Public Service Employment and Pay: the Current State

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Public Service Employment and Pay: the Current State
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
PRESIDENT’S OFFICE PUBLIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT
Public Service Reform Programme
Public Service Employment
and Pay: the Current State
and Trends over the last
four years
Part I (Main Report)
Monitoring
and
Evaluation
Unit
Report 2004/04
ISSUED
November 2004
CONTACT
Permanent Secretary
President’s Office Public Service
Management
Box 2483
Dar es Salaam
Phone: 2118531-4
E-mail: [email protected]
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
Contents
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
3.4 Budgetary trends........................................3-3
3.5 Summary.....................................................3-4
4. Public Sector Institutions in Tanzania ........4-1
Contents...................................................................i
4.1 Background ................................................4-1
Tables.......................................................................i
5. Selected Gender Data ....................................5-1
Abbreviations..........................................................i
Executive Summary ...........................................1-1
Methodology.....................................................1-1
Current Levels..................................................1-1
Trends...............................................................1-2
1. Introduction ....................................................1-3
1.1 Introduction and Purpose of this Report...1-3
1.2 Who are Public Servants?..........................1-3
1.2.1 Coverage of HCMIS ...........................1-4
1.3 Methodology...............................................1-4
1.3.1 Summarizing Raw Data into Indicators14
1.3.2 Employment Indicators.......................1-5
1.3.3 Remuneration and Budget Indicators .1-5
1.4 Layout and Logistics ..................................1-6
2. Current Status ................................................2-1
2.1 Introduction................................................2-1
2.2 Employment Levels ....................................2-1
2.2.1 Major Employers ................................2-1
2.2.2 Jobs, Positions, Levels........................2-2
2.2.3 Gender .................................................2-2
2.2.4 Education.............................................2-3
2.2.5 Age and Experience ............................2-3
2.2.6 Employment Status and Discipline ....2-4
2.3 Pay, Wages, Incentives ..............................2-5
2.3.1 Remuneration Indicators.....................2-5
2.3.2 Overall Level of Remuneration ..........2-6
2.3.3 Average Wages by Various Categories26
2.3.4 Pay Targets..........................................2-7
2.4 Budget.........................................................2-7
3. Trends..............................................................3-1
3.1 Introduction................................................3-1
3.2 Employment Trends ...................................3-1
3.2.1 Job Growth trends ...............................3-2
3.2.2 Gender trends ......................................3-2
3.2.3 Age, Experience, Suspensions............3-2
3.3 Pay Trends .................................................3-3
3.3.1 Gender Pay Trends..............................3-3
5.1 Female Oriented Jobs................................5-1
5.2 Male Oriented Jobs....................................5-1
6. Other Data ......................................................6-1
6.1 Education ...................................................6-1
6.2 Pay Targets ................................................6-1
Tables
Table 1: Major Job Classes of Public Servants .... 1-1
Table 1: Breakdown of Employment.................. 2-1
Table 2: Large Employers ................................ 2-1
Table 3: Major Job Classes of Public Servants .... 2-2
Table 4: Gender Employment by Broad Job Type2-3
Table 5: Education-Gender............................... 2-3
Table 6: Age and Experience (Disaggregated).... 2-4
Table 7: Employment Status ............................ 2-4
Table 8: Suspensions by Job Class .................... 2-5
Table 9: Remuneration Indicators..................... 2-6
Table 10: Disaggregated Average Wages .......... 2-7
Table 11: Job Growth from Sep 2000 to Sep 2004 32
Table 12: Remuneration Indicators ................... 3-3
Table 13: Wage Bill Data ................................. 3-3
Table 14: List of Public Institutions Receiving
Government Subventions.......................... 4-2
Table 15: Institutions included in the HCMIS (June
2004) ..................................................... 4-3
Table 16: % of Females in Various Broad Job
Categories............................................... 5-6
Table 17: Pay Targets by Grade ....................... 6-1
Abbreviations
DCDM, De Chazal Du Mee
GoT, Government of Tanzania
LG, Local Government (Local Authority)
M & E, Monitoring and Evaluation
MDAs, Ministries, Departments and Agencies
N, Number of Observations
O.C., Other Charges
PMS, Performance Management Systems
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PO-PSM, President’s Office Public Service
Management
PSRP, Public Service Reform Programme
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Executive Summary
This report is part of a series of Monitoring and Evaluation Studies prepared by the President’s Office
Public Service Management (PO-PSM). Using the PO-PSM Human Resource and Payroll
Management Information System (HCMIS) this report describes Public Service
Employment and Pay for the 2003/04 financial year. Based a new series of indicators it
also documents key trends and changes over the past four years, from September 2000
to September 2004
Methodology
For the purpose of this report, Public servants are
considered full time employees working for
Ministries, Independent Departments, Regional
Secretariats and Local Authorities. Analysis used
the PO-PSM HCMIS database. Though this
covers most public servants, there are key
exclusions. First, data presented here excludes
public servants working in the Military, Intelligence
Services and PCB. Their data is sensitive.
