Step drain To check soil erosion in small streams, steps with concrete base are prepared in sloppy area where silt erosion in the stream and bank erosion is high due to turbidity of current. Nursery Centrally located points for better supervision of proposed afforestation, minimize cost of transportation of seedling and ensure better survival. Table 2.6: Erosion intensity categorization as per SYI classification Sub‐watershed Area (ha) SYI Priority Category W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
382.20 1304.00 2370.00 1617.00 1467.00 2792.00 948.00 1363.00 1488.00 791.90 2327.00 3488.00 1098 1181 1204 1225 1127 1254 1150 1237 1248 1198 1165 979 Low Medium High High Medium High Medium High High Medium Medium Very Low 2.15
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Sub‐watershed Area (ha) W13 W14 W15 Total 1876.00 1723.00 1508.00 25445.1 EMP Report SYI Priority Category 1032 Low 1099 Low 1097 Low Table 2.7: Erosion intensity rates in Free Draining Catchment Erosion intensity Area (sq km) Catchment Area categorization as per SYI (%) values Very High ‐ ‐ High 96.3 37.85 Medium 68.379 26.87 Low 54.892 21.57 Very Low 34.88 13.71 Total 254.451 100.00 Table 2.8: Sub‐watershed wise proposed treatment measures Sub‐watersheds Afforestation Afforestation Contour‐
Pasture (800 trees/ha) (1600 trees/ha) Bunding Development per ha per ha per ha per ha W3 234.19 137.12 273.89 85.52 W4 28.65 392.92 136.03 133.51 W6 338.84 185.39 399.50 134.31 W8 65.50 56.02 431.43 206.66 W9 199.82 77.56 208.15 79.99 867.00 849.00 1449.00 640.00 Silt Observation points Four silt observation locations for regular monitoring of silt load coming in tributaries of sub‐watersheds falling under high and very high categories have been suggested. This would ensure monitoring efficacy of implementation various treatments measures suggested as in CAT plan. Locations have been shown in Figure 2.6. Monitoring would be undertaken for a period of 10 years including 5 years for CAT plan implementation period. Cost towards this should be kept in project estimates and could be taken as below: Cost of four laboratories – Rs 2,50,000/‐ for silt analysis per laboratory = Rs. 10.0 lacs RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report One hut at each site (@ Rs 50,000/‐) – Rs. 2.0 lacs Cost for hiring services of persons (@ one person at each site) (Average salary‐ Rs 10,000/‐ for next 10 years) = Rs. 48.0 lacs Cost for hiring services of supervisor (one person for all the sites) (Average salary Rs. 20,000/‐ for next 10 years) = Rs. 24.0 lacs Consumables for the measurement Rs. 2.00 lacs per year for next 10 years = 20.0 lacs Total one time cost = Rs. 104.0 lacs RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.6: Prioritisation of sub‐watersheds RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.7: Proposed areas to be treated RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 2.8: Year‐wise Treatment index map RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 2.6
EMP Report COST ESTIMATE The cost required for Catchment Area Treatment is Rs. 2740.42 lacs. Provision of 10% per year to offset inflationary trends has been kept in costing. The details are given in Table 2.9. Table 2.9: Cost estimate for Catchment Area Treatment of Bajoli Holi H. E. Project Item Rate* Unit Target S. No. (first year) Physical Financial (Rs.) (Rs. Lacs) Biological Measures 1. Afforestation (1600 39,000/ha ha 849 389.98 trees/ha) 2. Afforestation (800 19,500/ha ha 867 200.12 trees/ha) 3. Maintenance of 5,000/ha ha 1715 101.31 afforestation area 4. Pasture development 20,000/ha ha 1449 351.37 5. Nursery development 2,00,000/no.
no. 20 42.00 6. Maintenance of 1,00,000/no.
nursery Vegetative fencing 45,000/km Watch and ward for 5 8,000/man‐
years @ 20/ persons month no. 20 23.10 km Man‐
months 25 1200 13.74 115.11 7. 8. Engineering Measures 9. Contour Bunding 25,000/ha ha 640 194.53 10. Check Dams 2,00,000 Nos. 100 244.20 Total 1675.46 *For every subsequent year an increment of 10% has been taken over previous year’s rate Total cost for Biological and Engineering measures = Rs. 1675.46 lacs Administrative expenditure Government Expenditure 5% of Total = Rs. 83.77 lacs (including O&M) RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Establishment cost 8% of Total Contingency @5% of Total Sub Total Activity EMP Report = Rs. 134.04 lacs = Rs. 83.77 lacs Rs. 1977.04 lacs Amount (Rs. lacs)
Provision for forestry research in the [email protected] 5% of CAT cost 98.85 Provision for eco‐tourism @ 2% 39.54 Provision for monitoring & evaluation activities @ 5% 98.85 Provision for forest protection measures Provision for eco‐services to local communities @ 10% 100.00 197.70 Provision for training for forest staff and sensitization of local communities @ 2.5% 49.43 Provision for energy saving devices 75.00 Silt Observation Sites (10 year cost including manpower) 104.00 Sub Total 763.37 Sum Total of CAT Plan: 1977.04 + 763.37 = 2740.42 lacs Total provision for the CAT Plan = Rs. 2740.42 lacs The year wise physical and financial targets are given in Table 2.10. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 2.10: Year wise target (physical and financial) for Catchment Area Treatment Plan Measures Year I Year II
Year III
Year IV
Year V
Total
Physical Financial Physical Financial Physical Financial Physical Financial Physical Financial Physical Financial (Rs. lacs) (Rs. lacs) (Rs. lacs) (Rs. lacs) (Rs. lacs) (Rs. lacs) Biological measures Enrichment 200 ha 39.00 200 ha 42.90 200 ha 47.19 200 ha 51.91 67 ha 19.12 867 ha 200.12 Plantations Afforestation 200 ha 78.00 200 ha 85.80 200 ha 94.38 200 ha 103.82 49 ha 27.98 849 ha 389.98 Maintenance of afforestation Pasture Development Nursery development Maintenance of Nursery Vegetative fencing Watch & ward 400 ha 20.00 400 ha 22.00 400 ha 24.20 400 ha 26.62 116 ha 8.49 1715 ha
101.31 300 ha 60.00 300 ha 66.00 300 ha 72.60 300 ha 79.86 249 ha 72.91 1449 ha
351.37 10 no. 20.00 10 no. 22.00 ‐ ‐ ‐ 20 no. 42.00 ‐ 11.00 ‐ 12.10 ‐ ‐ ‐ 23.10 25.0 km
13.74 ‐ ‐ 5 km 2.25 5 km 2.48 5 km 2.72 ‐ 19.2 ‐ 21.12 ‐ 21.12 35.00 125 ha 20 no. 34.38 125 ha 44.00 351.67 20 no. 5 km 2.99 5 km 3.29 ‐ 25.56 ‐ 28.11 37.81 125 ha 41.59 125 48.40 360.53 20 no. 53.24 385.59 ‐ 115.11 Engineering Measures Contour Bunding Check Dams Total 140 ha 20 no. 40.00 313.45 20 no. 45.75 640 ha 194.53 58.56 100 no. 244.20 264.23 1675.46 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 3 FISHERIES CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN 3.1 INTRODUCTION Himachal Pradesh has a significant hydro‐potential, indeed this is one of the state’s key resources. The major river systems of the region are the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. Through preliminary hydrological, topographical and geological investigations, it has been estimated that about 18,820 MW of hydro power can be generated in the State by constructing various major, medium, small and mini/micro hydel projects on the five river basins. Due to extensive network of rivers in the region, there is a tremendous potential for fish culture with the development of hydro power projects in the state. The fish composition of water body is also a most important part of the productivity and directly related to human population. Therefore, fishery development is closely associated with the river valley projects. There are several examples of successful reservoir fisheries with the development of hydro power projects like Bhakra dam, Pong dam and Chamera‐I and II H.E. Projects in Himachal Pradesh. A river valley project may have adverse or beneficial effects on the fish fauna, depending upon the particular situation and the fish fauna inhabiting the concerned river. Similarly it has various impacts on the people, the livelihood of which depends on the fish. The regulation of a river leads the fragmentation of habitat and may have adverse effects on indigenous and migratory fish. On the other hand pondage provides a large volume of water, which is beneficial with respect to fish culture and may play an important role in uplifting economic growth. Regarding the river valley project, fish and fisheries is an important issue in the management strategy. The fishery development is planned either for the conservation of indigenous species or for commercial options. The present management plan has been prepared for the proposed Bajoli Holi hydroelectric project in Himachal Pradesh, which would be a compensatory effort and fulfill the fish diet of inhabitants of hilly people. 3.2 STATUS OF FISHERIES IN HIMACHAL & CHAMBA DISTRICT The construction of a number of river valley projects for irrigation and power generation has contributed to development of cultural fishery in Himachal RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Pradesh and these man‐made reservoirs hold tremendous potential for inland fisheries development. Major water bodies created in this region so far include Gobindsagar, Pong and Chamera‐I and constitute main culture fishery of Himachal. During 2008‐09 alone a total of 1314.79 tonnes of fish valued Rs. 643.12 lacs was harvested by 3586 fishermen from Gobind Sagar and Pong Reservoirs. In addition to this some exotic species, viz. Salmo trutta fario and Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii have been introduced in the running waters of Himachal Pradesh including Ravi river to develop cold water fisheries. In this connection first hatchery for rainbow trout was established in March 1991 in Patlikuhl of Kullu district with the help of Norwegian Government. 3.3 FISH FAUNA OF RAVI RIVER Ravi river originates from Bara Bangahal at an elevation of 4229 m above mean sea level, approximately 150 Kms North‐East of historical Chamba town. The Ravi flows in steep gradient with series of loops & bends. In between, main tributaries like Kalihan, Budhil, Tundah, Suil & Sewa contribute lot of run‐
off to the Ravi. Bara Bangahal comprises of snow covered peaks at heights ranging from 3050 m to 5800 m above mean sea level. A total of 13 fish species are known to inhabit the Ravi river (Table 3.1). In addition to these, few species, viz. Barilius spp. and Puntius spp. are found in different brooks and khads of Ravi river. Two exotic species namely brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii gairdneri) have been introduced in the Ravi river. The rainbow trout propagation has become more successful as compared to that of brown trout. These species are more frequent and abundant in the upstream of dam. An indigenous species, snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus), is distributed abundantly with others below the proposed dam site. Some of the other species, which are found near the proposed dam site and upstream of Chamba are Labeo dero, Labeo dyocheilus, Garra lamta, and Barilius bendelisis. No migratory fish species were observed in this river during the course of investigation. Though, according to fishermen of the region mahseer (Tor putitora) occasionally comes in the fish catch of Ravi River near Chamba. Table 3.1: Fish fauna reported in Ravi River Sl. No. Scientific Name Common Name 1 Barilius bendelisis Baril 2 Barilius spp. Baril 3 Puntius spp. Spotfin Barb 4 Salmo trutta fario Brown trout RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 3.4 EMP Report 5 Salmo gairdneri gairdneri Rainbow trout 6 Schizothorax plagiostomus Snow trout 7 Labeo dero Kalabans 8 Labeo dyocheilus 9 Garra lamta Lamta garra 10 Tor putitora Mahseer 11 Labeo rohita Rohu 12 Labeo calbasu Orange fin labeo 13 Cirrhinus mrigala Mrigal ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT ON AQUATIC ECOLOGY & MITIGATION MEASURES The study stretch between the dam construction site and the powerhouse construction site is rich in biodiversity. The aquatic ecology of this region will be affected by the dam construction activities mainly at the dam construction site and the powerhouse construction site. 3.4.1 Construction Phase During construction the water of the river will not be stored and the natural flow of the river will be available throughout the stretch. However the area near the dam site will be affected due the construction activity. The construction activities also involve large scale extraction of different types of construction material from the river bed including boulders, stones, gravel, sand, etc. Extraction of gravel and sand causes considerable damage to fish stocks and other aquatic life by destabilizing the sub‐stratum, increasing the turbidity of water, silting of the channel bottom and modifying the flow which in turn may result in erosion of the river channel. These alterations are likely to upset the composition and balance of aquatic organisms. The material at the river sub‐
stratum like stones and pebbles provide anchorage and home to the invertebrates which remain attached in a fast flowing stream. Amongst the aquatic fauna, the fish life would be most affected. The fish species, e.g. Schizothorax plagiostomus and Tor putitora are likely to be adversely affected due to obstruction activity by the proposed dam. Huge quantity of debris will be generated. The debris site located close to river and may flow down the river during heavy precipitation. During fish spawning season, the fertilized eggs are laid amidst the gravel so that the eggs are not washed away in fast flowing stream. The eggs of almost all the species are sticky in nature, which provide additional safety. The turbidity in excess of 100 ppm brought by suspended solids chokes the gills of young fish. Fine solids in RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report concentration greater than 25 mg/l, adversely affects the development of fish eggs and fish. Temporary and permanent residential areas will be constructed to accommodate labour and staff engaged in the project. This would result in generation of domestic waste water which is likely to be discharged into the river consequently degrading the water quality. Mitigation Measures • The dam construction will block the route of Schizothorax plagiostomus (Snow Trout) and Tor putitora (Mahseer) which show local movement. Tributaries like Bhadal nala, Rain ala, Tantgari Nala, Laluni Nala, Nikora Nala and Kalihen Nala in the headwaters area and the tributaries like Paled Nala, Pher ka Nala, Raula ka Nala, Dera Nala, Sundrali Nala of upstream of Bajoli dam may assist in supporting the population of these species in the area. Scientific management of the existing stock needs to be adopted for conservation of threatened species. •
Fish management program should be undertaken by project developer in consultation with the Fisheries Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh. In this connection Government of Himachal Pradesh published a policy/ norm for hydro power projects. “In case of macro projects on the run of river development, the Department of Fisheries will charge compensation @ Rs. 0.50 lacs per MW power capacity and Rs. 0.50 lacs per km from tail race to weir of the project”. 3.4.2 Operation Phase Significant changes will occur in the riverine ecology, the river transforms from a fast‐flowing water system to a quiescent lacustrine environment. Such modification will adversely affect biotic life of the river. The biotic communities, which cannot acclimatize to the changed environment, may disappear in the early years of impoundment of water due to various reasons related to feeding and reproductive characteristics. The dam will also hinder the upward and downstream migration of the fish like Snow trout and Mahseer and segregate the fish population. The low flow in the river will affect the habitat, which are located along the shallow banks. The flow in the downstream stretch of dam would be reduced considerably, and will leave areas dry and the river water will remain in the centre portion. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report During the lean period segment of river between dam site and tail race disposal at certain places may retain some water in shallow pools subjecting the fish to prey by birds and human beings. Such situations will result in indiscriminate fishing. 3.5 Mitigation Measures • The downstream tributaries like Kunkali Nala, Kurhed Nala, Gwari Nala and Kala Nala, Holi Nala, Oi Nala and Kuarsi Nala may serve as the spawning grounds for fish. However, the location, presence, size shape may alter over a period of time due to continuous change in the river morphology as a result of frequent flash floods in Himalayan rivers. • Mahseer is a migratory fish and migrate to upstream for search of feeding and breeding grounds. The anthropogenic activity like extraction of sand, pebbles, gravels and stones and fishing activity in the river should be completely banned. • It will be mandatory for the project authorities to maintain the minimum flow for the survival and propagation of invertebrates and fish. • Ban on fishing should be enforced in the affected stretch of river during lean season and spawning season (September/October and March/April). • Since there are series of dams in the area a detailed aquatic study is required in the Ravi river for understanding the cumulative impact on fisheries/ aquatic life due to various hydro power projects. FISH CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN The fish management plan involves various options for management of the two important indigenous fish Mahseer and Snow trout and two exotic fish Brown trout and Rainbow trout found in the Ravi river at project stretch. 3.5.1 Indigenous Fishes The Mahseer (Tor putitora) is a fresh water scaly fish, which can attain a huge size can grow to weights exceeding 100 lbs. It is considered the best sport fish in the world. Omnivorous, feeding on fish, zooplankton, Dipteran larvae and plant matter. The juveniles subsist on plankton while fingerlings feed mainly on algae. They ascend streams to breed over gravel and stones and returns to perennial river after breeding. Mahseer inhabit various habitats, ranging from tropical waters where temperature in summer goes up to 35°C to Sub‐Himalayan waters where the winter water temperature drops closer to 0°C. Threatened due to over harvesting and habitat loss. The Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is widely distributed in the Indian Himalaya. The species is an inhabitant of snow‐melt and glacier‐fed streams in the Greater and Lesser Himalayas. The Snow trout undertake migration during RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report winter months when the temperature of water reaches the near‐freezing point. This induces them to migrate downstream and frequent the warmer spring‐fed streams in search of suitable spawning grounds and travels back after breeding. The dam on Ravi river to be developed as a part of the project will act as a barrier to the free movement of this species. There are no satisfactory fish passes available for snow trout. Due to its dorso‐lateral compressed body, the snow trout is not an active swimmer as compared to Indian Mahseer and exotic brown trout. 3.5.2 Exotic Fishes Two species of exotic trouts Salmo trutta fario (Brown trout) and Salmo gairdneri gairdneri (Rainbow trout) have earlier been introduced in running waters of Himachal Pradesh including Ravi river to develop cold water fisheries. The first attempts to bring brown trout eyed‐eggs from England into India were made by Mr. F.J. Mitchell in 1899 and 1900 (Mitchell, 1918). They came from Howeiton in Scotland, and the eggs successfully hatched in a small trout hatchery at Harwan in Kashmir. This was the beginning of the spread of exotic trout in the Himalayas and elsewhere. In Himachal Pradesh the eyed‐eggs of brown trout were brought to Kulu and Kangra Valleys and Chamba of Himachal Pradesh from Kashmir (Howell, 1916). Regular releases of eyed‐eggs in the upper stretches of Ravi and Baner Awa and Binun tributaries of the Beas river between 1912 and 1947 met with little success. 3.5.3 Management Measures In the vicinity of Ravi River from Kharamukh to Holi and beyond, there is little possibility of locating the fish farms and hatcheries. Therefore, reservoir fishery has been recommended for this project and also the upgradation of existing facilities of fish farm at Holi. Since the water of Ravi River here is characterized by low temperatures and hatchery is available at Holi (downstream of dam), cold water fisheries would be a suitable proposition for this reservoir. The coldwater fisheries in this region would include culture of rainbow trout, brown trout and snow trout. The juveniles of the fish seed of Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus), Mahseer (Tor putitora) and exotic trouts (Salmo trutta fario and Salmo gairdneri gairdneri) may be procured from the Department of Fisheries of Himachal Pradesh by the project developer which then be released in the Ravi river and other tributaries for the conservation and management of fishery in the area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report The financial help to the Department of Fisheries, Himachal Pradesh for the following activities will be provided by the project developer. a) Upgradation of Hatchery The Department of Fisheries can also utilize the Fish Farm/ hatchery, Holi, district Chamba to meet the demand of fish seeds. The water supply facilities of the farm should be strengthened as there will be increase in water required at farm to produce fish seed. For capacity enhancement existing tanks can be renovated and if necessary new rearing/ brood tank should be constructed. Provision for other requirement like feed, medicines, net, aerator etc. should be also considered. b) Production and Rearing of Fish Seed Brood stock will be procured and maintained at the fish farm to produce the seed required for stocking. The hatchling will be reared at the farm up to the required stocking size. Health management and feeding of the reared stock should be taken care regularly. c) Stocking of Fish Seed in the Streams & River Analysis of Water Quality Prior to seed stocking in the reservoir, detailed study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water and the soil of reservoir is required. Seed Stocking The main problem confronting the fisheries development agencies is whether the resident indigenous species would be able to establish successfully in the lacustrine system. The State Fishery Department has already introduced exotic trout in the Ravi River. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to introduce rainbow trout and brown trout and a few indigenous species on an experimental basis in the proposed reservoir. As the hatcheries for trout (Holi) and carp (Chamba) already exist, no such additional facilities of fish hatcheries would be created. On the other hand, the existing facilities would be upgraded. The total reservoir area of 16.5 ha would require about 100 kg seeds for the stocking in the first year which will be increased gradually in later years, and accordingly existing seed stocking facilities would be upgraded. For stocking of fish seed at the site necessary facilities like packaging materials, oxygenation equipment, feeder/ graders, etc. will be purchased. A vehicle will also be required for transportation of fish seed reared at the farm to the stocking site. Apart from this the vehicle will also be used to carry items required RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report for survey and monitoring of water quality and stock assessment fortnight / monthly. For assessment of fish stock and water/ soil quality at the site technical expertise would be required. Manpower will also be required to carry out various activities at the farm ranging from maintenance of brood, stock, rearing of fish seed, health management and transport of the stocking material to the site. For this scientific and manpower if needed will be arranged on contractual basis. d) Organization of Fishermen Owing to very small water spread entire reservoir of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project could be treated as a single beat. The reservoir would support and require an organization of about 5‐8 fishermen. The Fishery Department would be advised to allow the use of fishing gears of definite types (cast nets and gill nets, etc.) and proper mesh size to prevent the young and juvenile fish from over‐exploitation. Simultaneously, the authorities should initiate a training programme for operating gears at the surface and deeper waters. e) Other Requirements For the control of noxious weeds, harvesting of fishes (for rapid growing fishes and non‐cultivable fishes) and maintenance of embankments, the Fishery Department needs some mechanical control devices, boats and chemicals. It is suggested that these equipment available at the existing facilities, could be used. f) Institutional Mechanism i) Setting up of Committee The plan is proposed to be implemented through the State Fisheries Department at Bliaspur, the funds for which will be released periodically by the project to the Fisheries Department. An Advisory Committee is proposed to be instituted which would monitor the implementation aspects, prioritize activities, etc. The committee would offer advice on development of marketing channels and training programmes, keeping in mind people’s participation in fisheries development schemes. The committee would constitute the following members: •
•
•
•
•
Chairman Member Member Member Member RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Head, State Fisheries Department Local MLA Chief Engineer (I/c) Bajoli Holi HEP Nominee of Fisheries Department Representative of Project Affected Families 3.8
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report • Member General Manager GMR to supported by Manager Environment, GMR ii) Staffing Pattern For smooth implementation and maintenance of fish farms, the following staffing pattern has been suggested. S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Staff
Farm Manager
Farm Assistant
Fish Farm Attendant Chowkidar
Driver
Nos.
1
2
6 1
1
iii) Planning and Monitoring A Farm Superintendent appointed full time on behalf of The Advisory Committee would coordinate and oversee the operation of the proposed Fisheries Development and Management Plan. Various terms led by Farm Managers would be constituted to look after activities such as: (i)
land acquisition, development of fish farm facilities and office at allocated site, (ii)
execute fish breeding activity and (iii) marketing of product. The Farm Superintendent would evaluate/monitor both financial and administrative aspects at the Farm Office. The implementation, monitoring and appraisal of the plan should be reported regularly. After five years of management and maintenance, the fish farms will be handed over to the State Fisheries Department. The meetings of Advisory Committee would be held once every three months in order to ensure incorporation of preference of the PAFs and resolve logistic problems in plan implementation. The Farm Superintendent with team members would meet every week to ensure the implementation of project on time to time. Six monthly progress reports would be submitted to project proponent for evaluation and disbursement of finance. g) Financial Requirements A budgetary provision of Rs. 56.00 lacs has been kept for the setting up of fish farms infrastructure and its maintenance. The details for the creation of these facilities are given in Table 3.2. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 3.6 EMP Report COMPENSATION CHARGES & COST ESTIMATES Government of Himachal Pradesh published a policy/ norms vide its letter No. Fish‐F(5)‐1/2008 dated May 5, 2008 regarding the charging the compensation from hydro power projects on account of loss of breeding/ feeding grounds in the stretch downstream of dam up to release of discharge from tail race tunnel. “The Department of Fisheries will charge compensation @ Rs. 0.50 lacs per MW power capacity and Rs. 0.50 lacs per km from tail race to weir of the project in case of macro projects being envisaged on the run of the river development.” As per norms the cost of compensation charges for the proposed project is of Rs. 97.75 lacs, the detailed cost is given in the Table 3.3. The total cost of implementation of Fisheries Conservation and Management Plan will be Rs. 153.75 lacs including payment of compensation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Table 3.2: Cost estimate for fisheries conservation measures Part I. Technical Parameters Assumed Unit Size 5 numbers of raceways of 15 m x 1.5 m x 2 m size Stocking 4000 nos. of 10 g fingerlings per raceway
Density Mortality 10% Duration 10‐12 months
of Culture Harvesting 200‐250 g (Average 225 g)
size FCR 1.5 : 1 Water 10 liters per second
Flow Rate Part II. Cost Estimate S. No. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ITEMS Amount (Rs. in lacs) Capital Cost Construction of additional 5 raceways at Holi farm 2.00 @ Rs.40,000/‐ each Channel construction
0.30 Construction of hatchery
1.00 Procurement of pelleted feed mill
0.20 Vehicle for transport of fish & fingerlings
6.50 Miscellaneous & maintenance 5.00 (for 5 years) Total ‐ A 15.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. B. 1. EMP Report Trout Seed @ 4000 per raceway i.e. 60,000 Nos. @ Rs.8.00 per piece Pelleted Feed @ 1200 kg/raceway i.e. 18000 kg @ Rs.85 per kg Salaries Miscellaneous including watch and ward (L.S.)
1.25 0.25 Total – B (for 1 year)
8.20 Total ‐ B (for 5 years)
41.00 Total (A + B) for 5 years 56.00 2. 3. 4. 1.60 5.10 Table 3.3: Cost estimate for compensation charges to be paid to Fisheries Department Compensation Amount S. No. Component Particulars charges (Rs. in lacs) 1. Power capacity of the 180 MW
@ 0.50 lacs/ MW
90.00 project 15.50 km
2. Length of diverted @ 0.50 lacs/ km
7.75 section of river from dam site to power house site Total 97.75 Gross total: 56.00 + 97.75= Rs. 153.75 lacs RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN 4.1 INTRODCUTION The construction of the proposed Bajoli Holi Hydroelectric Project will involve different categories of manpower like labour, technical, other officials and service providers. Most of these technical and non‐ technical workers will be temporary and will leave the region as soon as the construction phase of the project is over, which is estimated as 5 years. Some of the workers will be accompanied by their families. The total population of workers and their families has been estimated more than 1200 persons. These people will be living in temporary and permanent colonies / settlements. The main sources of wastes in case of the proposed project can be divided into following categories: • Solid wastes and wastewater from labor camps and residential area • Bio‐medical wastes from Dispensary Solid waste generated from temporary and permanent colonies in construction as well as operation phase requires special management to dispose off as warranted under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 2000. For that an efficient waste management system will be required to put in place to keep the environment of the region clean and healthy. These colonies and temporary settlements will also require adequate water supply for drinking and cleaning. The project authorities will ensure sewage treatment from the colonies of labors and workers, water supply, cleaning of the colony area and solid waste disposal. Dwellings will be provided with septic tanks and soak pits along with water supply for drinking and other daily needs for each and proper waste disposal by adopting various disposable methods. 4.2 INFLUX OF MIGRANT POPULATION At the time of peak construction work in the project, maximum of 350 persons may be engaged, most of these will be from the local population. Around 100 nos. of the work force, which will include technical, non‐technical and service class, will come from outside. In the first and fifth year 60% of the peak force RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report will be required and in the second to fourth years 80% of the peak force will be required (see Table 4.1). Table 4.1: Periodic Workforce Requirement during Construction Phase Years Number of Number of Technical Total Labourers Staff st
1 210 60 270 nd
280
2 80 360 rd
280
3 80 360 th
280
4 80 360 th
5 210 60 270 To calculate the human pressure during the peak construction of the project the following assumptions have been considered. (i)
family size is assumed as 5; and 80% of labors and technical staff are married (ii)
Out of total workforce, 80% will be such that both husband and wife will work (iii) 50% of technical staff will come with their families and only husband will work (iv) 2% of total migrating population are assumed as service providers, and (v) 50% of service providers will have families. Based on these assumptions the peak migrant population has been calculated as 1282 persons (Table 4.2). This population is expected to reside in the project area at any given time. Table 4.2: Calculation of Total Migrant Population (Peak time) A. Migrant Population of Laborers
Total labor force 350 Married laborers (80% of 350)
280 Single laborers (20% of 350)
70 Husband and wife both working Labour (80% of 280)
224 Number of families where both husband and wife work (224/2) 112 Number of families where only husband work (20% of 280) 56 Total number of laborers families (112 + 56)
168 Total Migrant Population of Laborers (168 x 5 + 70)
910 B. Migrant Population of Technical Staff
Total technical staff
100 Married technical staff
50 Single technical staff
50 Total migrant population of technical staff (50 x 5 + 50)
300 Migrant Workforce (Labor plus Technical)
1210 C. Service Providers RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Total service providers (2% of total migrant workforce)
24 Married service providers (50 % as assumed) 12 Single service providers
12 Total migrant population of service providers (12 x 5 + 12) 72 Total Migrant Population
1282 In India average solid waste generated per capita per day is considered as 425 g (dry weight). Therefore, for about 1282 persons an estimated amount of about 198.87 tonnes (0.425 kg x 1282 individuals x 365 days = 198870 kg) per annum of solid waste will be generated annually. This waste would not be allowed to be dumped near any surface water body or a stream. The solid waste will be collected in masonry vats of at least 25 cum capacity constructed at suitable sites near the colony area. The garbage would be transported to the landfill sites located at least 500m away from the colony area. The organic waste will be suitably processed to form compost, which can be used as manure. In addition to the above mentioned activities, proper sanitary facilities would also be provided at the labor colonies. There would be adequate facilities for drinking and cleaning water for all the inhabitants of the colony. Septic tanks of appropriate size will be constructed. The wastewater generated from the colonies will be collected and disposed in specifically designed soak pits. The wastewater and sewage generated will not be allowed to flow into the rivers and streams of the area. The sanitary facilities at the colonies should be of standard municipal design for hill areas. Population living in the nearby affected villages have been surveyed and it was found that the villages are electrified, have regular water supply, source of drinking water is generally natural springs and some households have septic tanks for waste disposal. 4.3 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE The project authority shall, within the territorial area of the project complex/ colony, be responsible for the implementation of the provision of Solid Wastes Management. Any solid waste generated in the project complex/ project colony/ labor colony, shall be managed and handled as described below. A. Collection of Solid Wastes The project authorities shall prohibit littering of solid wastes in the area under their control by resorting to following:‐ • Initiate organising house to house collection of solid waste on regular pre‐
informed timing and scheduling through any of the methods, like community bin collection (Central bin) and make them adopt this practice. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report • Collected waste from residential areas shall be transferred to community bin by hand‐driven containerised carts or other small vehicle • Devising collection of wastes from office complexes and commercial areas • Avoiding mixing of Bio‐medical wastes with municipal solid wastes • Horticulture and construction / demolition wastes or debris shall be separately collected and disposed off • Wastes like dry leaves shall not be burnt • Collection of wastes from vegetable and fruit shops and meat shops and also dry leaves collected from avenues/ parks, which are biodegradable in nature to be finally disposed off through aerobic composting in composting units of size 8 m x 2.5 m build from bricks. The compost thus obtained shall be used for development of flower beds and avenue plantation around colonies and office areas and also in biological measures to be adopted in respect of soil tips developed at muck disposal sites. B. Segregation of Solid Wastes The project authority shall organize awareness programme to ensure community participation in waste segregation. C. Storage of Solid Wastes The project authority shall establish and maintain storage facilities in such a manner as they do not create unhygienic and insanitary conditions around it. Following criteria shall be taken into account while establishing and maintaining storage facilities. • Storage facilities of bins shall have ‘easy to operate ‘design for handling, transfer and transportation of waste. Bins for storage of bio‐degradable wastes shall be painted green, those for storage of recyclable wastes shall be painted white and those for storage of other wastes shall be painted black. • Manual handling of waste shall be prohibited. If unavoidable due to constraints, manual handling shall be carried out under proper precaution with due care for safety of workers. D. Transportation of Municipal Solid Wastes • Vehicles used for transportation of wastes shall be covered. Wastes should not be visible to public, nor exposed to open environment preventing their scattering. • Transportation vehicles shall be so designed that multiple handling of waste, prior to final disposal, is avoided. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report E. Processing of Solid Wastes The project authorities shall adopt suitable technology or combination of such technologies in coordination with local authorities to make use of wastes so as to minimize burden on landfill. Following criteria shall be adopted: ‐ • The biodegradable wastes shall be processed by composting, vermicomposting or anaerobic digestion for stabilization of wastes. • Mixed waste containing recoverable resources shall follow the route to recycling. • Incineration can also be used for processing wastes. F. Bio‐medical Wastes All kinds of hospital waste are considered as hazardous waste. Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings. It may include waste like scrap, anatomical waste, culture media, discarded medicines, chemical waste, syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It is expected that in Integrated Bajoli Holi H.E. Project, generation of such hazardous waste will be very less. For the purpose of management, special type of collection container and incinerator should be placed near the hospital for proper collection and disposal of hospital waste. All kind of hospital waste should be incinerated or buried at isolated, identified sites. Any kind of hospital waste should not be either recycled or reused. Incinerator is also a legal requirement for hospital waste management as such the non biodegradable waste generated from colony as well as hospital can be scientifically disposed. One incinerator must be installed at suitable site in colony for reduction of total volume of non‐biodegradable solid waste including bio‐medical waste. 4.4 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT The total budget in order to manage the solid waste generated from this population, provisions for community toilets for labours and nearby villagers as well as septic tanks and soak pits, has been proposed to Rs. 120.00 lacs (Table 4.3). RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 4.3: Cost Estimate for Solid Waste Management Plan Sl. No. Description Qty. Unit Rate (Rs. lacs) Amount (Rs. lacs) A. Capital Expenditure 1. Flush composite toilets for 3
sets
1.50
4.50
labour colony 2. Community toilet with 5 seats 5
sets
1.75
8.75
with Effluent Treatment system 3. Cleaning worker for 5 years 10 person
7.20/year
36.00
(@Rs.6000/month x 12 x 5) nos.
0.25
10.00
4. Door step plastic dustbin 40 litre 40
capacity including one time replacement nos.
0.08
0.96
5. Waste collection handcarts 12
including one time replacement of container 6. Iron storage vat (3.1 m x 1.25 m 2
nos.
1.00
2.00
x 1.25 m) Total (A) 62.21
B. Recurring Expenditure 7. Landfill R&M 5
years
0.50
2.50
8. Implements such spade etc. and R&M as Brooms, etc. 9. Anti malarial and anti insecticides equipments & spraying material 10. Two covered trucks for conveyance of solid waste to landfill site (@Rs.2.50 lacs/truck/year) 11. O & M charges of incinerator @ Rs.1.00 lacs / year for four years for one incinerator 12. Developing simple composting unit with size 7.5 m x 2.2 m, three chambered build from brick 13. Contingency L.S. Rs.2.00 lacs per year Total (B) Grand Total (A+B) 5
years
0.10
0.50
2
nos.
1.00
10.00
2
trucks
2.50/truck
25.00
2
nos.
1.00
8.00
2
nos.
