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Contents
INTER-AMERICAN DRUG ABUSE
CONTROL COMMISSION
CICAD
Secretariat for Multidimensional Security
FIFTY-EIGHTH REGULAR SESSION
November 11 - 13, 2015
Trujillo, Perú
OEA/Ser.L/XIV.2.58
CICAD/doc.2113/15
12 November 2015
Original: Español
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN COLOMBIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE AREA OF DRUGS
International Cooperation in
Colombia:
Challenges
and
Opportunities in the Area of
Drugs
58th period of sessions of the
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)
Lima, November 13, 2015
Contents
1. How has drugs cooperation developed
historically in Colombia?
2. What is the drugs policy in Colombia today?
3. Challenges and opportunities for Colombia
Contents
1. How has drugs cooperation developed
historically in Colombia?
2. What is the drugs policy in Colombia today?
3. Challenges and opportunities for Colombia
Agreements signed by Colombia according to their focus on
supply reduction or demand reduction
(1961-2014)
3%
Chiefly supply
Diversos
objetivos:
reduction:
38
Reducción
de la
Demand reduction:
1
demanda de
drogas: 1
97%
Source: Treaty Library, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2014
Breakdown of treaties by antidrug strategies
Control
crops
Control
deof
cultivos
Desarrollo
alternativo
Alternative
development
Control
deof
percusores
Control
chemicalquimicos
precursors
6%
6%
Control
trafficking
or interdictions
Control
deloftráfico
o interdiccion
20%
4%
2%
Confiscation
traffickers’
assets
Confiscacion
deof
bienes
de narcootraficantes
Control
deof
lavados
delaundering
activos
Control
money
10%
Supply
reduction
Exchangesde
ofinteligencia
police intelligence
Intercambio
policial
21%
6%
3%
Exchangesde
ofinteligencia
financial intelligence
Intercambio
financiera
Asistencia
judicial
Legal assistance
15%
7%
Military and
police
assistance
Asistencia
militar
y policial
Reduction
consumption
and
Reduccion
delofconsumo
y tratamiento
medico a activos
medical treatment
Source: Database produced by Ideas for Peace Foundation, May-June 2014
Drug control and supply reduction agreements signed by
Colombia from 1961 to date (by country)
Estados Unidos (43)
16%
Venezuela (6)
41%
21%
ONU, Brasil (4)
Perú, Ecuador, Guatemala (3 c/u)
Panamá, Costa Rica, El Salvador, México, Argentina, Chile, Repulica Dominicana,
Comunidad Europea, Alemania, Italia, Rusia. (2 c/u)
8%
6%
8%
Source: Treaty Library, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2014
PNUFID, CAN, Argentina, Brasil, Bolivia, Perú, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Ecuador, Surinam, Guyana, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Nicaraguay, Honduras, Cuba,
Jamaica, España, Portugal, Francia, Gran Bretaña, China República Popular. (1 c/u)
Drug control and supply reduction agreements signed by
Colombia from 1961 to date (by agreement type)
Financiera y
tecnica
15%
Cooperacion Tecnica
35%
Cooperacion financiera
(todos con E.E.U.U.)
50%
Financial
cooperation
(all with U.S.)
Main donors for drug demand reduction (1998 to 2014)
TOTAL
$19,734,158
Onusida
$18,000
Reino Unido
$37,560
Children International
$84,408
Caritas Alemania
$91,304
Open Society Foundations
$124,913
PNUD
$170,000
Castilla de la Mancha - España
$207,570
Ayuntamiento de Madrid
$269,783
España
$403,228
Suecia
$4,542,376
EEUU
$4,562,508
Unión Europea
$9,222,508
* In terms of demand reduction, the United States could be considered Colombia's main direct donor,
and the European Union the main promoter of regional initiatives, channeled through the Andean
Community of Nations (CAN).
Main donors for drug control and supply reduction (1998 to 2014)
Finlandia
CAF
Inglaterra
Francia
Tailandia
Bélgica
Italia
Japon
ONU-PNUD
Suecia
Canadá
España
ONU-FAO
Alemania
Paises Bajos
ONU-UNODC
Unión Europea
Estados Unidos
$86,814
$105,680
$251,564
$359,481
$405,900
$471,342
$500,000
$1,475,669
$3,308,858
$5,002,400
$5,492,060
$9,349,715
$9,726,886
$14,323,050
6
$39,327,709
$40,083,860 15
$167,081,980
Aporte US$
No. De proyectos o
programas
20
13
5
Source: Database produced by Ideas for Peace Foundation, May-June 2014
$7,478,325,503
Changes in flows of technical and financial cooperation
on drugs (2000 to 2012)
10
9
8
7
Cooperación
financiera
6
5
4
Cooperación técnica
3
2
1
0
2000
2004
2008
2012
Contributions of U.S. cooperation to Colombia
(1998 to 2014) by assistance type
Supply
reduction
Ayuda militar y policial
27%
Ayuda humanitaria y para
el desarrollo
73%
Historic behavior of U.S. cooperation to Colombia
(1998 to 2014)
900,000,000
800,000,000
700,000,000
600,000,000
Ayuda militar y policial
500,000,000
400,000,000
Ayuda humanitariay
para el desarrollo
300,000,000
200,000,000
100,000,000
0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Source: Military and Police Aid Programs; Humanitarian and Development Aid Programs. Security Assistance Monitor
Deficit in investment in topics related to
demand reduction.
Excessive intervention in national security
and citizen security issues.
Insufficient alignment between development
assistance and the priorities and procedures
of the recipient countries (Paris Declaration).
Contents
1. How has drugs cooperation developed
historically in Colombia?
2. What is the drugs policy in Colombia today?
3. Challenges and opportunities for Colombia
New approaches in Colombian drugs policy
Pillars
01
Drugs policy
today
More humane and
efficient drug
policies
Human rights:
Humans, not drugs, are at the
center of drug policies
02
Human development
03
Public health approach
Objectives
01
Transformation of
territories affected by
illicit crops
02
Reduction of crime related to
drug trafficking
03
04
Generation of evidence
Attention to drug
consumption
Contents
1. How has drugs cooperation developed
historically in Colombia?
2. What is the current situation with that
cooperation?
3. Challenges and opportunities for Colombia
Challenges for Colombia
• 2008 global economic
crisis.
• LatAm: Good economic
performance.
• Middle-income country
in 2003. Middle-tohigh-income country in
2010.
• Simultaneously
providing and
receiving.
Regional participation in official development assistance (ODA) disbursements - Source: ECLAC, based on information from OCD
Challenges for Drugs Policy
• Separating drugs from foreign policy. Positive agenda.
• New priorities for relations.
• Dependence on official development assistance and neglect of other kinds of
cooperation.
• Balance supply and demand in drugs policy.
• Colombia's expertise in several topics related to drug trafficking is not totally
systematized or modeled for promoting south-south cooperation.
Opportunities for Colombia
• Peace negotiations.
• Gender, human rights, and environmental sustainability.
• Strengthen relations with the United States in new areas.
Opportunities
• Consolidate the portfolio of
south-south cooperation offered.
• Diversify the sources from which cooperation is sought. Rigorously explore
decentralized and private sources, south-south and triangular cooperation, and
corporate social responsibility processes.
Opportunities
• Continue managing ODA through
ECLAC's structural disparities
approach (segmented vision of the
territory).
• Segment the country by levels of
development. This argument serves
to justify the need for intervention in
some areas of the country, which
coincide with those that have drugrelated problems.
Carlos Medina
Vice Minister for Criminal Policy and
Restorative Justice
Ministry of Justice and Law of
Colombia