Second, it excludes employees of Public
Institutions (“Public Corporations” or “Parastals”).
Though these people technically work for Central
Government, PO-PSM has no detailed data on
their employment. Finally, due to incompleteness
data for Executive Agencies has been excluded.
Current Levels
Table 1: Major Job Classes of Public
Servants
Job Classification
Teacher
Medical Worker (Nurse, Doctor, Med. Off)
Police Officer
Education Officer (Inspector,
Administrator)
Prison Officer
Technician/Craftsman (*)
Watchman (*)
Office Supervisor/Attendant (*)
Agricultural Field Officer
Accountant (*)
Driver (*)
Livestock Field Officer
Typist/Secretary (*)
Village/Ward/Division Officer (*)
Forester
Judicial Officer (Judge, Court Clerk, etc)
Registry Clerk (Records Management) (*)
Community Development Officer
Kitchen Worker (*)
Game Officer
Stores/Supply Officer (*)
Public Health Officer
Immigration Officer
Telephone Operator (*)
Others
Conversion Designation
Others
Total
Number
123,573
32,215
22,309
%
43.1%
11.2%
7.8%
12,907
9,390
7,502
7,379
6,844
4,260
4,168
3,338
2,915
2,868
2,494
2,245
2,010
1,997
1,600
1,543
1,152
1,125
1,058
753
306
4.5%
3.3%
2.6%
2.6%
2.4%
1.5%
1.5%
1.2%
1.0%
1.0%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%
0.7%
0.6%
0.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
As of September 2004:
„ The government consisted of 286,817 active
Public Servants.
„ A majority of these were employed by Local
Authorities (64%). Roughly speaking, for
every employee of a Ministry there are two
employees working in Local Government.
18,100
6.3%
„ Across Tanzania, there is approximately 1
12,766
4.5%
public servant for every 100 citizens.
286,817
100%
„ Almost 50% of all public servants are directly
related to the provision of education, either as teachers or inspectors and administrators. More
generally, some 65% of all public servants are doctors, medical officers, nurses, teachers, police,
or prison officers. They provide services directly to citizens.
„ Forty (40%) percent of all public servants are women. However, as one moves up the ladder in
terms of pay and responsibility there are fewer and fewer women. In Central Government only
22% of all high-level, decision-making posts are occupied by women
„ Many jobs show high levels of gender imbalance. For example most drivers are men and most
secretaries are women. While this is to be expected, only 5% of all women are employed in
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positions dominated by women while 39% of all men are employed in positions dominated by
men.
Six percent (6%) of all Public Servants have attended form VI or have acquired a University
Education. On the other hand, almost half the Public Service has only a Primary School education
(or lower level of attainment).
The average public servant is 43.25 years old and he or she as been working in the Public Service
for 17.2 years
Currently some 0.14% of all Public Servants are on some level of suspension. This incidence
contrasts sharply with service user’s perceptions of corruption. For example, in the Service
Delivery Surveys undertaken by PO-PSM, 19% of all users reported that they were requested to
pay an “inducement” (or bribe), while 13% admitted to actually paying one. To the degree that
these self-reported incidences are reflective of reality, the probability of being suspended due to
corruption is virtually zero.
As of September 2004 the average public servant received a monthly wage of TSH 130,984.
However once taxes and pension contributions are deducted, “take home” pay (in cash) totaled
Tsh 109,531.
On an annual basis, the average monthly wage ($123.52) is equivalent to 4.9 times the per capita
GDP in Tanzania. Public Servants should be considered amongst the richest Tanzanians, not the
poorest.