0.50
1.00
2.00
10.00
57.00
119.21
Say Rs. 120.00 lacs
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 5 PUBLIC HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM 5.1 THE PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL FACILITIES The delivery of health services is rendered through hospitals, primary health care centers and dispensaries. The district hospital serve as a referral centre for complicated cases, while the primary health centers and dispensaries provide health needs primarily to the inhabitants of rural areas. The Chamba District has three allopathic hospitals, one ayurvedic hospital, 28 primary health centers, 199 primary health sub‐centers and eight child welfare units (Census, 2001). The medical facilities available to the villages in the project area are very poor. Present medical facilities in Holi Sub‐tehsil is one ayurvedic dispensary, one community health centre (Holi), one primary health center, 7 primary health sub‐centers and single child welfare unit. Nearest hospital is located in Chamba town at a distance of 80 km from Holi. The villages are sparsely populated and scattered far and wide and many of the villages are not covered by the primary health care (PHCs) units. None of the PHCs are provided with ambulance and the drugs stocked in these health centers are grossly inadequate. 5.2 THREATS TO PUBLIC HEALTH Project construction and operation will bring about several changes in the socio‐economic environment of the area including increased threats to the health of the community. Possible threats to public health are briefly discussed below along with the management measures. 5.2.1 New Diseases due to Migratory Population During the project construction period there will be further increase in the population of this region, particularly around the project area. Around 350 workers will be coming from outside for the construction work. They will be accompanied with families and children. The peak labor force during the construction period will be around 1280. These migrant workers and their family members may be the potential carriers of new diseases hitherto unknown/unreported from the project area. Diseases like AIDS, VDs, malaria, gastroenteritis, etc are some of the potential risks to human inhabitants of this area. The present available health services in the area would be insufficient to cater to such a vast influx of outside population in this area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Therefore it would be obvious for the project authorities and their contractors to have all the labourers including their family members registered and quarantined, vaccinated against common diseases like malaria, TB, etc. The project authorities will hold screening camps for the laborers, where rapid blood tests will be conducted for diseases like AIDS, TB, malaria, etc. Only after valid certification a labor or his family members will be registered with the contractor. The project authorities would ensure that the contractors follow this strict quarantine procedure and this clause would be included in the award of the contract/works. Adequate medical facilities be provided by the project authorities for this purpose in addition to strengthening of existing medical facilities in the area. 5.2.2 Vector‐Borne Diseases The increase in water fringe area provides suitable habitats for the growth of vectors of various diseases and they are likely to increase the incidence of water‐related diseases. Malaria could be the major vector‐borne disease in the area. The main breeding season of the anopheles mosquito (malaria vector) is the months of September and March. The preferred habitat is stagnant or slow moving fresh water open to sunshine or moderate shade. Malaria can be controlled by mosquito control and mosquito proofing measures. The anti‐malarial operations can be coordinated by various Primary Health Centers in the nearby villages and hospital at district headquarters, in association with the project authorities. Some of suggested measures are given below: • The site selected for habitation of workers should not be in the path of natural drainage. • Adequate drainage system to dispose storm water from the labour colonies should be provided. • Adequate vaccination and immunization facilities should be provided for workers at the construction site. • The labor camps and resettlement sites should be at least 2 to 3 km away from a main water body or borrow pit areas. 5.3 MEDICAL FACILITIES A population of more than 1,000 is likely to congregate during the construction phase. There is no medical facility in the immediate vicinity of the project area. It is recommended that the following medical facility should be provided by the developer to ensure safe and healthy operations during the entire construction phase: RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
5.2
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report • One fully equipped ambulance need to be procured to provide pre‐hospital care to accident victims. The ambulance should always be stationed near major construction sites or the sites where risky operations are taking place such as blasting during tunneling. The ambulance should be equipped with life saving equipment, drugs along with trained manpower and communication system. Typically the ambulance should have equipments such as Fornoflex Chair/COT, Ventilator, Vacuum splint kit (Adult), Scoops Stretcher, Oxygen Cylinder with accessories, Resuscitation bag (Adult), Suction pump, Spine board, siren/beacon, Emergency light with public address system, Wireless equipments, additional battery, First Aid bag, BP instrument, stethoscope, etc. • Two first‐aid posts need to be established – one near dam site (Nayagram village) and one near power house site (Near Tayari village) to take care of basic medical needs of the workers at major construction site. The first aid posts will have essential medicines including ORS packets, dressing materials, stretcher, wheel chair, etc. The first aid post can be housed in temporarily erected structure and should be managed by one Health Assistant and assisted by one dresser/first aid attendant. A visiting doctor can attend First Aid post regularly every day at a fixed time. • As the existing medical facilities in the area are not adequate, budget provisions have been made for strengthening existing PHCs and PHSCs in the area. 5.4 HEALTH EXTENSION ACTIVITIES The health extension activities will have to be carried out in the villages situated within the study area. It is important to inculcate hygienic habits of environmental sanitation especially with respect to water pollution by domestic wastes. A medico needs to be engaged to make regular visits to these villages and organize health promotional activities with the active participation of the local village leaders, NGOs and available local health functionaries. The health functionaries would undertake the following tasks as a part of health promotional activities: • Organize awareness programs and medical camps to make people aware about the common diseases in the region. This should include poster campaign, awareness camps, medical camps for health check‐ups and vaccination/treatment, etc. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
5.3
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report • Collect water samples to ascertain the potability of water from different sources so as to monitor regular disinfection of drinking water sources. • Maintain close surveillance on incidence of communicable diseases in these villages. • Maintain close liaison with the community leaders and health functionaries of different departments, so that they can be mobilized in case of an emergency. • Close interaction to be maintained with health department functionaries of the state government. 5.5 COST ESTIMATES Budgetary estimates for public health delivery system have been worked out as Rs. 70.00 lacs, as per the break up given at Table 5.1. Table 5.1: Budgetary estimates for developing health care facilities Sl. No. Particulars Ambulance : 1 no. with all the basic medicare A. facilities and small DG set, etc. to cater for villages in the project area Four first aid posts including sheds, furniture and B. basic equipment (Dam, power house sites, etc.) Budget for strengthening existing medical C. facilities D. Budget for Health Awareness/ Vaccination Camps
E. Budget for combating communicable diseases F. Budget for combating vector borne diseases Maintenance of ambulance and recurring G. contingent expenditure @ Rs.2.00/ year Total (Rs. lacs) RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Amount (Rs. lacs) 10.00 10.00 20.00 7.00 8.00 5.00 10.00 70.00 5.4
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 6 ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES 6.1 INTRODUCTION The proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project on Ravi River would require construction of various project components and infrastructural facilities like residential colonies for its staff, offices, contractor’s and labour colonies in addition to various access roads and other structures. During construction phase of the project, migration of labour, road development, etc. will be carried out. It is the general tendency that the migrant labourers will use forest wood for the fuel purpose, creating biotic pressure on the nearby forest. To mitigate such impacts, feasible measures will be adopted to help minimize biotic pressure on forest. 6.2 ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES The baseline social survey reveals that in most of the villages in the study area use wood as fuel and only a few villagers use LPG for cooking purpose. It is estimated that peak workforce will add a migrant population of around 1280 persons in the project area. The existing facilities will become insufficient for supply of kitchen fuel for the migrant population during the construction of the project. They will require fuel for cooking and various other purposes and in the absence of adequate fuel availability they will resort to tree cutting for use of fuel wood. The project authorities would make adequate arrangements for supply of kitchen fuel. The details of the provision for kitchen fuel are provided in the following sections. 6.2.1 Provisions for Kitchen Fuel In the villages of the project area the main source of energy is fuel wood which is one of the main causes of ecological degradation. Tree species like Pine (Pinus wallichiana), Deodar (Cedrus deodara), Rai (Abies pindrow) and Ban Oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) are commonly preferred as fuel in the area. Cutting and burning of wood will not only deplete the forest area but also is one of the sources of air pollution which emits suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Women and children are mainly affected by these pollutants. The demand for kitchen fuel will increase due to the population coming from outside for the construction and other RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
6.1
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report related work of the project. Project authority should provide kitchen fuel and make arrangement for community kitchen, canteen and efficient cooking facilities, as briefly discussed below. 1. Community kitchen: The project developer would make sufficient arrangement for the establishment of at least one community kitchen. This will be established near the project labour colony. The kitchen should provide food to the labour. The facility should maintain proper hygiene while preparing and supplying food, with adequate arrangement for waste collection and disposal. 2. Kitchen fuel: During the construction period of the project, there would be around 1280 persons involved in the project work. Many families may prefer cooking on their own instead of using community kitchen. In the absence of fuel for cooking, they would resort to tree cutting and using wood as fuel. To avoid such a situation, the project authority should make LPG and/ or kerosene available to these migrant workers. The supply of LPG and kerosene can be ensured on regular basis. A local depot can be established through LPG/ kerosene suppliers for supply of the same. 3. Efficient cooking facilities: The proposed project is in remote area of Himachal Pradesh, where supply of kitchen fuel is not easy. Project authority should also take measures for reducing the fuel consumption. The authority should provide pressure cookers and solar cookers to the families of migrant workers as well to local villagers. Accordingly budget has been allocated for the supply of cookers. This facility will also increase the work efficiency of migrant workers and they will also get proper daily diet. 6.3 COST ESTIMATES A total grant of Rs. 18.00 lacs has been assigned towards the provision of kitchen fuel, and other facilities including establishment of community kitchen or canteens for the migrant workers (Table 6.1). Table 6.1: Financial Provision for Energy Conservation Measures S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars LPG and Kerosene Depot Construction
For supply of Gas and Cylinders
For supply of Kerosene Supply Distribution of Pressure Cookers and Solar Cookers
Community Kitchen (1 Nos.)
Canteen (1 No.) Total (Rs. in lacs) Amount (Rs. in lacs)
2.50 8.00 2.00 2.00 2.50 1.00 18.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
6.2
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 7 MUCK DISPOSAL PLAN 7.1 INTRODUCTION The proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project is located on the Ravi River. The project envisages construction of 66 m high dam on Ravi River. Large quantity of material would be excavated from the Head Works, HRT during the tunneling and Power House. In addition the surge shaft, penstock, switch yard, etc. and the approach roads would also generate a large amount of muck. 7.2 QUANTITY OF MATERIAL TO BE EXCAVATED The muck quantity expected to be generated from various project components is given in Table 7.1. The total quantity/volume of material (muck) to be dug out or excavated during the construction of various project components is estimated to be 12.32 lacs cubic meters including the 40% swelling factor and utilization of 25% of muck generated by the underground works. For surface works the utilization of generate muck is taken on higher side as this excavated material is found to be good for construction purpose after the laboratory tests. 7.3 DUMPING SITES The identification of muck disposal areas was done in line with the topographic conditions and site specific conditions. Muck is to be dumped in 7 pre identified sites. Out of these 7 sites, 2 sites namely Zone – 9A and Zone 10 are also being utilized for the construction faculties. Balance 5 muck dumping sites are used primarily for muck rehabilitation. The identified dumping Sites and their Land Zones along with their cross sections are given in Plates 1 to Plates 10 and quantity of muck to be accommodated at each site is given in Table 7.2 and Plates 11 to Plates 17. Most of the muck disposal sites have been identified nearer to the muck generation locations in order to minimize the cost of transport and mitigation of dust pollution which may occur during transportation (For zone wise details Refer Annexure‐V of EIA Report). RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.1
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 17.1- Quantity Estimation for Dumping in Identified Areas
Sl.
No.
Project Component
Quantity of Muck /
Debris generated
(Additional provision of
10% for overbreaks (OB)
applicable for
underground works)
Additional
quantity of
Muck due
to 40% of
swell
factor
Total quantity of
Muck / Debris
proposed to be
utilized (incl.
40% swell factor)
Estimated
quantity of
muck/ debris
proposed to be
utilized (incl.
40% swell factor)
Estimated
quantity of muck/
debris proposed
to be dumped
Name of the
dumping site as
shown in the plan
Capacity of the
dumping site
1
2
3
4 = (2+3)
5
6 = (4-5)
7
8
152,460
Muck Dumping
Area- I (Zone
11); Area 3.43
Ha
160,303
Muck Dumping
Area- II (Zone
10); Area 2.0
Ha
142490
Muck Dumping
Area- III (Zone
9A); Area 4.3
Ha
645,413
Muck Dumping
Area- IV (Zone
8B); Area 2.50
Ha
161,200
Muck Area - I
1
Surface P/House & Tail pool; Excavation qty
from Surge shaft road
278900
111,560
390,460
238000
152,460
Total for Muck Dump Area –I (Zone -11)
Muck Area - II
2
Adit- VI & HRT excavation through Adit-VI,
Pressure Shaft (Incl OB), S/ Shaft (inc OB)
102465
40986
143451
35863
107588
107588
Total for Muck Dump Area –II (Zone -10)
Muck Area - III
Adit -IV excavation & HRT Excavation through
Adit-IV
3
73480
29,392
102,872
25,718
77,154
Balance of quantity from Dam Complex (Zone
1D)
241,394
Balance HRT excavation through Adit-II (Zone 3B)
173,409
Total for Muck Dump Area –III (Zone -9A)
491957
Muck Area - IV
4
Adit - V excavation (Incl. OB) & HRT
excavation through Adit- V (Incl. OB)
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
56705
22,682
79,387
19,847
59,540
7.2
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 59540
Total for Muck Dump Area –IV (Zone -8B)
Muck Area - V
5
Adit - III excavation; HRT excavation through
Adit- III & Internal road Works
162160
64,864
227,024
56,056
170,968
Muck Dumping
Area- V (Zone
5B); Area 3.0
Ha
173,400
Muck Dumping
Area- VI (Zone
3B); Area 2.0
Ha
37,121
Muck Dumping
Area- VII (Zone
1D); Area 8.9
Ha
211,218
170968
Total for Muck Dump Area –V (Zone -5B)
Muck Area - VI
6
Adit - II excavation (Incl. OB); HRT excavation
through Adit- II (Incl. OB) & Internal Road
Works
195,985
78,394
274,379
65,970
208,409
208409
Total for Muck Dump from Adit - II + HRT - II
Quantity considered in Muck Dump Area –VI (Zone -3B)
35000
Balance Quantity Considered in Dump Area III (Zone 9A)
173409
Muck Area - VII
7
Dam foundation & abutment; Plunge pool;
D/Tunnel & portals (Incl. OB); Intake structure;
Desanding Chamber; SFT (Incl. OB); Feeder &
Link tunnels (Incl. OB); Adit to Desanding
chambers & Gate chambers (Incl. OB); HRT
excavation through Adit- I (Incl. OB) & Internal
roads
676,209
270,484
942,296
490,299
456,394
Total Quantity of Muck for Dam Complex
456394
Quantity considered in Muck Dump Area –VII (Zone -1D)
215000
241394
Balance Quantity considered in Muck Dump Area –III (Zone -9A)
Grand Total
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1,232,514
1,531,145
7.3
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. These proposed locations are spread over land area of 26.13 ha. The muck that needs disposal would be piled at an angle of 30° at the proposed dumping sites in addition to the quantity that would be stacked along the roads, which would either be widened or newly constructed. This angle was selected keeping in view of the ground situation as the entire Ravi valley slopes are very steep with very little scope of muck to be disposed off at an angle below this. However the slopes would be broken up by creating benches across the slope. This will be done to provide stability to the slopes and also to provide ample space for planting of trees which would further help in holding and consolidating the material stacked at different sites. Efforts will be made to relocate and rehabilitate the material within short distances from sites of its generation. The description regarding the stabilization of the stacked material along the proposed roads has been discussed in the following paragraphs. The dumping areas in the land records are identified as Zone 11, 10, 9A, 8B, 5B, 3B and 1D identified for the dumping of muck generated from excavation of dam complex, tunnels, and power house complex as such shall be fragmented rock mixed with soil and shall have Ø value of 30° and above. The options like dumping the muck in stages and allowing it to consolidate/settle through the monsoon, compacting the dumped muck in the process of Dozer movement, zoning the dumping judiciously to ensure the stability of 30° slope under all superimposed conditions will be utilised. Table 7.2: Quantity of muck to be disposed at different muck disposal sites Muck
Site
LAND
ZONE
Muck From Project
Components
Vol. of Muck to be
Disposed incl. swell
and excluding
usable quantity
(cum)
I
11
Pressure shaft and Power
house plus road construction
to surge shaft top
152,460
160,303
3.43
II
10
107,588
142,490
2.00
III
9A
491,957
645,413
4.30
IV
8B
HRT muck through Adit- V
59,540
161,200
2.50
V
5B
HRT muck through Adit- III
170,968
173,400
3.00
HRT muck through Adit- VI
and Surge Shaft
HRT muck through Adit IV &
Balance portion of HRT
through Adit II & Balance
portion of 1D
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Vol. of
Muck
Disposal
Area (cum)
Area of
Muck
Disposal
Site (ha)
7.4
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. VI
3B
HRT muck through Adit- II
35,000
37,121
2.00
VII
1D
Dam, Intake, Diversion
tunnel, Desanding chambers
and Adit- I
215,000
211,218
8.90
1,232,514
1,531,145
26.13
GRAND TOTAL
7.4 PROCESS OF DUMPING The main objectives of process of muck dumping and restoration of these muck disposal sites are: •
•
•
•
•
to protect and control soil erosion to create greenery in the muck disposal areas to improve and develop the sites into recreational sites to ensure maximum utilization of muck for the construction purpose to develop the muck disposal sites/ dumping yards to blend with the surrounding landscape • to minimise damages due to the spoilage of muck in the project area. Suitable retaining walls shall be constructed prior to dumping of muck and terraces would be developed so as to support the muck on vertical slope and for optimum space utilization. Loose muck would be compacted layer‐wise. The muck disposal area will be developed in a series of terraces of retention walls. In between the terraces, catch water drains will also be provided. The terraces of the muck disposal area will be ultimately covered with fertile soil and suitable plants will be planted adopting suitable bio‐technological measures. In addition, drainage measures and land leveling shall also be required to be made. The estimated cost for these engineering measures is Rs. 105.00 lacs (Table 7.3). The project authorities would ensure that the dumping yards blend with the natural landscape by developing the sites with gentle slopes, bunds, terraced and water ponds, patches of greenery in and around them. These sites can also be developed later as recreational parks and tourist spots with sufficient greenery by planting ornamental plants. The re‐vegetation of dumping yards through ‘Integrated Biotechnological Approach’ would be undertaken. It may be necessary to inoculate the spoil dumps for development of landscape as the soils would be poor in nutrients. This can be developed through culture of microorganism or vermiculture practices at the nurseries developed for this purpose. This task can be undertaken by National Environmental Engineering RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.5
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Research Institute, Nagpur or CEMDE, University of Delhi which have the required technology in the field of reclamation of derelict and degraded lands. All the spoil areas will be developed as per the latest technology of dumping, the impact of rain, the time and angle of soil setting. In addition sprinkling of water may also be resorted to, if required to avoid or minimize dust pollution. Proper drainage system also has to be provided to ensure unobstructed flow of runoff. Planting with suitable species of trees, shrubs and other biomass will also be initiated. 7.5 RECLAMATION MEASURES FOR STABILIZATION OF SPOIL DUMPS The following engineering and biological measures have been proposed for the development of spoil areas. 7.5.1 Engineering Measures For stacking of dumped material concrete reinforced retaining walls are proposed to be built before the dumping of any material on to the site. The cost of the same has been given in Table 7.3. In addition catchwater drains are also proposed to be built and leveling of soil would also be done after dumping the material on every cycle and simultaneously improving the drainage of the disposal site. Table 7.3 Cost of engineering structures to be built at muck disposal sites Amount Rate Qty (Rs. in Unit S. No. DESCRIPTION (Rs.) (Cum) lacs) I. Construction of Retaining Wall Structures A. Dam site complex 1 Open Excavation a. In Soil 2362.5 m3 255 6.02 3
b. In rock 787.5 m 370 2.91 3
2 Concrete (PCC) ‐ M15
5250
m
4420 232.05
3 Stone Wire crates 7050
m3
2270 160.04
Contingencies and Work Charged Establishment 12.03 4 @ 3% of cost of works except L.S. items Total (A)
413.05
B. Power House Complex
1 Open Excavation a. In Soil 2610
m3
255 6.66
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.6
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 2 3 4 b. In rock Concrete ‐ M15 Stone Wire crates Contingencies and Work Charged Establishment @ 3% of cost of works except L.S. Items 870
5800
6770
m3
m3
m3
370 4160 2270 Total (B)
II.
Leveling and construction of drainage channels
Grand Total (I + II)
3.22
241.28
153.68
12.15 416.98
830.03
105.00
935.03
All the approach roads to various project structures will be constructed by employing the methodology recommended by Border Roads with minimal environmental damage. The methodology consists in developing the formation width in half cutting and half filling, so that the materials obtained from cutting are utilised in filling. The excavation on hill side will be done to get a stable slope for the materials encountered. At places where there is problem of retaining the hill slope breast wall, gabion walls shall be done in natural slope to retain the fill materials. In case of steep gorge, retaining wall, gabion structure shall be constructed to retain the fill material. To minimise the environmental damage, construction material like stones, sand, etc. required for the construction of road will be obtained mostly from the excavated material. In the streams, box culverts will be provided to prevent the erosion of nala bed. In addition stone/concrete work on the downstream area will also be provided at vulnerable places to minimize erosion. 7.5.2 Biological Measures In order to stabilise the stacked dumped material vegetation cover would be provided which will hold the dumped material over a period of time. Following steps are envisaged. • Plantation of suitable tree species and soil binding using bio‐fertilizer technology. • Turfing of the exposed area and improvement of environment with ornamental species. • Protection with mechanical support • Social fencing through the mass public awareness. The work plan formulated for re‐vegetation of the dumping sites through ‘Integrated Biotechnological Approach’ is based on following parameters: RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.7
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. i) Evaluation of dumped material for their physical and chemical properties to assess the nutrient status to support vegetation. ii) Formulation of appropriate blends of organic waste and soil to enhance the nutrient status of rhizosphere. iii) Isolation and screening of specialized strains of mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobium, azotobacter and phosphate solubilizers (biofertilizers inoculum) suitabile for the dumped material. iv) Mass culture of plant specific biofertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi. v) Plantation of dumping sites/areas using identified blend and biofertilizer inoculum. The afforestation with suitable plant species of high ecological and economic value which can adapt to local habitat will be undertaken with 400‐600 plants per hectare depending upon the canopy cover required. Major tree species which would be planted are Acer caesium, Betula alnoides, Cedrus deodara, Populus ciliata, Pinus wallichiana, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semecarpifolia and Salix denticulata. The shrubs are planted in between the trees are Cotoneaster microphyllus, Desmodium elegans, Indigofera heterantha, Euphorbia royleana, Agave americana, Sorbaria tomentosa and Wikstroemia canescens. The herbaceous layer is also helpful for the soil binding it reduces soil erosion due to rain. Herbs and grasses suggested for plantation is Mentha arvensis, Peristrophe speciosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Lotus corniculatus, Eriophorum comosum, Carex alpine, Trigonella corniculata, Salvia moorcrotianna, Cynodon sp., Digitaria cruciata, Arundo donax, etc. An area of 26.13 ha would be required for phyto‐remediation measures. The estimated cost of these measures would be Rs. 81.20 lacs. This cost includes the cost of turfing of slopes, preparation of ground, spreading of manure, etc., providing 5 cm of soil cover and transportation and carriage. It also includes the cost of fencing, irrigation, watch and ward, etc. 7.6 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT The estimated cost of the relocation and rehabilitation of excavated material is given in Table 7.4. The total cost of these measures will be Rs. 1016.23 lacs. Table 7.4: Financial requirements for implementation of Muck Disposal Plan S. No. Item
Amount (Rs. In lacs)
1. Engineering measures Construction of Retaining walls
830.03
Drainage measures and land leveling, etc.
105.00
2. Biological measures RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.8
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Plantations with Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza inoculums Turfing with Rhizobium and Azotobacter
10.80
Fencing, sprinkler system, bio‐fertilisers, FYM, soil testing, etc. Watch and ward for 5 years
Maintenance cost L.S.
Total (1+2) (Rs. In lacs)
45.00
5.40
10.00
10.00
1016.23
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
7.9
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 8 LANDSCAPING & RESTORATION PLAN 8.1 INTRODUCTION The proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project on Ravi River would require construction of various project components and infrastructural facilities like residential colonies for its staff, offices, contractor’s and labour colonies in addition to various access roads and other structures. During construction phase of the project, number of temporary construction sites and working areas will come up. In addition to this mining for construction material will also be carried out. To restore these areas to its original landscape as much as possible and retain its aesthetic values following restoration measures have been suggested. In addition avenue plantations around the colonies and working sites will be carried out. 8.2 LANDSCAPING AND RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION AREAS The proposed Bajoli Holi H. E. Project would involve construction of Dam, Power house, Adits, headrace tunnel, residential and staff colonies, roads, etc. These activities will result either in the modification or destruction of the existing landscape of the area. It is therefore imperative that after the project work and related activities are over restoration work should be carried out in these disturb areas to bring them back to their similar or near‐similar pre‐construction conditions and land use. Different project related activities will require acquisition of government as well as private land. The acquired land will also be used for dumping of muck and other garbage from the colony area. In addition to the habitat disturbance, project related activities will also result in the accumulation of large amounts of dumps at various construction sites, which need to be either relocated or as an alternative can be utilized for landscaping. Restoration success will, however largely depend on the topography of the area, the type of constructional activities and their detrimental effects on the terrain and the natural habitats. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
8.1
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report There will be indirect disturbance to the area due to increase in the human population and traffic movement. It will be essential for the project authority to restore the area back to its original state. 8.2.1 Disturbed Sites & their Restoration Construction activities like roads, muck dumping sites, quarry sites, colonies, workshops, offices, etc. which will change the existing land use/ land cover in the region. After completion of the construction work, it is required to restore the disturbed area to its original condition. Various engineering and biological measures have been suggested for the restoration of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project affected areas. Proposed mitigation measures will also help to arrest soil erosion in the region. Restoration of quarry sites, roads and colony area is discussed and a detailed plan is given for the landscaping of the region. i.
Proposed Access Roads and Infra‐Structure: Considering these broad aspects of existing access and infrastructure, the detailed planning for the approach roads, bridges, housing, offices, stores, construction plants and common facilities like hospitals, canteen, etc. have been done. The requirement of access roads to the work sites from the existing road is given at Table 8.1 (For more details refer Annexure ‐ VI in EIA Report). Table 8.1: Details of project roads proposed to access various project components Road Road Description No. Length (m)
R‐1 Road to dam site 2710 R‐2 Proposed road to dam top connecting Adit ‐ 1 1030 R‐3 Proposed road to upstream coffer dam connecting SFT 1180 R‐4 Proposed road to diversion tunnel outlet structure 130 R‐5 Proposed road from state highway to Adit‐2 portal 280 R‐6 Proposed road from state highway to quarry/bank of Kurhed nala R‐7 Proposed road from state highway to Adit‐3 portal 250 R‐8 Proposed road from state highway to Adit‐4 portal 390 1200 R‐9A Existing road from state highway up to Gwarh village 5860 R‐9B Proposed road to Holi nala Adit‐5 portal 5160 R‐10 Proposed road to explosive magazine RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
400 8.2
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report R‐11 Proposed road from state highway to aggregate processing plant R‐12 Proposed road from state highway to surge shaft top connecting adit to pressure shaft portals R‐13 Proposed road from state highway to service bay of power house 625 4000 310 Other infrastructure include construction of colonies and camp sites, construction plants viz. crushing plant, batching and mixing plant and penstock fabrication yard. It is proposed to install two aggregate processing plants of 250 MT/Hr and 150 MT/Hr capacities to meet the requirement of project are proposed at the dam site and power house complexes respectively. An adequate capacity batching and mixing plant will be installed near intake to cater the requirements of concrete for all inlet side works including tunnel lining. Other batching and mixing plants of requisite capacity will be provided near power house site for concreting work in power house complex, pressure shaft, head race tunnel and surge shaft. ii. Restoration and Landscaping of Construction sites: Setting up of infrastructure for construction including colonies for labor will lead to clearing of the vegetation and forests. The forest land at these sites will be cleared for the movement of heavy equipments required for different project related activities which would lead to the fragmentation and destruction of the habitats at these sites. Following measures will be applied for the rehabilitation and landscaping of the construction sites: (i) Herbaceous plants and tree seedlings, grown in nurseries or in greenhouses, will be sown in alternating rows. The growth of tree shrubs and herbaceous species will provide adequate erosion control, add vegetation variety for aesthetic values and provide the habitat for wildlife. (ii) The rows of herbaceous plants will be later used for the cultivation of medicinally important plant species such as Dioscorea deltoidea, Origanum vulgare, Thymus linearis, Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, etc. (iii) The choice of the tree species for plantation will depend upon the topography of the area required to be regenerated after the constructional activities. In general, Pinus wallichiana, Cedrus RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report deodara, Quercus semecarpifolia, Alnus nepalensis and Populus ciliata will be planted. (iv) The plants which fix nitrogen like Robinia pseudo‐acacia (leguminous) and Alnus nepalensis (non‐leguminous) will help in increasing nitrogen levels of soil, sufficient to maintain growth of non‐nitrogen fixing revegetation species. Other tree species which will constitute the hardwood mix will comprise Quercus semecarpifolia, Juglans regia, Engelhardia spicata or any other species specific to the area. (v) Trees such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Ehretia acuminata will be planted in waste and unculturable lands of the plant areas. Robinia pseudoacacia is particularly valuable in reclamation of derelict and infertile lands. Following measures would be adopted at for the rehabilitation and landscaping of colony areas and construction sites. 8.3
(i)
Proper roads and lanes would be provided inside the colony area. The open area will be covered with the vegetation. Ornamental plants and trees will be planted in rows along the roads and lanes. (ii)
Retaining walls will be built to avoid the landslides and slips. Proper channels would be provided inside the colony to drain out the rain/ domestic water. (iii)
Parks and play grounds for children would be developed in and around the colony area. (iv)
After the project activity is over construction sites and other temporary settlements would be splattered with the top soil (separated out before construction). These leftover can support the growth of mosses and lichens which will act as ecological pioneers and would initiate the process of succession and colonization. This will provide necessary cushion and support for the growth of seeds of other plants to germinate. LANDSCAPING & RESTORATION OF QUARRY SITES To meet the requirement of coarse and fine aggregates for all components of the project, 1 Nos. in situ rock quarries and 1 Nos. slide material have been identified in the vicinity of the project. The quarry sites would lead to disturbance of 3.55 ha of forest land and 0.65 ha of private land. The details of quarry locations are given in Table 8.2. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 8.2: Details of the quarry sites proposed in the Bajoli Holi H.E. Project Quarry Sites Location of Quarry Sites Area in ha I In situ Rock Quarry as marked in Zone 4A 2.70 II Landslide Material Deposited on Ravi River Bed on the 1.50 right bank U/S of Holi Village as marked in Zone 9B Total area to be restored 4.20 In addition to the above, the rock material expected to be available from excavation during construction of Desanding basin, Head Race Tunnel, Surge shaft etc. might also be evaluated for its suitability for use as crushed coarse aggregate and crushed sand in concrete for later use. Based on the concrete and shotcrete quantities, total quantity of raw material for production of coarse aggregate works out to be 5.35 lacs cum. Opening of the quarries will cause visual impacts because they remove a significant part of the hills. Other impacts will be the noise generated during aggregate acquisition through explosive and crushing, which could affect wildlife in the area, dust produced during the crushing operation to get the aggregates to the appropriate size and transport of the aggregates, and transport of materials to the nearby rivers. The quarrying for rock material in the proposed project would lead to removal of vegetation cover, top soil and leave the area barren. After the completion of mining activity, these areas will be restored to their normal habitat conditions. Standard mitigation measures against erosion and sedimentation, noise and air pollution will be taken, in particular for the use of explosive. At the end of the exploitation, quarries will be rehabilitated. This will include re‐establishment of vegetation, restoration of natural watercourses, avoidance of flooding of the excavated areas, achievement of stable slopes, and avoidance of features, which would otherwise constitute a risk to health and safety or a source of environmental pollution. The measures adopted for landscaping of these quarry sites have been described below: i) Measures to be adopted before quarrying The top 6‐12” of soil will be removed before starting the quarrying activity or any other surface disturbance. This top soil will be kept separate and stock piled so that it can be reused after quarrying is over for rehabilitation of sites. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. ii) ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ EMP Report Measures to be adopted after quarrying Diversion of run off Effective drainage system will be provided to avoid the infiltration of run‐
off and surface waters into the ground of quarry sites. Filling of depressions Removal of rocks from quarry sites for different construction works will result in the formation of depression and/or craters. These will be filled by the dumping materials consisting of boulders, rock, gravel and soil from nearby plant/working sites. Construction of retaining walls Retaining walls will be constructed at the filled up depressions of quarry sites to provide necessary support particularly where there are moderately steep slopes. Rocks for landscaping After the quarrying activities are over, these sites will be splattered with the leftovers of rocks and boulders. These boulders and rocks can support the growth of mosses and lichens, which will act as ecological pioneers and initiate the process of succession and colonization. The boulders of moderate size will be used to line the boundary of a path. Laying of the top soil The depressions/craters filled up with rock aggregates will be covered with top soil. Fungal spores naturally present in top soil will aid plant growth and natural plant succession. The top soil will be further enriched by organic manure and Vesicular‐arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. This will help in the process of soil reclamation and the early establishment of juvenile seedlings. Revegetation The work plan formulated for revegetation of the dumping sites through ‘Integrated Biological and Biotechnological Approach’ would be based upon the following parameters: i) Evaluation of rock material for their physical and chemical properties to assess the nutrient status to support vegetation. ii) Formulation of appropriate blends of organic waste and soil to enhance the nutrient status of rhizosphere. iii) Isolation and screening of specialized strains of mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobium, azotobacter and phosphate solubilizers (bio‐fertilizers inoculums) suitable for the mined out sites. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 8.4 8.5 EMP Report iv) Mass culture of plant specific biofertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi to be procured from different institutions/organisations which are engaged in the phyto‐remediation activity of degraded areas. v) Plantation at quarry sites/areas using identified blend and biofertilizer inoculum. PLAN IMPLEMENTATION The landscaping and restoration plan will be implemented with help of landscaping experts and in consultation with Himachal Pradesh Horticulture Department as well as Forest Department of Bharmour Division and the coordination and funding will be provided by the project proponent. The help of Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems (CEMDE) at the University of Delhi may also be sought for the requisite technical and scientific expertise for successful implementation of this plan. COST ESTIMATES The estimated cost for the restoration works and landscape designing would be Rs. 97.00 lacs and details of the same are given in Table 8.3. Table 8.3: Cost estimates for landscaping and restoration works Sl. Amount Item of Work No. (Rs. in lacs)
A Pre‐construction measures Removal of top soil, transportation and stock piling 14.00 B Post‐construction restoration measures i Diversion channels 6.00 ii Retaining walls 8.00 iii Filling of the craters 2.00 iv Preparation of mounds 2.00 C. Reclamation and Phytoremediation i) Field works: ‐ Collection of microflora from the field 8.00 ‐ Nursery development 5.00 ‐ Plantation and maintenance of successfully colonized seedlings 5.00 ii) Laboratory Works: 55.00 Selection, culturing and maintenance of strains, Preparation of mother cultures, and Confirmation of successful colonization Total (A+B+C) (Rs. in lacs) 97.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 9 AIR & WATER ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN 9.1 IMPACTS ON PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Hydroelectric projects are generally considered cleaner source of energy as the environmental impacts are considerably lower during the project operation phase. However, the construction phases of such project, in ecologically rich areas, pose serious threats to surrounding environment. Therefore, it is important to identify and quantify such impacts and formulate mitigation measures in order to have minimum damage to project surrounding areas during construction period. During construction phase, the activities like site preparation, approach roads, excavation, drilling, blasting, foundation, tunneling, deployment of machinery, erection, transportation, dumping will be taken up. Tunneling and foundation works will involve land excavation, affecting environment by noise and dust pollution. Structural work, deployment of machinery, approach roads construction and erection work will also result in dust, noise pollution and vehicular traffic. Material handling and transportation would also lead to significant increase in air and noise pollution. Muck generation, its transportation and disposal may pollute surface water due to the generation of large quantities of suspended particulate matter. Wastewater from labor camps and colonies may also pollute water bodies in the area. The likely impacts on the physical environment during the construction phase are listed in Table 9.1. In addition, another important aspect to be taken care of during the construction phase of the project is that of “Safety”. Deployment of large number of labour during the five years construction phase in difficult terrains, underground works, use of machinery and equipment, use of explosives for blasting, etc. may lead to serious accidents, if adequate safety measures are not adopted. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Construction & Operational Phase a) Site work / other facilities. EMP Report Table 9.1: Impacts during Construction Phase Activity Potential Environmental Impact i) Cleaning and grading Dust emission
ii) Temporary facilities, such Dust emission, water pollution and solid waste generation as sheds, approach roads, sanitary facilities iii) Earth work comprising of Soil erosion, run off, increase in excavation and trenches traffic, dust emission iv) Foundation work, piling Dust, visual and noise pollution, wastewater generation and construction of check barrages Dust and noise pollution and v) Construction of wastewater generation permanent structures like roads, colony, etc. vi) Mechanical erection and Dust, noise and visual impact
utility systems Dust, soil erosion, wastewater b) Construction of i) Excavation generation and noise approach roads tunneling ii) Drilling & Blasting
Dust, noise and health hazards
works and iii) Dumping Dust, noise and river pollution
foundations iv) Transportation Dust, noise and visual c) Accident In all construction activities Major or minor health impact
9.2 AIR ENVIRONMENT As was observed during various field visits to the study area, the air quality in the area is pristine. In the absence of industries, the only source of air pollution in the area at present is vehicular traffic and few other anthropogenic activities like burning of fuel wood, garbage, etc. or occasional use of DG sets in the area. However, quantity of such emissions is relatively small and sources are scattered, therefore, ambient air quality is generally good for the entire area. Construction and operation of the Bajoli Holi HEP will definitely impact the air quality of the area. Five years construction period will involve exploration activities, construction of dam, tunnels and approach roads, operation of batch mixing plants, aggregate processing plants, crushers, dumpers, cranes and other construction equipments, operation of DG sets for construction power, quarrying operations, muck generation and disposal, repair and maintenance workshops, penstock fabrication, transportation of men and material, etc. All RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report these activities will contribute to air pollution in the area. The nature and extent of impact on air environment will vary from time to time, location to location and through different stages of development of the project. As all these activities contribute to fugitive emissions in various forms, quantification of air pollution at this stage is not possible. 9.2.1 Impacts on Ambient Air Quality Considerable amount of air pollution will take place during different stages of construction. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is the main pollutant during construction phase, released in the form of fugitive dust from various operations and activities. Additionally, SO2 and hydrocarbons will also be released as product of fuel burning during operation of equipments. The pollutants released during the construction activities may cause immediate effect on the construction workers who are directly exposed to them. However, the pollutant will not travel to longer distances as the project site is located in between hills. Disadvantage of such locations is that pollution generated in the valley do not get dispersed easily, hence even smaller quantities have serious impacts. Pollution due to Fuel Combustion in Equipments Major fuel consumption i.e. that of diesel will be in DG sets for meeting construction power requirement, which is estimated as 9 MVA. As this power requirement will be at different construction sites, it will be met through a number of DG sets installed at different construction sites, colonies and workshops. Operation of DG sets and other construction equipments requires combustion of diesel. The major pollutant which gets emitted as a result of combustion of diesel is SO2. The SPM emissions are generally not significant; however, amount depends upon quality of fuel used. To reduce the impact of air emissions from DG sets, it is important to have adequate stack height of these DG sets to provide for plume dispersion and reduce the impact on receptors. Minimum stack height will be worked out based on capacity of DG sets as per the following formula: H = h+0.2√KVA Where, H = Total height of stack in meter h = Height of the building in meter where the generator set is installed KVA = Total generator capacity of the set in KVA RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report These stacks form part of the DG assembly including the acoustic housing to control sound levels, hence their cost is not included in the EMP cost. Emissions from Construction Equipment Following major construction and repair facilities will be generated for the project which will lead to air pollution in the surrounding areas: Aggregate Processing Plants: Two aggregate processing plants of 250 MT/Hr and 150 MT/Hr capacities to be set up at dam site and power house site respectively. Concrete Batching and Mixing Plants: Seven concrete batching and mixing plants will be set up as per following details. S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Component
Main Dam (BM‐1)
HRT (BM‐2) HRT (BM‐3) HRT (BM‐4) HRT (BM‐5) HRT and Surge shaft area (BM‐6) Power house & lower limb of pressure shaft (BM‐7) Capacity (Cum/hr)
120 30 30 30 30 45 45 Repair and Maintenance Workshops: Two base workshops have been proposed for earth moving equipment, for concreting and drilling equipments near the dam and the powerhouse areas. Additionally, to cater for day to day maintenance and running repairs, small shops would be set up outside each portal of the various adits. These plants and workshops will generate fugitive emissions comprising mainly the suspended particulate matter during loading/unloading of material and repair and maintenance activities. Major impact will be on the immediate vicinity i.e. affecting the workers involved in these operations. Provision of appropriate dust masks and other required Personal Protective Equipment at all the locations and enforcing their use by workers will help reducing emission’s impact at workplace environment. Depending on wind direction and other meteorological factor these emissions may also disperse in atmosphere and will affect the surrounding area. The impacts will remain limited to immediate surrounding and vary with wind direction. Best mitigation method is to keep the emissions under check so that they do not spread to outside the battery limits of these plants. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Fugitive Emissions from various sources Construction activities such as tunneling, excavation, road cuttings, etc. are associated with large amount dust generation. Additionally, quarrying operations, muck transport and dumping, transportation and storage of construction material like sand, fine aggregate, etc. generate large amount of dust. Continuous exposure to fugitive dust has serious health effects on workers and residents of nearby areas. Impacts are local and temporary, and their significance can be reduced by adopting various mitigation measures such as controlling emissions at source, water sprinkling and use of PPEs. Emission due to Vehicular Traffic The project construction will involve transportation of large quantities of construction material to the project site and all the transportation in the project area will be done by road. This would lead to substantial increase in heavy vehicular traffic in the area. Emissions from vehicular traffic, due to diesel burning, will lead to air pollution in the area. The impact can not be eliminated, however, it can be reduced by enforcing on transporters that the vehicles used should have valid PUC certificate. 9.2.2 Mitigation Measures for Air Emissions The best way of impact mitigation is to prevent the event occurring. All efforts should be made to locate the developmental activities in an area free of agricultural lands, ecologically sensitive, erosion, forests, flooding, human settlements, land slides, natural scenic beauty, water logging. However, practically, this is not possible as project design criteria govern the location of various activities. Therefore, the next step is to look at the raw materials/technologies/ processes alternatives which produce least impact i.e. adopting or using processes or technologies which are efficient and produce recyclable wastes/ minimum waste/wastes that can be easily disposed, without seriously affecting the environment. However, if the developmental activities produce the adverse impact action has to be taken to mitigate the same. Following are some of the recommendations on mitigation measures. 1.
