Musculoskeletal System

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Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 14
Musculoskeletal System
1
Functions of the Skeletal System
Provides a framework for the body, protects
the soft body parts such as the brain, stores
calcium, and produces blood cells
The body contains 206 bones.
Provides movement, posture, joint stability,
and heat production
The body consists of more than 600
muscles.
2
Bone Structure
periosteum: outermost layer of the bone,
made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone: dense, hard layers of bone
tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone: contains small
spaces like a sponge and is encased in the
layers of compact bone
endosteum: membranous lining of the
hollow cavity of the bone
3
Bone Structure (cont’d)
diaphysis: shaft of the long bones
epiphysis (pl. epiphyses): ends of the long
bone
bone marrow: material found in the cavities
of bones
red marrow: thick, blood-like material found in
flat bones and the ends of long bones (location
of blood cell formation
„ yellow marrow: soft, fatty material found in the
medullary cavity of long bones
„
4
Bone Structure
5
Skeletal Bones (Jawbones)
maxilla: upper jawbones
mandible: lower jawbone
6
Skeletal Bones
(Vertebral Column)
vertebral column: made up of bones
called vertebrae (pl.) or vertebra (sing.)
through which the spinal cord runs
cervical vertebrae (C1-C7): first set of 7
forming the neck
„ thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12): second set of
12 vertebrae
„ lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5): third set of 5
larger vertebrae, which forms the inward
curve of spine
„
7
Skeletal Bones
(Vertebral Column) (cont’d)
vertebral column (cont’d)
sacrum: next five vertebrae, which fuse
together
„ coccyx: four vertebrae fused together to form
the tailbone
„ lamina (pl. laminae): part of the vertebral arch
„
8
Skeletal Bones (cont’d)
clavicle (2): collarbone
scapula (2): shoulder blade
sternum: breastbone
upper extremities: arm and hand bones
humerus (2)
ulna (2)
radius (2)
carpals (16)
metacarpals (10)
phalanges (28)
9
Skeletal Bones (cont’d)
pelvic bones (3 pairs fused together)
illium (2)
ischium (2)
pubis (2)
lower extremities: leg and foot bones
femur (2)
patella (2)
tibia (2)
fibula (2)
tarsals (4)
metatarsals (10)
phalanges (28)
10
Skeleton (Anterior)
11
Skeleton (Posterior View)
12
Joints
joint: holds bones together and make
movement possible
ligament: flexible, tough band of fibrous
connective tissue that attaches one bone to
another at a joint
tendon: band of fibrous connective tissue
that attaches muscle to bone
bursa: small, fluid-filled sac that allows easy
movement of one part of a joint over another
13
Joints (cont’d)
meniscus: crescent-shaped cartilage found
in the knee
intervertebral disk: cartilaginous disk found
between each vertebra in the spine
synovia: fluid secreted by the synovial
membrane; found in joint cavities
14
Knee Joint
15
Muscles
skeletal muscles (striated): attached to
bones by tendons and make body
movement possible. Skeletal muscles
produce action by pulling and by working in
pairs. Also known as voluntary muscles
because we have control over these
muscles.
16
Muscular System (Anterior)
17
Muscular System (Posterior)
18
Muscles (cont’d)
smooth muscles (unstriated): located in
internal organs such as the walls of blood
vessels and the digestive tract. They are
also called involuntary muscles because
they respond to impulses from the
autonomic nerves and are not controlled
voluntarily.
cardiac muscle: forms most of the wall of
the heart. Its involuntary contraction
produces the heartbeat.
19
Types of Body Movements
Bones and muscles work together to produce
various movements. Some are listed below:
abduction
adduction
eversion
extension
flexion
inversion
pronation
rotation
supination
20
Types of Body Movements
21
Combining Forms for the
Musculoskeletal System
carp/o
clavic/o, clavicul/o
cost/o
crani/o
femor/o
fibul/o
humer/o
ili/o
ischi/o
lumb/o
mandibul/o
maxill/o
22
Combining Forms for the
Musculoskeletal System (cont’d)
patell/o
pelv/i, pelv/o
phalang/o
pub/o
rachi/o
radi/o
sacr/o
scapul/o
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
stern/o
tars/o
tibi/o
uln/o
23
Combining Forms for Joints
aponeur/o
arthr/o
burs/o
chondr/o
disk/o
menisc/o
synovi/o
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
24
Combining Forms Commonly Used
with Musculoskeletal System Terms
ankyl/o
kinesi/o
kyph/o
lamin/o
lord/o
myel/o
my/o, myos/o
oste/o
petr/o
scoli/o
25
Prefixes
intersuprasym-, syn-
26
Suffixes
-asthenia
-clasia
-clasis, -clast
-desis
-physis
-schisis
27
Disease and Disorder Terms
Built from Word Parts
arthritis
arthrochondritis
bursitis
bursolith
carpoptosis
chondromalacia
fibromyalgia
kyphosis
lordosis
myasthenia
myeloma
osteitis
osteoarthritis (OA)
osteofibroma
osteosarcoma
rachischisis
scoliosis
tenosynovitis
28
Knee Joint
A, Normal. B, Osteoarthritis.
29
Disease and Disorder Terms
Not Built from Word Parts
bunion
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Colles fracture
fracture
gout
herniated disk
muscular dystrophy (MD)
osteoporosis
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
30
Terms Known by Other Names
Term
Also called…
kyphosis
hunchback
rachischisis
spina bifida
bunion
spur
herniated disk
slipped disk, ruptured
disk, herniated nucleus
pulposus
31
Bunion
A, With bunion. B, After bunionectomy.
32
Colles Fracture
33
Types of Fractures
A, Greenstick; B, transverse; C, oblique; D, spiral; E,
comminuted; F, compression.
34
Gout
Surgical Terms Built
from Word Parts
arthroclasia
arthrodesis
arthroplasty
bursectomy
carpectomy
chondroplasty
costectomy
craniotomy
diskectomy
laminectomy
meniscectomy
myorrhaphy
osteoclasis
rachiotomy
spondylosyndesis
tenomyoplasty
vertebroplasty
Herniated Disk
Diskectomy
Diagnostic Terms Built
from Word Parts
Diagnostic imaging
„
arthrography
Endoscopy
„
arthroscopy
Other
arthrocentesis
„ electromyogram (EMG)
„
(joint) / cv / (visual examination)
Complementary Terms Built
from Word Parts
arthralgia
atrophy
bradykinesia
dyskinesia
intervertebral
intracranial
ishiofibular
osteoblast
vertebrocostal
Complementary Terms Not
Built from Word Parts
chiropodist, podiatrist
chiropractor
orthopedics
orthopedist
orthotics
osteopath
osteopathy
prosthesis
Abbreviations
C1-C7
CTS
EMG
L1-L5
MD
MG
OA
ortho
RA
T1-T12
OBJECTIVES
dentify the organs and other structures of
the musculoskeletal system
Define, pronounce, and spell types of
body movements
Define and spell the word parts
Build and analyze medical terms using
word parts
OBJECTIVES (cont’d)
Define, pronounce, and spell the disease
nd disorder, diagnostic, surgical, and
omplementary terms for the
musculoskeletal system
nterpret the meanings of the abbreviations
Read medical documents and interpret
medical terminology contained in them
dentify and use plural endings

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