In terms of distribution, only 5% of all public servants have monthly wages above Tsh 200,000
per month and only 33% have monthly wages above Tsh 150,000 per month.
As of September 2004, actual salaries were 83.78% of their targeted values found in the Medium
Term Pay Policy
Trends
Looking at the four year period from September 2000 to September 2004, the following trends have
been highlighted:
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The number of public servants increased from 263,382 to 286,817 or at an annual average
percentage increase of 2.1%. This is slower than the growth of the population so there are now
slightly fewer public servants per capita than there were at the beginning of the period.
Much of the increase is due to increases in teachers, whose numbers increased by over 20,000
during this period. More generally, employment increases occurred at Local Authorities, not
Regional Secretariats or Central Government. This is in line with Government’s policy of
decentralization.
The percentage of women in the public service has increased slightly, but not at upper levels of
management
The government is getting slightly younger, either due to the surge in new recruitment or
perhaps due to changes in retirement policy.
Salaries, on either a pre-tax or after-tax basis have improved at an annual rate of 12-15% in
Shillings, depending on how remuneration is measured. Average take home (cash) payments
have increased by roughly Tsh 40,000 per month, from around Tsh 69,000 per month in
September 2000 to about Tsh 109,000 per month in September 2004. On a $US basis, salaries
increased at an average annual rate of 4.3% indicating that some levels of the nominal increase
have been eroded through inflation.
Though salaries have increased, salary targets in the Medium Term Pay Policy have not been
met. Actual salaries have remained in a band of 84-86% of their targeted levels, with little
movement.
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Chapter I
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1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction and Purpose of this Report
This report is part of a series of Monitoring and Evaluation Studies prepared by the President’s Office
Public Service Management (PO-PSM: previously the Civil Service Department). PO-PSM is
responsible for installing Human Resource and other Management Systems in Government Ministries,
Departments, and Agencies throughout Tanzania. It also implements the Public Service Reform
Program (PSRP), a major component of which is promotion of Monitoring and Evaluation.1
Using the PO-PSM Human Resource and Payroll Management Information System
(HCMIS) this report describes Public Service Employment and Pay for the 2003/04
financial year. Based a new series of indicators it also documents key trends and
changes over the past four years, from September 2000 to September 2004.
1.2 Who are Public Servants?
For the purpose of this study, Public Servants are defined as
employees who work full time for Ministries, Departments,
Regions and Local Authorities.2 This constitutes a subset of
employees who are paid through “public funds” or might broadly
be considered to “work for government.”
Public Servants
For the purpose of this document a
Public Servant can be considered:
A full time employee of a
Government Ministry, Department,
Region, or Local Authority.
This is a working, rather than legal definition of who constitutes
a Public Servant. According to law, public Servants are defined
in the Construction of Laws and General Services Act (No X of
1972). They include {see Act: MATTHIAS OR MRS ABOUD}. Subsequently, however, each legal
instrument defines Public Servants differently, for the express purpose of the Act or Regulation at
hand.3
PO-PSM’s computerized HCMIS4 covers most of the Public Servants defined above. Key exclusions
from the database include:
„ Employees in “SENSITIVE” positions, for example the Military, PCB and Intelligence Officers.
These persons are technically public servants.5
„ CONTRACT EMPLOYEES, CASUAL LABORERS, ETC. This exclusion mainly affects minimum wage
employees, especially in Local Authorities, where many security staff, cleaners, etc. are paid
1
Further information about Tanzania’s PSRP can be found at www.estabs.go.tz.
Regions include Regional Administrations (the RAS’s office), Regional Commissioners, and District Commissioners Offices.
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In the Public Service Act, a public servant works in a “paid public office in the United Republic charged with the formulation of Government
Policy and delivery of public services other than: (i) a parliamentary office (ii) an office of a member of council, board, panel, committee or
other similar body whether or not corporate, established by or under any written act (iii) an office the emoluments of which are payable at an
hourly rate, daily rate or term contract (iv) an office of a judge or other judicial office (v) an office in the police force or prisons service” (Section
3(a)). This definition differs from that in the Public Service Regulations, where Police and Prison are included.