2.
3.
Use of DG sets to be kept at minimum and only for captive power generation, if possible Location of DG sets and other emission generating equipment should be decided keeping in view the predominant wind direction so that emissions do not effect nearby residential areas. Stack height of DG sets to be kept in accordance with CPCB norms, which prescribes the minimum height of stack to be provided with each generator set to be calculated using the following formula: RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report H = h+0.2x √KVA H = Total height of stack in metre h = Height of the building in metres where the generator set is installed KVA = Total generator capacity of the set in KVA 4. Proper maintenance for efficient functioning of DG sets and other construction equipment is essential to minimize exhaust 5. Construction equipment and vehicles will be turned off when not used for extended periods of time. Unnecessary idling of construction vehicles to be prohibited. 6. The entire contractor’s vehicle should have valid PUC certificate and same condition may be enforced on transporters bringing in material for construction. 7. Effective traffic management to be undertaken to avoid significant delays in and around the project area. 8. Road damage caused by sub‐project activities will be promptly attended to with proper road repair and maintenance work. 9. Wherever practical, excavated spoils to be removed as the contractor proceeds along the length of the activity. 10. When necessary, stockpiling of excavated material will be covered or staged offsite location with muck being delivered as needed during the course of construction. 11. Excessive soil on paved areas will be sprayed (wet) and/or swept and unpaved areas will be sprayed and/or mulched. The use of petroleum products or similar products for such activities will be strictly prohibited. 12. Contractors will be required to cover stockpiled soils and trucks hauling soil, sand, and other loose materials (or require trucks to maintain at least two feet of freeboard). 13. Dust sweeping ‐ The construction area and vicinity (access roads, and working areas) shall be swept with water sweepers on a daily basis or as necessary to ensure there is no visible dust. 14. All the construction workers and other staff, who get directly exposed to dust, should necessarily be provided with dust masks. The project authorities will work closely with representatives from the community living in the vicinity of project area to identify areas of concern and to mitigate dust‐related impacts effectively (e.g., through direct meetings, utilization of construction management and inspection program, and/or through the complaint response program). RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 9.2.3 Noise Levels The sound will be generated during almost all the construction activities such as tunneling, blasting, movement of vehicles, operation of construction machines and equipments, repair and maintenance work, operation of DG sets, etc. Continuous exposure of workers to high sound levels may result in annoyance, fatigue, and may cause temporary shift of threshold limit of hearing and even permanent loss of hearing. As is evident from the baseline data, in the absence of vehicular traffic, sound levels in the area are generally low. There are no industries or any other source of noise in the area. Construction phase will generate noise at various locations in the project area and is likely to affect residents and construction workers. The simultaneous operation of some equipment may increase the noise manifolds, however, resultant increase in noise levels will depend upon location of such equipment with respect to habitation, availability of the silencers/ mufflers, condition of the equipment, losses during transmission, etc. Increase in vehicular traffic in the area will also contribute to high sound levels in the area. Construction activities such as tunneling, blasting, etc. also lead to high noise generation. Sound attenuates with the distance and even if all the attenuation factors are removed, direct sound levels reduce by 6 dB(A) with every doubling of distance. Further, the sound level reduces substantially when the wave passes through a barrier. Therefore, if location of construction equipment is planned keeping in view the safe distance from habitation, impact can be greatly reduced on large section of population. Workers who are directly exposed need to use Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) to reduce the impact. 9.2.4 Mitigation Measures for Noise Impact Impacts due to high noise levels can be greatly reduced by adopting mitigation measures, as discussed below: ƒ Location of the construction equipment to be decided keeping in view the safe distance from habitation. ƒ Contractors will be required to maintain properly functioning equipment and comply with occupational safety and health standards. ƒ All the construction equipment will be required to use available noise suppression devices and properly maintained mufflers. ƒ Staging of construction equipment and unnecessary idling of equipment within noise sensitive areas to be avoided whenever possible. ƒ Minimize the use of noise producing equipment during night hours to avoid the disturbance to locals and wild animals of surrounding area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report ƒ Use of temporary sound fences or barriers to be evaluated. ƒ Notification will be given to residents within 300 feet of major noise generating activities. The notification will describe the noise abatement measures that will be implemented. ƒ Monitoring of noise levels will be conducted during the construction phase of the project. In case of exceeding of pre‐determined acceptable noise levels by the machinery will require the contractor(s) to stop work and remedy the situation prior to continuing construction. ƒ Vehicles to be equipped with mufflers recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. The following Noise Standards for DG sets (15‐500 KVA) are recommended for the running of DG sets during the construction. • The total sound power level, Lw, of a DG set should be less than, 94+10 log10 (KVA), dB(A). • Noise from the DG set should be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by treating the enclosure acoustically. • The Acoustic Enclosure should be made of CRCA sheets of appropriate thickness and structural/ sheet metal base. The walls of the enclosure should be insulated with fire retardant foam so as to comply with the 75 dBA at 1m sound levels specified by CPCB, Ministry of Environment & Forests. • The acoustic enclosure/acoustic treatment of the room should be designed for minimum 25 dB(A) Insertion Loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards, whichever is on the higher side. • The DG set should also be provided with proper exhaust muffler with insertion loss of minimum 25 dB(A). • Proper efforts to be made to bring down the noise levels due to the DG set, outside its premises, within the ambient noise requirements by proper siting and control measures. • A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure for the DG set should be set and followed in consultation with the DG set manufacturer which would help prevent noise levels of the DG set from deteriorating with use. 9.3 WATER ENVIRONMENT Construction work require large quantities of water to be used in various processing plants for material preparation; curing purposes, cooling water in equipments, domestic usages in colonies, etc. wastewater will be generated in various forms processing plants, workshops and residential areas. Additionally, during the construction work, muck transportation and RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report transportation of materials; large quantities of suspended particulate matter will be generated to end up in the water body. As the construction period is long such impacts can permanently deteriorate the water quality in the area, if adequate mitigation measures are not adopted. The following mitigation measures are suggested to be followed during the construction of the project: • Minimize flow variation from the mean flow. Adequate river water will be secured to meet the requirements of riparian people, livestock, and wild animals and to sustain the aquatic ecosystem. • Segregation of different types of wastes at source and avoid their mixing up in the river. • Accumulation of oil wastes in depressions should be minimised in order to avoid possible contamination of the ground water system. • Surface runoff from oil handling areas/devices (workshops and DG operation areas) should be treated for oil separation before discharge into the environment. If oil wastes are combined with sanitary sewage, oil separation will be necessary at the wastewater treatment facility. • All effluents containing acid/ alkali/ organic/ toxic wastes should be processed by treatment methods. The treatment methods may include biological or chemical processes. • The impact due to suspended solids may be minimized by controlling discharge of wastes that contain suspended solids; this includes sanitary sewage and other wastes. Also, all activity that increases erosion or contributes nutrients to water (thus stimulating algal growth) should be minimized. • For wastes containing high TDS treatment methods include removal of liquid and disposal of residue by controlled land filling to avoid any possible leaching of the fills. All surface runoffs around quarries and excavation areas should be properly channelized and taken care of. • The growth of aquatic weeds is to be monitored in the reservoir and excess weeds will be removed. • Fish production in the reservoir will be monitored for any possible decrease. If any unexpected negative impact occurs, fish will be restocked. Technical support will be provided to the fish farming activities in the reservoir. • Adequacy of the fish population will also be monitored and adequate stock of fingerlings to be maintained in the hatchery. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 9.4 EMP Report ACCIDENTAL RISKS In the hydro‐electric projects, the environmental risk assessment is an important aspect. Larger environmental risks such as floods, land slides, etc. have been adequately covered along with their management plan at relevant sections of Environmental Management Plan. Some of the aspects posing accidental risk during construction phase, where work force and surrounding population may get affected, have been addressed below. 9.4.1 Safety in Explosive Handling Explosives will be required to be stored at site during construction period. It is expected to have two magazines each with a capacity to store 20 tonne of explosives. Magazine structure means a building specially constructed in accordance with a design approved by the Chief Controller and intended for storage of more than 5 kg of explosives. Distances between two magazines or between a magazine and other buildings, road, railway, etc. is governed by the Safety Distances given at Schedule VIII of the Explosives Rules, 1983 and are based on the category and quantity of explosive material stored. For magazine to store 20 MT of explosive material, following safe distances are applicable: Quantity in Kg 20000 To and between magazine or magazine office etc X Y
ZZ
M/UM M/UM
M/UM
26 32
65
Quantity To railway, Road, etc.
in Kg X Y ZZ
M/UM M/UM M/UM
20000 28 86 303
To and between process bldgs X
Y ZZ M/UM
M/UM M/UM
26
87 226
To Dwelling Houses, Offices, factories, etc.
X
Y
ZZ M/UM
M/UM
M/UM 58
174
605 NB: M denotes Mounded; UM denotes Unmounded; Distances are in m Explosives are divided into four categories according to the risks which they present when initiated, namely – Category X – Those explosives, which have a fire or a slight explosion risk or both but the effect of which will be local. Category Y – Those explosives, which have a mass fire risk or a moderate explosion risk, but not the risk of mass explosion. Category Z – Those explosives, which have a mass explosion risk and major missile, effect. Category ZZ – Those explosives, which have a mass explosion risk and minor missile effect. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Bajoli Holi HE Project falls under category X If any question arises as to whether any explosive belongs to Category X, Category Y, Category Z or Category ZZ, the matter shall be referred to the Chief Controller whose decision shall be final. In addition to taking license and maintaining safety distances as above, all the precaution required as the Explosive Rules need to be strictly adhered to during transportation, storage and handling of explosives. 9.4.2 Safety during Construction With large scale increase in construction activity of river valley projects, the number of major accidents during construction stage has increased. Further, increased construction activity has also created construction related hazards for persons working on the projects. The degree of safety achieved in project constructions has a direct bearing on the amount of effort expanded to avoid accidents by those who control the conditions and practices on the project. In order to avoid accidents it should be the overall responsibility of the project authorities to provide measures for the safety of all persons working on the projects. The standards laid down for the safety aspects should be taken during construction work. Construction activities at the site of a hydro‐electric project need to take care of safety aspect for all the activities in general and for following critical activities in particular: ¾ Storage, handling, transportation and operation of explosives required for blasting and tunneling activities ¾ Underground construction work including tunneling, excavation and other related activities ¾ Construction at heights ¾ Fire safety aspects ¾ Cross drainage construction work ¾ Storage, handling, detection and safety measures for gases, chemicals and flammable liquids ¾ Movement of vehicles on construction site All persons need to be made aware of the dangerous conditions and risks involved in their activities. They should be trained to take necessary precautions for their own safety as well as that of others working at site. This should typically involve following the Safe Operating Procedure (SOP) wherever applicable, use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as helmets, gloves, gum boots, safety harness, etc., remain active and alert RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report without any influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances during working hours. The safety requirement generally vary according to the type of structure, type of construction methodology, type of strata encountered and number of men and type of machinery deployed at site, therefore, it is important to develop site specific construction safety procedures. Such SOPs need to be incorporated in letter and spirit and all the staff involved need to be sensitized to the importance of safety and trained. A full time safety manager, will be appointed by the project developer with duties of monitoring and audit delegated to other staff members on safety aspects. Apart from procuring the appropriate and adequate number of PPEs it is also important to maintain sufficient number of first aid boxes and some volunteers trained in giving first aid treatment. Further, the outsiders coming to site such as drivers, helpers, etc. also need to be made aware of safety requirement of their activity. This can be achieved by putting posters carrying safety instructions for the benefit of all and giving verbal instructions at the entry point also. Table 9.2 gives list of BIS Standards related to safety aspects during various stages of construction, installation, erection of different components and appurtenance of river valley projects, including inspection, observation and maintenance aspects from safety consideration. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IS No. IS 10386 (Part 1):1983 IS 10386 (Part 2):1982 IS 10386 (Part 3):1992 IS 10386 (Part 4):1992 IS 10386 (Part 5):1992 IS 10386 (Part 6):1983 IS 10386 (Part 7):1993 Table 9.2: List of relevant BIS Standards Title Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 1 General aspects Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 2 Amenities, protective clothing and equipment Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects Part 3 Plant & machinery Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects Part 4 Handling, transportation and storage of explosives Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 5 Electrical aspects Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 6 Construction Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 7 Fire safety aspects RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. 8 IS No. IS 10386 (Part 8):1995 9 IS 10386 (Part 9):1998 10 IS 10386 (Part 10):1983 9.5 EMP Report Title Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects Part 8 Excavation Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects Part 9 Canals and cross drainage works Safety code for construction, operation and maintenance of river valley projects: Part 10 Storage, handling, detection and safety measures for gases, chemicals and flammable liquids COST ESTIMATES Various mitigation and management measures have been discussed above to reduce the impacts of air, noise and water pollution and implement safety measures to ensure that impacts on these counts are reduced to minimum possible during the entire construction phase. To implement such measures, it is important to prepare a budget of such measures and include in the project cost so that lack of fund should not constrain their implementation. Some of the measures suggested have already been covered under other heads of environmental management; therefore, an estimate of only additional cost is given below in Table 9.3. Table 9.3: Estimated cost of implementation of mitigation and safety measures Particulars Amount (Rs. in lacs) Cost of setting up of Wastewater Treatment units at two main 25.00
workshops, aggregate and concrete mixing plants Operation and maintenance cost for above wastewater 20.00
treatment plants for 5 years (lump sum) Procuring and replenishing the stock of PPEs during the 15.00
construction phase of five years Training and Awareness programs for local residents, 25.00
contractors labour, drivers, cleaners, etc. Total 85.00
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 10 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 10.1 INTRODUCTION A green belt around the reservoir periphery, road side and office complex/colony area will be created to avoid erosion of soil, prevention of land slips, minimize the air pollution and noise pollution in the project area. Development of green belt not only minimizes these impacts but also improves the aesthetic environment of the region. Therefore, a “Green Belt Development Plan” has been proposed around the project area in general and along the project components in particular using the local flora. 10.2 DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN BELT Different types of construction activities such as road network, crusher plants, colony areas, office complex, powerhouse, dam site, reservoir rim, etc. are proposed in the Bajoli Holi H.E. Project. The green belt is proposed to be developed within these sites. The general consideration involved while proposing the greenbelt plan are: • • • • • Broad leaf trees growing above 10 m in height should be planted along the approach roads and colonies. Plantation of trees should be undertaken in appropriate encircling rows. Generally local/indigenous fast growing trees and shrubs should be planted. The trees should be protected by plantation of shrub species to avoid browsing by animals. Placement of Iron tree guards should be provided to save the plant saplings. 10.3 GUIDELINES & TECHNIQUES FOR GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT Extensive survey in the project area was undertaken to observe the structure and composition of vegetation. The soil characteristics were also kept in mind. Based on this survey and environmental conditions suitable native plants species have been proposed for green belt development plan (Table 10.1). The schematic arrangement of greenbelt plantation proposed along the reservoir rim, roads office, crusher plants and colony is presented in Figure 10.1. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 10.1: List of plants species proposed for Green Belt development Sites Roadside Plantation Staff colony/ Office complex Crusher plant / Power plant Reservoir rim Tree species Callistemon citrinus, Alnus nepalensis, Salix spp., Prunus cerasoides, Bauhinia spp., Ligustrum nepalense, Cupressus torulosa and Thuja spp. Aesculus indica, Malus domestica, Juglans regia, Prunus armeniaca, Callistemon citrinus Shrub species
Desmodium elegans, Cotoneaster microphyllus, Daphne spp., Agave americana, Euphorbia royleana, Berberis aristata, Rubus spp. Fragaria spp., Rubus spp., Rosa spp., Bougainvillea spp., Hibiscus rosa‐sinensis Herbaceous species Dioscorea deltoidea, Origanum vulgare, Thymus linearis, Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Asparagus adscendens, Potentilla nepalensis Tagetes patula, Valeriana spp., Viola biflora, Iris spp. Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Alnus nepalensis, Aesculus indica, Albizia spp., Cupressus torulosa Populus ciliata, Salix babylonica, Salix denticulata, Callistemon citrinus, Alnus nepalensis, Lyonia ovalifolia, Cedrus deodara Cotoneaster microphyllus, Indigofera heterantha, Berberis aristata, Rubus spp., Dendrocalamus strictus, Viburnum spp. Cotoneaster microphyllus,
Berberis spp., Rosa spp., Agave americana, Euphorbia royleana, Rhus spp., Tagetes patula, Anemone rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Asparagus adscendens, Potentilla nepalensis Asparagus adscendens,
Origanum vulgare, Bergenia ciliata, Asparagus adscendens, Potentilla nepalensis Figure 10.1: Plantation techniques for green belt development at different project locations RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 10.4 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT Green belt development will comprise plantations at various places like alongside roads, around the periphery of reservoir rim, and at different project offices and colonies. 10.4.1 Roadside plantation In Bajoli Holi H. E. Project area construction of 13.8 km long approach roads are proposed. It is proposed to carry out roadside plantation along these roads. The cost of the plantation has been calculated as per the existing labour charges, material cost (plants, FYM, tree guards, etc.) and the total area of plantation. The spacing for trees is proposed 3 m while 2 m for shrubs. The pit size has been recommended as 45 cm x 45 cm x 5 cm for trees and 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm for shrubs. The total cost of roadside plantation works out to be Rs. 1.24 lacs (Table 10.2). Plantation along roads must take into account visibility aspects on curves so as to ensure safe driving. 10.4.2 Green belt development along the reservoir rim Most of the area in the vicinity of proposed reservoir of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project is under dense coniferous forest mainly comprised of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana species. The creation of green belt on either side of the reservoir will ensure protection of the reservoir area from any minor slips due to fluctuation in the water level. The slopes on both the banks will be planted with suitable tree species for creation of a green belt around the reservoir rim. In areas with moderately steep slopes indigenous, economically important, soil binding tree species will be planted, which are able to thrive well under high humidity and flood conditions. A proposed scheme of plantation around the reservoir is given below. i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
The green belt will start from the immediate vicinity of the reservoir rim on both the banks, up to the tail of the reservoir wherever moderately steep slopes are available for plantation. The average width of the green belt will be around 40 m varying from about 15 m at places to 120 m or as physiographic and land features allow. There would be at least 2 layers of plantation. Water loving species, preferably Salix spp. and Populus ciliata will be planted in the row nearest to the reservoir rim. The soil present at this level and the air moisture are favourable for the survival and growth of these species. It is also proposed to plant fruit bearing and such species which are best studied for bird‐nesting. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. v.
vi.
EMP Report Species like Aesculus indica, Juglans regia, Bauhinia spp., Quercus leucotrichophora etc. will occupy the middle portions of the green belt. These species have been observed to thrive well in this area. The outermost layer of the green belt will be composed of hardy tree species and shrubby mix to withstand any external influences/ pressures of grazing, browsing by cattle and sheep, etc. In this layer the species Ficus spp. and Quercus sp. will be planted in the inner as well as outer rows. In all plantations would be undertaken on an area of about 12.00 ha along the periphery of reservoir. 10.4.3 Green belt at dam site and Power house site Plantation at the dam site and power house has been proposed for control of erosion/ siltation of the reservoir and aesthetic importance. The plants of recreational value, horticultural importance shall be planted within the complex. Developing a lawn and flower garden surrounded by this green belt may serve the purpose of beautification of the dam site area. 10.4.4 Green belt around crusher plants For mitigating the impact of dust and noise, which will rise from the crusher plant, plantation must be done around the crusher plant area. One crusher plant is proposed in the project area and about 400 m distance surrounding the crusher working area has to be planted. 10.4.5 Green Belt around colony area and Office Complex Plantation around the project colony and office complexes is proposed to be done, so that, greenery is developed. Precaution should be exercised by not planting large size trees around buildings and other similar structures as during winter the sun rays are obstructed by them invariably and much wanted sunshine is impaired. Besides this, it is also proposed to develop green belt around the working areas for trapping the dust and noise. The area proposed for colonies, is about 1.7 ha. Plantation of avenue, ornamental and fruit trees are proposed in these areas along with the area around office complex. The ornamental, fruit plants will be procured from the horticulture department and local market while the avenue plants will be raised in the project nursery. For protection of trees from cattle iron tree guards shall be required. 10.5 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR GREEN BELT PLAN The creation of nursery for Green Belt Development has been included already in Landscaping and Restoration Plan and the requirement would be met from these nurseries which are located in almost the same area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 10.6 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS For the creation of green belt around the reservoir sufficient financial provision has been made by the project authorities. Plantations would be carried out around reservoir, roads as well as areas in colonies and construction sites. The estimated cost of plantations as well as maintenance for 5 years will be Rs. 9.28 lacs. The plantation for this purpose will be carried out with the participation of the State Forest/ Horticulture Department(s). The cost estimate for green belt development is given in Table 10.2. Table 10.2: Cost estimate for Green belt development in Bajoli Holi H.E. Project S. No. Component Amount (Rs. in Lacs)
1 Cost of plantation along road side 1.24 2 Cost of plantation around Dam site and power house
0.50 3 Cost of avenue and ornamental plantation around 1.00 Residential areas and office complex for 4 Cost of plantation & maintenance along reservoir 5.04 periphery for 12 ha Rs.42,000.00/ ha 5 Iron tree guards @ 1000 each
0.50 6 Contingency 0.50 7. Maintenance of plantations other than reservoir 0.50 periphery @ Rs.10,000.00 / year Total (Rs. in Lacs) 9.28 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 11 RESERVOIR RIM TREATMENT PLAN 11.1 INTRODCUTION The reservoir formed due to impoundment by 66 m high (above deepest foundation level) dam with FRL at El. 2018.25m and dam top at El. 2020m is expected to spread over an area of 16.5 ha. It is expected to extend for a length of 2.42 km along the river Ravi upstream of dam and for a length of about 150 m into valley of Channi Nala, a left bank tributary of Ravi river. Traverse geological mapping of the reservoir area on 1:5,000 scale was carried out with a view to assess the reservoir rim stability, and identify the vulnerable reaches as far as slope stability is concerned and look for possible locations where impounded water could escape from reservoir. The geological map of the reservoir area (refer Annexure – VIII of EIA Report) indicates that the river Ravi upstream of dam site flows through slightly wider valley for a distance of about 500m and then the valley narrows down considerably towards upstream. The valley slopes are steep in general, however, the valley slopes on the right flank are steeper as compared to those on left bank due to the fact that left bank slopes are dip slopes forming hog’s back. The valley slopes in the comparatively wider reach are generally covered by overburden comprising slope‐wash deposits with bedrock exposed in the form of isolated outcrops at higher elevation. On the left bank, bedrock is continuously exposed at riverbed level up to a height of 30‐40m and extends about 500m upstream of dam axis up to the location where river takes bend towards north. Beyond this bend the river flows through a broad curvature and bedrock is continuously exposed on the left bank up to about 40m above riverbed up to the confluence of nala joining the main river about 700m downstream of tail of the reservoir. On the broad curvature, the bedrock is exposed on the left bank of the river up to road level. Beyond the nala mentioned, the valley slopes are covered with overburden up to reservoir limit and beyond. The hill slopes on both the banks are covered by sparsely to moderately dense forest cover. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report On right bank, the bedrock is exposed up to about 200m upstream of dam axis. Beyond this the valley slopes are covered by overburden with bedrock exposed on patches. The bedrock is extensively exposed on the outer side of bend downstream of confluence of Channi Nala up to considerable height above river bed. The valley slopes on the right bank of river upstream of confluence of Channi Nala are covered by slope‐wash deposits in general except for a short reach of about 150m where bedrock is exposed at riverbed level and same goes up to 30‐40m above it. The bedrock exposed in the area includes phyllite, quartzitic phyllite and phyllite with thin bands of quartzite. The bedrock is slightly weathered on the surface. The bedrock is thinly foliated and jointed. Foliation, the most prominent discontinuity, strikes in general in NW‐SE direction with 300 to 600 dips towards NE. Variation in amount and direction of dips can be attributed due to the fact that the area is located on the SW limb of a NW‐SE trending major fold and to folding on local scale. The strata are traversed by two prominent sets of joints in addition to that parallel to foliation. The traverses in the reservoir area indicated that valley slopes up to FRL (Full Reservoir Level) and between FRL and MDDL (Minimum Draw Down Level) expose bedrock on most of reaches. No evidences of distress were observed on the valley slopes on both banks even on overburden slopes on both banks in the area around reservoir except for huge accumulation of loose muck generated by road cut lying over precarious slope, about 12m above the proposed FRL on the left bank of the river about 330m upstream of dam axis (Figures 11.1 & 11.2). The accumulated debris mass is located much upstream of any of the appurtenants of the project but it is located in the reservoir area adjacent to the dam just above FRL of the reservoir. It is about 80m long with crown located at around El. 2105m and toe at El. 2030m with its width of about 30m in the crown region which reduces to about 20m in the toe region. It has damaged the foot track going towards upstream for a length of about 20m. The left bank slope of the river in the area is steep and bedrock is exposed at riverbed level and about 25m above it. The hill slopes above bedrock are covered with 5‐10m thick slope‐wash deposits. The slope failure could occur on saturation due to rain. It appears to be small slide and could stabilize once the muck accumulated on the steep slopes is transported down. However, it is observed that toe of the material, though does not come in fluctuation zone but is located in the vicinity of reservoir rim. It is not expected to affect the reservoir rim stability and does not have much impact on the reservoir. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report However, if required, its stability and impact on the project can be reassessed during pre‐construction stage. 11.2 REMEDIAL MEASURES The toe of the material is located at El. 2,030 m and the crown extends up to El. 2,105 m. The debris cone occurring at the base of the material may be kept as it is, and toe wall/ plum concreting is to be provided at the toe of the material and afterwards from up to El. 2,070m. The exposed surface after construction of toe wall and selective scaling can be treated with shotcrete for protecting the already disturbed slope. Even after providing toe wall and shotcrete of adequate thickness, the rock mass behind will get charged with water, which will increase the pore pressure and lubricate talc occurring along the foliation parallel shears. During the operation of powerhouse and more particularly during the flushing of reservoir adequate measures like drainage/ weep holes will be provided so that the rock mass behind remains stable. Adequate measures such as drainage/ weep holes are to be provided so that the water charged mass behind remains stable. To stabilize the debris accumulation above the FRL, a toe wall with drainage holes may be constructed above the FRL. Estimated cost of aforesaid treatment is given in Table 11.1 and worked out as Rs 4.67 lacs. Table 11.1: Cost estimate for landslide treatment in reservoir periphery Cost of toe wall (Rs.) Cost of Shotcrete (Rs.)
