CERN_2014

Comments

Transcription

CERN_2014
Permanent (and Soft) Magnetic
Materials for Accelerators
Workshop on Special Compact and Low Consumption Magnet
Design, CERN, Geneva 26.-28.Nov. 2014
Franz-Josef Börgermann, Ch. Brombacher, F. Fohr, K. Üstüner
Vacuumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG
Outline
 Homogeneous magnets for undulators
 Cryogenic applications: PrFeB
 Improvements of actual NdFeB alloys
 by alloy composition
 by grain boundary diffusion
 New soft magnetic alloys
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 2
Magnets for scientific applications on industrial scale
 Undulator applications need extreme homogeneities
 actual FEL-projects request material quantities on industrial scale
 Vacuumschmelze delivers:
- Soft magnetic components
- Precise permanent magnets
- Assemblies
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 3
Permanent magnet structures for E-XFEL U40 and U68
• 70 undulators U40, 21 undulators U68, each 5m long in 10 substructures of
1 m length
• Total of more than 35000 permanent magnets and VACOFLUX® polepieces
Homogeneity of the permanent magnets:
• Variation of magnetic moment: <= +/- 1%
for the whole order (more than 10 tons of PM-material)
• Angular deviation Alpha, Beta: <= +/- 0.5 °
• h/c-effect: <= +/- 2%
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 4
Material properties for cryogenic applications
With decreasing application temperature:
 Large increase of coercivity of REFeB-material  enhanced stability
 Remanence of REFeB-material increases  more flux for the application
 But: We need to overcome the spin-flip-transition of NdFeB at 140 K
Solution: use PrFeB-material !
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 5
rel. remanent polarization (%)
Permanent Magnets for Undulators at Cryogenic temperatures
120
115
X:
0.3
0.4
0.6
110
0.8
105
1.0
100
60
80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280
temperature ( K )
Open circuit remanent polarization of (NdxPr1-x)2Fe14B relative to
the remanent polarization at 283 K, as a function of temperature,
measured parallel to the alignment direction on samples of
B/µ0H = -1.78(+/-0.04) for various x values. [2]
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 6
VACODYM® 131 for use at Cryogenic temperatures
Demagnetization curves of VACODYM® 131 TP and DTP at cryogenic
temperatures, room temperature and elevated temperature
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 7
Improvements of actual NdFeB-based alloys
• Radiation damage of permanent magnets correlates to temperature
stability over large ranges of potential radiation doses
• Stability at elevated temperatures depends on
-
Load line (depends on geometry and external fields)
-
Coercivity of the material
• Coercivity is increased by heavy rare-earth (HRE-) content
Possible solutions:
 Place the HRE at the location, where it works most effectively
 Use of more effective HRE-elements
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerattors
19.11.2014
Seite 8
Optimised coercivity by Dy-diffusion-process
 Additions of Dy to pure NdFeB are used to increase coercivity
 They slightly reduce remanence
 The use of Dy is optimised by placing it to the
grain boundaries in a diffusion process
instead of additions to the base alloy
 For a given coercivity and remanence the amount of Dy needed is
minimised
 The effectiveness is restricted to limited dimensions (thickness of the
magnet)
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerators
19.11.2014
Seite 9
Optimised coercivity by Dy-diffusion-process
-
D HcJ as high as by diffusion treatment after sputter coating
Micrograph depicts Dy rich grains near surface which are
responsible for the loss of Br
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerators
19.11.2014
Seite 10
VACODYM® 9xx-series
 use Tb instead of Dy as HRE-element (in the base alloy)
 optional: additional enhancements by grain boundary diffusion at the surfaces
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerators
19.11.2014
Seite 11
Soft magnetic materials: saturation vs. resistivity
Vacoflux® 27
Vacoflux® 50
Vacoflux® 17
iron
3% SiFe
Vacoflux® 18HR
Optimization
Vacoflux® 9CR
chromium steel 430F
ADVANCED MATERIALS - THE KEY TO PROGRESS
HT-EM Frederik Fohr
Comparison of Static Initial Magnetization Curves
VACOFLUX®50 vs. VACOFLUX®27
Vacoflux® 50
Vacoflux® 27
ADVANCED MATERIALS - THE KEY TO PROGRESS
HT-EM Frederik Fohr
Outlook
 Vacuumschmelze material is already implemented in various designs
 We are looking forward to your discussions on further optimisation
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerators
19.11.2014
Seite 14
Thanks for your attention!
Permanent Magnet Material for Accelerators
19.11.2014
Seite 15

Similar documents