4
A brief history of the development of this system as well as its current constraints can be found in the Annex (see page {})
5
On the other hand the President’s and Prime Minister’s details can be found in the database, though their data is also, in many
ways”sensitive.” Generally, the Military’s HR and Payroll are very well administered using a computerized system, so their exclusion is both a
consideration of sensitivity and the historical development of their own management systems.
2
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through “Other Charges” (O.C). This also excludes contract (term) employees (such as long-term
consultants hired by Ministries).
„ SOME POLITICIANS, for example Local Government Councilors (who are also paid through O.C).
These may total some 3-4,000 persons.6
„ MOST EMPLOYEES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS (“taasisi”), such as employees of the University of
Dar es Salaam, TRA and Bank of Tanzania. Though many of these institutions are integral to
“government” (for example, Central Banking is rarely undertaken by the Private Sector), they tend
to have different salary and employment structures than the “public service.”7 The HCMIS does
contain 25 “Companies,” such as Tanzania Investment Centre and KCMC but this is a small
fraction of existing institutions. Exclusions may total some 21,000 persons.8
„ SOME EXECUTIVE AGENCIES: of the 20 Executive Agencies formed as of June 2004, 12 are
contained in the HCMIS.9 Generally speaking, inclusion depends on the mode of payment rather
than employment; some employees of Executive Agencies are paid through “own funds” others by
Central Government.
Given the data at hand, results in this study will severely underestimate the size of government or
public sector employment in Tanzania.
1.2.1 COVERAGE OF HCMIS
The annex tables (see page 4-1) contains a list of institutions both covered and excluded by the
HCMIS. Roughly speaking the database covers some 90% of the Tanzanian Government’s nonsensitive employees. The exclusions working for Public Corporations are likely to have higher
salaries than Public Servants, and this introduces some level of bias into our remuneration estimates
and trends.10
1.3 Methodology
The HCMIS contains information on individual employees in the Public Service. Data includes:
SOCIOECONOMIC DESCRIPTORS, such as age and gender
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND, such as the highest degree or certificate received
EMPLOYER: the institution the employee works for.
EMPLOYMENT STATUS, for example whether the employee is on suspended pay, has been
terminated, etc, as well as how long the employee has been in the Public Service
„ PAY: salary, allowances, arrears, taxes, pension benefits and other forms of remuneration
owed or made to the employee
„ JOB, the position, grade, or job of the employee
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1.3.1 SUMMARIZING RAW DATA INTO INDICATORS
To gauge trends, raw data (on each employee) was converted into a series of summarized, monthly
indicators. For example, the number of employees was summed or the total salaries paid were
divided by employment to derive average monthly figures. This created a time series of indicators.
Indicators were of the following general classes:
„ EMPLOYMENT INDICATORS, looking at the total number of employees, for example, number of
female employees, number of teachers, etc.
6
30 Councilors × 120 Local Authorities. Local Authority Councilors receive allowances, not salaries and MPs receive an allowance for staff they
hire.
7
Autonomy in terns of remuneration is established by the Public Corporations Act (No 2 of 1992).
8
In the data, employees of Executive Agencies and other Public Institutions are classified under “COMPANY” 2001 while those in Ministries,
Departments, Agencies, Regions, and Local Authorities are classified under COMPANY 2002. The 26 institutions under Company 2001 average
257 Employees (June 2004, data). Rounding this to 300 (since many excluded, such as the Universities are quite large) and assuming there
are at least 70 “Public Institutions” excluded results in 21,000 employees.
9
Note: Public Institutions are sometimes called agencies (such as TRA). They differ from Executive Agencies in terms of operations and
legislation, though both forms have increased autonomy in terms of remuneration. Executive Agencies are generally considered part of the
Public Service (in many regulations) and fall under the Executive Agencies Act. Agencies such as TRA have their own legislation.
10
On the other hand, the exclusion of a large number of minimum wage employees through O.C. may counteract this bias.
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„ PAY INDICATORS: looking at average salaries (before deductions) and wages (after
deductions), arrears, salary, allowances, arrears, taxes, pension benefits and other forms of
remuneration owed or made to the employee
„ BUDGET INDICATORS, which totaled payment obligations or liabilities, for example, the wage
bill, budgets, or total arrears.