Total cost (Rs.) 4,55,700.00
11,100.00
4,66,800.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 11.1: Reservoir area Plan of Bajoli Holi H.E. project showing accumulation of Debri material above periphery
Figure 11.2: Accumulation of debris material due to road cut in the reservoir area of Bajoli Holi H.E. project RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 12 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION PLAN 12.1 INTRODUCTION Deforestation and forest degradation result in adverse ecological and livelihood consequences, leading to reduced well‐being of the present and future generations. The depletion of forest resources as a result of developmental projects has a wide‐ranging impact on ecological balance. The encroachment in the forest areas generally takes place in a variety of ways: • Fragmentation of households and trend towards nuclear families as a household is considered to be the basic unit by the government rather than the number of families. • Encroachment in and around the forest area for building and construction activities has been a major menace. It makes very difficult to monitor the extent of encroachment due to lack of resources, manpower and technology. • In rural areas, the encroachers are cultivators who are ignorant of the laws relating to the protection of forestlands, or people whose holdings are attached to the boundaries of forestland. In urban areas, encroachment generally does not take place in forestland because people are conversant with the law. • The steady deforestation is also attributed to growing energy needs, land diversion for development activities, commercial activities, forest fires and natural calamities. Regeneration of forests becomes essential as more and more forest areas become degraded due to increase in open and scrub forests because of social and economic causes and other natural phenomenon. Area under forest and tree cover will be expanded through systematic planning and implementation of afforestation and rehabilitation programme in degraded and open forests and available non forest lands. Regeneration of felled areas will be ensured in a time bound manner and productivity of plantations will be increased through use of improved seeds and planting stock. Monoculture especially of Chir pine will be discouraged and mixed plantations of broad‐leaved fodder, fuel wood and wild fruit species will be promoted. The equation between forest degradation and forest regeneration should be maintained to ensure that the forest cover does not get depleted. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.1
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 12.2 ENERGY NEEDS The traditional sources of energy in study area are firewood, animal dung, and crop residues. These are still the only or major energy sources for the majority of the people. Biomass has been a vital part of the state energy scenario. Environmental degradation arises out of persistent over dependence on the biomass and adverse health effects of biomass combustion, particularly in confined spaces. Fuel wood continues to be the main source of energy, accounting for major part of the total energy consumption. In the study area, forest wood continues to be the predominant source of fuel for cooking. Diverse plant species are facing threats from various human activities. Plant species such as Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Betula alnoides, Alnus sp., Quercus semecarpifolia, etc. are declining constantly due to over exploitation for fuel wood and timber. 12.3 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION STRATEGY FOR THE PROPOSED PROJECT • Need‐based and time‐bound programme of afforestation and tree planting is to be launched with main emphasis on production of fuel wood and fodder on degraded and denuded lands, both forest and non‐forest. Afforestation being a time specific activity, the government will ensure technical, administrative and financial approval well in advance for all afforestation projects to ensure the success of these programmes and improve the quality of works. • These degraded lands are to be developed by planting fodder and fuel wood trees. Suitable fodder grasses would be planted to augment the availability of fodder. Grazing to be allowed only up to the carrying capacity of the lands. Stall‐feeding to be encouraged. The status of these lands would be regularly monitored to avoid over‐exploitation of these lands. • The alignment of the road and transport system for the project would be planned with minimum use of cultivated lands and good forest areas. The construction of roads would have in built provision for waterways to supplement the natural drainage system, treatment of landslides prone and fragile areas, compensation for crop / forest / land property, etc. likely to be damaged/ destroyed and having provision for compensatory afforestation for greater stability of the slopes. • The construction of dams and reservoirs for power generation which are consistent with the needs for conservation of trees and forest, which involve such diversion of forest land, shall provide in their budget, funds RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.2
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report for regeneration/ compensatory afforestation and compensation for damage caused to the forest crop both on government and private lands. 12.3.1 Diversion of Forest Land for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project The area in the scope of this study falls in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The total land required for the construction of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project activities is approximately 93.92 ha with a component of 82.51 ha of forestland including the horticulture land (Table 12.1). Out of which, 46.46 ha land will be permanently acquired (excluding the horticulture land 0.9 Ha), 22.55 ha land taken on lease and 12.6 ha will be utilized for underground works. The Forest Conservation Act 1980 stipulates strict forest protection measures and procedures (Guide Line 1/08‐1 (ii) for compensatory afforestation on acceptance of diversion of forestland for non‐forestry purposes. (i)
(ii)
If non forestland is not available, compensatory plantation is to be raised on degraded forest land to the extent of twice the affected or lost forest area, and if non forest land is available, the extent of compensatory plantation will be equivalent of the affected or lost forest area. As per the guidelines of Forest Conservation Act 1980 block plantation is to be taken up two times of the forest land diversion [69.01 ha (46.46 + 22.55 ha) x 2 = 138.02 ha). So that the compensatory afforestation to be taken up on 138.02 ha on forestland in the denuded or degraded forest areas, it is also proposed to have avenue plantation along the proposed roads with iron guard fencing work around the new plantation with angle iron in the diverted land to maintain the ecological balance of the areas. The location would be selected during the joint survey of land by the Divisional Forest Officer, Bharmour Forest Division, Government of Himachal Pradesh and Developer. Table 12.1: Details of the forest land to be acquired for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project S. No. 1 2 3 4 Description Reservoir area at EL. 2023 (5 m above FRL) Dam D/Tunnel outlet and d/s coffer Dam
Construction Facility area for muck generated from Dam, Intake, Desilting and Adit‐I plus portal area for SFT, Adit‐ I and road to Dam top and further to D/Tunnel Inlet Portal Zone as identified in layout 1A 1B 1C
1D
Forest land (sq m) Permanent 190,000 13,100 15,000 26,000 Temporary 63,000 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.3
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. S. No. Description Zone as identified in layout 5 Adit‐ II Portal including area for batching plant 6 Construction Facility area for muck generated through 3B Adit‐ II Open Quarry 4A 4A Road to Quarry 4A 4B Adit‐ III Portal with Batching Plant area and road to 5A
Portal Construction Facility area for muck generated through 5B
Adit‐ III & IV Contractors camp for Power House & HRT areas
6B
HRT main store and workshop 6C Adit‐ IV Portal with Batching Plant area and road to 7 Portal Land for road construction, Batching, Office, Workshop 8A for Holi nala (Adit‐V) Land for Construction Facility of excavated muck from 8B Adit‐V Land for road construction and Area for Explosive 8C Magazine Land for road construction and aggregate processing 9A plant for power house complex and HRT Right bank slide deposit to be used as quarry material 9B Batching Plant, Main store & workshop area for Power 10 House Complex Construction Facility area for muck generated from 11 Surface Power House Complex, Surge Shaft, Pressure Shaft, and Adit VI portal. Ferrule fabrication yard to be constructed over dump muck. Road to service bay Area for surface power house including switch yard 12 and pothead yard Horticulture land (Nursery & Apple Garden)] 12 Surge Shaft road ( length 4.1 km) and Surge Shaft area 14 along with one batching plant at Adit‐6 portal Total sq m Area in ha
Total in ha Land for underground works (Desilting Basins including Feeder and Connecting Tunnels, Flushing Tunnel, HRT, Surge Shaft, Valve Chamber, Pressure Shaft , Power house complex works and all adits) Area in ha Total Forest Land ha 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21a 22 23 3A EMP Report Forest land (sq m) Permanent 4,500 Temporary 4,000 20,000 20,500 14,000 14,000 10,000 12,000 60,000 30,000 5,000 25,000 15,000 43,000 20,000 32,000 6,000 9,000 48,000 473,600 47.36 2,25,500 22.55 69.91 126000 12.60 82.51 Methodology • Block plantation, avenue plantation will be taken up in integrated areas with fencing soil and moisture conservation work. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.4
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report • Seeding will be collected from nearest nursery for block and avenue plantation. • Mixed species will be selected for plantation to conserve the soil moisture. • 25% s.m.c. work will be taken up of total cost of block plantation. • Maintenance to be done up to five years. • Work will be executed by the Bharmour Forest Division. • The monitoring will be done by Department of Forest, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh and Govt. of India. The proposed Bajoli Holi H. E. Project area was studied in detail for forest cover and floristic in the construction area and catchment for the development of a compensatory afforestation plan. The left bank of dam site is mainly dominated by coniferous forest. Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Aesculus indica, Lyonia ovalifolia, Pyrus pashia and Alnus nepalensis species are commonly observed near the left bank. The right bank of project was remains covered with grass throughout the area. Tree canopy is almost absent on the right bank, the shrubs are sparse and only grows near the shady places. The ground vegetation is dominated by Microstegium nudum, Capillipedium parviflorum, Poa annua, Arundinella nepalensis, Themeda anathera species. The upstream areas of the proposed project are covered with Moist Deodar Forest and Western mixed coniferous forest. There is no negative impact on the flora of both the submergence area is predicted either by way of loss of populations or species during the construction and running of the proposed project. 12.4 COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME The Bajoli Holi H.E. Project is being constructed in the jurisdiction of Bharmour Forest Division. The Department of Forests, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh is responsible for the conservation and management of forests in the project area. The objective of the afforestation programme will be to develop natural areas in which ecological functions could be maintained on sustainable basis. Therefore planting of economic important indigenous species would be undertaken. The compensatory afforestation is proposed to be done mainly in those forest blocks where degraded land and forest blanks are available for planting. The plantations in the above forests will be restricted to the areas RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.5
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report which lie close to barrage site and powerhouse of the project. Suitable sites, depressions and sites along streams will planted up with appropriate species. Under the afforestation programme different types of plantations would be undertaken. The species for plantation are selected after considering altitude, aspect, biotic pressure, soil depth, moisture etc. following species have been selected for plantation under the scheme: Table 12.2: Species suggested for Compensatory Afforestation Tree Species
Alnus nepalensis Bauhinia variegata Aesculus indica Bombax ceiba
Populus ciliata Pinus wallichiana
Cedrus deodara Abies pindrow
Quercus leucotrichophora
Cupressus torulosa Quercus semecarpifolia
Lyonia ovalifolia
Betula utilis Salix karelinii
Acer caesium Melia azedirach
Acer oblongum Morus alba
Salix denticulata Celtis austalis
Ficus palmata Pyrus pashia
Ulmus wallichiana
Malus domestica
Picea smithiana Juglans regia
Shrubs species
Agave americana Indigofera heterantha Artemisia roxburghiana
Jasminum humile
Astragalus chlorostachys
Prinsepia utilis
Barleria cristata Pyracantha crenulata Berberis angulosa
Rabdosia rugosa
Berberis asiatica Rhamnus purpureus Colebrookia oppositifolia
Rhamnus virgatus Coriaria nepalensis
Rhus spp.
Cotoneaster bacillaris
Rosa brunoni
Cotoneaster microphyllus
Rubus ellipticus
Daphne oleoides Rubus niveus
Datura stramomium
Sarcococca saligna Debregeasia longifolia
Sorbaria tomentosa Desmodium elegans
Spiraea canescens
Desmodium multiflorum
Woodfordia fruticosa Elaeagnus parvifolia
Zanthoxylum armatum Grewia vestita Indigofera heterantha Hypericum perforatum
Jasminum humile
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Contour planting conserves soil and enhances moisture regime and adverse effect of surface run off of rainwater is reduced considerably. Trenches, pits and plants along the contour reduce velocity of water, increase soil moisture and facilitate seepage of water in soil and reduce soil loss, which will result in better growth of plants. Therefore plantation to replenish the loss number of trees will be stringently undertaken in the project. In the afforestation areas, the digging of trenches and pits would be along the contour. About 20 to 30m long contour trenches would be dug leaving a space of 50 cm (septa) between the two consecutive trenches. Soil would be dug on the lower side of the trench after removing pebbles and weeds. For digging 1500 pits per ha pits would be dug 15 cm uphill side from the contour trenches. The spacing of pits along contour trench will not be closer than 1.25m. In afforestation areas soil working would be started in October‐November and to be completed by March. It is important that filling of pits and half filling of trenches to be completed before the onset of monsoon, otherwise dug soil will be washed away by rains leaving only stones and pebbles near the pit. Extreme care would be taken in transporting the plants from nurseries to the plantation site to avoid any damage. Planting would be completed before the monsoon period is over. 12.4.1 Fuel Wood & Fodder Plants With a view to conserve not only soil and water but also for fuel wood production, it is important to raise the vegetative barrier of hedge plants. The seeds of hedges like Dodonea, Duranta, Spiraea, etc. will be sown in contour trenches before the onset of monsoon. When the water of surface run off reaches the line of ridges its speed is checked and the hedge plants stop silt and only percolated water passes down slowly. Hedges spread and grow well in the silt left behind and form a natural terrace. The work on raising of nursery will start right from first year. A new nursery site will be developed at the project cost. 12.4.2 Fencing Stone wall 125 cm high and 45 cm wide or 4 strand barbed wire fencing would be erected during first year along with soil working. The cooperation of local villagers would be sought for the success of the plantation programme. 12.4.3 Watch & Ward/ Fire Protection Protection of plantation is the greatest challenge in hills as villagers and their livestock damage the plantation before it is established. Hence the protection of plantation particularly in the juvenile stage is of paramount importance and RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.7
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report watchmen/ chowkidars would be engaged from the nearby villages for the required job. Besides the above, other appropriate measures would be adopted to ward off these potential threats. 12.4.4 Sites & Cost of Compensatory Afforestation The compensatory afforestation is proposed to be undertaken on degraded forest land identified in consultation with the state forest department. Plant species have been identified based on soil and climatic conditions of the proposed compensatory afforestation area. The estimated cost of Compensatory Afforestation programme is Rs.104.87 lacs, however the same needs to be ratified by the State Forest Department. S. No. 1. 2. 3. Table 12.3: Cost estimates of Compensatory Afforestation Plan Particulars Area (ha) Rate Rs./ha Total area for compensatory afforestation as 138.02 42000/ha per the notification of Govt of HP for wooden Fence Posts Maintenance of afforestation area Average rate 138.02
5,000/ha for 5 years is Rs 5000/‐ per Ha Charges for providing infrastructure support to L. S. Rs. 8 lacs per year the Forest Department for executing CA works for 5 years Total (Rs. in lacs) Amount (Rs. in lacs) 57.97 6.90
40 104.87
12.5 NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India has made it mandatory vide its order dated 28.03.2008 for the user agency to compensate for the diversion of forest land for non‐forest use for developmental activities on the recommendations of Central Empowered Committee (CEC) to make payment of Net Present Value (NPV) of such diverted land so as to utilize this for getting back in the long run which are lost by such diversion (Refer Annexure I). For this purpose CEC has classified the forest taking in view the ecological role and value of the forest and the purpose of the report, 16 major forest types have been further grouped into 6 ecological classes depending upon their ecological functions. 1. Eco‐Class I‐ Consisting of Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests, Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests and Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests 2. Eco‐Class II –Consisting of Littoral and Swamp Forests 3. Eco‐Class III – Consisting of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.8
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 4. Eco‐Class IV‐ Consisting of Tropical Thorn Forests and Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests 5. Eco‐Class V – Consisting of Sub‐tropical Board Leaved Hill Forests, Sub‐
Tropical Pine Forests and Sub Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests 6. Eco‐Class VI‐Consisting of Montane Wet Temperate Forests, Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests, Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests, Sub Alpine Forest, Moist Alpine Scrub and Dry Alpine Scrub. The net present value per hectare of forest has been fixed based on this data. For calculating the average net percent value per hectare of forest in India, the following monetary value of goods and services provided by the forest have been considered: (i) Value of timber and fuel (ii) Value of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) (iii) Value of fodder (iv) Value of Eco‐tourism (v) Value of bio‐prospecting (vi) Value of Ecological services of forest (vii) Value of Flagship Species (viii) Carbon Sequestration Value Based on this, the NPV was fixed and the following recommendations have been made: (i)
for non‐forestry use/diversion of forest land, the NPV may be directed to be deposited in the Compensatory Afforestation Fund as per the rates given below (in Rs.). Eco‐Value class Very Dense Forest Dense Forest Open Forest Class I 10,43,000 9,39,000 7,30,000 Class II 10,43,000 9,39,000 7,30,000 Class III 8,87,000 8,03,000 6,26,000 Class IV 6,26,000 5,63,000 4,38,000 Class V 9,39,000 8,45,000 6,57,000 Class VI 9,91,000 8,97,000 6,99,000 Total forest land requirement for diversion for non‐forest use i.e. for the construction of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project activities is approximately 82.51 ha including the horticulture land (Refer Table 12.1). Out of 69.01 ha of Forest land to be acquired 46.46 ha land will be permanently acquired (excluding the horticulture land 0.9 Ha) and 22.55 ha land taken on lease while another 12.6 ha will be utilized for underground works. As the forest in the project area fall in the Eco Class VI as being of type Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests and RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.9
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report are characterized as very dense forests, therefore NPV @ Rs.9.91 lacs/ha would be required to be deposited in the Compensatory Afforestation Fund. In addition an amount of 50% of the NPV of the entire area in case of underground mining also need to be paid i.e. in case of diversion of 12.6 ha of forest land will be utilized for underground works (Head Race Tunnel). The total cost of NPV has been computed as under. S. No. 1. 2. Particulars Forest Land to be Diverted (ha) Eco Class Forest Density NPV to be deposited Rs. 9.91 lacs per ha Land Required for underground works (ha) NPV to be deposited for 50% of Rs. 9.91 lacs per ha Total NPV cost (Rs. lacs) 69.01 VI Very Dense 683.89 12.6 62.43 746.32 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd 12.10
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 13 DAM BREAK MODELING & DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 13.1 INTRODUCTION Building a dam ensures a large number of potential benefits, but it also creates a structure with potential hazards, which may result from its failure. When a dam fails, the huge volume of water stored transforms into a flood wave, which may cause severe damages to the lives and properties situated downstream. The effect of such a flood disaster can be mitigated to a great extent, if the resultant magnitude of flood peak and its time of arrival at different locations downstream of the dam can be estimated, facilitating planning of the emergency action measures. This warrants dam break modeling, which assesses the flood hydrograph of discharge from the dam breach and maximum water level at different locations of the river downstream of the dam due to propagation of flood waves along with their time of occurrence. Dam break may be summarised as the partial or catastrophic failure of a dam leading to the uncontrolled release of water. Such an event can have a major impact on the land and communities downstream of the failed structure. A dam break may result in a flood wave up to tens of meters deep traveling along a valley at quite high speeds. The impact of such a wave on developed areas can be sufficient to completely destroy infrastructure, such as, roads, railways and bridges, and to demolish buildings. With such destructive force comes an inevitable loss of life, if advance warning and evacuation was not possible. Additional features of such extreme flooding include movement of large amounts of sediment (mud) and debris along with the risk of distributing pollutants from any sources, such as, chemical works or mines in the flood risk area. Though, there have been great advancements in design methodologies, failures of dams and water retaining structures continue to occur. Failure of the Malpasset concrete dam in France in 1959 led to 433 casualties and eventually prompted the introduction of dam safety legislation into France. In October 1963, 2000 people died in Italy, when a landslide fell into the Vaiont RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report reservoir creating a flood wave some 100 m high that overtopped the dam and flooded into the downstream valley. In July 1985, about 90% of the 300 people living in Stava near the Stave Dam in Italy also died when this mine tailings dam failed. More recently, in May 1999, a dam failed in Southern Germany causing 4 deaths and over 1 billion Euro of damage. In Spain 1997, failure of a dam on the Guadalquivir river, not far from Sevilla, caused immense ecological damage from the release of polluted sediments into the river valley. Similarly, in Romania earlier this year, failure of a mine tailings dam released lethal quantities of cyanide into the river system, polluting the environment and a major source of drinking water for both Romania and Hungary. In India, the breaching of Kodaganar Dam (Tamil Nadu) in year 1977 caused a huge loss of property in downstream area. About 2000 people died due to breaching of Machhu II dam (Gujarat) in year 1979 and the flood wave of order of 10 m caused a heavy devastation in Morvi town and nearby villages. The above instances of dam breaks establish that hazard posed by dams, large and small alike, is very real. As public awareness of these potential hazards grows, and tolerance of catastrophic environmental impact and loss of life reduces, managing and minimising the risk from individual structures is becoming an essential requirement rather than a management option. 13.2 NEED FOR DAM BREAK MODELING The first Law on dam break was introduced in France in 1968 following the earlier Malpasset Dam failure. Since then many countries have established requirements for dam safety. And in some other countries, dam owners have established guidelines for dam safety assessment. In India, Risk assessment and disaster management plan has been made a mandatory requirement while submitting application for environmental clearance in respect of river valley projects. Preparation of Emergency Action Plan after detailed dam break study has become a major component of dam safety programme of India. The extreme nature of dam break floods means that flow conditions will far exceed the magnitude of most natural flood events. Under these conditions, flow will behave differently to conditions assumed for normal river flow modeling and areas will be inundated, that are not normally considered. This makes dam break modeling a separate study for the risk management and emergency action plan. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report The objective of dam break modeling or flood routing is to simulate the movement of a dam break flood wave along a valley or indeed any area ‘downstream’ that would flood as a result of dam failure. The key information required at any point of interest within this flood zone is generally: ¾
Time of first arrival of flood water ¾
Peak water level – extent of inundation ¾
Time of peak water level ¾
Depth and velocity of flood water (allowing estimation of damage potential) ¾
Duration of flooding The nature, accuracy and format of information produced from a dam break analysis will be influenced by the end application of the data. 13.2.1 Emergency Planning To reasonably prepare an emergency plan, it will be necessary for the dam break analysis to provide: ¾ Inundation maps at a scale sufficient to determine the extent of flooding in relation to people at risk, properties and access routes ¾ Identification of structures (bridges etc.) likely to be destroyed ¾ Indication of main flow areas (damage potential of flow) ¾ Timing of the arrival and peak of the flood wave ¾ Identification of features likely to affect mobility / evacuation during and after the event including impact on infrastructure and the deposition and scour of debris and sediment. 13.2.2 Development Control Development control will focus mainly on the extent of possible inundation resulting from different failure scenarios. Consideration may also be given to the characteristics of the population at risk. 13.2.3 Insurance Companies The aim of insurance companies will be to determine their exposure to risk through identifying both the probability of failure and the financial impact of flooding. Modeling and mapping will, therefore, need to be at accuracy sufficient to determine impact on properties. An assessment of damage potential will also assist in impact assessment. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the organizations involved with the safety of the dams, to plan preventive measures so that in the eventuality of dam failure, the loss can be minimized to the extent possible. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report The dam failure study involves the following component steps: • Development or identification of the inflow hydrograph to the reservoir at the time of failure. • Routing this hydrograph through the reservoirs, • Calculating the outflow hydrograph from the failed structure, and • Modeling the movement of the flood wave downstream to determine travel time, maximum water level reached, inundated areas etc. 13.3 DAM BREAK MODEL The National Weather Service’s DAMBRK model developed by D.L. Fread has been used in the present study. DAMBRK is used to develop the outflow hydrograph from a dam and hydraulically route the flood through the downstream valley. The governing equations are complete one dimensional Saint Venant equations of unsteady flow coupled with internal boundary equations, representing rapidly varied flow through structures (which may develop time dependent breach) and utilizes external boundary equations at the u/s and d/s ends of the routing reach. The system of equations is solved by a non‐linear weighted 4‐point implicit finite difference method. The flow may be sub‐critical or super‐critical or combination of these each varying in space and time from one to the other. Outflow hydrograph to be routed is developed by the model using specified breach parameters. High water profiles along the valley, Flood arrival times and hydrographs at user specified locations are standard output. The model consists of two conceptual parts: (1) Description of the dam failure mode i.e. temporal and geometrical description of breach. (2) A hydraulic computation algorithm for determining the time history of the outflow through the breach as affected by the breach description, reservoir inflow, reservoir storage characteristics, spillway outflows and d/s tail water elevation for routing of the outflow hydrograph through the d/s valley. The model also determines the resulting water surface elevations and flood wave travel times. 13.4 METHODOLOGY DAMBRK model includes reservoir storage routing (level pool) to compute outflow hydrograph from reservoir with sub‐critical dynamic routing of outflow hydrograph through entire length of d/s valley, tail water depth computed by Manning’s equation applied to tail water section. In other words, this model simulates the failure of a dam, computes the resultant outflow hydrograph and also simulates movement of the dam break flood RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report wave through the downstream river valley. The model is built around three major capabilities, which are reservoir routing, breach simulation and river routing. After computing the hydrograph of the reservoir outflow, the time of occurrence of flooding in the downstream valley is determined by routing the outflow hydrograph through the valley. The dynamic wave method based on the complete equations of unsteady flow is the appropriate technique to route the dam break flood hydrograph through the downstream valley. 13.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The computation of flood wave resulting from a dam breach basically involves solving following problems: (1) The outflow hydrograph from the reservoir. (2) The routing of the flood wave downstream from the breached dam along the river channel and the flow plain (3) The flood hydrograph and water level at desired downstream location and its lag with respect to inflow/ breach hydrograph at dam site. In this case, the computation of the flood characteristics is divided into two distinct phases: (a) the determination of outflow hydrograph (b) the routing of flood wave downstream from the dam breach. In this study, the problem of simulating the failure of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project is considered, by computing the outflow hydrograph from the breached dam and routing this hydrograph along the downstream channel using dynamic routing technique to obtain the maximum water level marks reached during the passage of flood wave. The information regarding inflow hydrograph into the reservoir due to the storm at the time of failure, the structural and the hydraulic characteristics details of the dam, the channel cross sectional details, the maximum water level marks reached in the reservoir at the time of failure and those observed in the downstream reach of the dam due to the passage of flood wave etc. are available for the study. 13.6 DAM BREAK MODELING PROCESS Generally, dam break modeling can be carried out by either i) scaled physical hydraulic models, or ii) mathematical simulation using computer. A modern tool to deal with this problem is the mathematical model, which is most cost effective and reasonably solves the governing flow equations of continuity and momentum by computer simulation. Mathematical modeling of dam breach floods can be carried out by either one dimensional analysis or two dimensional analyses. In one dimensional RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report analysis, the information about the magnitude of flood, i.e., discharge and water levels, variation of these with time and velocity of flow through breach can be had in the direction of flow. In the case of two dimensional analysis, the additional information about the inundated area, variation of surface elevation and velocities in two dimension can also be assessed. One dimensional analysis is generally accepted, when valley is long and narrow and the flood wave characteristics over a large distance from the dam are of main interest. On the other hand, when the valley widens considerably downstream of dam and large area is likely to be flooded, two dimensional analysis is necessary. In the instant case, narrow and the flood wave characteristics over a distance from the dam are of main interest, one dimensional modeling was adopted. 13.6.1 Hydrodynamic Modeling The essence of dam break modeling is hydrodynamic modeling, which involves finding solution of two partial differential equations originally derived by Barre De Saint Venant in 1871. The equations are: i. Conservation of mass (continuity) equation (∂Q/∂X) + ∂ (A + A0) / ∂t ‐ q = 0 ii. Conservation of momentum equation (∂Q/∂t) + { ∂(Q2/A)/∂X } + g A ((∂h/∂X ) + Sf + Sc ) = 0 where, Q = discharge; A = active flow area; A0 = inactive storage area; h = water surface elevation; q= lateral outflow; x = distance along waterway; t = time; Sf = friction slope; Sc = expansion contraction slope and g = gravitational acceleration. The following three approaches simulate branches as well as looped systems. i) Kinematic wave approach: The flow is calculated from the assumption of balance between the friction and gravity forces. The simplification implies that the Kinematic wave approach cannot simulate backwater effects. ii) Diffusive wave approach: In addition to the friction and gravity forces, the hydrostatic gradient is included in this description. This allows the user to take downstream boundaries into account, and thus, simulate backwater effects. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report iii) Dynamic wave approach: Using the full momentum equation, including acceleration forces, the user is able to simulate fast transients, tidal flows, etc., in the system. Depending on the type of problem, the appropriate description can be generally, model boundaries should be chosen at points, where either water level or discharge measurements are available so that the model is used for predictive purposes. It is important that the selected boundary locations lie outside the range of influences of any anticipated changes in the hydraulic system. 13.6.2 Description of Reservoir and Appurtenant Structures Reservoir To obtain an accurate description of the reservoir storage characteristics, the reservoir is normally modeled as a single h‐point in the model. This will usually correspond to the upstream boundary of the model, where also the inflow hydrograph is specified. The description of the reservoir storage is entered in the processed data. The surface storage area of the dam is described as a function of the water level and it is entered as additional flooded area. The lowest water level given for the reservoir should be somewhere below the final breach elevation of the dam. The cross‐sectional area is set to a large finite value and is used only for calculating the inflow head loss into the breach. The inflow head loss can be calculated as: ∆H = (Vs2 /2g) Ci [1‐(As / Ares )] Where, Vs = Velocity through the breach Ci = Inflow head loss coefficient As = Flow area through the breach, and Ares = Cross‐sectional area of the reservoir In order to obtain a reasonable head loss description it is only necessary that Ares >> As so that [1‐(As /Ares)] = 1. The hydraulic radius is set to any non‐
zero value. The total surface area of the reservoir is calculated as: A total = b.2∆x + Additional flooded area Since the total surface area is already described by the additional flooded area, the first term should be equal to zero. Therefore, the width b should be set to zero. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Dam At the Q point, where the dam break structure is located, the momentum equation is replaced by an equation, which describes the flow through the structure. As the momentum equation is not used at the Q point, the ∆x – step is of no relevance. The maximum ∆x for the river branch, where the dam is to be placed should, therefore, be greater than the distance between two cross‐sections in the reservoir branch, so that no cross‐section is interpolated between the actual cross‐sections. 13.6.3 Boundary Conditions for Dam Break Modeling The boundary conditions must be specified at both upstream and downstream limits of the model. The upstream boundary will generally be an inflow into the reservoir at the first reservoir. The downstream boundary will generally be a stage‐discharge relationship at the last cross section of the set up. 13.6.4 Specifications of Dam Break Structures The following information relating to dam break structures need to be specified: (i) Geometrical specifications (ii) Breach characteristics (iii) Failure moment, and (iv) Failure mode 13.6.5 Geometrical Specifications The geometrical specifications for the dam break structure are taken from the longitudinal and cross‐sections of the dam. 13.6.6 Breach Characteristics Breach characteristics, such as, breach development period, breach section profile, etc. are very vital for dam break modeling, but at the same time very difficult to predict. Past experiences provide clue for reasonable assessment of breach characteristics. Concrete dams breaches in a very short period, say 10 – 15 minutes. But, Earth and Rockfill dams usually do not collapse instantaneously, but they develop breaches, which increase gradually. The breach development period may vary between a few minutes up to a few hours, depending on amongst other, the dam geometry and the construction material. The development of the breach determines the breach outflow hydrograph, and an accurate description of the breach development is, therefore, required in “near field” dam breach studies. In the “far‐field” studies, an accurate flood routing procedure is of more importance, because RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report the outflow variation is rapidly damped out as the flood propagates downstream. 13.6.7 Failure Moment Like breach characteristics, prediction of failure moment is also very difficult. The time of occurrence of failure depends on stress concentration due to structural inconsistency, material properties, water level in the reservoir, etc. Since, no information is generally available about stress concentration, it is quite reasonable to assume that failure of the dam will get initiated when water level in the reservoir is at maximum. 13.7 OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT The project consists of 46 m high (above river bed level) concrete dam on Ravi River. The salient features of the Bajoli Holi H. E. Project are given below: PROJECT LOCATION State District Stream Location (nearest village) DAM Latitude Longitude HYDROLOGY Catchment area at Dam Site Probable Maximum Flood Discharge (PMF)
DAM AND APPURTENANT STRUCTURES DAM
Type Length of dam at top Spillway Width Spillway Crest Level: Top level of Dam FRL Stretch of Reservoir Spillway Gates Type No. & Size POWERHOUSE Type Size Number of units Rated Discharge per unit RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Himachal Pradesh Chamba
Ravi River
Holi Village
320 16’ 49” N 76040’ 36” E
902 sq km
7419 Cumec
Concrete Gravity 178 m 36 m
1985m
2020.00 m
2018.25 m
2.42 km
Radial
4 Nos. Radial; 10.0 m x 15.21 m
Surface Powerhouse 19 m x 43.6m x 82.5 m Three (3)
23. 08 m3/s
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 13.8 INPUT DATA AND MODEL SET‐UP 13.8.1 Input Data Requirement Dam break flood analysis requires a range of data to depict accurately to the extent possible the topography and hydraulic conditions of the river course and dam break phenomenon. The important data required are: (i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
Cross sections of the river from dam site and up to location downstream of the dam to which the study is required Elevation‐Volume relationship of the reservoir Rating curve of spillway and sluices Salient features of the all hydraulic structures at the dam site and also in the study reach of the river Design flood hydrograph Stage‐discharge relationship at the last river cross section of the study area Manning’s roughness coefficient for different reaches of the river under study Rating curve of all the hydraulic structures in the study reach of the river Where the dam break analysis includes an assessment of potential impact and is combined with the development of an emergency action plan, then additional data relating to the social and economic development of the area will also be required. Spillway The rating curve of the spillway is given in Table 13.2 while for gated spillway, dimensions and crest elevation have been given above and in model. Table 13.1: Elevation‐Volume relationship of the reservoir Elevation (m) Volume (Mm3) 4.07531 2020.00 3.73651 2018.00 2.81386 2012.00 2.02227 2006.00 1.36363 2000.00 0.84093 1994.00 0.31848 1986.00 0.0 1974.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 13.8.2 Design Flood Hydrograph Dam of the Bajoli Holi HE Project can be considered as large dam, hence the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) hydrograph has been used as design flood hydrograph for the upstream boundary of the dam break model set up. The PMF, which has been applied at the reservoir branch in the model set up, is given in Table 13.3. Table 13.2: Discharge Capacity through spillway RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 13.3: Design Flood Hydrograph (PMF) Time (Hr) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Total Runoff (cumec)
145
150
160
180
245
294
350 462 630 861 1121 1568 1902 1580 1305
1198
1541
1750
1941
Time (Hr)
19
20
21
22
23
24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
34
35
36
37
Total Runoff (cumec) 2335 2927 3732 4636 6225 7419 6111 4784 3675 2619 1935 1436 1082 792 527 311 216 166 145 13.9 DAM BREAK SIMULATION 13.9.1 Selection of Dam Breach Parameters Prediction of the dam breach parameters and timing of the breach are very important for any dam break study, but they are extremely difficult to predict. However, assuming the dam fails, the important aspects to deal with are, time of failure, extent of overtopping before failure, size, shape and time of the breach formation. Estimation of the dam break flood will depend on these parameters. The breach characteristics that are needed as input to the existing dam break models are i) Initial and final breach width and level; ii) Shape of the breach; iii) Time duration of breach development, and iv) Reservoir level at time of start of breach. The predominant mechanism of breach formation is, to a large extent, dependent on the type of dam and the cause due to which the dam failed. 13.9.2 Critical Condition for Dam Break Study The critical condition for a dam break study is when the reservoir is full and design flood hydrograph (PMF) is impinged. Accordingly, in the present study keeping the reservoir at full level of 2020 m, the PMF has been impinged keeping all the spillway gates fully open. The maximum water level reached in RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report the reservoir is 2020 m, after the application of PMF. It is reasonable to assume that the dam will breach when the water level in the reservoir is at this maximum level. The following parameters have been considered for breach Breach parameters considered Reservoir level at time when breach occurs 2020 m (top of dam) Time to failure – 0.20 hr as this is concrete dam where failure occurs instantaneously Breach width – 16.3 m Bottom of breach – 1976 m Slope of breach – vertical because of concrete dam Model reach – up to confluence of Tundah Nalla with Ravi River (about 35 km from proposed dam site) 13.10 ASSUMPTIONS As in the case of any other modeling process, dam break modeling has inherent approximations through assumptions. The foremost assumptions are in the hydrodynamic equations (Saint Venant equations), which are further derived on the basis of the following assumptions: (1) The water is incompressible and homogeneous i.e. without significant variation in density. (2) The bottom slope is small. (3) The wave lengths are large compared to the water depth. This ensures that the flow everywhere can be regarded as having a direction parallel to the bottom, i.e., vertical accelerations can be neglected and a hydrostatic pressure variation along the vertical can be assumed. (4) The flow is super‐critical in upper reach and sub‐critical in lower most. The other assumptions are associated with the breach parameters, especially, breach width and breach depth, which has great impact on flood peak and arrival times. Further, the high velocity flows associated with dam break floods can cause significant scour of channels due to bed as well as bank erosion. This enlargement in channel cross sections is neglected due to limitations in modeling such a complicated physical process. Moreover, this limitation has an effect on the conservative side only. Dam break floods create a large amount of transported debris. This may accumulate at constricted cross sections, where it acts as a temporary dam and partially or completely restricts the flow, resulting variation in water level at the downstream locations. This aspect has also been neglected due to limitations in RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report modeling of such a complicated physical process. This limitation also has an effect on the conservative side only. Even with the assumptions outlined above, dam break modelling serves very useful purpose, as it provides reasonable extent of inundation under different situations enabling preparation of Emergency Action Plan / Disaster Management Plan. 13.11 DISCUSSIONS ON RESULTS The DAMBRK results consist of following important tables and profiles: i.
ii.
Reservoir depletion table (It includes the outflow hydrograph at dam site) Water surface and discharge profile from dam site to desired location (up to approx 35 km in this case where Tundah Nalla meets Ravi River) iii. Flood level at desired locations iv. Time lag between time of maximum breach at dam site and at desired locations. 13.11.1 Dam Break Study for Design Flood Hydrograph In the model the dam is made to breach at the time when inflow reaches PMF (7419 cumec). The study involves determination of the flood flow from the dam due to its breach, and routing the same along the river channel on the downstream, to estimate the maximum flood levels at various locations on the downstream. These variations shown in at Table 13.4. The following table gives the maximum elevation, maximum flow, time to maximum elevation and maximum velocity at various distances downstream of the dam up confluence of Tundah Nalla with Ravi River (35 km downstream of dam). Table 13.4: Profile of crests and times for Ravi river below Bajoli Holi dam Distance from Dam in km Maximum Elevation (m) Time to maximum elevation in hr Max velocity in m/s 0.000 1989.74 0.10 16.10 0.262 1985.19 0.10 15.60 0.525 1981.23 0.10 15.24 0.787 1977.00 0.10 15.24 1.050 1972.71 0.10 15.37 1.312 1968.44 0.11 15.53 1.575 1964.24 0.11 15.69 1.837 1960.12 0.11 15.85 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 2.100 1956.09 0.11 16.00 2.399 1951.57 0.11 16.11 2.699 1947.25 0.11 16.05 2.999 1942.97 0.11 15.97 3.299 1938.68 0.12 15.90 3.579 1931.43 0.12 17.33 3.859 1925.50 0.12 17.53 4.139 1919.88 0.12 17.43 4.419 1914.38 0.12 17.23 4.699 1908.93 0.12 17.01 4.956 1904.74 0.12 16.45 5.213 1900.31 0.13 16.09 5.470 1895.78 0.13 15.80 5.727 1891.18 0.13 15.52 5.984 1886.53 0.13 15.23 6.242 1881.83 0.13 14.93 6.499 1877.04 0.13 14.68 6.749 1872.56 0.13 14.44 6.998 1867.92 0.13 14.43 7.248 1863.25 0.13 14.46 7.498 1858.60 0.13 14.51 7.748 1853.97 0.13 14.55 7.998 1849.37 0.13 14.59 8.248 1844.79 0.13 14.63 8.498 1840.24 0.13 14.67 8.773 1835.78 0.14 14.27 9.048 1832.43 0.14 13.16 9.323 1829.44 0.14 12.09 9.598 1826.55 0.14 11.22 9.873 1823.71 0.14 10.54 10.148 1820.92 0.14 9.99 10.423 1818.17 0.15 9.56 10.698 1815.46 0.163 9.27 10.998 1801.80 0.000 15.20 11.298 1793.25 0.125 14.16 11.597 1785.28 0.150 14.36 11.897 1778.28 0.163 14.17 12.147 1770.47 0.175 14.98 12.397 1763.21 0.188 15.00 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 12.647 1756.00 0.175 14.97 12.897 1748.79 0.188 14.97 13.147 1745.17 0.200 13.24 13.397 1741.12 0.213 12.43 13.647 1736.94 0.238 11.97 13.897 1732.82 0.175 11.58 14.168 1727.94 0.238 11.65 14.44 1720.92 0.25 13.47 14.711 1712.99 0.238 15.43 14.982 1706.54 0.250 15.85 15.254 1700.66 0.263 15.69 15.525 1694.95 0.275 15.40 15.797 1689.30 0.238 15.10 16.047 1684.27 0.250 14.78 16.296 1679.08 0.263 14.59 16.546 1673.74 0.30 14.47 16.796 1668.16 0.312 14.47 17.146 1655.01 0.325 17.54 17.496 1630.43 0.263 22.86 17.746 1628.65 0.275 18.22 17.996 1626.23 0.337 15.89 18.246 1623.04 0.35 14.91 18.496 1619.24 0.362 14.66 18.746 1615.21 0.287 14.65 18.996 1611.12 0.362 14.70 19.246 1607.03 0.462 14.75 19.496 1602.93 0.362 14.80 19.746 1598.84 0.462 14.84 19.996 1594.74 0.475 14.88 20.246 1590.67 0.337 14.89 20.496 1586.64 0.35 14.85 20.746 1582.60 0.362 14.80 20.995 1578.56 0.437 14.75 21.245 1574.51 0.375 14.68 21.495 1570.46 0.462 14.61 21.745 1566.40 0.375 14.54 21.995 1562.31 0.35 14.45 22.245 1558.21 0.437 14.34 22.495 1554.09 0.45 14.22 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 22.745 1550.29 0.462 13.94 22.995 1546.32 0.475 13.86 23.245 1542.32 0.387 13.82 23.495 1538.32 0.4 13.78 23.745 1534.32 0.412 13.75 23.995 1530.31 0.487 13.73 24.245 1526.31 0.537 13.71 24.495 1522.30 0.5 13.69 24.745 1518.30 0.512 13.67 24.995 1514.30 0.562 13.65 25.245 1511.85 0.512 12.82 25.494 1508.64 0.562 12.81 25.744 1505.34 0.512 12.87 25.994 1502.06 0.425 12.94 26.244 1498.78 0.575 13.00 26.494 1495.51 0.525 13.06 26.744 1492.26 0.575 13.13 26.994 1489.01 0.525 13.19 27.244 1485.77 0.537 13.25 27.494 1482.54 0.562 13.32 27.744 1479.33 0.550 13.38 27.994 1476.12 0.562 13.44 28.244 1472.93 0.575 13.50 28.494 1469.75 0.562 13.56 28.744 1466.59 0.575 13.62 28.994 1463.44 0.587 13.68 29.244 1460.30 0.600 13.74 29.494 1457.19 0.575 13.79 29.744 1454.09 0.587 13.85 29.993 1451.00 0.612 13.90 30.243 1447.93 0.600 13.96 30.493 1444.88 0.612 14.02 30.743 1441.86 0.625 14.08 30.993 1438.88 0.600 14.14 31.243 1435.94 0.625 14.20 31.493 1433.04 0.600 14.25 31.743 1430.20 0.675 14.29 31.993 1427.40 0.637 14.32 32.243 1424.66 0.662 14.34 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 32.493 1421.97 0.625 14.35 32.743 1419.33 0.650 14.33 32.993 1416.64 0.637 14.34 33.243 1413.92 0.612 14.34 33.493 1404.82 0.687 17.64 33.743 1397.99 0.700 18.62 33.993 1391.80 0.650 18.89 34.243 1386.41 0.662 18.53 34.493 1381.70 0.562 17.75 34.742 1377.38 0.575 16.81 34.992 1373.28 0.587 15.90 The particulars of the data used are given in Annexure ‐II 13.12 PREPARATION OF INUNDATION MAP An inundation map is a map depicting the d/s areas vulnerable to inundation by the dam break flood. The DAMBRK model computes maximum flood elevation at each original or interpolated cross‐section. In present case, the cross‐sections are available up to 35 km d/s of dam i.e. till confluence of Tundah Nalla with Ravi River. The profile of water levels below the dam at all cross‐sections (original and interpolated) is given as Table 13.4. From this profile, at locations below the dam & their subsequent markings on the topographic maps, it can be seen which areas are likely to be submerged in case of dam break. The input control parameters for dam break flood forecasting are given in Annexures‐I and the reservoir depletion tables including the outflow hydrograph at dam site have also been appended there. It is clear from the Figure 13.1 that in case of dam break, though there would be inundation of lower areas however no settlement will be affected. The floods generated, however, may lead to a number of landslides and slips downstream of dam causing damage to roads, etc. and also blocking of river itself endangering the life or property. There is under investigation proposed Kutehr H.E. project, the flood waves doesn’t pose any danger to this barrage as maximum elevation of water at this location would be 1684 m while barrage crest elevation for Kutehr is 1685 m and top of barrage is 1708 m. 13.13 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN From the result it is evident that up to about 35 km d/s of the Bajoli Holi dam, time required in reaching the flood wave elevation to the maximum is of the RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report order of 0.6 ‐ 0.7 hr. It hardly leaves any possibility of any rescue or evacuation. Since the time available is very short, the Disaster Management Plan should concentrate on preventive actions. Surveillance and monitoring programmes are required to be implemented during design and investigation, construction, first reservoir filling, early operation period and operation & maintenance phases of the life cycle of dam. It is desirable that all gates, electricity, public announcement system, power generator backups etc are thoroughly checked before arrival of the monsoon. As it is clear from the results that u/s water level has significant effect on the dam break flood, the following flood conditions may be considered for different level of alertness: 1) If u/s water level reaches at top of the dam, it may be considered as an emergency. At this point only a few minutes are available for taking any action. All the staff from the dam site should be alerted to move to a safe place. The district administration and the corporation’s head office shall be informed about the possibility of dam failure. 2) If u/s water level rises above the dam top and dam begins to fail, it may be considered as a disaster condition. At this stage, nothing can be done. Information in this regard should be given to the head office and district administration. i) If upstream water level is at or below FRL and flood is of the order of 20% to 30% of PMF, it may be considered as normal flood condition and normal routine may be maintained. ii) If upstream water level is rising above FRL, it may be considered as Level‐1 emergency. In this condition at least four gates must be kept fully operational. All concerned officials should be alerted so that they may reach at the dam site to take suitable actions. Preventive actions may be carried out simultaneously. A suitable warning and notification procedure may be laid. The local officials should be informed about the situation. iii) If upstream water level reaches above MWL and still rising, it may be considered as Level‐2 emergency. It is seen from the results that around 1 hour is available to carry out suitable action at this condition. All communication systems and safety measures should be operational now. Public announcement system or centralized siren system may be used. A flood warning may be issued to the public downstream so that they may reach a higher and safe place. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Figure 13.1 Inundation map
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report iv) If upstream water level reaches at the top of the dam, it may be considered as Level‐3 emergency. At this point only a few minutes are available for taking any action. All the staff from the dam site should be alerted to move to a safe place. The district level office and the corporation’s head office should be informed about the possibility of dam failure. v) If upstream water level is rising above the dam top and dam has started to fail. It may be considered as a disaster condition. Any information in this regard should be immediately provided to civil administration for necessary rescue operations. The following measures can be taken to avoid the loss of lives and property: • To establish an effective Dam Safety Surveillance and monitoring program including rapid analysis and interpretation of instrumentation and observation data; periodic inspection and safety reviews/evaluation by an independent panel of experts. • To formulate and implement an Emergency Action Plan to minimize to the maximum extent possible, the probable loss of life and damage to property in the event of failure of dam. 13.13.1 Surveillance The surveillance and monitoring programs are required to be implemented during design and investigation, construction, early operation period and operation and maintenance phases of the life cycle of the dam. An affective flood forecasting system is required by establishing hourly gauge reading at suitable upstream locations with real time communication at the top. An effective dam safety surveillance, monitoring and observation along with periodic inspection, safety reviews and evaluation must be put in place. These programs will be implemented in five phases in the life cycle of a dam viz., i) ii) iii) iv) v) design and investigation phase, construction phase, first reservoir filling, early operation period, and operation and maintenance phase. 13.13.2 Emergency Action Plan An emergency is defined as a condition of serious nature which develops unexpectedly and endangers downstream property and human life and requires immediate attention. Emergency Action Plan shall include all potential indicators of likely failure of the dam, since the primary concern is for timely and reliable identification and evaluation of potential emergency. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report This plan presents warning and notification procedures to be followed in case of potential failure of the dam. The purpose is to provide timely warning to nearby residents and alert key personnel responsible for taking action in case of an emergency. 13.13.3 Administrative and Procedural Aspects The Administrative and Procedural Aspects of Emergency Action Plan consists of a flowchart depicting the names, addresses and telephone numbers of the responsible officials. In order of hierarchy, the following system will usually be appropriate. In the event of potential emergency, the observer at the site is required to report it to the Engineer‐in‐charge through a wireless system, if available, or by the fastest communication system available. The Engineer‐in‐
charge shall be responsible for contacting the Civil Administration, viz. Deputy Commissioner. In order to oversee all the operations required to tackle the emergency situations, a centralized control room would be set up by the project authorities at Holi. Each person would be made aware of his/her responsibilities/ duties and the importance of work assigned under the Emergency Action Plan. All the villages falling under the flood prone zone or on the margins would be connected through wireless communication system with backup of standby telephone lines. A centralized siren alert system would be installed at all the Village Panchayats so that in the event of a warning all villagers can be alerted through sirens rather than informing everybody through messengers which is not feasible in such emergency situations. 13.13.4 Preventive Action Once the likelihood of an emergency situation is suspected, action has to be initiated to prevent a failure. The point at which each situation reaches an emergency status shall be specified and at that stage the vigilance and surveillance shall be upgraded. At this stage, a thorough inspection of the dam shall be carried out to locate any visible signs of distress. The anticipated need of equipment shall be evaluated and if these are not available at the dam site, the exact locations and availability of these equipments shall be identified. A plan shall be drawn on priority for inspection of the dam. The dam, its sluices and non‐overflow sections will be properly illuminated. 13.13.5 Communication System An efficient communication system and a downstream warning system is absolutely essential for the success of an emergency plan especially in the RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report present case because of inadequacy of time. The difference between a high flood and a dam break situation shall be made clear to the downstream people. All of the villages falling under the flooding zone or on margins are required to be connected through wireless system backed by stand‐by telephone lines. A centralized siren system is to be installed at Panchayats so that in event of a warning, all villagers can be alerted, through messengers which may not be possible in this case. 13.13.6 Merits of Satellite Communication System Keeping the disaster scenario in mind, any terrestrial system such as land lines, etc. is likely to be the first casualty in earthquakes or floods. The restoration of such systems is time consuming. Moreover the maintenance of such lines becomes a great problem in emergency even for the technical personnel who are required to reach the site of fault, which may be struck by the disaster. So the system cannot be put back into operation soon. The fault repairs and restoration of communication services are usually not possible for a considerable period of time after the calamity has struck. Moreover, it is critical that the communication systems are restored at the earliest so that relief/medical teams and other personnel can be arranged at the earliest possible time. All the subsidiary help depends solely on the communication system. As this criteria is paramount, existing systems such as telephones and telex, etc. are practically of little use in case of such events and situations. Similarly, microwave links are expected to be down due to collapse of towers, etc. Restoration of towers and alignment of equipment is again a time consuming activity. Keeping in view the urgency of services and their dependability during emergency relevant to the disaster conditions, satellite based systems present an ideal solution. The satellite based system usually comprises following components. i) ii) iii) A small dish of approximately one meter diameter Associated radio equipment A power source The deployment of the system is not dependent on the restoration of land routes. The existing satellite based communication systems are designed in such a manner that they are able to withstand fairly high degree of demanding environmental conditions. Secondly, the restoration of the satellite based system can be undertaken by carrying maintenance personnel and equipment by helicopters at a very short notice. Even the fresh systems could be inducted in a matter of an hour or so because most of these are RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report designed for transportability by air. The deployment takes usually less than an hour. The power requirements are not large and can be met by sources such as UPS/batteries/ generators. 13.13.7 Financial Outlay for Installation of VSAT Communication System The cost of deployment and maintenance of a telecommunication system in disaster prone areas is not as important as the availability, reliability and quick restoration of the system. The cost of both satellite bandwidth and the ground components of the satellite communication system has been decreasing rapidly like that of V‐SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) based systems supporting a couple of voice and data channels. Some highly superior communication systems in VSAT without time delay are marketed by National agencies like HECL, HFCL and HCL Comet. There are two different types of systems with the above mentioned capabilities available in the market viz. SCPCDAMA and TDMA. However, the first one named SCPCDAMA has been recommended for the Bajoli Holi H.E. project. Two such systems would be installed first V SAT is in the upstream catchment of Ravi River and second one in Holi town. The estimated cost of installation of such a communication system has been given in Table 8.5. 13.13.8 Evacuation Plans Emergency Action Plan includes evacuation plans and procedures for implementation based on local needs. These are: •
•
•
•
•
Demarcation/prioritization of areas to be evacuated. Notification procedures and evacuation instructions. Safe routes, transport and traffic control. Shelter areas Functions and responsibilities of members of evacuation team. The flood prone zone in the event of break of Bajoli Holi dam shall be marked properly at the village locations with adequate factor of safety. As the flood wave takes sufficient time in reaching these villages, its populace shall be informed well in time through wireless and sirens etc. so that people may climb on hills or to some elevated place beyond the flood zone which has been marked. The Evacuation Team would comprise of: i) D.M./ his Nominated Officer (To peacefully relocate the people to places at higher elevation with state administration) ii) Engineer‐in‐Charge of the Project (Team Leader) iii) S.P./Nominated Police Officer (To maintain law and order) RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report iv) C.M.O. of the area (To tackle morbidity of affected people) v) Sarpanch/ Affected Village Representative to execute the resettlement operation with the aid of state machinery and project proponents vi) Sub‐committees at village level The Engineer‐in‐Charge will be responsible for the entire operation including prompt determination of the flood situation from time to time. Once the red alert is declared the whole state machinery will come into swing and will start evacuating people in the inundation areas delineated in the inundation map. For successful execution, annually Demo exercise will be done. DM is to monitor the entire operation. 13.13.9 Notifications Notification procedures are an integral part of any emergency action plan. Separate procedures shall be established for slowly and rapidly developed situations and failure. Notifications will include communications of either an alert situation or an alert situation followed by a warning situation. An alert situation will indicate that although failure or flooding is not imminent, a more serious situation can occur unless conditions improve. A warning situation will indicate that flooding is imminent as a result of an impending failure of the dam. It will normally include an order for evacuation of delineated inundation areas. For a regular watch on the flood level situation, it is necessary that two or more people man the flood cell so that an alternative person is available for notification round the clock. In addition, a few guidelines to be generally followed by the inhabitants of flood prone areas, which form part of public awareness for disaster mitigation include: • Listen to the radio for advance information and advice. • Disconnect all electrical appliances and move all valuable personal and household goods and all clothing out of reach of flood water. • Move vehicles, farm animals and movable goods to the highest ground nearby. • Move all dangerous pollutants and insecticides out of reach of water. • Do not enter flood waters on foot, if it can be avoided. 13.13.10 Cost Estimates for Disaster Management The estimated total cost of execution of disaster management plan including the equipment would be Rs. 92.00 lacs and it is given in Table 13.5. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 13.5: Estimated cost of setting up of a satellite communication system Sl. No. Product A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 B. C. Setting up of V‐SAT communication system
Product Name: SCPCDAMA (2 sites) @ Rs.11.50 lac/ site a) Antenna 1 x 2.4 M b) RF 1 x 2 W c) Modem 1 x 1No. Generators 2 Nos. (2 KVA)
UPS 2 Nos. (2 KVA) Installation and maintenance of system, maintenance and running cost of UPS, generators, etc. @ 10% of the total cost for 5 years Band Width cost of the V –SAT arrangement @ 2.5 Lakhs per year per terminal = Rs 2.5 * 2 * 5 = Rs. 25 lacs for 2 terminals Sub‐Total (A) Installation of alert systems, Setting up of control room, etc. Notification and publication procedures, miscellaneous, etc. Total (A+B+C) (Rs. in lacs)
Amount (Rs. in lacs)
23.00
5.00
3.00
22.00
25.00
78.00
10.00
4.00
92.00
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
14 REHABILITATION & RESETTLEMENT PLAN 14.1 INTRODUCTION The proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project is located in Holi Sub‐Tehsil of Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh in Bharmour Development Block which comprises of 29 Panchayats. The project envisages construction of 66 m high concrete gravity dam and diversion of water through 15.5 km long head race tunnel with surface powerhouse to generate about 180 MW of electricity. The reservoir created due to dam would submerge a total area of 19 ha. 14.2 LAND REQUIREMENT For the development of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project land would be acquired for the construction of various project components like dam, reservoir, head race tunnel, surge shaft, penstock, power house and for office and labour colonies, quarrying, magazine, batching plants, muck dumping sites, etc. For this purpose land is likely to be acquired on permanent as well as on temporary lease basis. Major part of the land is a forest land (81.61 ha) while private land requirement is 11.41 ha only and the total land required is 93.92 ha (see Table 14.1). The R&R plan chapter comprehensively addresses the issue of R&R covering identification of PAFs, assessing extent of loss and compensation to be offered in line with the prevalent government policies and keeping in view the following objectives: ¾ To compensate families whose land or other assets are acquired for the project. ¾ To create better living conditions and to improve by and large the quality of life of people residing in the project area. ¾ To contribute to the overall development of the project affected areas. ¾ To create good rapport with the local people for long‐term relationship and mutual benefits. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
14.1
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Table 14.1: Land Requirement for Bajoli Holi H.E. Project S. No. Classification of required Land Area (ha) 1. Forest Land a Permanent Requirement (excluding horticulture) 46.46 b Temporary Requirement/ Lease for construction Facility 22.55 c Area for Underground Works 12.60 Total Forest Land 81.61 2. Horticulture land (Nursery & apple Garden) 0.90 Total Horticulture Land 0.90 3. Private land a Permanent Requirement 5.25 b Temporary Requirement/ Lease for construction Facility 6.16 Total Private Land 11.41 Grand Total Land 93.92 14.3 SOCIO ECONOMIC SURVEY Socio economic survey for the project affected villages as well as the project affected families was carried out to evaluate the impact caused to the families by the commencement of the project on the area. The questionnaires used for such survey are appended as Annexures III & IV. For the purpose required data was collected for the formulation of the Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan for the affected families in lieu of their loss due to project related activities. The family‐wise door‐to‐door survey was conducted based upon a list of project affected families provided by the project authorities in consultation with the State Revenue Department. The survey is carried out on the basis of under given category as per National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy (NRRP) ‐2007. Number of members of the family who are permanently residing, engaged in any trade, business, occupation or vocation in the affected area. • Number of members of the family who are likely to lose, or have lost, their house, agricultural land, employment or are alienated wholly or substantially from the main source of their trade, business, occupation or vocation. • Number of families belonging to Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe Categories. • Number of vulnerable persons such as the disabled, destitute, orphans, widows, abandoned women, or persons above fifty years of age. • List of agricultural labourers and non‐agricultural labourers. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
• Family without homestead land, agricultural land or either homestead land or agricultural land and BPL families residing not less than three years in the affected area preceding the date of declaration of affected area. • The Scheduled Tribe families who possess the forest land in the affected area prior to 13th December 2005. 14.3.1 Profile of the Project Affected Villages A total of 4 Panchayats (11 villages) are likely to be affected due to acquisition of land for various components of proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project. The details of number of villages, families and land affected are as follows: Table 14.2: List of Project Affected Villages S. No. Name of Panchayat Name of village 1 Nayagram Garoh 2 Deol Deol 3 Dugrehra 4 Brinti 5 Bantooh Kuleth 6 Gwarh 7 Sutkar 8 Gaushal Holi 9 Andharlagran 10 Jarautha 11 Kee Nala Panchayats = 4 Villages = 11 14.3.2 Estimation of PAFs category A comprehensive door‐to‐door household survey was conducted during September 2009 wherein all the heads of 264 families were interviewed and questionnaire was filled up to assess the socio‐economic status of them. People to people contact with the help of local administration and the project authorities was made in order to ascertain the views of the project affected families and general public at large residing in the project area. In all there are 262 PAFs whose land is likely to be acquired permanently by the project proponent and 2 PAFs whose land as well as homestead are acquired for the project construction (Table 14.3). RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Table 14.3: Categories of Project Affected Families S. No. PAFs Category No. of PAFs Total no of Project Affected Families 264 1 PAF’s Based on the Land/ House a) Families losing both house and land 2* b) Families losing only land 262 2 PAF’s Based on Caste a) ST PAFs 250 b) SC PAFs 14 3 Marginal PAFs 264 4 Vulnerable PAFs 140 *One of them belongs to Rural Artisan category (Clause 7.12, NRRP, 2007) 14.3.3 Demographic Profile of affected families The demographic profile is shown in (Table 14.4). Total population of project affected families is 1396, which constitute of 264 families. Out of 264, 3 % of the PAFs information were collected from the Village Pradhan as the PAFs were not available in the village and had migrated to Kangra. Approximately 95% of the PAFs belong to Scheduled Tribes category and only 5% of the families are from Scheduled Castes category. These families belong to 11 villages/hamlets located in Holi sub‐tehsil. Maximum numbers of PAFs are from Sutkar (66) village of Holi Panchayat with population of 373 whereas minimum are in Andharlagran with population of 6. Average family size is 6 persons/family (Table 14.4) whereas maximum size is in Dugrehra village under Deol Panchayat. Maximum BPL families (21 Families) are residing in Garoh village of Nayagram Panchayat. The list of these villages/hamlets demographic profile of affected villages is given in Table 14.4. 14.3.4 Educational profile of project affected families Average literacy rate among the project affected families is 61.7%. Bantooh have highest literacy rate (76.5%) while minimum literacy rate is in Dugrehra (22.9 %). Literacy rate of project affected families is given in Table 14.5. Table 14.4: Demographic profile of project affected villages Name of Population
Average Panchayat/ Village PAF M
F
SC
ST BPL Total Family Size
Nayagram Garoh 60 138 128
0
60
21
266 5 Deol Deol 42 122 120
0
42
11
242 6 Dugrehra 3 17
18
3
0
1
35 12 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Name of Population
Average Panchayat/ Village PAF M
F
SC
ST BPL Total Family Size
Brinting 2 ‐
‐
0
2
0
‐
‐ Kuleth Bantooh 6 14
20
0
6
2
34 6 Guwad 8 26
22
0
8
0
48 6 Holi Sutkar 66 187 186
7
60
19
373 6 Gaushal 44 128 117
0
44
8
245 6 Andharlagran 1 3
3
1
0
1
6 6 Jarautha 17 35
38
0
17
4
73 5 Kee Nala 15 42
32
0
15
2
74 5 TOTAL 264 712 684
10 254 69
1396 (Source:Primary Survey) Table 14.5: Literacy Rate of Project Affected Families Name of Panchayat/village PAFs Literacy Rate (%) Nayagram Garoh 60 66.2 Deol Deol 42 52.5 Dugrehra 3 22.9 Brinting 2 NA Kuleth Bantooh 6 76.5 Guwad 8 70.8 Holi Sutkar 66 41 Gaushal 44 63.7 Andharlagran 1 50 Jarautha 17
58.9
Kee Nala 15
70.3
(Source: Primary Survey) 14.3.5 House type of PAFs The overall view of the type of structures, based on the materials used for construction, used for living by the project affected families is given in Table 14.6. It was observed during the survey work that a large majority of the affected families live in wooden homestead structures. Based on the materials used to construct their homesteads, it is observed that about 75.5% of the houses are made of wooden walls with slate roof while 10% of the houses are RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
made of stone walls with slate roof. Only 5% have pucca houses and about 9.5% are semi‐permanent. Table 14.6: Type of housing structure based on materials used Type of housing structure
(%) Pucca 9.5 Wooden 75.5 Stone 10.0 Semi permanent 5.0 (Source: Primary Survey) 14.3.6 Livestock Population Livestock of affected families comprises of cows, ox, Goats, Sheep. Goats and Sheep comprise the major share of livestock population (Table 14.7). The number of oxen are more in Sutkar village as compared to other villages, Sheep are reared for commercial purpose as they are sold for wool and meat. The number of sheep and goats are more in Garoh village. It is reported that most of the shepherds stay out for days with the sheep for grazing. Table 14.7: Livestock population of Project Affected Families Panchayat Village Cow
Ox
Goat Sheep Nayagram Garoh 20
9
752 995 Deol 12
10
150 480 Dugrehra 1
6
10
Deol Brinting ‐
‐
‐
‐ Bantooh 4
4
4
9 Kuleth Guwad 2
3
10
20 Sutkar 130
30
60
98 Gaushal 50
10
103 134 Andharlagran
1
1
2
1 Jarautha 35
3
20
50 Holi Kee Nala 1
0
9
10 TOTAL 256
76
1120 1797 (Source: Primary Survey) 14.3.7 Material Assets The assets owned by the PAFs is given in Table 14.8 data is according to the verbal communication with the PAFs .As seen in table below about 98 families own Television, 116 families own Tape‐recorder, 15 families own Refrigerator, 154 families own mobile phones and 3 families own four wheeler vehicle and 45 families have LPG Gas connection. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Land Holding Average land holding of the PAFs is very small due to the physiography of the area. Agriculture is found to be prominent and source of livelihood of the affected families. Maximum land holding is 27‐30 bighas and minimum is 1‐2 biswa. Table 14.8: Assets owned by Project Affected Families Panchayat/ T.V. Tape‐ Refrigerator Mobile Four‐wheeler village recorder
vehicle Holi Sutkar 33 30
2
44
0 Gaushal 11 16
3
18
0 Andharlagran 0 1
0
1
0 Jarautha 13 4
0
14
0 Kee Nala 6 10
1
6
1 Kuleth Bantooh 5 3
0
5
0 Guwad 3 5
0
4
0 Deol Deol 18 10
2
18
1 Dugrehra 1 1
0
1
0 Brinting 0 1
0
1
0 Nayagram Garoh 26 10
7
42
1 TOTAL 116 91
15
154
3 (Source: Primary Survey) 14.3.8 Major crops grown LPG 10
8 0 3 9 1 1 7 0 0 10
49
Major crops grown by the PAFs are rajmah, maize, wheat, and main horticultural crops such as apples and walnuts. 14.3.9 Kitchen Fuel used by PAFs Wood is the main fuel used by the affected families (see Table 14.9). All the PAFs use wood and have the provision of Chullah. About 18% out of them have a LPG connection. More than 18% use both cooking gas and wood. Banj tree is the main source of fuel wood which is found dominant in the area. Table 14.9: Kitchen fuel used by Project Affected Families LPG Connection
Wood Both wood and LPG
Panchayat Village Nayagram Garoh 10 60 10 Deol 7 42 7 Dugrehra 0 3 0 Deol Brinting 0 2 0 Kuleth Bantooh 1 6 1 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Guwad 1 8 1 Sutkar 10 66 10 Gaushal 8 44 8 Andharlagran 0 1 0 Jarautha 3 17 3 Holi Kee Nala 9 15 9 Total 49 264 49 (Source: Primary Survey) 14.3.10 Income Pattern Most of the people in affected villages or panchayats are engaged in agriculture and work as daily wagers. Few people are in Government jobs. The percentage of Govt. employees is highest in Bantooh village and lowest in Deol village, whereas in there are no Govt. employees in Andharlagran and Dugrehra villages (see Table 14.10). The highest annual income of Rs.4,00,000/‐ annum was reported from a family in Deol village. Thirteen families have an annual income of Rs.2,00,000.00. Average annual income was highest in Bantooh (Rs.1,41,667/‐) and lowest in Gaushal village (Rs. 32,409/‐). 14.3.11 Other Sources of Income The affected families are also engaged in some other occupations which is given in Table 14.11. Majority of them are engaged in agriculture, and rearing cattle the persons who are government service are also found to be an active farmer. Most of the PAFs work as labourers too in various Government scheme. One of the schemes which are being implemented is to provide works for 100 days for one person/ family. There are other schemes also where government gives subsidy i.e. various rural, wherein they get daily wages for work. The families are also reported to collect medicinal plant species which also helps them economically. Some of the medicinal plants reportedly collected are: Brahmi, Dhoop, Kaur, Patis, Gulkakaru, Salam‐misri, Nangnani, Smag, Selajit, manin, etc. Panchayat Village Nayagram Garoh Deol Dugrehra Deol Brinting Bantooh Kuleth Guwad Holi Sutkar Table 14.10: Income Pattern Average annual income (Rs.) Govt. Occupation (%) 86,683 30 68,214 11.9 67,200 0 N.A ‐ 141,667 33.3 121,250 25 65,833 27.3 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
Gaushal 32,409 13.6 Andharlagran N.A 0 Jarautha 50,882 11.7 Kee Nala 54,000 26.7 (Source: Primary Survey) 14.4 RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION PRINCIPLES The R&R package has been prepared keeping the local socio‐economic setting in mind which ultimately depends upon the following. Types of Displacement Development projects invariably affect a large numbers of people. Displacement usually occurs at two levels. However, the impacts of displacement are not easy to quantify or compensate. The population that is displaced usually is disturbed at two levels: Economic displacement and Social displacement. Economic displacement occurs in the following situations: • Displaced from land partially or fully; and • Displacement of other groups of population who are not dependent on land. “Displacement from Land”, partially or fully leads to reorganizing one’s family economy in a new way, with or without cash compensation. When ‘land for land’ option cannot be enforced and only cash compensation is provided, some farmers invest compensation in purchasing another piece of land and continue with their cultivation. This means minor readjustments in organizing the family labour. If cash compensation involves investment in an occupation other than agriculture, it means that at least one of the adult males in the house will have to take up a new job. However, the cash may also be spent on non‐sustainable or secondary items instead of purchase of new land, e.g. marriage, repayment of loans, purchase of consumer goods, construction of house, etc. the farmer often ends up in debt for consumption, having no future land to support his family. “Economic Dislocation”, Land is the basic capital for a farmer. Due to land acquisition, the traditional source of earning gets severely hampered for the affected population. Apart from those persons whose land has been acquired, others without directly being affected by the project face some kind of economic displacement at a wider level of economic interaction and participation. This means that changes come about sometimes creating completely alien sub‐groups for the traditional network. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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Table 14.11: Other sources of income of Project Affected Families Village Cultivatior Labour Business Retired Driver
Self Mason Shepherd Aanganwari Selling of Professionals
employed worker medicinal artisan plants Sutkar 64 40 3 Gaushal 40 20 0 Andharlagran N.A. 0 0 Jarautha 10 15 2 Kee Nala 10 3 2 Bantooh 6 8 3 Guwad 8 10 0 Deol 42 10 2 Dugrehra 3 5 0 Brinting 2 0 0 Garoh 54 45 1 Total 239 156 13 (Source: Primary Survey, N.A: Not Available) RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
4 0 0 2 0 3 2 1 0 0 5 17 3 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14.10
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 0 25 N.A. 1 0 3 4 30 0 N.A. 35 98 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 N.A. 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 5 6 N.A. 1 15 GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
On the other hand displacement also shatters the social hierarchic set‐up of the society that is being displaced. Displaced social hierarchy, resulting in new inter‐relationships of community participation, not only forces the displaced population to move to new relocation sites but also these people have to re‐
establish their social interactions and relationships afresh. However, this may not be very easily accomplished, as it is difficult to predict how the host village would react to these populations who would now depend on their resources. The first two levels affect the micro‐level family relations, which is equally important, while the last one occurs at the macro‐level. Displacement brings about vigorous interaction between the internal and external cultural settings, through commerce, business, job shifting, educational opportunities, etc. It increases competition that was not there so much, resulting in more conflicts. It can be said that the two levels do not occur in a sequential order, but come more or less simultaneously, either as a manifestation of displacement or in a latent form. A clear comprehension of the above aspects would make the project authorities much more competent. 14.4.1 Objectives of Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan The main objectives of the Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan are to: • To minimise displacement and to promote as far as possible, non displacing and least displacing alternatives. Involuntary resettlement should be avoided where feasible. • To provide better standard of life and to assist in each PAFs in regaining their economic status and sustain it for life long. • To compensate the families affected adversely by construction of the project • To improve the quality of life of the PAFs and the surrounding project affected area by developing infrastructure facilities and also to provide trainings and skill development activities for their better living • To ensure that special care is taken for protecting the rights of the weaker sections especially the Scheduled Tribes and also care is to be taken not to disturb much the cultural and ethnicity of the area. • To provide adequate compensation to PAFs whose land is acquired and who are being displaced. • To create good rapport with the local people for long‐term relationship and mutual benefits. 14.4.2 Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan The resettlement and rehabilitation plan for the project affected families/ persons of the proposed Bajoli Holi H.E. Project has been formulated within RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
the provisions and/or guidelines as given in the NRRP ‐ 2007 for the Project Affected Persons, formulated by the Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development. Although, the guidelines of NRRP – 2007 have been followed to a large extent while formulating the R&R plan, but wherever there are no specific provisions in the policy, the provisions provided in similar kind of projects in Himachal Pradesh have been considered for the formulation of this R&R plan. Several public interaction meetings were held in, the affected villages of Bajoli Holi H.E. Project viz. Nayagram, Holi, Garoh, Deol and Bantooh, during the socio‐economic surveys conducted during September, 2009. The Panchayat members, District and Block Level Officials, project affected families, NGOs working in the affected area etc. participated in these interaction meetings. Valuable inputs, obtained from these meetings, were given due consideration while preparing the R&R package as well as identifying the developmental projects in social sector. Local aspirations, socio‐economic conditions, cultural values, etc. were the guiding principles for formulation of Rehabilitation and Resettlement plan for the project‐affected families. It has been emphasized that this project shall play a positive role in their socio‐economic upliftment and also for betterment of their quality of life. The surveys and preparation of the plan included the following procedure: For the preparation of R&R package, the NRRP, 2007 has been followed. 14.4.3 Definitions The definitions of various institutional terms and categories used in this Chapter are as follows: (i) “Administrator for Rehabilitation and Resettlement” ‐ means an officer not below the rank of District Collector in a State appointed for the purpose of rehabilitation and resettlement of affected persons; (ii) “Affected Family” means (a) A family whose primary place of residence or other property or source of livelihood is adversely affected by the acquisition of land for a project or involuntary displacement for any other reason; or (b) Any tenure holder, tenant, lessee or owner of other property, who on account of acquisition of land (including plot in the abadi or other property) in the affected area or otherwise, has been involuntarily displaced from such land or other property; or (c) Any agricultural or non‐agricultural labourer, landless person (not having homestead land, agricultural land, or either homestead or RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. (iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
EMP Report
agricultural land), rural artisan, small trader or self‐employed person; who has been residing or engaged in any trade, business, occupation or vocation continuously for a period of not less than three years preceding the date of declaration of the affected area, and who has been deprived of earning his livelihood or alienated wholly or substantially from the main source of his trade, business, occupation or vocation because of the acquisition of land in the affected area or being involuntarily displaced for any other reason; “Affected Area" means area of village or locality notified by the appropriate Government; “Agricultural Labourer" means a person primarily resident in the affected area for a period of not less than three years immediately before the declaration of the affected area who does not hold any land in the affected area but who earns his livelihood principally by manual labour on agricultural land therein immediately before such declaration and who has been deprived of his livelihood; “Agricultural Land" includes lands being used for the purpose of (a) agriculture or horticulture; (b) dairy farming, poultry farming, pisciculture, breeding of livestock or nursery growing medicinal herbs; (c) raising of crops, grass or garden produce; and (d) land used by an agriculturist for the grazing of cattle, but does not include land used for cutting of wood only; “Appropriate Government” means (a) In relation to the acquisition of land for the purposes of the Union, the Central Government; (b) In relation to a project which is executed by the Central Government agency or undertaking or by any other agency on the orders or directions of the Central Government, the Central Government; (c) In relation to the acquisition of land for purposes other than (a) and (b)above, the State Government; and (d) In relation to the rehabilitation and resettlement of persons involuntarily displaced due to any other reason, the State Government; “BPL family' The below poverty line (BPL)families shall be those as defined by the Planning Commission of India from time to time and included in a BPL list for the time being in force; , “Commissioner for Rehabilitation and Resettlement" means the Commissioner for Rehabilitation and Resettlement appointed by the RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