Generally, each class of indicator (Employment, Pay, and Budget) has a different definition of the
“base” or set of employees to be included in their calculation. For example, budget indicators (since
they look at liabilities) tend to be more conservative. They include, for example, employees on half
pay and various levels of suspension, under the assumption that in the future, their full salary might
need to be paid. In other cases, indicators needed to be deflated or converted into common
currencies (like dollars) in order to generate
consistent time series.11
Indicators were derived internally by POPSM after a lengthy process of consultation
and provisional use in the PSRP quarterly
reports. Clear definitions of each indicator
can be found in the annex, while key classes
of indicators are described in part II of this
study.
All Employees paid through Public Funds [?]
In HCMIS Database [332,762]
88%
Active employees [293,243]
98%
Permanent Government
Employees [286,624]
NOT In HCMIS Database [?]
12%
Inactive (Terminated, etc) [39519]
2%
Teacher Trainees (not yet
Public Servants)
0%
2%
2%
95%
1.3.2 EMPLOYMENT INDICATORS
Paid By
Paid By
Paid By CENTRAL
Paid By LOCAL
Employment indicators total the number of
TT [85]
“OTHER” [6511]
Government [272900]
Government [7128]
public servants in a particular category (for
example, female public servants). As can be
Employed
Employed By
Employed By
Employed by Public
By Regions
MDs [90636]:
LGs [179,490]:
Institutions and Executive
seen adjacently, of the 332,762 persons in
[9987]: 3%
32%
63%
Agencies [6511]: 2%
the June 2004 database, some 12% are
Public Servants [280,113]
12
inactive. Active Public Servants are also
defined to exclude Teacher Trainees. Since
trainees are not yet permanently employed (they are paid through Other Charges, not PE).
The most important grouping of Active Public Servants concerns who they work for (Public
Institutions, Regions, MDs, Local Authorities) and who pays their salaries.
Over time employment figures are likely to be affected by the coverage of the HCMIS, particularly in
terms of its inclusion of Public Institutions. For this, reason, employees of Public Institutions and
Executive Agencies will be typically dropped from the analysis presented here.
1.3.3 REMUNERATION AND BUDGET INDICATORS
The HCMIS contains data on wages,13 employment allowances, taxes and pension benefits. While
taxes should clearly not be included in any tallying of employee benefits, accounting for pension
benefits is more problematic. Pension benefits will not be received until a future date. While the
amount of the deduction is known its future value, in real terms is not. From the standpoint of the
budget, pension obligations are clearly a budgetary cost, but the payment of taxes is not. Taxes
represent a transfer from one arm of government (treasury) to another (TRA). In all cases, indicators
are derived on a “cash” basis (where transfers are included) and an “economic” basis (where
transfers are not).
11
Assumptions used to convert currencies or divide by GDP are documented in the Annex (see {}).
Raw figures (number of employees) are listed in square brackets, []. “Inactive” employees have the following status: TM (Terminated), XN
(On IPD, not in payroll), SN (Suspended No Pay) , and FZ (in Transfer, No Pay).
13
Again, wages are a separate field from salaries. For example, if a person is on half pay, their wage is 50% of their salary.
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1.4 Layout and Logistics
This report can be downloaded from
www.estabs.go.tz. PO-PSM is in the process of
developing a database of indictors over time to be
accessible from this web-site. The remainder of this
report is divided into three chapters:
CHAPTER TWO: A description of the current
status in terms of employment, remuneration
and budgeting. Chapter two contains a detailed
disaggregation of data and focuses on
September 2004.
CHAPTER THREE: Trends in terms of
employment, remuneration and budgeting.
Data covers the Period from September 2000 to
September 2004.
CHAPTER FOUR: a brief background on
government institutions
CHAPTER FIVE: ANNEX. These provide
additional data.
T H E
P U B L I C
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M&E Reports
M&E (Monitoring and Evaluation) reports can
be downloaded from the web site
www.estabs.go.tz
These reports have been prepared
independently and are designed to provide
an unbiased assessment of the progress and
impact of Public Sector Reforms in Tanzania.
Comments concerning this report may be
addressed to:
Daniel Kobb
President’s Office: PSM
Box 2483
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Phone: 2110715
E-mail: [email protected]
Part II of this report provides additional data on an indicator by indicator basis.