State Government not below the rank of Commissioner' or of equivalent rank of that Government; (ix) "DDP block" means a block identified under the Desert 'Development Programme of the Government of India; (x) “Family" includes a. person, his' or her spouse, minor sons, unmarried daughters, minor brothers, unmarried sisters, father, mother and other relatives residing with him or her and dependent on him or her for their livelihood; and includes "nuclear family" consisting of a person, his or her spouse and minor children; (xi) “Holding" means the total land held by a person as an occupant or tenant or as both; (xii) "Khatedar" means a person whose name is included in the revenue records of the parcel of land under reference; (xiii) ‘Land Acquisition" or "acquisition of land" means acquisition of land under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894), as amended from time to time, or any other law of the Union or a State for the time being in force; (xiv) “Marginal Farmer" means a cultivator with an un‐irrigated land holding up to one hectare or irrigated land holding up to half hectare; (xv) “Non‐agricultural labourer" means a person who is not an agricultural labourer but is primarily residing in the affected area for a period of not less than three years immediately before the declaration of the affected area and who does not hold any land under the affected area but who earns his livelihood principally by manual labour or as a rural artisan immediately before such declaration and who has been deprived of earning his livelihood principally by manual labour or as such artisan in the affected area; (xvi) “Project" means a project involving involuntary displacement of people, irrespective of the number of persons affected; (xvii) “Requiring body" means a company, a body corporate, an institution, or any other organization for whom land is to be acquired by the appropriate Government, and includes the appropriate Government if the acquisition of land is for such Government either for its own use or for subsequent transfer of such land in public interest to a company, a body corporate, an institution, or any other organization, as the case may be, under lease, license or through any other system of transfer of land; (xviii) Resettlement area" means any area. so declared under paragraph 6.9 of this policy by the appropriate Government; RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
(xix) Small farmer" means a cultivator with an un‐irrigated land holding up to two hectares or with an irrigated land holding up to one hectare, but more than the holding of a marginal farmer. 14.5 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION MEASURES The process of R&R has two distinct components namely resettlement and rehabilitation. Resettlement primarily involves the physical relocation of the affected population to a new residential site. Rehabilitation on the other hand means to assist the affected population so that every individual could regain and/or improve him/her life and socio‐economic status after displacement. Imparting skills and/or vocations to the PAPs primarily is undertaken in this. Resettlement and Rehabilitation involves the following interventions: ¾ Acquisition of land and homestead plots would have to be compensated in accordance with the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 and provisions laid in the NRRP‐2007 ¾ Resettlement involves provision of alternate housing site along with amenities and facilities. Also, assistance is given to the PAFs while shifting to these sites. The aforementioned R & R package and the provisions under Local Area Development plan were met with on the basis of surveys conducted jointly by RSET and project developer as follows: • Revenue survey of the land required for various project activities was conducted by project authorities with the State Revenue Department. • Onsite verification of the land involved, by the officers of Revenue Department, Forest Department and District administration. • Door to door socio‐economic survey of the project‐affected families was conducted by a team of scientists/officers from RSET to collect the base line data. Data was collected on various parameters of quality of life, income patterns, land holdings amount of land loss due to this project, etc., according to the questionnaire developed for the purpose. This detailed information has been used in preparation of the R&R plan (Table 14.12). 14.5.1 R & R Benefits The R&R package, discussed in the subsequent paragraphs, has been modeled on the basis of NRRP, 2007 (Table 14.13). i)
Fishing Rights If fishing rights were enjoyed by the people in the project affected area, the same will be given to them in the reservoir clause (7.5) (a). RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
ii) Training and Employment opportunities • In case of land acquisition the requiring body shall give preference to the affected families at least one person per nuclear family in providing employment in the project, subject to the availability of vacancies and eligibility of the affected persons according to clause:(7.13.1) of NRRP‐2007. • Wherever required the requiring body shall arrange for training of the affected persons, so as to enable such persons to take on suitable jobs the requiring body shall offer scholarships and other skill development opportunities to the eligible persons from the affected families as per the criteria as may be fixed by the appropriate Government • The affected persons or their groups or cooperatives would be given preference in the allotment of outsourced contracts, shops or other economic opportunities coming up in or around the project site; • The requiring body shall give preference to the affected persons or their groups or cooperatives in the allotment of outsourced contracts, shops or other economic opportunities coming up in or around the project site. Table 14.12: Resettlement plan including basic facilities for displaced PAFs Clause No. of NRRP‐07 7.2/ 7.3 Provision Details Cost calculations Details Each of the displaced PAFs would be provided Rs.100,000 x 2 free of cost a house and a plot for the house site PAFs = to the extent of actual loss of area of the acquired Rs.2,00,000/‐ house but not more than 250 sq m in rural area COST (Rs. lacs) 2.00 OR one time financial assistance for house construction as per Govt. directives. Considered as Rs 1.0 Lacs per house 7.11 Each PAF shall get financial assistance of Rs. 10,000 x 2 PAFs Rs.10,000 as transportation cost for shifting of = Rs. 20,000/‐ 0.20 building materials, belongings, cattle, etc. from the affected zone to the resettlement zone. 7.12 Each PAF comprising of rural artisans/small Rs.25,000 x 1 PAFs traders and self employed persons shall get one = Rs.25,000/‐ time financial assistance of Rs. 25,000 for construction of working shed/shop. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
0.25 14.16
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Clause No. of NRRP‐07 EMP Report
Cost calculations Details Provision Details COST (Rs. lacs) The affected family can retrieve material from Will be allowed as their houses being acquired. However, the per the provisions residents in the affected villages normally of NRRP – 2007 construct their own traditional house with locally available material. The forest department may be directed to assist the PAFs by permitting them to use locally available wood and bamboo for house construction. 7.13.1 Preference to be given to PAF for employment at Will be allowed as least one from each Affected nuclear family per provision of subject to the availability of of vacancies and NRRP‐2007 suitability of affected person for employment. 7.16 Monthly Subsistence allowance – Equivalent to 25 days x 137 25 days MAW’s per month for a period of one (MAW) x 12 0.822 year from the date of displacement. months x 2 PAFs= Rs. 82200/‐ Total cost (Rs. lacs) 3.272 iii) Scholarship Grants: Scholarship grant is allotted to each student per PAFs for educational aid @ of 500/month per student for 24 months i.e. Rs. 31,68,000.00. iv) Training & Employment • The project proponent shall give preference to at least one person per affected family in providing employment in the project, subject to the availability of vacancies and suitability of the affected person for the employment,, • The affected persons or their groups or cooperatives would be given preference in the allotment of outsourced contracts, shops or other economic opportunities coming up in or around the project site; and. • Besides generating local employment for skilled and non‐skilled labourer, the project authority would also provide an opportunity for the local people to compete for various project works related contracts depending their capabilities. Preference would be given to award the petty contracts to the local people. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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14.5.2 Other Benefits • A medical fund will be created for the PAF’s. This fund will be need for providing treatment to the member of PAF’s in hardship due to illness or in extreme illness or accident cases. Medicines may also be provided to other residents in the area. • Free medical treatment will be provided to PAF’s at the project’s medical facility. • Periodically medical camps will be organized at various places in the project affected zone. • Each PAF will be given an identity card which will have names of all the members of PAF. • The project authorities will set up one or more Project Information Officer (PIO) for providing information and guidance to the local people particularly the PAF’s. • A cultural fund will be set up by the project authorities for providing grants for organizing local fairs and festivals. • If any available infrastructure is damaged during the construction of the project, it will be repaired and restored. This includes water supply, irrigation, roads, paths, schools, places of worship, community building, etc. • The local people will be allowed use of the infrastructure created primarily for the project like roads, bridges, schools, dispensaries, etc. • A fund under the name LADF will be created for development of infrastructure in the project affected area. The project authorities will contribute 1.5% of the project cost towards the funds. This fund will be administered by a local area development committee in accordance with the orders of the appropriate Government. This fund will be used for the creation of infrastructure and economic rehabilitation of the project area as discussed later in the chapter. Table 14.13: Rehabilitation Grant for Project Affected Families Clause. No. Provisions for the 264 project affected families The requiring body shall offer 7.13.1(c) scholarships and other skill development opportunities to the eligible persons from the affected families as per the criteria as may be fixed by the appropriate Government; RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
COST (Rs. lacs) It is proposed that a 31.68 scholarship of Rs.500 per month for a period of 24 months would be extended to one child each from PAFs. Rs.500/month x 264 for 24 months 14.18
GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Clause. No. 7.13.2 7.14 EMP Report
Provisions for the 264 project affected families The affected persons shall be offered the necessary training facilities for development of entrepreneurship, technical and professional skills for self‐
employment COST (Rs. lacs) Grant of Rs.2000 for a 31.68 period of 6 months would be extended to the PAFs for skill development @ Rs. 2000 x 264 for 6 months Livelihood and Rehabilitation grant 750 days x 137(MAW) x 264 equivalent to 750 days agricultural PAFs = Rs. 27126000 wages @ of Rs. 137/day is given to the landless PAFs who is not yet 271.26 given an agriculture land or employment 7.17 Vulnerable Grant: Pension to the Rs 500 x 140 PAFs x 5 yrs= vulnerable PAFs @Rs 500/month for Rs. 42,00,000 life 42.00 7.21.5 ST Grant : Each scheduled tribe 500 days x 137(MAW) x 250 affected family shall get one‐time PAFs = Rs.171,25,000 financial assistance of 500 days x 171.25 137(MAW) for loss of customary rights and forest usage TOTAL (Rs. lacs) 547.87 14.5.3 Procedure for Applying Grants • Every head of family will submit his application on the prescribed proforma in the office of Land Acquisition Officer of the project along with required affidavit, duly attested. Dates within which such applications are to be filed shall be fixed by the Land Acquisition Officer with prior approval of the District Magistrate, • Form of application along with specimen of affidavit shall be supplied to each head of family by the Land Acquisition Officer, Bajoli Holi H.E. Project, free of cost, and • In case of any dispute of interpretation of the plan, head of the affected family shall file an application before District Magistrate, Chamba whose decision shall be binding and final on both the parties. 14.6 EXISTING FACILITIES IN THE AFFECTED AREA The existing facility of the affected villages as surveyed is given in Table 14.14 below. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. •
EMP Report
Transport The Villages have well developed road communication. All the villages are approachable and are linked by a motorable road from Chamba till Nayagram village which will further be extend to Kangra. Some of the villages can be approach by jeepable road such as sutkar, Banoon, Jharouta, Gaushal of Holi Panchayat and are located at higher altitude from the main linking road. • Post Office and Bank There are three Post Offices in three different Panchayat Holi, Deol and Nayagram Panchayat located in Deol village, Nayagram Village and Holi Market Place. • Educational Facilities In all there are 6 (six) primary schools, 4(four) middle school, that cater to total population of 14514 of Holi‐Sub Tehsil. However, there are two higher secondary school located in Nayagram, Deol and Holi Panchayat and only one secondary School in Holi. • Telecommunication All the settlements within the project area, located alongside the road have telecommunication facilities. The mobile cellular network is also developed in the area. • Water, Sanitation and Electricity Supply All the villages in the project area have the facility of water supply by IPH. All the villagers have the drinking water facility either tap or natural springs. Villagers are known to use spring water for drinking purpose while river water for irrigation purposes but very few people mostly depend on rain for cultivation. The inhabitants along the road have developed their own sanitation system but in villages it is not well developed. All villages are connected with electric supply. • Market Places The only market place of the mention affected villages and of Holi‐Sub tehsil is Holi market which is also the important hub place of the area. Next option for market is Chamba is 80 km from Holi. • Healthcare Facilities The area is poor in the health facilities. There is only one PHC and CHC located in Holi Panchayat, there is one Ayurvedic dispensary located in Nayagram RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
village in the entire Holi‐Sub Tehsil. For medical facilities all villages have to approach Holi town. Table 14.14: Existing facilities in the Project Affected Area Village School Gadoh Deol Dugrehra Bringting Bantooh Gwarh Sutkar Gaushal Andharlagran Jarautha Kee Nala 1(Pri),1(Mid) 1(Pri),1(Mid) Nill Nill 1(Pri),1(Mid) 1(Pri) 1(Pri) Nill Nill 1(Pri),1(Mid) Nill Medical Drinking Postoffice Market
facilities Water Nill Tap, Stream Nill Nill Transport BS Approach Road 1 km 0 km 0 km 2 km 1 km 5 km 5 km 4 km 6 km 3 km 0 km Note: Pri= Primary School, Mid=Middle school, BS=Bus facility, km = is the distance katcha road from the metalled road to village. 14.7 PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROJECT AREA In addition to the above mention Provisions and R & R benefits for the Affected families, project developer would aim at the improvement in the living standards of inhabitants in the project area by not only by being a catalyst for development but also will develop infrastructure in the area. The infrastructure development will be other than rightful compensation to the project affected families. A fund under the name LADF will be created for development of infrastructure in the project affected area. The project authorities will contribute 1.5% of the project cost towards the funds. In order to provide the infrastructural facilities and amenities for social and area development survey was carried out for the Existing Facilities within the project area. As a part of Corporate Social Responsibility, project developer would aim at the improvement in the living standards of inhabitants in the project area by not only by being a catalyst for development but also will develop infrastructure in the area. The infrastructure development will be other than rightful compensation to the project affected families. Since only two families are being displaced thus resettlement area is not proposed but instead to strengthen the basic amenities within the villages and which is in the periphery of the affected zone. Provisions should be made by the project proponent for the infrastructure development programme in the project area as per the needs of the project affected families. Thus the proposed Local Area Development strategy should be formulated by keeping in view the RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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existing facilities (Table 14.14) and giving due consideration to the views of the local people which they put forth in the stakeholders meeting conducted on 16th September, 2009 (Refer Annexure V). As there is no construction facility directly coming near temple, we shall not propose the relocation. The works are carried out at much below levels after proper protection of rock slopes. 14.7.1 Temples One of the temple will be affected due to the dust likely to emanate from the nearby proposed Muck disposal site which is located in the road side on the left bank of the river. These temples will require renovation work to be done. It is proposed to renovate some of them in consultation with the local people and pujaris of the respective villages to generate goodwill amongst locals. 14.7.2 Assistance to Primary Health Centers Health care is a basic problem faced by the villagers of the affected area as mention only one PHC in Holi and one Ayurvedic dispensary in Nayagram, but there is no proper arrangement of doctors or nurses. While interviewing it was found that people prefer Kangra or Chamba for medical aid. Considering this upgradation of the existing healthcare centers is proposed. There is a need to provide a healthcare unit in the mid‐way distance from the two existing health centres. 14.7.3 Cremation Ghat Inhabitants of the affected villages use the river bank for burning dead bodies as cremation Ghats for which they also collect the floating wood logs from the river for the purpose of cremation Therefore one time financial aid should be given for developing cremation Ghats. 14.7.4 Assistance to Project Affected Villages for Fodder Due to acquisition of private land villages are being affected despite the fact that average land holding is very small i.e. less than 6‐7 Bighas/person in addition to lose of grazing land. With the formation of reservoir, due to increase in humidity the natural growth of vegetation in the barren patches along the reservoir will take place, however shall fulfill the demand of fodder for the cattle of the villagers. It is also proposed to give assistance to villages for meeting the demand of fodder, etc. 14.7.5 Subsidized LPG for PAF It is proposed that the entire 264 project affected families will be given full subsidy for purchase of LPG connection with cylinders. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
14.7.6 Economic Development The project authority requires labourers, colony, vehicles and other staff for the construction works. There would be more requirements of food grains, vegetables, milk, clothing and other grocery items. As a result, business activities would increase in the area. The local inhabitants would be benefited by these activities. For this purpose, Village Haats can be set up where considerable amount of locally grown commodities can be supplied to meet their requirements. It will be helpful in the upliftment of local economy. 14.7.7 Income Generation Schemes The PAF (such as rural artisans/small traders and self employed persons) will be assisted to start various suitable self‐employment occupations, which include dairy farming, poultry, weaving, bakery, handicraft, cottage industries unit/shops and hiring of vehicle to the corporation. 14.7.8 Sponsoring Self‐Help Groups Sponsoring the SHGs would increase the quality of local people. Besides, the promotion of savings, this will also enhance the marketability of local products such as local handicrafts, fruits, minor forest produce, etc. 14.7.9 Project Implementation Centers (PICs) PICs should be instituted for dissemination and grievance redressal. If someone has a complaint about how they or their property is being treated during project implementation, they can come to the nearest PIC and explain their complaint. The staff of PIC will have continued ongoing consultations with the local communities and they give formal updates on the project every 6 months and publish a newsletter on the project. 14.7.10 Village industry A scheme would be formulated for setting up the small scale industries with proper assistance in the form of supply of improved equipment, training and marketing facilities for the processing of cereals and pulses, crushing of oilseeds, handloom and weaving centers. Such type of village industry programme will provide partial relief to artisans and under employed women workers in the village. 14.7.11 Fair price shops Fair price shops would be opened in the project area for the benefit of local residing in the area. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
14.8 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR R&R IMPLEMENTATION In order to ensure smooth and effective land acquisition, implementation of R&R measures, monitoring of R&R operations etc., the NRRP – 2007 lays provision for appointment for commissioner R&R and Administrator R&R. The State Government shall appoint an officer of the rank of Commissioner/ Secretary of that government for R&R in respect of such projects to which this policy (NRRP‐2007) applies. The commissioner shall be responsible for supervising the formulation of R&R plans/schemes, proper implementation of such plans/schemes and redressal of grievances. The State Government shall, by notification, appoint in respect of that project, an officer not below the rank of District Collector of the State Government to be Administrator for R&R. Subject to the superintendence, directions and control of the appropriate Government and Commissioner for R&R, the Administrator for R&R shall take all measures for the rehabilitation and resettlement of all PAFs in respect of that project. The overall control and superintendence of the formulation of R&R plan and execution of the same shall rest in the Administration for R&R. The officers and employees shall assist the administrator for R&R, the appropriate government may provide. In view of the above, the following institutional arrangement for effective implementation & monitoring of R&R activities are suggested. A)
Supervisory Body • Commissioner for R&R • Project In Charge of GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. B)
Implementation Body • Administrator for R&R • Project In charge‐ GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. • Representatives of village level Committees (VLC) • Representatives of women of the affected villages • Representatives of Nationalized Bank • Representatives of Forest Department • Representatives of Local NGOs • MLA/MP of the Area • Representative Scheduled Tribes residing in the affected area. • Land Acquisition Officer of the project Besides the foregoing organizational arrangement liaison should be established by the administrator for R&R with the other government departments, which will extend support in the implementation of land RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
acquisition and rehabilitation plans. Specifically, government organizations like Department of Revenue, Rural Development, Agriculture, Forest, Horticulture; Rural Industries, etc. can be contacted for dovetailing their plans for the economic rehabilitation of PAFs. These organizations/departments shall not only extend their various development schemes for the economic welfare of the PAFs but would also provide technical guidance and training to PAFs in carrying out economic activities. However, the NRRP‐2007 indicates R&R Committee at Project level, under the Chairmanship of Administrator for R&R. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) must be simultaneous with the implementation of Rehabilitation Plan. It requires specialized skill for application of general project monitoring procedures to the process of land acquisition and rehabilitation. Conventional monitoring, normally carried out by the Government machinery, often misses focus on certain vital aspects and does not identify certain shortcomings, which may otherwise prove very important. While the conventional government monitoring will continue, an external M&E agency will also be engaged to help in proper monitoring of land acquisition and rehabilitation plans. The main purpose of involving such an agency is to bring the problems and difficulties faced by the PAFs to the notice of Administrator R&R on a regular basis for their redress as well as to help in formulating and undertaking corrective measures. The external Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) agency can submit half yearly reports on the progress of implementing Rehabilitation Master Plan (RMP) along with suggestions and corrective measures required for improvement in the implementation of Rehabilitation Plan. For Land Acquisition and rehabilitation plan, M&E system will consist of: i) Administrative monitoring; ii) Socio‐economic performance and iii) Impact evaluation. Administrative monitoring will be conventionally carried out by the Land Acquisition Officer of project authorities, Resettlement Commissioner and other concerned government agencies/departments. The focus will be on physical (like number of land holders affected, area identified for allotment to Village Level Committee, etc.) and financial (like compensation paid, payment to M&E agency, office establishment cost, etc.) parameters. The socio‐
economic monitoring, which will be carried out concurrently is the crux of M&E exercise to provide interim measures based on the field level situations. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report
This along‐with impact evaluation at the end of plan period will be carried out by the M&E agency. While covering the affected community, monitoring will focus on the vulnerable groups like women, physically handicapped, etc. The household information collected through the socio‐economic survey will form the benchmarks for comparison. However, these benchmarks will be supplemented in order to create new reference points against performance, effects and objectives. Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines Monitoring of the progress of R&R is important because of the sensitivity of these issues. The objective of monitoring is to assess the progress of resettlement activity, to identify difficulties, ascertain problem areas, provide indication for the need of calling attention to some specific issues at an early stage. Following tasks have to be performed by the group at different stages of the project: • Establish baseline information on individual PAFs and their pre‐project standards of living, health conditions, nutritional patterns, etc. This should precede the implementation of R&R package in general after the completion of the project. • The planning of the monitoring studies could cover disbursement of compensation and grants. • After the completion of the project, a few sensitive indicators using 100% survey techniques should be undertaken mainly to understand how effective the R&R plan and project economic development package has been in reality. Post‐Project Monitoring It is suggested that the monitoring be conducted by an independent agency not connected with the project. Therefore, an independent consultant having experience in R&R studies in similar areas, i.e. North‐eastern states and not connected with the project can be appointed for monitoring the project. The Consultant will review the rehabilitation and resettlement programmed after 2nd, 4th and 6th year from the completion of the project. A total provision of Rs. 10.00 lacs has been kept in the project estimate for this purpose. Participation of PAFs Involvement of affected communities in planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes according to their felt needs and socio‐economic conditions is of vital importance. To obtain co‐operation, participation and feedback, PAFs need to be systematically informed and consulted during RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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preparation and implementation of R&R plan about their options and rights. In the proposed project, co‐operation and participation of PAFs in this process could be ensured through their involvement in each of the following stages. As a part of participatory planning, community meetings should be held on a routine basis to explain about the project and the benefits of the project. Direct communication with the PAFs will negate the politicization of the R&R Process. The communication with the PAFs can be through the Village Level Committee. The Village Level Committee can be involved in the implementation of R&R and other Environmental management plans. They should also be consulted in finding out alternative economic opportunities to supplement their household income. However, some NGO groups can also be associated which can interact directly with the project authorities and the affected population. 14.9 BUDGET FOR R&R The summary of the financial requirement for implementation of the Resettlement and Rehabilitation plan is given in Table 14.15. Table 14.15: Summary of budgetary estimates for implementation of R & R Plan S. No. R&R Components Cost (Rs. lacs) 1 Resettlement plan including basic facilities for displaced families 3.27 2 Rehabilitation plan 547.87 3 Monitoring and Evaluation set‐up 10.00 Total (Rs. lacs) 561.14 Total cost of Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan = say Rs.5.61 Crores RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 15 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME 15.1 INTRODUCTION Environmental Monitoring is an essential tool in relation to environmental management as it provides the basis for rational management decisions regarding impact control. Monitoring shall be performed during all stages of the project (namely: construction, and operation) to ensure that the impacts are no greater than predicted, and to verify the impact predictions. The monitoring program will indicate where changes to procedures or operations are required, in order to reduce impacts on the environment or local population. The monitoring program for the Bajoli Holi HE Project will be undertaken to meet the following objectives: • To monitor the environmental conditions of the Ravi river and the reservoir as impacted by the Bajoli Holi HE Project; • To check on whether mitigation and benefit enhancement measures have actually been adopted, and are proving effective in practice; • To provide information on the actual nature and extent of key impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation and benefit enhancement measures which, through a feedback mechanism, can improve the planning and execution of future, similar projects. Monitoring of three basic items of air, water and noise suffices for monitoring the environmental changes at the local level. Accordingly, it is imperative to monitor air quality, water quality, and noise levels during the construction and operation phases. 15.2 WATER QUALITY Construction Phase The water quality monitoring should be carried out on regular basis. Frequency of monitoring will vary from site to time and as we progress during the construction phase and shall be decided on yearly basis with the help of HPPCB. The sampling sites shall typically be Colony area (sewage effluent from colony), Power house site, Dam site; downstream of Dam site, etc and also RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report some ground water samples from suitable locations. During the construction phase, if any other stream etc. needs to be monitored, it will also be covered. The monitoring is proposed to be done for entire period of construction i.e. 5 years. Operation phase The surface water quality of the proposed reservoir and river Ravi can be monitored thrice a year (summer, pre and post‐monsoon seasons). The proposed parameters to be monitored include; pH, total suspended solids, DO and conductivity. The sampling sites are one km upstream of dam, near dam site, downstream of dam (Deol village), near all adits, and near power house area. During project operation phase, a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) is proposed to be set up to treat the effluent from the project colony. Once every month, it is envisaged to analyze a sample each before and after treatment from the STP. The parameters to be analyzed include pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and oil & grease. Additionally, ground water quality shall also be monitored at suitable locations for BOD, COD, DO and pH. 15.3 AIR QUALITY Construction Phase The ambient air quality monitoring during construction phase will be carried out through State Pollution Control Board or any agency approved by them. Every year monitoring is to be done for the following three seasons: • Summer • Pre ‐ monsoon • Post ‐ monsoon The frequency of monitoring could be twice a week for four consecutive weeks at each station for each season. The parameters to be monitored are Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Sulphurdioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Every year, ambient air quality is to be monitored for (4 stations x 2 days/week x 4 weeks x 3 seasons) 96 days. Operation Phase Similarly air quality will be monitored regularly during operation phase also for parameters – SPM, SO2 and NOx for first 3 years. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report 15.4 NOISE Construction Phase Noise emissions from vehicular movement, operation of various construction equipments may be monitored during construction phase at major construction sites. The frequency of monitoring could be once in months. For monitoring of noise generators, an Integrating Sound Level Meter will be used to record sound levels. Operation Phase Noise monitoring will continue during operation phase also for first 3 years. 15.5 MUCK/ DEBRIS DUMPING AND DISPOSAL Construction Phase In addition to the air quality, water quality and noise quality during the construction phase, management of construction debris and muck arising out of the earth work involved in the hydro projects is also a major environmental issue. Adopting appropriate and well designed engineering structures for retaining the construction debris and muck is very crucial and this needs to be monitored regularly both for stability of the dump sites and their vulnerability to stress failures due to various factors such as erodability, strong water currents and earth pressures. Regular monitoring of the muck dumping will be carried out by HPPCB. 15.6 MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW Operation Phase Similarly during operation phase of the project, most crucial environmental aspect is the monitoring of flow released from the hydel project to ensure that minimum flow is maintained at all times especially during lean season. Therefore, monitoring mechanism will be established as per the requirement of HPPCB to monitor river flow immediately downstream of the diversion structure. 15.7 FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT A sum of Rs. 95.80 lacs has been allocated to implement various activities and programme envisaged under EMP and the details are given in Table 15.1. The detailed matrix of EMP listing all the activities to monitored and implementing agency has been given in Table 15.2. RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 15.1: Cost estimates for Environmental Monitoring Programme Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Items to be Monitored
Parameters
CONSTRUCTION PHASE
Ambient Air Quality SO2, NOx, SPM Ambient Sound Levels Sound Levels Water ‐Sewage Effluent BOD, COD, TSS, O&G, pH From Colonies Surface Wtaer Qwuality pH, TSS, DO and Conductivity
Ground Water Quality BOD, COD, DO, pH Muck/Debris Dumping Muck Quantity, Dumping Process, and Disposal Engineering and Biological Measures implementation OPERATION PHASE
Ambient Air Quality SO2, NOx, SPM Ambient Sound Levels Sound Levels Water ‐Sewage Effluent BOD, COD, TSS, O&G, pH From Colonies Surface Wtaer Qwuality pH, TSS, DO and conductivity Ground Water Quality Release of Minimum Flow BOD, COD, DO, pH Inflow and release in river at diversion structure Other Monitoring Activities 1 Corpus for studies for environmental flow
2 Payment for environmental services 3 Ecological Studies/ monitoring 4 Awareness programmes
5 Meetings with Stakeholders, etc.
6 Reporting, documentation of various activities TOTAL (In Rs Lacs) Monitoring Budget Agency (Rs. In lakhs) 58.30
SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB SPCB 5.00 10.00 5.00 2.50 7.50 7.50 95.80 RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. EMP Report Table 15.2: Matrix of Environmental Monitoring Plan Sl. No. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aspect Source of Impact
Construction Phase Construction works
Monitoring Methods & Parameters
Local manpower Contractor’s report No. of people working in the project
absorption Erosion and Excavation, disposal, cut & fill and land Survey & observation Extent and degree of landslides and landslides clearing activities for access roads, erosion disposal Biodiversity Land clearing activities fauna in the Composition of flora and fauna
project area for access roads, colonies 1.4 Revegetation Afforestation & Land clearing, disposal works
1.5 Soil erosion control measures Excavation, landslides, cut & fill for Status/ Survival rate of bio‐engineering and engineering road construction structures for controlling soil erosion 1.6 Water Quality 1.7 Air Quality Excavation, disposal, sewage disposal, Surveys & sample collection and field measurements land clearing activities and other Turbidity, pH, T.D.S., D.O., Total Coliform and E. coli chemical parameters Operation of DG sets, transportation Survey & observation Levels of SPM, SOx, NOx
of muck, road construction, mobilization of material, running of crushers 1.8 Public Health Dust, noise, influx to labour
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Survey & observation Density of vegetation Survival rate of species planted Regular medical checkups and camps
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Sl. No. 1.9 1.10 1.11 Aspect Source of Impact
Health Delivery Influx of labour
System Fish Management EMP Report Monitoring Methods & Parameters
Status of water and vector borne diseases, improvement observed, if any, status of women and child health Construction Activities
Impact of project construction on fish, and aquatic life, if any Status of infrastructure developed for fish management like hatcheries Restoration of Muck generation, transportation and Status of protection measures at the dumping sites. Whether dumping is done so as to avoid spillage of muck into the Muck Disposal dumping river, especially during rains Leveling and slope stabilization sites, construction works at dumping sites. Status of afforestation/ turfing areas works on the dumping sites 2.0 Operation Phase 2.1 Water Quality and Reservoir water regulation Diversion Surveys, sample collection & field measurement Water discharge d/s of dam Water quality (turbidity, Quantity (for of water for power generation coliformbacteria and others irrigation & domestic use) 2.2 Air Quality 2.3 Noise Levels 2.4 Fish production Increased activities in the area Survey & observation Levels of SPM, SOx, NOx
including movement of vehicles, air pollution from colony, etc. Noise due to operational activities Sound Levels using sound level meter
including that from housing colony Reservoir regulation
Survey & observation
2.5 Aquatic weeds RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Surveys & sample collection Kinds of species
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GMR Bajoli Holi Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd. Sl. No. 2.6 2.7 2.8 Aspect Catchment conditions Accidents Disaster Source of Impact
Deforestation
EMP Report Monitoring Methods & Parameters
Survey & observation of Barren areas for Afforestation
Sudden discharge of water for power Surveillance
generation Heavy rainfall, flash flood situation
Surveillance and disaster management exercises, Regular information to people RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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16 COST ESTIMATES
An amount of Rs. 11331.24 lacs has been allocated for the implementation of different environmental management plans. The summary of total cost estimates for the execution of different plans is given in Table 16.1 below. Table 16.1: Cost estimates for the implementation of various measures under EMP
S. No. Management Plan Amount (Rs. lacs)
1 Biodiversity Conservation & Management Plan
206.25
2 Catchment Area Treatment [email protected] 2.5% of Project Cost (Actual 4509.96
cost is Rs. 2740.42 lacs) 3 Fisheries Conservation & Management Plan
153.75
4 Solid Waste Management Plan
120.00
5 Public Health Delivery System
70.00
6 Energy Conservation Measures
18.00
7 Muck Disposal Plan 1016.23
8 Landscaping & Restoration of Quarry & Construction Areas
97.00
9 Air & Water Hazard Mitigation Plan during Construction
85.00
10 Green Belt Development Plan
9.28
11 Reservoir Rim Treatment Plan
4.67
12 Compensatory Afforestation Plan
104.87
13 Disaster Management Plan
92.00
14 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan
561.14
15 Environmental Monitoring Programme
95.80
16 Cost of Trees 750.00
17 NPV 746.32
18 LADF @ 1.5% of Project Cost
2705.98
TOTAL 11346.24
RS Envirolink Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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PLATE-1 (TYPICAL DETAIL OF RATAINING WALL)
PLATE-2 (TYPICAL DETAIL OF MUCK PROTECTION WALL) PLATE-3 (LAYOUT PLAN SHOWING VARIES ZONE)
PLATE-4 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-I (ZONE-11)
PLATE-5 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-II (ZONE-10)
PLATE-6 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-III (ZONE-9A)
PLATE-7 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-IV (ZONE-8B)
PLATE-8 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-V (ZONE-5B)
PLATE-9 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-VI (ZONE-3B)
PLATE-10 CROSS OF MUCK SITE-VII (ZONE-1B)
PLATE-11 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-I (ZONE-11)
PLATE-12 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-II (ZONE-10)
PLATE-13 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-III (ZONE-9A)
PLATE-14 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-IV (ZONE-8B)
PLATE-15 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-V (ZONE-5B)
PLATE-16 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-VI (ZONE-3B)
PLATE-17 PLAN OF MUCK SITE-VII (ZONE-1B) SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS
I.A.No.1768 IN W.P.(C)No.202/1995
T.N. GODAVARMAN THIRUMULPAD
Petitioner(s)
VERSUS
UNION OF INDIA & ORS
Respondent(s)
(For Direction)
Date: 09/05/2008 These Petitions/appln.s was/were called on for hearing today.
UPON hearing counsel the Court made the following
ORDER
NPV MATTERS
I.A.Nos.826 in 566 with 955 in 566, 958, 985, 1001-1001A, 1013-1014, 1016-1018, 1019, 1046,
1047, 1164, 1180-1181, 1182-1183, 1196, 1208-1209, 1229, 1248-1249, 1253, 1301-1302,
1303-1304, 1313, 1314, 1318, 1319 in 1137, 1325, 1364, 1365-1366, 1370-1370A, 1371, 1384,
1435-1437, 1441 with 1634, 1475-1476, 1579, 1513, 1573, 1664, 1676, 1707, 1721, 1779 in
1164 in 566, 1785-1786 in IA 1441, 1980-1981, 1993, 2013, 2074-2076, 2077-2078 in 1441,
2230-2231, 2240-2241 in 1164, 2147-2148, 2149-2150 & 2153-2154 in I.A.566 in W.P.(C)
No.202/1995
List the Public Utility Project matters, Hydel and Irrigation Projects matters, Construction of road
on acquired land matter, transmission lines matters, Hydro Electric Power Projects matters,
Mining in the same sequence on 18.7.2008.
The order dated 28.3.2008 is corrected as recorded separately.
____________
CASE NO :
Writ Petition (civil) 202 of 1995
PETITIONER:
T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad
RESPONDENT:
Union of India & Ors.
DATE OF JUDGMENT : 28/03/2008
BENCH:
CJI K.G. BALAKRISHNAN & DR. ARIJIT PASAYAT & S.H. KAPADIA
JUDGMENT
ORDER
REPORTABLE
I.A. Nos. 826 IN 566 WITH 955 IN 566, 958, 985, 1001-1001A, 1013-14, 1016-1018,
1019, 1046, 1047, 1135-1136, 1164, 1180-1181, 1182-1183, 1196, 1208-1209, 12221223, 1224-1225, 1229, 1233 IN 1135-1136, 1248-1249, 1253, 1301-1302, 1303-1304,
1312,1313, 1314, 1318, 1319 IN 1137, 1325, 1364, 1365-1366, 1370-1370A, 1371, 1384,
1385-1386, 1387, 1434, 1435-1437, 1438, 1441 WITH 1634, 1475-1476, 1513, 1573,
1639 IN 1135-1136 IN IA 566, 1664, 1665, 1671, 1676, 1707, 1721, 1779 IN 1164 IN
566, 1785-1786 IN I.A. NO. 1441, 1980-1981, 1993, 2013, 2074-2076, 2077-2078 IN
1441 & 2098 IN 1233 IN 1135-1136, 2145-2146, 2147-2148, 2149-2150 &2153-2154 IN
I.A. 566 IN W.P.(C) NO. 202/1995
It is undisputed fact that the forest in this country is an important and vital
component to sustain the life support system on this planet. For various reasons, our
forest is being slowly depleted. At the same time, as part of our developmental activities,
some areas of the forest have to be used for non-forest purposes. The economic
development shall not be at the cost of complete degradation of the forest or the
environment and eco-system provided by the green area of the forest. Therefore, it was
considered whether the user agency of such land which is required for developmental
activities to compensate for the diversion of the forest and on the recommendations of the
Central Empowered Committee (herein after being referred to as (“CEC”), it was decided
by this Court that the user agency shall be required to make payment of net present value
(NPV) of such diverted land so as to utilize this for getting back in the long run which are
lost by such diversion. A scheme was submitted by Ministry of Environment and Forests
(MOEF) alongwith an affidavit dated 22.3.2002. The CEC considered all relevant
aspects including the scheme submitted by MOEF and filed a report on 9.8.2002. These
reports were accepted by this Court. This Court in T.N. Godavaraman Thirumulpad Vs.
Union of India 2006(1) SCC 1 finally directed that the question as to what amount of
1
NPV is required to be paid and to achieve these objectives, it was directed that the
question is to be examined by experts. A Committee comprising of three experts
including Mrs. Kanchan Chopra was appointed and this Court gave the following
directions:(i)
to identify and define parameters (scientific, biometric and social) on the basis
of which each of the categories of values of forest land should be estimated.
(ii)
To formulate a practical methodology applicable to different biogeographical
zones of India for estimation of the values in monetary terms in respect of each of the
above categories of forest values.