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Chapter II
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2. Current Status
2.1 Introduction
Using the HCMIS database, this section analyses
employment, pay and HR related budgetary data
for the month of September 2004. Focusing
on a single period permits the disaggregation of
information in terms of employer, gender,
employment status, age and other socioeconomic characteristics.
Em ploym ent in the Public Service
Ministries,
Departments
32%
Regions
4%
Local
Governments
64%
2.2 Employment Levels
As of September 2004 the HCMIS database
contained information on 286,817 active Public
Servants. A majority of these are employed by
Local Authorities (64%). Roughly speaking, for
every employee of a Ministry there are two
employees working in Local Government. Across
Tanzania, there is approximately 1 public servant
for every 100 citizens.14 Though a majority are
employed by Local Governments, only 3.6% are
paid by Local Governments.
In addition to Public Servants, the HCMIS
database tracks information concerning 21,503
other employees. These either work for Public
Institutions (4,400) and Executive Agencies
(2,164) or are still being trained as teachers
(and thus, have not entered into full time
contact). In all these “others” comprise 7% of
the total employees monitored by PO-PSM.
2.2.1 MAJOR EMPLOYERS
Who do public servants work for?
Table 2: Breakdown of Employment
Description
Public Servants
Local Governments
Ministries, Departments
Regions
Others
Public Institutions
Executive Agencies
Teacher Trainees
Total
Number
286,817
185,845
90,920
10,052
21,503
4,400
2,164
14,939
308,320
% (Sub)
100%
65%
32%
4%
100%
20%
10%
69%
% Total
93%
7%
100%
Table 3: Large Employers
Organization
Min. of Home Affairs-Police
Ministry of Education
Min of Home Affairs-Prison
Judiciary
Kinondoni District
Ilala District
Temeke District
Moshi District
Min Natural Resources & Tourism
Employees
27,074
18,973
11,177
5,994
4,617
3,842
3,554
3,522
3,480
%
9.4%
6.6%
3.9%
2.1%
1.6%
1.3%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%
Cum
9.4%
16.1%
20.0%
22.0%
23.7%
25.0%
26.2%
27.5%
28.7%
Note: CUM = Cumulative
The HCMIS monitors 187 different employers. Though most public servants work for Local
Authorities the largest employers tend to be Ministries, in particular the Ministry of Home Affairs
(Police, Prisons), Education (including Secondary School Teachers), and the Judiciary. Following
these (see Table 3) are the Local Authorities (Municipalities) of Dar es Salaam.15 The 9 largest
employers employ 28.7% of all Public Servants in Tanzania.
14
That is, public servants make up 0.85% of the population. When classifying employers, Regions include both Regional Secretariats (the
RAS’s Office) as well as the District and Regional Commissioner’s office.
15
Though the Dar es Salaam Local Authorities are large employers, the average rural district employs more people than the average urban
districts (on average 1,633 for rural vs. 1,483 for urban). Urban councils may, however, employ more persons (or have higher expenditures)
per capita population.
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P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
In contrast to these large employers there are 12 institutions employing less than 100 persons and 9
employing less than 50. For example, the Teacher’s Service Commission employs 2 persons and the
Lands Tribunal 18 persons.16
Table 4: Major Job Classes of Public
Servants
2.2.2 JOBS, POSITIONS, LEVELS
What do public servants do?
Almost 50% of all public servants are directly
related to the provision of education, either as
teachers or inspectors and administrators. More
generally, some 65% of all public servants are
doctors, medical officers, nurses, teachers, police,
or prison officers. They provide services directly
to citizens. Following these large groups of
service providers the Public service consists of a
wide range of administrative officers: craftsman,
watchman, accountants, office supervisors, office
attendants, drivers, typists and so forth.
Adjacently, these positions have been assigned an
asterisk (*). Those with an asterisk, constitute
18% of the major positions documented in Table
4.
Job Classification
Teacher
Medical Worker (Nurse, Doctor, Med. Off)
Police Officer
Education Officer (Inspector,
Administrator)
Prison Officer
Technician/Craftsman (*)
Watchman (*)
Office Supervisor/Attendant (*)
Agricultural Field Officer
Accountant (*)
Driver (*)
Livestock Field Officer
Typist/Secretary (*)
Village/Ward/Division Officer (*)
Forester
Judicial Officer (Judge, Court Clerk, etc)
Registry Clerk (Records Management) (*)
Community Development Officer
Kitchen Worker (*)
Game Officer
Stores/Supply Officer (*)
Public Health Officer
Immigration Officer
Telephone Operator (*)
Others
Conversion Designation
Others
Total
Number
123,573
32,215
22,309
%
43.1%
11.2%
7.8%
12,907
9,390
7,502
7,379
6,844
4,260
4,168
3,338
2,915
2,868
2,494
2,245
2,010
1,997
1,600
1,543
1,152
1,125
1,058
753
306
4.5%
3.3%
2.6%
2.6%
2.4%
1.5%
1.5%
1.2%
1.0%
1.0%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%
0.7%
0.6%
0.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
2.2.3 GENDER
Forty (40%) percent of all public servants
are women.17 Though this constitutes a fairly
broad base, women are not evenly distributed
within the public service. Women are
18,100
6.3%
concentrated in specific jobs many of which are in
12,766
4.5%
286,817
100%
the lower-to-middle range of the salary scale. In
positions of upper level management, where
extensive education is required, one finds fewer and fewer women. For example, PO-PSM monitors
the level of females in Central Government decision making posts by adding the number of women
who are directors, assistant directors, commissioners, Permanent Secretaries, Deputy Permanent
Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries. Amongst this cadre, only 22% are women.
The gender composition of the Public Service is determined by several factors. Most important is the
establishment (the list of available jobs in the service) and the interplay of these positions with the
traditional roles of men and women in Tanzanian society. To provide the simplest example, women
tend to be typists and men tend to be drivers. If the job of driver was outsourced (“privatized”) this
would increase the percentage of women in the public service.
So, what jobs do women and men tend to take? To answer this question, an in-depth analysis was
undertaken focusing on all jobs having more than 20 employees.18 Within this sample, positions
having an unbalanced gender composition were then extracted. For example, there were 32 different
jobs, in which women constituted 75% or more of all employees. These jobs employed 5% of all
public servants and can be considered to be “female-oriented” jobs. Jobs within this group included
Nurses and Maternal Health Workers, Secretaries, and Phone operators (for a detailed list see
sections 5.1 and 5.2 beginning on page 5-1). On the other hand there were 250 different “male
oriented” jobs comprising some 27% of the public service. These included many of the higher,
“glamour” positions (Judge, Permanent Secretary, Doctor, District Executive Director, MPs), most
positions in the Police Force and Prisons, many of the key sector extension jobs (Agriculture,
16
To recall Chapter 1: in some cases classifications and descriptions in the database are not very accurate.
Actually, the gender of 14% of all Public Servants found in the HCMIS is not known. Figures in this section concern only those who have
been classified as male or female.
18
There are about 1,500 different “jobs” in the Public Service. The “job” is quite specific and depends on levels, with Accountant (II) being
different than Accountant III. Therefore, jobs with few people were dropped from the sample.
17
Page 2-2
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
Veterinarian, Forestry, Game and Land
Surveyors) which are field and travelrelated, as well as the auxiliary positions
traditionally held by men (drivers,
security).
The gender composition of a particular
job reflects both demand and supply
factors. On the demand side, influences
include preference, tradition, and physical
strength, while on the supply side the
dispersion of professions by gender is
also established by past and current
trends in education. In particular, more
men graduate university than women,
and more men enter the sciences then
women. For example, differing levels in
“science” achievement might explain the
large number of male accountants and
laboratory technicians, since these
positions are not traditionally gender
based.