(iii) To illustratively apply this methodology to obtain actual numerical values for
different forest types for each biogeographical zone in the country.
(iv)
To determine on the basis of established principles of public finance, who
should pay the costs of restoration and/or compensation with respect to each category
of values of forests.
(v)
Which projects deserve to be exempted from payment of NPV.
On the basis of the directions issued by this Court, a Committee consisting of Mrs.
Kanchan Chopra gave a report and the same was examined by the CEC.
The report contains details study of the relevant factors. The Forest Survey of India, has
since last two decades, been undertaking forest cover mapping of the country using
satellite data obtained by the NRSA, Hyderabad. The methodology of mapping involves
the geo-rectification of the satellite imagery using the Survey of India toposheets
followed by the digital interpretation of the same and extensive ground truthing. It was
found that the forest cover maps depicts mainly three tree canopy density classes, viz.,
very dense, moderately dense and open. There were other classifications in the Forest of
India and “Champion and Seth” have classified the forests of India into 16 major groups.
The major basis of classification included the climate, the soil and the past treatment as
these factors determine the vegetation type of a given locality. CEC has classified the
forest taking in view the ecological role and value of the forest and the purpose of the
report, 16 major forest types have been further grouped into 6 ecological classes
depending upon their ecological functions.
Eco-Class I- Consisting of Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests, Tropical Semi Evergreen
Forests and Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests Eco-Class II –Consisting of Littoral and
Swamp Forests Eco-Class III – Consisting of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests Eco-Class
IV- Consisting of Tropical Thorn Forests and Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests Eco-Class
V – Consisting of Sub-tropical Board Leaved Hill Forests, Sub-Tropical Pine Forests and
Sub Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests Eco-Class VI-Consisting of Montane Wet
Temperate Forests, Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests, Himalayan Dry Temperate
Forests, Sub Alpine Forest, Moist Alpine Scrub and Dry Alpine Scrub.
2
Based on the ecological importance of forest falling in different eco-value and
canopy density lasses, relative weightage factors have also been taken into consideration.
By using these relative weightage factors, the equalized forest area in eco-value Class I
and very dense forest corresponding to forest falling in different eco-value and density
classes have been compiled. For example, 17,977sq.km. of open forest of Eco-Class IV
has been calculated to be equivalent to 7,558 sq.km. of very dense forest of Eco-Value
Class I. Accordingly, the entire forest area of the country has been calculated and found
to be equivalent to 5.2 lakh sq. km. forest area having highest ecological significance as
that of forest falling in eco-value Class I with density above 70%.
The net present value per hectare of forest has been fixed based on this data. For
calculating the average net percent value per hectare of forest in India, the following
monetary value of goods and services provided by the forest have been considered:(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
Value of timber and fuel
Value of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP)
Value of fodder
Value of Eco-tourism
Value of bio-prospecting
Value of Ecological services of forest
Value of Flagship Species
Carbon Sequestration Value
Based on this, the NPV was fixed and the following recommendations have been made:(i)
for non-forestry use/diversion of forest land, the NPV may be directed to
be deposited in the Compensatory Afforestation Fund as per the rates given below:(in Rs.)
Eco-Value class Very Dense Forest Dense Forest Open Forest Class I
10,43,000
9,39,000
7,30,000
Class II
10,43,000
9,39,000
7,30,000
Class III
8,87,000
8,03,000
6,26,000
Class-IV
6,26,000
5,63,000
4,38,000
3
Class V
9,39,000
8,45,000
6,57,000
Class VI
9,91,000
8,97,000
6,99,000
(ii)
the use of forest land falling National parks/ Wildlife Sanctuaries will be
permissible only in totally unavoidable circumstances for public interest
projects and after obtaining permission from the Hon’ble Court. Such
permissions may be considered on payment of an amount equal to ten
times in the case of national Parks and five times in the case of Sanctuaries
respectively of the NPV payable for such areas. The use of non-forest
land falling within the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries may be
permitted on payment of an amount equal to the NPV payable for the
adjoining forest area. In respect of non-forest land falling within marine
National Parks/Wildlife Sanctuaries, the amount may be fixed at five
times the NPV payable for the adjoining forest area;
(iii)
these NPV rates may be made applicable with prospective effect except in
specific cases such as Lower Subhanshri Project, mining leases of SECL,
Field Firing Ranges, wherein pursuant to the orders passed by this Hon’ble
Court, the approvals have been accorded on lump-sum payment/no
payment towards the NPV; and
(iv)
for preparation and supply of district level maps and GPS equipments to
the concerned State/UT Forest Departments and the regional offices of the
MoEF, the Ad hoc CAMPA may be asked to provide an amount of Rs. 1.0
crore to the Forest Survey of India out of the interest received by it.
Ministry of Environment and Forests also has filed its response and has accepted
the recommendations made by CEC. Various user agencies have filed its
objections. We heard the learned senior Counsel Mr. Nariman and other learned
senior Counsel who appeared before us. The main contention raised is that the
NPV value was fixed on the basis of the net flow accruing over 20 years at a 5%
social discount rate. This, according to the applicants , is too low. It has been
contended that the Economic and Research Department of the Asian Development
Bank is of the view that a survey of the social discount rate policies of individual
countries show significant variations and the developing countries apply higher
social discount rate. The paper published by Asian Development Bank shows that
India should have a social discount rate 12%. It may be noted that the Expert
Committee under the leadership of Mrs. Kanchan Chopra recommended 5%
4
social discount rate but the CEC has reduced further and accepted 4% social
discount rate. It may be noted that the CEC had made consultation with eminent
economists and it was of the view that the social discount rate should be around
2% in India. We do not find much force in the contention advanced by the
learned Counsel who appeared for the user agents. The 10% suggested by them
cannot be applied to the present case because 10% is the rate linked to
assumptions about the opportunity cost of capital. One cannot apply that rate for
social time preference in evaluating the benefits from an environmental resource
such as forests. In project evaluation, the horizon is compatible with the life of
the project whereas in forest matters, the horizon spans over several generations.
Therefore, the rate of 10%, as suggested by the user agency cannot be accepted.
Another contention raised by the applicant(FIMI) is that the NPV is not fixed on
site specific and, therefore, the fixation of the rate is based on surmises and
conjectures and the same rate cannot be applied to the large extent of area covered
by the forests. This question was elaborately considered by the CEC.
Considering the large extent of this country and the forest being spread over in
various parts of the State, it is difficult to fix the NPV based on the specific area.
It is not feasible to fix NPV in each and every individual case. The entire forest
area in each of the State/UT is calculated by considering the monetary value of
the services provided by it. The average NPV per hectare of the forest area in the
State has also been calculated. If NPV is to be calculated on the specific area, the
process would be time consuming and in most of the cases, it may be beyond the
capability of the Range Forest Officers or other officials posted at the grassroot
level. Moreover, the NPV is linked with the type of the forest and no useful
purpose would be served by carrying out NPV calculations in each case involving
the diversion of forest areas.
We are of the view that the NPV now fixed is more scientific and is based
on all available data. We accept the recommendations and we make it clear that
the NPV rate now fixed would hold good for a period of three years and subject to
variation after three years. The following exemptions have been recommended:(i)
public works such as schools, hospitals, children play ground of noncommercial nature and the public welfare projects such as community
centers in rural areas which require forest land upto 2 ha;
(ii)
rural infrastructure and basic services such as the construction of the
overhead tanks, village roads, etc.
(iii)
the minor irrigation projects upto 10 ha. of storage area, municipal water
supply projects, drinking water supply pipelines;
5
(iv)
activities necessary for the ecological management, relocation of the
villages from the sactruaries and the national parks, regularization of pre1980 eligible encroachers;
(v)
housing for the rehabilitation of tribals; laying of the underground optical
fibre cables;
(vi)
laying of the pipelines for the underground gas transportation;
(vii)
the district and rural roads;
(viii) shifting cultivation;
(ix)
roads constructed by Defence in border areas;
(x)
construction of the transmission lines.
The above recommendations for exemptions are accepted. If, in any case,
exemption is required by nature of the peculiar circumstances of the case, the
same would be decided as and when necessary on a case to case base.
6
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA.
CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
In Nos. 826 IN 566 WITH 955 IN 566, 958, 985, 1001-1001A, 1013-14, 1016-1018,
1019, 1046, 1047, 1135-1136, 1164, 1180-1181, 1182-1183, 1196, 1208-1209, 12221223, 1224-1225, 1229, 1233 IN 1135-1136, 1248-1249, 1253, 1301-1302, 1303-1304,
1312, 1313, 1314, 1318, 1319, IN 1137, 1325, 1364, 1365-1366, 1370-1370A, 1371,
1384, 1385-1386, 1387, 1434, 1435-1437, 1438, 1441 WITH 1634, 1475-1476, 1513,
1573, 1639 IN 1135-1136 IN IA 566, 1664, 1665, 1671, 1676, 1707, 1721, 1779 IN 1164
IN 566, 1785-1786 IN I.A. NO. 1441, 1980-1981, 1993, 2013, 2074-2076, 2077-2078 IN
1441 & 2098 IN 1233 IN 1135-1136, 2145-2146, 2147-2148, 2149-2150 & 2153-2154
IN I.A. 566 IN W.P. (C) NO. 202/1995
T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad
……. Petitioners
Versus
Union of India & Ors.
…… Respondents
ORDER
On 28th March, 2008, we had passed an order regarding payment of Net Present
Value (NPV) accepting the recommendations made by CEC which were more or less
acceptable to MoEF. In that order we had also indicated that exemptions from payment
of NPV have to be granted in respect of certain categories. However, it is brought to our
notice that certain typographical mistakes had crept in that order as to categories to which
such exemptions are to be granted. Therefore, we direct that as regards exemptions from
payment of NPV, the last part of that order reading “We are of the view…….(x)
construction of the transmission lines” on pages 10 to 11 shall stand substituted with the
following :7
Category
CEC
i)
Schools
Full exemption upto 1 ha. of forest land
ii) Hospitals
provided :
iii) Children’s play ground of noncommercial nature.
(a) no felling of trees is involved;
iv) Community centers in rural areas.
(b) alternate forest land is not
v) Over-head tanks
available.
vi) Village tanks
(c) the project is of non-commercial
vii) Laying of underground drinking
nature and is part of the Plan/Nonwater pipeline upto 4 diameter and
Plan Scheme of Government; and
viii) Electricity distribution line upto 22
(d) the area is outside National
KV in rural areas.
Park/Sanctuary
Relocation of villages form the National Full exemption
Parks/ Sanctuary to alternate forest land
Collection of boulders/silts from the river Full exemption provided :belts in the forest area.
(a) area
is
outside
National
Park/Sanctuary;
(b) no mining lease is approved/signed
in respect of this area;
(c) the works including the sale of
boulders/silt are carried out
departmentally
or
through
Government
undertaking
or
through
the
Economic
Development Committee or Joint
Forest Management Committee;
(d) the activity is necessary for
conservation and protection of
forests; and
(e) the sale proceeds are used for
protection/conservation of forests.
Laying of underground optical fibre cable
Full exemption provided :
(a) no felling of trees is involved; and
(b) areas falls outside National
Park/Sanctuary.
Pre-1980 regularization of encroachments
and conversion of forest villages into
revenue villages
Underground mining
Full exemption provided these are strictly
in accordance with MoEF’s Guidelines
dated 18.9.1990.
50% of the NPV of the entire area
8
The above recommendations for exemptions are accepted. If, in any case, exemption is
required by nature of the peculiar circumstances of the case, the same would be decided
as and when necessary on a case to case basis.
New Delhi
May 9, 2008.
………………Sd/-………….. CJI
(K.G. BALAKRISHNAN)
……………Sd/-………………….
(DR. ARIJIT PASAYAT)
…………Sd/-…………………….
S.H. KAPADIA
9
ANNEXURE – II ANALYSIS OF THE DOWNSTREAM FLOOD HYDROGRAPH
PRODUCED BY THE DAM BREAK OF
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
ON
RAVI RIVER
ANALYSIS BY
R S ENVIROLINK TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD
BASED ON PROCEDURE DEVELOPED BY
DANNY L. FREAD, PH.D., SR. RESEARCH HYDROLOGIST
QUALITY CONTROL TESTING AND OTHER SUPPORT BY
JANICE M. LEWIS, RESEARCH HYDROLOGIST
HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH LABORATORY
W23, OFFICE OF HYDROLOGY
NOAA, NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND 20910
i *******************************
*******************************
***
***
*** SUMMARY OF INPUT DATA ***
***
***
*******************************
*******************************
INPUT CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
PARAMETER
***************************************************
VARIABLE
******
VALUE
*******
NUMBER OF DYNAMIC ROUTING REACHES
KKN
1
TYPE OF RESERVOIR ROUTING
KUI
0
MULTIPLE DAM INDICATOR
MULDAM
0
PRINTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR INPUT SUMMARY
KDMP
3
NO. OF RESERVOIR INFLOW HYDROGRAPH POINTS
ITEH
14
INTERVAL OF CROSS-SECTION INFO PRINTED OUT WHEN JNK=9
NPRT
0
FLOOD-PLAIN MODEL PARAMETER
KFLP
0
METRIC INPUT/OUTPUT OPTION
METRIC
1
BAJOLI HOLI DAM RESERVOIR
TABLE OF ELEVATION VS VOLUME
VOLUME (Mm3)
ELEVATION (M)
SA(K)
HSA(K)
4.07531
3.73651
2.81386
2.02227
1.36363
0.84093
0.31848
0.0
2020.00
2118.00
2112.00
2006.00
2000.00
1994.00
1986.00
1174.00
BAJOLI HOLI DAM RESERVOIR AND BREACH PARAMETERS
PARAMETER
UNITS VARIABLE
******************************************* ******* ******
LENGTH OF RESERVOIR
KM
RLM
ELEVATION OF WATER SURFACE
M
YO
SIDE SLOPE OF BREACH
Z
ELEVATION OF BOTTOM OF BREACH
M
ii YBMIN
VALUE
***********
2.50
2021.00
.00
1976.00
WIDTH OF BASE OF BREACH
M
BB
TIME TO MAXIMUM BREACH SIZE
HOUR
TFH
ELEVATION (MSL) OF BOTTOM OF DAM
M
DATUM
VOLUME-SURFACE AREA PARAMETER
16.30
.25
1974.00
VOL
.00
ELEVATION OF WATER WHEN BREACHED
M
HF
2021.00
ELEVATION OF TOP OF DAM
M
HD
2021.00
ELEVATION OF UNCONTROLLED SPILLWAY CREST
M
HSP
1985.00
ELEVATION OF CENTER OF GATE OPENINGS
M
HGT
.00
DISCHARGE COEF. FOR UNCONTROLLED SPILLWAY
CS
.00
DISCHARGE COEF. FOR GATE FLOW
CG
.00
DISCHARGE COEF. FOR UNCONTROLLED WEIR FLOW
CDO
341.16
QT
69.15
DISCHARGE THRU TURBINES
QSPILL(K,1)
CMS
***********
382.
1509.
2971.
4385.
5749.
7383.
8631.
9825.
CMS
HEAD(K,1)
M
*********
.5
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.5
12.5
14.5
DHF(INTERVAL BETWEEN INPUT HYDROGRAPH ORDINATES) =
1.00
TEH(TIME AT WHICH COMPUTATIONS TERMINATE)=
HRS.
BREX(BREACH EXPONENT) =
MUD(MUD FLOW OPTION) =
14.0000
HRS.
.000
0
IWF(TYPE OF WAVE FRONT TRACKING) =
KPRES(WETTED PERIMETER OPTION) =
KSL(LANDSLIDE PARAMETER) =
0
0
0
DFR(WINDOW FOR CRITICAL FROUDE NO. IN MIX FLOW ALGORITHM)=
.050
INFLOW HYDROGRAPH TO
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
*******************************************
7419.00
1082.00
6111.00
792.00
4784.00
527.00
3675.00
311.00
iii 2619.00
1935.00
1436.00
216.00
166.00
145.00
TIME OF INFLOW HYDROGRAPH ORDINATES
.0000
7.0000
8.0000
1.0000
9.0000
2.0000
10.0000
3.0000
11.0000
CROSS-SECTIONAL PARAMETERS FOR
4.0000
12.0000
5.0000
13.0000
RAVI RIVER
BELOW
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
PARAMETER
*************************************************
VARIABLE
******
VALUE
*******
NUMBER OF CROSS-SECTIONS
NS
18
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF TOP WIDTHS
NCS
6
TYPE OF OUTPUT OTHER THAN HYDROGRAPH PLOTS
JNK
1
CROSS-SECTIONAL SMOOTHING PARAMETER
KSA
0
DOWNSTREAM SUPERCRITICAL OR NOT
KSUPC
1
NO. OF LATERAL INFLOW HYDROGRAPHS
LQ
0
NO. OF POINTS IN GATE CONTROL CURVE
KCG
0
CROSS-SECTIONAL VARIABLES FOR
BELOW
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
PARAMETER
******************************************
LOCATION OF CROSS-SECTION
ELEVATION(MSL) OF FLOODING
ELEV CORRESPONDING TO EACH
TOP WIDTH CORRESPONDING TO
(ACTIVE FLOW PORTION)
TOP WIDTH CORRESPONDING TO
(OFF-CHANNEL PORTION)
NUMBER OF CROSS-SECTION
NUMBER OF ELEVATION LEVEL
RAVI RIVER
UNITS VARIABLE
******* ******
AT CROSS-SECTION
TOP WIDTH
EACH ELEV
KM
M
M
M
XS(I)
FSTG(I)
HS(K,I)
BS(K,I)
EACH ELEV
M
BSS(K,I)
I
K
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 1
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
.000
1972.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1973.0
20.0
.0
1973.5
62.5
.0
iv 6.0000
.00
1978.0
82.0
.0
1990.0
110.0
.0
1993.0
120.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 2
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
2.100
1922.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1929.0
20.0
.0
1936.5
35.0
.0
.00
1942.0
45.5
.0
1952.0
75.0
.0
1961.5
90.0
.0
1938.0
83.0
.0
1942.0
95.0
.0
1915.0
108.0
.0
1922.0
125.0
.0
1876.0
129.0
.0
1896.0
175.0
.0
1840.0
120.0
.0
1850.0
153.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 3
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
3.300
1910.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1914.0
23.0
.0
1920.0
39.0
.0
.00
1925.0
56.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 4
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
4.700
1887.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1890.0
20.0
.0
1895.0
65.0
.0
.00
1905.0
84.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 5
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
6.500
1852.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1856.5
27.0
.0
1860.5
35.0
.0
.00
1869.5
84.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 6
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
8.500
1817.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1824.0
30.0
.0
1830.0
91.0
.0
.00
1835.0
105.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 7
*************************
XS(I) =
10.700
FSTG(I) =
v .00
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
1800.0
.0
.0
1806.0
110.0
.0
1810.0
251.0
.0
1816.0
276.0
.0
1825.0
300.0
.0
1833.0
325.0
.0
1775.0
155.0
.0
1781.0
172.0
.0
1750.0
172.0
.0
1755.0
185.0
.0
1731.0
217.6
.0
1748.0
260.0
.0
1712.0
208.0
.0
1732.0
250.0
.0
1663.5
135.0
1665.0
140.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 8
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
11.900
1755.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1760.0
16.0
.0
1765.0
58.0
.0
.00
1771.5
81.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 9
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
12.900
1725.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1735.0
23.0
.0
1740.0
85.0
.0
.00
1745.5
145.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 10
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
13.900
1705.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1712.0
32.5
.0
1716.5
50.0
.0
.00
1727.5
85.5
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 11
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
15.800
1670.0
.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1673.5
36.5
.0
1682.0
102.0
.0
.00
1697.5
170.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 12
*************************
XS(I) =
HS
BS
...
...
16.800
1651.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1654.0
32.0
1659.0
101.0
vi .00
1662.0
125.0
BSS ...
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1720.0
280.0
.0
1760.0
340.0
.0
1800.0
425.0
.0
1900.0
650.0
.0
2000.0
900.0
.0
1760.0
600.0
.0
1800.0
780.0
.0
1720.0
600.0
.0
1800.0
760.0
.0
1424.0
135.0
.0
1439.0
190.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 13
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
17.500
1621.0
100.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1660.0
150.0
.0
1680.0
200.0
.0
.00
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 14
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
20.000
1580.0
100.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1650.0
140.0
.0
1760.0
150.0
.0
.00
1800.0
360.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 15
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
22.500
1540.0
100.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1570.0
160.0
.0
1600.0
200.0
.0
.00
1680.0
500.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 16
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
25.000
1500.0
100.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1550.0
220.0
.0
1600.0
320.0
.0
.00
1650.0
450.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 17
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
33.250
1384.0
20.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1388.0
30.0
.0
1405.0
65.0
.0
vii .00
1418.0
100.0
.0
CROSS-SECTION NUMBER 18
*************************
XS(I) =
HS ...
BS ...
BSS ...
35.000
1360.0
100.0
.0
FSTG(I) =
1400.0
150.0
.0
1440.0
220.0
.0
.00
1480.0
300.0
.0
1560.0
415.0
.0
1600.0
670.0
.0
MANNING N ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENTS FOR THE GIVEN REACHES
(CM(K,I),K=1,NCS) WHERE I = REACH NUMBER
********************************************************
REACH
1 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
2 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
3 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
4 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
5 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
6 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
7 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
8 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH
9 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 10 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 11 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 12 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 13 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 14 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 15 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 16 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
REACH 17 ...
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
CROSS-SECTIONAL VARIABLES FOR
BELOW
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
PARAMETER
******************************************
MINIMUM COMPUTATIONAL DISTANCE USED
BETWEEN CROSS-SECTIONS
CONTRACTION - EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS
BETWEEN CROSS-SECTIONS
viii RAVI RIVER
UNITS VARIABLE
******* ******
KM
DXM(I)
FKC(I)
REACH NUMBER
**************
DXM(I)
********
FKC(I)
********
1
.250
.000
2
.250
.000
3
.250
.000
4
.250
.000
5
.250
.000
6
.250
.000
7
.250
.000
8
.250
.000
9
.250
.000
10
.250
.000
11
.250
.000
12
.250
.000
13
.250
.000
14
.250
.000
15
.250
.000
16
.250
.000
17
.250
.000
DOWNSTREAM FLOW PARAMETERS FOR
BELOW
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
PARAMETER
******************************************
UNITS
*******
VARIABLE
VALUE
****** *************
MAX DISCHARGE AT DOWNSTREAM EXTREMITY
CMS
QMAXD
MAX LATERAL OUTFLOW PRODUCING LOSSES
CMS /M
QLL
.000
INITIAL SIZE OF TIME STEP
HOUR
DTHM
.0000
DOWNSTREAM BOUNDARY PARAMETER
M
YDN
SLOPE OF CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM OF DAM
%
SOM
THETA WEIGHTING FACTOR
THETA
CONVERGENCE CRITERION FOR STAGE
M
EPSY
TIME AT WHICH DAM STARTS TO FAIL
HOUR
TFI
ix RAVI RIVER
.0
.000000
2.50
.00
.000000
.00
COMPUTATIONS WILL USE THE FOLLOWING DXM VALUES
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
.250
TOTAL NUMBER OF CROSS SECTIONS
(MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE =
200
(ORIGINAL+INTERPOLATED)
(N)
.250
=
136
********************************
********************************
***
***
*** SUMMARY OF OUTPUT DATA ***
***
***
********************************
********************************
BOTTOM
CROSS-SECTION
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
KM
.00
2.10
3.30
4.70
6.50
8.50
10.70
11.90
12.90
13.90
15.80
16.80
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
33.25
35.00
REACH
ELEVATION
M
1972.00
1922.00
1910.00
1887.00
1852.00
1817.00
1800.00
1755.00
1725.00
1705.00
1670.00
1651.00
1621.00
1580.00
1540.00
1500.00
1384.00
1360.00
REACH NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
LENGTH
KM
2.10
1.20
1.40
1.80
2.00
2.20
1.20
1.00
1.00
1.90
1.00
.70
2.50
2.50
2.50
8.25
1.75
SLOPE
%
2.38
1.00
1.64
1.94
1.75
.77
3.75
3.00
2.00
1.84
1.90
4.29
1.64
1.60
1.60
1.41
1.37
DEFINITION OF VARIABLES IN RESERVOIR DEPLETION TABLE
PARAMETER
******************************************
UNITS VARIABLE
******* ******
TIME STEP FROM START OF ANALYSIS
I
ITERATIONS NECESSARY TO SOLVE FLOW EQUATIONS
K
ELAPSED TIME FROM START OF ANALYSIS
HOUR
TTP(I)
TOTAL OUTFLOW FROM DAM
CMS
Q(I)
ELEVATION OF WATER SURFACE AT DAM
M
H2
x ELEVATION OF BOTTOM OF BREACH
M
YB
EST DEPTH OF FLOW IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM
M
D
SUBMERGENCE COEFFICIENT
SUB
VELOCITY CORRECTION
VCOR
TOTAL
VOLUME
DISCHARGED
FROM
TIME
OF
BREACH
MILLION
CU
M
BB
M
OUTVOL
BREACH WIDTH
RECTANGULAR BREACH DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT
INFLOW TO RESERVOIR
CMS
BREACH OUTFLOW
CMS
SPILLWAY OUTFLOW
CMS
xi COFR
QI(I)
QBRECH
QSPIL
RESERVOIR DEPLETION TABLE
I
***
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
K TTP(I)
** ******
0
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
.000
.005
.010
.015
.020
.025
.030
.035
.040
.045
.050
.055
.060
.065
.070
.075
.080
.085
.090
.095
.100
.105
.110
.115
.120
.125
.130
.135
.140
.145
.150
.155
.160
.165
.170
.175
.180
.185
Q(I)
********
H2
*******
YB
*******
D
*******
SUB
****
VCOR
****
OUTVOL
*********
22728
21155
20009
18954
17985
17094
16275
15524
14834
14201
13617
13073
12562
12081
11630
11211
10822
10464
10135
9833
9557
9306
9078
8871
8685
8512
8360
8224
8127
8053
7987
7925
7877
7840
7813
7795
7784
7776
2021.00
2018.37
2016.45
2014.68
2013.05
2011.56
2010.19
2008.93
2007.78
2006.71
2005.74
2004.83
2003.97
2003.17
2002.42
2001.73
2001.09
2000.50
1999.95
1999.46
1999.01
1998.59
1998.22
1997.88
1997.58
1997.31
1997.07
1996.85
1996.65
1996.47
1996.30
1996.15
1996.00
1995.86
1995.72
1995.58
1995.45
1995.32
2021.00
2020.10
2019.20
2018.30
2017.40
2016.50
2015.60
2014.70
2013.80
2012.90
2012.00
2011.10
2010.20
2009.30
2008.40
2007.50
2006.60
2005.70
2004.80
2003.90
2003.00
2002.10
2001.20
2000.30
1999.40
1998.50
1997.60
1996.70
1995.80
1994.90
1994.00
1993.10
1992.20
1991.30
1990.40
1989.50
1988.60
1987.70
1988.35
1987.74
1987.30
1986.88
1986.48
1986.11
1985.76
1985.43
1985.12
1984.83
1984.55
1984.30
1984.05
1983.81
1983.59
1983.37
1983.17
1982.98
1982.81
1982.64
1982.49
1982.35
1982.22
1982.11
1982.00
1981.90
1981.81
1981.73
1981.67
1981.63
1981.59
1981.55
1981.52
1981.50
1981.48
1981.47
1981.47
1981.46
1.00 1.00
1.00
.37
1.00
.59
1.00
.68
1.00
.73
1.00
.76
1.00
.78
1.00
.79
1.00
.79
1.00
.80
1.00
.80
1.00
.80
1.00
.80
1.00
.79
1.00
.79
1.00
.78
1.00
.77
1.00
.76
1.00
.74
1.00
.72
1.00
.69
1.00
.65
1.00
.59
1.00
.50
1.00
.34
1.00
.00
1.00 -1.22
1.00 2.00
1.00 2.00
1.00 1.75
1.00 1.52
1.00 1.39
1.00 1.32
1.00 1.27
1.00 1.23
1.00 1.20
1.00 1.18
1.00 1.17
.0
.4
.8
1.1
1.4
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.6
2.9
3.1
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.7
5.8
6.0
6.1
6.3
6.4
6.6
6.7
6.9
7.0
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.6
7.7
xii BB COFR
**** ****
QI(I)
*****
QBRECH
******
QSPIL
*****
.0
.3
.7
1.0
1.3
1.6
2.0
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.3
3.6
3.9
4.2
4.6
4.9
5.2
5.5
5.9
6.2
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.5
7.8
8.2
8.5
8.8
9.1
9.5
9.8
10.1
10.4
10.8
11.1
11.4
11.7
12.1
7419.
7412.
7406.
7399.
7393.
7386.
7380.
7373.
7367.
7360.
7354.
7347.
7341.
7334.
7327.
7321.
7314.
7308.
7301.
7295.
7288.
7282.
7275.
7269.
7262.
7256.
7249.
7242.
7236.
7229.
7223.
7216.
7210.
7203.
7197.
7190.
7184.
7177.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
-1.
25.
64.
103.
139.
184.
236.
295.
361.
434.
514.
22728.
21156.
20009.
18955.
17985.
17094.
16276.
15524.
14834.
14201.
13618.
13074.
12563.
12082.
11631.
11211.
10823.
10465.
10135.
9834.
9558.
9307.
9079.
8872.
8685.
8512.
8361.
8225.
8103.
7990.
7885.
7786.
7693.
7605.
7519.
7435.
7350.
7263.
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
.190
.195
.200
.205
.210
.215
.220
.225
.230
.235
.240
.245
.250
.255
.260
.265
.270
.275
.280
.285
.290
.295
.300
.305
.310
.315
.320
.325
.330
.335
.340
.345
.350
.355
.360
.365
.370
.375
.380
.385
.390
.395
.400
7775
7779
7788
7800
7816
7834
7854
7876
7899
7923
7948
7974
8000
7824
7678
7559
7462
7382
7317
7263
7219
7182
7152
7126
7104
7085
7068
7054
7041
7030
7019
7009
7000
6992
6983
6975
6968
6960
6953
6946
6939
6932
6926
1995.18
1995.04
1994.90
1994.75
1994.60
1994.44
1994.28
1994.10
1993.92
1993.73
1993.53
1993.32
1993.10
1992.90
1992.73
1992.60
1992.48
1992.39
1992.32
1992.26
1992.21
1992.17
1992.13
1992.10
1992.08
1992.05
1992.04
1992.02
1992.00
1991.99
1991.98
1991.97
1991.96
1991.95
1991.94
1991.93
1991.92
1991.91
1991.90
1991.90
1991.89
1991.88
1991.87
1986.80
1985.90
1985.00
1984.10
1983.20
1982.30
1981.40
1980.50
1979.60
1978.70
1977.80
1976.90
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1981.46
1981.47
1981.47
1981.48
1981.49
1981.50
1981.51
1981.52
1981.54
1981.55
1981.57
1981.58
1981.60
1981.49
1981.40
1981.33
1981.27
1981.22
1981.18
1981.15
1981.12
1981.10
1981.08
1981.06
1981.05
1981.04
1981.02
1981.01
1981.01
1981.00
1980.99
1980.99
1980.98
1980.98
1980.97
1980.97
1980.96
1980.96
1980.95
1980.95
1980.94
1980.94
1980.93
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.15
1.14
1.14
1.13
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.11
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
xiii 7.9
8.0
8.1
8.3
8.4
8.6
8.7
8.8
9.0
9.1
9.3
9.4
9.6
9.7
9.8
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.8
10.9
11.0
11.1
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.7
11.8
11.9
12.0
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.7
12.8
12.9
13.0
13.2
13.3
13.4
12.4
12.7
13.0
13.4
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.7
15.0
15.3
15.6
16.0
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
7170.
7164.
7157.
7151.
7144.
7138.
7131.
7125.
7118.
7112.
7105.
7099.
7092.
7085.
7079.
7072.
7066.
7059.
7053.
7046.
7040.
7033.
7027.
7020.
7014.
7007.
7000.
6994.
6987.
6981.
6974.
6968.
6961.
6955.
6948.
6942.
6935.
6929.
6922.
6915.
6909.
6902.
6896.
601.
695.
796.
905.
1020.
1142.
1271.
1406.
1549.
1698.
1854.
2016.
2185.
2145.
2113.
2086.
2065.
2047.
2032.
2020.
2011.
2003.
1996.
1990.
1985.
1981.
1977.
1974.
1971.
1969.
1966.
1964.
1962.
1960.
1959.
1957.
1955.
1954.
1952.
1950.
1949.
1947.
1946.
7175.
7085.
6992.
6896.
6797.
6693.
6584.
6470.
6351.
6226.
6095.
5958.
5815.
5679.
5566.
5473.
5398.
5336.
5285.
5243.
5209.
5180.
5157.
5136.
5119.
5104.
5092.
5080.
5070.
5061.
5053.
5045.
5038.
5032.
5025.
5019.
5013.
5007.
5002.
4996.
4991.
4985.
4980.
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
.405
.410
.415
.420
.425
.430
.435
.440
.445
.450
.455
.460
.465
.470
.475
.480
.485
.490
.495
.500
.505
.510
.517
.523
.531
.539
.547
.557
.568
.580
.593
.607
.623
.640
.659
.680
.703
.728
.756
.786
.820
.857
.898
6919
6912
6905
6899
6892
6885
6879
6872
6866
6859
6853
6846
6839
6833
6826
6820
6813
6807
6800
6794
6787
6780
6772
6763
6754
6743
6731
6719
6705
6689
6672
6654
6633
6610
6586
6558
6528
6495
6459
6419
6375
6326
6273
1991.86
1991.86
1991.85
1991.84
1991.83
1991.83
1991.82
1991.81
1991.80
1991.80
1991.79
1991.78
1991.77
1991.77
1991.76
1991.75
1991.74
1991.74
1991.73
1991.72
1991.71
1991.71
1991.70
1991.69
1991.68
1991.66
1991.65
1991.64
1991.62
1991.60
1991.58
1991.56
1991.54
1991.51
1991.48
1991.45
1991.42
1991.38
1991.34
1991.29
1991.24
1991.18
1991.12
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1980.93
1980.93
1980.92
1980.92
1980.91
1980.91
1980.90
1980.90
1980.90
1980.89
1980.89
1980.88
1980.88
1980.88
1980.87
1980.87
1980.86
1980.86
1980.85
1980.85
1980.85
1980.84
1980.84
1980.83
1980.82
1980.82
1980.81
1980.80
1980.79
1980.78
1980.77
1980.76
1980.75
1980.73
1980.72
1980.70
1980.68
1980.66
1980.63
1980.61
1980.58
1980.55
1980.51
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
xiv 13.5
13.7
13.8
13.9
14.0
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.7
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.1
16.3
16.5
16.6
16.8
17.0
17.3
17.5
17.8
18.1
18.5
18.8
19.3
19.7
20.2
20.7
21.3
22.0
22.7
23.5
24.3
25.2
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
6889.
6883.
6876.
6870.
6863.
6857.
6850.
6843.
6837.
6830.
6824.
6817.
6811.
6804.
6798.
6791.
6785.
6778.
6772.
6765.
6758.
6751.
6743.
6735.
6725.
6715.
6703.
6690.
6676.
6661.
6644.
6625.
6605.
6582.
6557.
6530.
6500.
6467.
6430.
6390.
6346.
6298.
6245.
1944.
1943.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1937.
1936.
1934.
1933.
1931.
1930.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1924.
1923.
1921.
1920.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1914.
1912.
1910.
1908.
1906.
1903.
1901.
1898.
1894.
1891.
1886.
1882.
1877.
1872.
1866.
1859.
1852.
1844.
1836.
1826.
1816.
1804.
4975.
4970.
4964.
4959.
4954.
4949.
4944.
4939.
4933.
4928.
4923.
4918.
4913.
4908.
4903.
4898.
4892.
4887.
4882.
4877.
4872.
4866.
4860.
4853.
4846.
4838.
4829.
4819.
4808.
4795.
4782.
4768.
4751.
4734.
4714.
4693.
4669.
4643.
4615.
4584.
4549.
4511.
4469.
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.942
.992
1.046
1.105
1.171
1.243
1.322
1.410
1.506
1.611
1.727
1.855
1.996
2.150
2.320
2.507
2.713
2.939
3.188
3.462
3.763
4.095
4.459
4.860
5.301
5.786
6.320
6.907
8.20
8.91
9.69
10.55
11.49
12.53
13.68
14.94
6214
6149
6077
5998
5911
5815
5710
5594
5467
5326
5172
5003
4816
4637
4452
4241
4015
3762
3495
3206
2888
2569
2313
2045
1790
1553
1326
2555
2299
2069
1862
1676
1508
1358
1222
1100
1991.06
1990.98
1990.90
1990.81
1990.72
1990.61
1990.49
1990.36
1990.22
1990.06
1989.89
1989.70
1989.48
1989.28
1989.07
1988.84
1988.59
1988.31
1988.02
1987.70
1987.34
1986.99
1986.71
1986.41
1986.13
1985.87
1985.62
1987.01
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1976.00
1980.47
1980.43
1980.38
1980.33
1980.27
1980.20
1980.13
1980.05
1979.96
1979.86
1979.75
1979.62
1979.49
1979.35
1979.21
1979.05
1978.87
1978.66
1978.43
1978.18
1977.89
1977.57
1977.30
1977.01
1976.71
1976.42
1976.12
1975.70
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.07
1.07
1.06
1.06
1.05
1.05
1.04
1.04
1.03
1.02
1.02
1.05
xv 26.2
27.3
28.5
29.8
31.2
32.8
34.4
36.2
38.1
40.1
42.3
44.7
47.2
49.8
52.6
55.5
58.6
61.7
65.0
68.3
71.6
74.8
78.0
81.2
84.2
87.2
89.9
94.0
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
16.3
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
6186.
6122.
6050.
5971.
5884.
5788.
5683.
5567.
5440.
5300.
5146.
4976.
4790.
4617.
4429.
4221.
3993.
3742.
3476.
3187.
2869.
2554.
2305.
2031.
1785.
1543.
1323.
1115.
1791.
1778.
1763.
1746.
1728.
1708.
1686.
1662.
1635.
1607.
1575.
1540.
1502.
1466.
1428.
1387.
1343.
1294.
1243.
1189.
1129.
1071.
1024.
976.
932.
891.
853.
1039.
4423.
4372.
4315.
4253.
4184.
4108.
4025.
3933.
3832.
3720.
3598.
3463.
3314.
3171.
3024.
2855.
2672.
2468.
2252.
2018.
1759.
1499.
1290.
1069.
858.
663.
473.
1516.
PARAMETER
*******************************************
UNITS VARIABLE
VALUE
******* ****** ***********
INITIAL FLOW
CMS
Q(1)
22728.
MAX FLOW
CMS
QM
22728.
FINAL FLOW
CMS
Q(NU)
TIME TO MAX FLOW
HRS
TP
.00
NNU
160
DISVOL
94.
NUMBER OF TIME STEPS
TOTAL VOLUME DISCHARGED FROM RESERVOIR
MILLION CU M
1100.
TIME PARAMETERS OF OUTFLOW HYDROGRAPH IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF DAM
PARAMETER
UNITS
******************************************* *******
TIME TO FAILURE
HR
TFH
.250
TIME TO START OF RISING LIMB OF HYDROGRAPH
HR
TFO
.000
TIME TO PEAK
HR
TP
.000
TIME STEP SIZE
HR
DTHI
.013
ROUTING COMPLETED.
xvi VARIABLE
VALUE
****** ***********
PROFILE OF CRESTS AND TIMES FOR
BELOW
BAJOLI HOLI DAM
0
1989.74
0.262
1985.19
0.1
15.6
0.525
1981.23
0.1
15.24
0.787
1977
0.1
15.24
1.05
1972.71
0.1
15.37
1.312
1968.44
0.11
15.53
1.575
1964.24
0.11
15.69
1.837
1960.12
0.11
15.85
2.1
1956.09
0.11
16
2.399
1951.57
0.11
16.11
2.699
1947.25
0.11
16.05
2.999
1942.97
0.11
15.97
3.299
1938.68
0.12
15.9
3.579
1931.43
0.12
17.33
3.859
1925.5
0.12
17.53
4.139
1919.88
0.12
17.43
4.419
1914.38
0.12
17.23
4.699
1908.93
0.12
17.01
4.956
1904.74
0.12
16.45
5.213
1900.31
0.13
16.09
5.47
1895.78
0.13
15.8
5.727
1891.18
0.13
15.52
5.984
1886.53
0.13
15.23
6.242
1881.83
0.13
14.93
6.499
1877.04
0.13
14.68
6.749
1872.56
0.13
14.44
6.998
1867.92
0.13
14.43
7.248
1863.25
0.13
14.46
7.498
1858.6
0.13
14.51
7.748
1853.97
0.13
14.55
7.998
1849.37
0.13
14.59
8.248
1844.79
0.13
14.63
8.498
1840.24
0.13
14.67
8.773
1835.78
0.14
14.27
9.048
1832.43
0.14
13.16
9.323
1829.44
0.14
12.09
in
xvii to
Max
velocity
m/s
Time
maximum
elevation
hr
0.1
Distance
from Dam
km
Maximum
Elevation in m
RAVI RIVER
in
16.1
in
9.598
1826.55
0.14
11.22
9.873
1823.71
0.14
10.54
10.148
1820.92
0.14
9.99
10.423
1818.17
0.15
9.56
10.698
1815.46
0.163
9.27
10.998
1801.8
0
15.2
11.298
1793.25
0.125
14.16
11.597
1785.28
0.15
14.36
11.897
1778.28
0.163
14.17
12.147
1770.47
0.175
14.98
12.397
1763.21
0.188
15
12.647
1756
0.175
14.97
12.897
1748.79
0.188
14.97
13.147
1745.17
0.2
13.24
13.397
1741.12
0.213
12.43
13.647
1736.94
0.238
11.97
13.897
1732.82
0.175
11.58
14.168
1727.94
0.238
11.65
14.44
1720.92
0.25
13.47
14.711
1712.99
0.238
15.43
14.982
1706.54
0.25
15.85
15.254
1700.66
0.263
15.69
15.525
1694.95
0.275
15.4
15.797
1689.3
0.238
15.1
16.047
1684.27
0.25
14.78
16.296
1679.08
0.263
14.59
16.546
1673.74
0.3
14.47
16.796
1668.16
0.312
14.47
17.146
1655.01
0.325
17.54
17.496
1630.43
0.263
22.86
17.746
1628.65
0.275
18.22
17.996
1626.23
0.337
15.89
18.246
1623.04
0.35
14.91
18.496
1619.24
0.362
14.66
18.746
1615.21
0.287
14.65
18.996
1611.12
0.362
14.7
19.246
1607.03
0.462
14.75
19.496
1602.93
0.362
14.8
19.746
1598.84
0.462
14.84
19.996
1594.74
0.475
14.88
20.246
1590.67
0.337
14.89
20.496
1586.64
0.35
14.85
20.746
1582.6
0.362
14.8
xviii 20.995
1578.56
0.437
14.75
21.245
1574.51
0.375
14.68
21.495
1570.46
0.462
14.61
21.745
1566.4
0.375
14.54
21.995
1562.31
0.35
14.45
22.245
1558.21
0.437
14.34
22.495
1554.09
0.45
14.22
22.745
1550.29
0.462
13.94
22.995
1546.32
0.475
13.86
23.245
1542.32
0.387
13.82
23.495
1538.32
0.4
13.78
23.745
1534.32
0.412
13.75
23.995
1530.31
0.487
13.73
24.245
1526.31
0.537
13.71
24.495
1522.3
0.5
13.69
24.745
1518.3
0.512
13.67
24.995
1514.3
0.562
13.65
25.245
1511.85
0.512
12.82
25.494
1508.64
0.562
12.81
25.744
1505.34
0.512
12.87
25.994
1502.06
0.425
12.94
26.244
1498.78
0.575
13
26.494
1495.51
0.525
13.06
26.744
1492.26
0.575
13.13
26.994
1489.01
0.525
13.19
27.244
1485.77
0.537
13.25
27.494
1482.54
0.562
13.32
27.744
1479.33
0.55
13.38
27.994
1476.12
0.562
13.44
28.244
1472.93
0.575
13.5
28.494
1469.75
0.562
13.56
28.744
1466.59
0.575
13.62
28.994
1463.44
0.587
13.68
29.244
1460.3
0.6
13.74
29.494
1457.19
0.575
13.79
29.744
1454.09
0.587
13.85
29.993
1451
0.612
13.9
30.243
1447.93
0.6
13.96
30.493
1444.88
0.612
14.02
30.743
1441.86
0.625
14.08
30.993
1438.88
0.6
14.14
31.243
1435.94
0.625
14.2
31.493
1433.04
0.6
14.25
xix 31.743
1430.2
0.675
14.29
31.993
1427.4
0.637
14.32
32.243
1424.66
0.662
14.34
32.493
1421.97
0.625
14.35
32.743
1419.33
0.65
14.33
32.993
1416.64
0.637
14.34
33.243
1413.92
0.612
14.34
33.493
1404.82
0.687
17.64
33.743
1397.99
0.7
18.62
33.993
1391.8
0.65
18.89
34.243
1386.41
0.662
18.53
34.493
1381.7
0.562
17.75
34.742
1377.38
0.575
16.81
34.992
1373.28
0.587
15.9
xx ANNEXURE – III QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF AFFECTED VILLAGES
DUE TO PROJECT RELATED ACTIVITIES OF PROPOSED
BAJOLI HOLI H.E. PROJECT
1.
Village Name
a) District:____________________
b)
Development Block:____________
b) Tehsil: ______________________ d)
Panchayat: __________________
2.
Area (ha) ____________________________
3.
Number of households_________________________________
4.
Population Profile:
Total population:
__________________________________
a) Male
___________________________________
b) Female
___________________________________
c) Scheduled Castes__________________________________
d) Scheduled Tribes _________________________________
e) BPL families
f)
Religion( Tick
a)
b)
c)
d)
___________________________________
it)
Hindu
Muslim
Christian
Others
5.
Language spoken____________________________________
6.
Workers:
a) Main workers_____________________________________
b) Farmers
___________________________________
c) Marginal workers _________________________________
d) Others
_____________________________________
7.
Total Cultivable area (ha)
8.
Net Sown area (ha)
9.
Net Irrigated area (ha) __________________________________
10. Cropping Patter:
______________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
Principal crops:
i)
Cereals
ii) Pulses
a) Wheat
a) Rajmah
b) Maize
b) Others
c) Rice
d) Others
11. Horticulture:
Area (ha) under principal crops and annual production______________
12. Medical Facilities:
Sl No Medical Facilities:
1 Allopathic institutions
a Hospitals
b Community Health Centres
c Primary Health Centres
d Dispensary
e Health Sub-centre
2 Ayurvedic Institutions:
a Hospitals
b Dispensary
Number
No of
Beds
No. of
Doctors
13. Health & Hygiene:
a) Prevalent Diseases_________________________________
Other
b) Endemic Diseases __________________________________
c) Epidemic Diseases__________________________________
14. Educational Facility:
Educational Institutions:
Number
Student
Strenght
No of
Teachers
Primary schools
Middle schools
High/Higher Secondary School
Colleges
15. Veterinary Facilities:
a) Hospitals_______________________________________
b) Dispensary______________________________________
c) Artificial Insemination Centres_______________________
16. Sewage & Sanitation Facilities, if any
17. Whether Electrified
Yes / No
–
Any electrical sub-station_____________________________
–
If not electrified, then the nearest electrified village__________
18. Roads
Length (km)
a) Unmetalled________________
____________________
b) Metalled__________________
____________________
c) Jeepable__________________
____________________
d) If not connected by any road, then the nearest road head (distance)
19. Post Office____________________
Yes / No _______________
If the answer is ‘No’, then the location and distance of nearest post office
20. Telegraph Office _________________________________________
21. Banks _________________________________________________
22. Police Post _____________________________________________
21. State Government Employees ______________________________
23. Central Govt. Employees __________________________________
24. Drinking water availability: _________________________________
a) Source:______________________________________________
b) Quality :______________________________________________
c) Quantity _____________________________________________
d) Any other specific drinking water problem:___________________
e) If the water is not fit for drinking, how do you purify it
____________________________________________________
(Filtering through cloth, boiling, alum treatment, disinfectant, decantation) etc.
f) Water borne diseases, if any________________________________
(Dysentary, Diarrhoea, Jaundice, Gastroenteritis, others, etc.)
25. Irrigation Facility:
Yes --------
No -------------
26. Fertilizers used and consumption________________________________
27. Livestock:
i) Sheep__________________________ ii) Goat______________________
iii) Cows__________________________ iv) OX________________________
v) Buffaloes_______________________ vi) Horses & Mules______________
28. Co-operative Societies & NGOs______________________________
29. Village Panchayat ________________________________________
30. Fair Price Shop___________________________________________
31. Tourist/Recreational Spot___________________________________
(Religious place, historical, monument, sanctuary, others, etc.)
32. a) Forest Range/Division___________________________________
b) Forest Check Post/s_____________________________________
c) Forests & Forest Produce
Reserve Forest_________________________________________
Protected Areas________________________________________
Revenue Forest________________________________________
Forest produce:________________________________________
Medicinal herbs________________________________________
33. Natural Water Sources: (Tick against the source used)
a) Springs
b) Brooks
34. Literacy Rate____________________________________________
35. Income Pattern:
a)
Farming______________________________________________
b)
Salaried:
Government_________________________ Private___________________
c) Businessman/Shops/Trading______________________________
36. Government Schemes (Both Central & State Govt.) like IRDP, etc.
37. Vocational Training Centres, if any_____________________________
38. Meteorological Data:
a) Rainfall
i) Average Annual__________________
ii) Daily (mm)______________
b) Temperature
Min. ……….oC
Mean: Max……. oC
Daily record, if available
c) Snowfall_______________
d) Hailstorms_____________
a) Intensity __________________b) Frequency
e) Flashfloods_____________
a) Historical__________________ b) Frequency
39. Fishery Resources:
Type of Fish______________________________________________
Licenced Fisherman, if any__________________________________
Fish catch_______________________________________________
40. Small Scale Industries: (Tick
a)
Medicinal herbs collection
b)
Handicrafts
c) Shawl making
d) Carpet weaving
e) Paper Machie
f)
Wooden carving
)
g) Apiary
h) Others
41. Mode of transport :
42. Vehicles:___________________________________________________
a) Bicycles_________________________________________________
b) Tractors_________________________________________________
c) Scooters/Bikes____________________________________________
43. Marketing Facilities:
Local Trading Centre__________________________________________
44. Non-conventional Energy Sources: _______________________________
45. Recreational facilities
( Library__________, Club,____________ TV,________ Cinema,_________
Etc______________
46. Wastewater
i) How do you dispose-off waste water____________________________
(Drainage, Sewer, Soak pit, No organised system, etc.)
ii) Any specific problem related to waterwater________________________
iii) Suggestions for improvement__________________________________
47. Sanitation and Health
No. of families : Latrine proper sanitation facilities
Soakpit ___________ Septic tank :______________ Any other :
(If No, where do you go for defecation Tick it).
Open space:
Field:
Road side:
Public latrine:
48. Solid waste disposal:
(Unused land road side community dustbin, composting, any other)
ANNEXURE – IV SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF AFFECTED FAMILIES
DUE TO PROJECT RELATED ACTIVITIES
Village
a)
District
b)
Development Block
b)
Tehsil
d)
Panchayat
1.
Head of the family
Father’s Name:
2.
Religion of the family:
Name of the caste:
3.
Caste of the family: (Tick
)
General
SC
4.
Total Number of Family Members
5.
Total Male Members:
ST
OBC
Total Female Members:
Total Children (0-6): Male Children:
Female Children:
6.
Number of earning members
Male
Female
7.
Number of non-earning
members
Male
Female
8.
Marital status of family members:
Married
Unmarried
Widow
9.
Occupation of family members:
Self
Wife
Daughter
Son
Father:
10.
Mother:
Occupation details:
Service: Government
Agriculture
Business
Any other
Non-government
Pensioner
11.
Educational qualifications of family members:
Primary
Middle
Higher Secondary
Senior Secondary
Graduate
Post-graduate
& above
12.
Homestead Land:
a) No. of house/houses owned:------------------------------- Area (Acres)
b) Location: At same village---------------------------At some other village/ place-------------------------a)
Owner
b) Tenant
13.
Whether living in village: (i) Permanently
14.
Whether the family is being displaced: Yes / No
15. Immovable Properties:
a)
Houses
b)
Shops
c)
Water-mills
d)
Cattle-Shed
e)
Wells
f)
Ponds
Total
(ii) Temporarily
No. acquired / affected
(iii) Not living
No. Left
16. Other Facilities:
a)
Type of House:
(i) Concrete
(ii) Stone
(iii) Kaccha
IV) Pucca-------------------v) Semi Parmanent-------------------------
b)
No. of Rooms:
c)
Separate Kitchen: Yes
No
d)
Toilet Facility: Yes
e)
Type of fuel used: Gas (LPG)
No
/ Kerosene
/ Wood
/others
17.
Amenities available with the family: T.V. / Telephone / Fridge / Vehicle
18.
Land holding & acquisition:
a) Total land of the owner
Location of land:
19.
Same village
(Area in acres/ha/any other)
Other village
(Area in acres/ha/any other)
b)
Land under cultivation
c)
Type of Land: Irrigated / Un-irrigated
d)
Land to be acquired (ha)
e)
Land left (ha)
f)
Type of land to be acquired (Acres/Ha) - Landuse
g)
Type of land left (Acres/Ha) - Landuse
h)
Estimated loss due to loss of agricultural land, if any
Cropping Pattern
20.
Agriculture/ cultivation
a) (i) Self tilled
(ii) by Labourers
b) Share cropping if any: ----------------------------
21.
No. of trees owned:
Names of trees owned
No. of trees likely to be affected
Estimated income from these, if any
22.
Livestock Population: Cow
Buffalo
Ox
Goat
Sheep
Horse
Mule
Others
23.
Income:
a)
Source/s: Agriculture
b)
Total Annual Income:
/Business
/ Salaried
24.
Income /expenditure Pattern
25.
Details of government grants, if availed
under Indian Rural Developmental Programme
(IRDP) or other such schemes
26.
Health Status:
/Casual wages / Other
-
No. of Disabled Person (if any): Physically /Mentally /Polio
-
Name of the major diseases by which family
members fell sick in last 3 years
-
Type of treatment, family generally avails:
(i) Allopathy
-
(ii) Homoeopathy
Where does family go for treatment:
(i)Household treatment
(iii) Ayurvedic
(iv) Unani
(v) Others
Name of Place:
(ii)Pvt.med. practitioner
(iii) Govt. hospital
-
Have any member got vaccinated in the last one year
(Cholera, Jaundice, any other)
-
Does family knows preventive measures of the above diseases
(Immunisation / water treatment / personal hygiene / do not know)
(iv)PHC
27.
28.
Willingness to Accept:
a)
Willing to accept the loss of land (homestead/agricultural)
Yes / No
b)
Is ready to accept the proper compensation offered
for the loss as per the State policy
Yes / No
c)
If answers to above questions are No, then give reasons
Would you welcome the project?
(If No, give reasons)
Yes / No
Surveyor’s Name:
Signature of the respondent
Date:
Annexure – V LIST OF PROJECT AFFECTED FAMILIES Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Present Head Name Chunni Lal Kishori Lal Jhadu or Chamanjit Late Machlu Ram Pratap Chandra Premchand Bhora Hardev Singh Jaimal Meghraj Ramesh Kumar Ravindra Kumar Roshan Lal Sardar Sidhu Smt Subhadra Devi w/o Arjun Hariya Bhodu Dhokru Ram Name of the Owner Father's Name Mohan
Mohan
Chand
Giga
Giga
Khajana
Mahajan
Bhagat
Chanja
Premchand
Jahaj
Premchand
Beliya
Walia
Walia
Parwal
Jawahar
Jawahar
Dakhira
Jawahar
Jawahar
Dakhira
Darbari
Lohkada
Sorma
Mahajan
Kaldiya
Bhairvi
Darbari
Nayu
Beliya
Gulada
Beliya
Dawana
Devia
Devia
i Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A 3886.60900 21852.81823 24106.68727 3621.56695 5462.69875 3621.56695 7243.13390 1673.20440 1673.20440 3560.87030 Land to be acquired (sq m) 576.618202
576.618202
566.502093
480.515168
576.618202
566.502093
121.393306
161.857741
1133.004186
70.8127616
2023.22176
70.8127616
143.6487450
66.7663181
68.7895398
62.7198746
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
3765.215695
21690.96049
22973.68308
3550.754189
3439.476992
3550.754189
7099.485156
1606.438077
1604.414856
3498.150423
1918.01423 3886.60900 8558.22804 966.0883904
121.3933056
161.8577408
951.9258381
3765.215695
8396.370304
Sl No Present Head Name Name of the Owner Father's Name Devia
Diyal
Bhairavi
Bhairavi
Diyal
Diyal
Sundar
Dhundhar
Dhundhar
Sundar
Nayu
Devia
Panja
Digti
Chanchal
Wonchu or Suriya Hadiya
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Doku/Donku Joga/jonga Pritho Sowmal Adalati Bradama Brahmanand Jagadish Chand Jagannath Jagdish Chand Jagdish Chand Jigari Jisaya Lada Late Sihar Madan Lal Walia
Devia
Sorma
Sorma
Rama
Devia
Tawiram
Molam
Molam
Tawiram
Hariya or Haro
Walia
Sudi
Pahadu
Digti
Bihari Lal
36 Manish Kumar 37 38 39 Mor Om Prakash Om Prakash Dharam Chandra Devia
Chand
Bihari Lal
40 Paras Ram Bihari Lal
Diyal
Sorma
Wonchu or Suriya Wonchu or Suriya ii Total Land Holding (sq m) 1673.20440 6688.77114 1918.01423 1918.01423 20025.84898 4977.12553 34390.72348 5517.32574 5517.32574 22611.52639 4268.99791 1671.18117 16802.85672 15119.53621 15971.31257 3682.26360 Land to be acquired (sq m) 66.7663181
1078.3771981
880.1014656
880.1014656
809.2887040
91.0449792
283.2510464
540.2002099
540.2002099
283.2510464
121.3933056
66.7663181
890.2175744
323.7154816
323.7154816
145.6719667
Land Left (sq m) 1606.438077
5610.39394
1037.912763
1037.912763
19216.56028
4886.08055
34107.47243
4977.12553
4977.12553
22328.27534
4147.604608
1604.414856
15912.63914
14795.82073
15647.59709
3536.591636
526.03766 10.1161088
515.9215488
4977.12553 1918.01423 3682.26360 91.0449792
880.1014656
145.6719667
4886.08055
1037.912763
3536.591636
3682.26360 145.6719667
3536.591636
Sl No Present Head Name 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Prakash Chand Pritam Chand Pyar Singh Rasila Ram Roda Saran Saran Das Sarvan Subash Chand Tek Chand Tita Wila Kaburo Devi 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Late Nant Ram Late Sant Ram Late Karmu Mahindra Singh Prithu Atma Atul Singh Bansi Lal Bhima Ram Doku Dulo Ram Name of the Owner Udami
Molam
Hariya or Haro
Wonchu
Dagela
Dagela
Beliya
Devia
Tawiram
Yano
Magta
Dagela
Late Dhani Ram Judhvir
Judhvir
Surjan
Hariya
Sorma
Vakhoji
Malapi
Deviya
Deviya
Salami
Jamba
Father's Name Rasalu
Dhundhar
Nayu
Dawana
Chanchal
Chanchal
Dawana
Diyal
Sundar
Lamber
Raju
Chanchal
Judhvir
Total Land Holding (sq m) 6150.59415 5517.32574 4268.99791 11087.25524 3991.81653 3991.81653 7243.13390 4977.12553 22611.52639 12058.40169 33326.50883 3991.81653 5337.25900 Land to be acquired (sq m) 8.0928870
538.1769882
121.3933056
54.6269875
337.8780339
497.7125530
143.6487450
89.0217574
283.2510464
2.0232218
283.2510464
337.8780339
309.5529293
6142.501263
4979.148751
4147.604608
11032.62826
3653.938499
3494.10398
7099.485156
4888.103772
22328.27534
12056.37847
33043.25778
3653.938499
5027.706074
Wasia
Wasia
Negi ram
Khaimati
Bhairvi
Lala
Mahajan
Sainhta
Sainhta
Gaiwar
Paras
5337.25900 5337.25900 N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A 309.5529293
309.5529293
30.3483264
107.9051605
85.9869248
20.2322176
75.8708160
182.0899584
182.0899584
184.3379826
89.9209671
5027.706074
5027.706074
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
iii Land Left (sq m) Sl No 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Present Head Name Jhadu Ram Kashmir Singh Mehar Chand Mohan Lal Onkar chand Panjaba Pritam Chand Pyar Chand Rumi Hosar Jsaso or Jaisi Ram Smt Kanto Devi Amarnath Om Prakash Ramesh Kumar Sarvan Kumar Sonmal Vila Smt Laholi Sarvan Kumar Padhi Sarvan Kumar Madan Lal Ajay Kumar Amarjit Singh Name of the Owner Deviya
Hirda Ram
Malapi
Deviya
Hirda Ram
Jawahari
Dhaniya
Dhaniya
Sant
Digati
Prabhu
Pachra Ram
Jura
Chand
Dhaniya
Gaurav
Sorma
Vakhoji
Madho Ram
Makholi
Mahajan
Dhaniya
Bhana
Parma
Murli
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Sainhta
Jamba
Mahajan
Sainhta
Jamba
Tichu
Gorakh
Gorakh
Ranjha
Ranjha
Salli
Pandav
Bangali
Sorma
Gorakh
Bhairvi
Bhairvi
Lala
Ramsharan
Lala
Alka
Gorakh
Bangali
Lala
iv Land to be acquired (sq m) 182.0899584
44.9604836
75.870816
182.0899584
44.9604836
24.2786611
121.3933056
121.3933056
276.5069739
276.5069739
10.1161088
80.9288704
151.741632
85.9869248
121.3933056
343.9476992
85.9869248
20.2322176
60.6966528
40.4644352
151.7416320
121.3933056
60.6966528
24.27866112
40.4644352
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Present Head Name Bahadur Singh Chaman Lal Dalipa Deshraj Dhogaru Ganu Ram Godam Goverdhan Singh Himmat Jaikaran Jigari Ram Jogindra Madho Ram Pawan Kumar Prakam Chand Prito Rupanu Saran Thakur Singh Vikram Chand Vikram Chand Rafi Ram Thanu Pappu‐‐‐ Late Baisi Chamaru Ram Name of the Owner Father's Name Jagdish Chand
Hariya
Prabhu
Roshan
Khaimati
Jamba
Jawahari
Prabhu
Salami
Surjan
Hariya
Mahajan
Mahajan
Bhana
Dhaniya
Pandav
Salami
Jawahari
Roshan
Bhana
Jawahari
Sangat
Hirdu
Buta
Bihar
Bhumi
Khaimati
Salli
Surjan
Negi
Paras
Tichu
Salli
Gaiwar
Negi ram
Khaimati
Alka
Alka
Bangali
Gorakh
Khajana
Gaiwar
Tichu
Surjan
Bangali
Tichu
Parwal
Bishamber
Ludiya
Sihar
Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A v Land to be acquired (sq m) 101.161088
107.9051605
20.2322176
15.1741632
323.7154816
89.92096711
24.27866112
20.2322176
184.3379826
30.3483264
107.9051605
151.741632
151.741632
60.6966528
121.3933056
80.9288704
184.3379826
24.27866112
15.1741632
60.6966528
24.27866112
30.3483264
301.1228386
14.4997559
222.5543936
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 Present Head Name Madan Padi Ram Phaliya Pouju Todi Bhoju Ram Milapi Jaisi Angat Bhutu Dagdhi Dhut Khamir Chand Khampu Kunju Late Premu Hukami Sanjog Baldev Bind Chaina Chand Dalti Deep Raj Dhindh Name of the Owner Sangat
Bihar
Maihatu
Hujati
Dhaniya
Bishamber
Hujati
Dhaniya
Suriya
Suwa
Suriya
Suwa
Kheju
Suwa
Suriya
Suwa
Kharku
Bhagat
Bhadar
Maihatu
Bhagat
Tita
Suwa
Gudar
Maihatu
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Parwal
Sagar
Bakshi
Kharku
bhudiya
Bard
Kharku
bhudiya
Bakshi
Bakshi
Bakshi
Bakshi
Bishamber
Bakshi
Bakshi
Bakshi
Chuhad
Parwal
Sheru
Bakshi
Parwal
Mangtu
Bakshi
Kalu
Bakshi
vi Land to be acquired (sq m) 11.75997648
579.3158306
30.3483264
26.3018829
67.4407253
11.7599765
227.7248492
64.0686891
4.0464435
22.92984661
14.49975595
26.30188288
134.8814507
579.3158306
134.3419249
47.03990592
53.95258027
579.3158306
45.18528597
17.53458859
26.30188288
20.2322176
26.30188288
17.53458859
11.75997648
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 Present Head Name Dhundhi Dido Duniya Karm Chand Lekhraj Maniya Narangu Rajendra Kumar Rajendra Kumar Surendra Kumar Bhapi Ram Pradip Kumar Raj Kumar Basakhi Ram Dunia Dulo Gyan Chand Himat Kishori Lal Mahlu Mangat Ram Mansa Bakshi Dilo Ram Diwana Jagranu Ram Jhonphi Ram Name of the Owner Maihatu
Sheru
Sheru
Bhadar
Gudar
Ludiya
Sheru
Julmi
Bhadar
Julmi
Sangat
Thoiya
Thoiya
Bashambhar
Kharku
Dayaram
Dayaram
Rawo
Bhimsen
Rawo
Lakha
Handu
Khalailu
Handu
Handu
Father's Name Bakshi
Paras
Paras
Sheru
Kalu
Shankar
Paras
Khedi
Sheru
Khedi
Parwal
Sariya
Sariya
Mutlavi Ram
Namalum
Bakshi
Bakshi
Johra
Shiva
Johra
Namalum
Khalailu
Kanshi
Khalailu
Khalailu
vii Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Land to be acquired (sq m) 26.30188288
17.53458859
16.18577408
192.2060672
26.30188288
78.90564864
25.79607744
280.890621
20.2322176
187.260414
134.8814507
53.95258027
78.90564864
80.9288704
40.4644352
263.0188288
263.0188288
20.2322176
971.1464448
20.2322176
40.4644352
577.2926089
4.04644352
855.8228045
141.6255232
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 Present Head Name Udami Ram Gyan Chand Omprakash Ajay Kumar Kehar Singh Manu Pritam Chand Rajendra Kumar Ranjit Kumar Sunil Kumar Thakur Singh Roban Ram Suresh Chand Bhikam Rakesh Kumar Amar Singh Dalip Kumar Devi Chand Jodh Singh Mahindra Singh Pratap Chand Ajay Kumar Kamlesh Adalati Naval Kishor Name of the Owner Sihnu Ram
Jumi
Dhaiya
Handu
Jumi
Gorkhu
Mahajan
Mahajan
Hari charan
Karm Chand
Hari charan
Dhaiya
Hujati
Punu
Hujati
Milkhi
Dembu
Milkhi
Dembu
Milkhi
Dembu
Duni Chand
Hujati
Bhagi
Hujati
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Hushnak
Sagar
Shambhu
Khalailu
Sagar
Sagar
Sagar
Sagar
Gorkhu
Jumi
Gorkhu
Shambhu
Bhagi
Bhagi
Bhagi
Farangi
Farangi
Farangi
Farangi
Farangi
Farangi
Dembu
Bhagi
Mussadi
Bhagi
viii Land to be acquired (sq m) 2306.472806
64.06868907
22.92984661
22.92984661
222.5543936
45.18528597
22.08683755
13.15094144
47.03990592
192.8804745
192.8804745
288.6463044
76.88242688
78.90564864
22.92984661
148.3695957
111.2771968
148.3695957
111.2771968
148.3695957
111.2771968
111.2771968
93.630207
22.92984661
288.6463044
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No Present Head Name 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 Goiya Ram Prakash Chand Jagtu Nanku Ram Surhada Dhanu Jsaso Late Pritho Mahendra Singh Mrigal Sofi Dilwar 202 203 204 Kashmir Singh Chatro Ram Tiku 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 Dharmu Harbansh Singh Jairi Ram Atma Ram Khajalati Khampu Prithu Roshan Name of the Owner Khajana
Chataro
Lakha
Dhanu
Dhannu
Dagela
Prabhu
Das
Prabhu
Surjan
Prabhu
Late Machlu Ram Dhannu
Buta
Late Chousi Ram Lavadi
Bajir
Abat
Latae Kalu
Lohkada
Vilkhi
Lohkada
Lavadi
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Land to be acquired (sq m) 119.3700838
13.15094144
11.75997648
17.53458859
22.92984661
134.3419249
10.1161088
536.1537664
20.2322176
30.3483264
20.2322176
25.79607744
Land Left (sq m) Lavdi
Mani
Farnu
N.A N.A N.A 33.72036267
548.293097
16.18577408
N.A
N.A
N.A
Lamba
Bishamber
Sajo
Hans
Joti
Gunau
Joti
Labha
N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A 404.644352
457.2481178
1299.919981
119.3700838
93.630207
182.0899584
280.890621
147.0207812
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Atra
Manohar
Joti
Dembhu
Panchi
Salli
Joga
Salli
Negi ram
Salli
Suwa
ix N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 Present Head Name Sohna Surjeet Kumar Smt Jugni Devi Vinod Kumar Vir Raj Chaman Lal Fandi Ram Hirdu Julfi Missu Swami Smt Krishna Devi Parma Deep Raj Desh Chand/raj Deshraj Deshraj Dhani Ram Gulaba Hirdu Jagta Jeevan kumar Jodha Kanchan Ram Madal Lal Name of the Owner Dhari
Jagdish
Late Vilkhi
Jagdish
Jagdish
Dhannu
Abat
Mangta
Lakha
Lavadi
Parwal
Late Himmat
Sukhiya
Khajana
Kheju
Dunia
Dhaiya
Suwa
Nathu
Mahant
Bhimsen
Khajana
Lohkada
Buta
Karm Chand
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Joti
Parwal
Dhari
Parwal
Parwal
Lavdi
Sajo
Bakhird
Joti
Lamba
Lama
Lakha
Fink
Lamba
Bishamber
Mangta
Shambhu
Lamba
Bhairvi
Dhundhar
Lamba
Atra
Joti
Shambhu
Lavadi
x Land to be acquired (sq m) 51.59215488
30.3483264
22.59264299
28.99951189
64.29349148
118.358473
404.644352
119.3700838
182.0899584
427.9114022
64.29349148
577.2926089
20.2322176
14.16255232
11.75997648
33.72036267
22.08683755
147.0207812
141.6255232
88.34735019
4.04644352
22.59264299
4.04644352
594.8271974
11.75997648
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No Present Head Name 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 Najan Nek Ram Pradhna Pritam Chand Prithu Ramesh Chand Ramesh Chand Sanjeev Kumar Smt Kalso Devi widow Akhro Smt Kalso widow Chinju Sukini Dilbar Singh Kripa Ram Mulkhi Niku Purv Singh Arjun Baihami Ram Dhaniram Godham Smt Brahn Jaikrishna Machlu Ram Naresh Kumar 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 Name of the Owner Suwa
Dunia
Mahant
Dunia
Sukhiya
Dunia
Chataro
Roshan
Bhimsen
Father's Name Bakshi
Mangta
Dhundhar
Mangta
Fink
Mangta
Manohar
Vilkhi
Dembhu
Parwal
Jalam
Rama
Mahant
Vilkhi
Dhannu
Mangta
Farnu
Rama
Lakha
Tek Chand
Dhanu
Bhima
Lama
Bishamber
Sahela
Dhundhar
Gunau
Panchi
Bakhird
Dhari
Sahela
Joti
Parwal
Dembhu
Bharwa
xi Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Land to be acquired (sq m) 53.95258027
22.92984661
427.9114022
17.53458859
182.0899584
134.8814507
22.08683755
403.0257746
265.0420506
Land Left (sq m) N.A 11.75997648
N.A
N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A 28.99951189
404.644352
17.53458859
67.44072533
22.08683755
30.3483264
26.30188288
88.34735019
11.75997648
64.06868907
119.3700838
14.16255232
404.644352
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
Sl No 261 262 263 264 Present Head Name Ratan Chand Rato Roshan Lal Shravan Kumar Name of the Owner Tek Chand
Lakha
Rama
Badri
Father's Name Total Land Holding (sq m) N.A N.A N.A N.A 403833.0401 Parwal
Bishamber
Sahela
Bakhird
xii Land to be acquired (sq m) 301.1228386
1299.919981
445.1087872
118.358473
51787.170977
Land Left (sq m) N.A
N.A
N.A
N.A
386438.391