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Table 5: Gender Employment by Broad Job Type
Broad Job Class
Driver
Watchman
Game Officer
Technician/Craftsman
Police Officer
Village/Ward/Division Officer
Public Health Officer
Livestock Field Officer
Forester
Prison Officer
Immigration Officer
Other
Agricultural Field Officer
Stores/Supply Officer
Education Officer
Accountant
Kitchen Worker
Teacher
Community Develop. Officer
Judicial Officer
Office Supervisor/Attendant
Registry Clerk
Medical Worker
Telephone Operator
Typist/Secretary
Total
Female
27
169
112
887
2,616
289
168
515
440
2,048
167
3,253
1,057
322
3,259
1,421
562
50,537
746
1,061
3,599
1,219
20,913
253
2,482
98,122
Male
2,924
5,272
1,009
6,334
17,954
1,827
854
2,329
1,734
7,225
552
9,746
3,063
707
6,384
2,324
775
61,089
644
891
2,929
583
9,840
39
180
147,208
Total
2,951
5,441
1,121
7,221
20,570
2,116
1,022
2,844
2,174
9,273
719
12,999
4,120
1,029
9,643
3,745
1,337
111,626
1,390
1,952
6,528
1,802
30,753
292
2,662
245,330
%F
0.9%
3.1%
10.0%
12.3%
12.7%
13.7%
16.4%
18.1%
20.2%
22.1%
23.2%
25.0%
25.7%
31.3%
33.8%
37.9%
42.0%
45.3%
53.7%
54.4%
55.1%
67.6%
68.0%
86.6%
93.2%
40%
Overall, women depended less than men
on gaining employment in female-specific
Note: % F = % Female. Includes only those whose gender has been
professions. While 5% of all women are
classified
employed in positions dominated by
women (i.e. the “female oriented” jobs),
Education of the Public Service
39% of all men occupied positions dominated by
University
men. Similar results, for general job
Form VI or
Education /
Advanced
classifications are contained above (see Table
Postgrad
Diploma
5).
Diploma
3%
The link between the nature of the job and its
gender composition has strong implications in
Form IV or
terms of developing strategies to achieve a
Ordinary
more gender balanced public service. First,
Diploma
should strategies target jobs? Broadly, one
47%
could promote and encourage women to enter
traditionally male dominated jobs or one could promote and encourage
women in “neutral” positions (for example, teaching which is 45%
female as opposed to “Watchman,” which is 3% female). Second, to
what degree should “decision makers” and “managers” be targeted
and at what point should the intervention be made (given, for example
that the supply of college educated females remains low)?
2.2.4 EDUCATION
Six percent (6%) of all Public Servants have attended form VI or have
acquired a University Education (see the graphic above). On the other
hand, almost half the Public Service has only a Primary School
education (or lower). More detailed data on education can be found in
the annex (see Section 6.1 page 6-1).
3%
Primary
Education (or
below )
47%
Table 6: EducationGender
Education Level
Up to Standard 4
Standard 5-8
Form 1-4
Ordinary Diploma
Form 5-6
Advanced Diploma
Bachelors Degree
Post-grad Diploma
Masters Degree
Doctorate
Overall
% Women
19%
44%
41%
29%
20%
23%
21%
19%
23%
11%
40%
Note: includes only those whose
gender has been classified
In terms of education, women are clustered as Primary School and
Form I-IV leavers. As one proceeds up the educational ladder (for example to University level) there
are fewer and fewer women (see Table 6).
2.2.5 AGE AND EXPERIENCE
Page 2-3
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
The average public servant is 43.25 years old and he or
she as been working in the Public Service for 17.2
years. Age (and experience) differs by job (and thus
employer), gender, and education. Some jobs (for example in
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) require significant experience.
On the other hand, the average age of a police or prison
officer is relatively young, and this reflects not only easy entry
requirements (in terms of schooling and training) but
retirement policies which remove the eldest from the
profession.
Surprisingly, there is little difference in the average experience
of men and women. Biases in hiring practice (towards
experience) are commonly believed to prolong historical
gender imbalances. This would have explained the lower
numbers of women in upper management positions, but
based on aggregate levels this does not appear the case. As
can be seen in Table 7 both the most educated Public
Servants (those with doctorates) and the least educated Public
Servants (those not completing Primary Education) are
nearing retirement age.
2.2.6 EMPLOYMENT
Table 8: Employment Status
STATUS AND DISCIPLINE
Status
No
%
Currently 0.63% of all
Full Time
280,843
97.917%
public servants are in
In Transfer
1,826
0.637%
Suspended
414
0.144%
the process of being
No Data
3,734
1.302%
transferred and 0.14%
Total
286,817
100%
are on some level of
suspension (i.e. under some disciplinary action). The reasons
for suspension are not monitored in the HCMIS, but the
incidence or level of suspensions contrast sharply with service
user’s perceptions of corruption. For example, in the Service
Delivery Surveys 19% of all users reported that they were
requested to pay an “inducement” (or bribe), while 13%
admitted to actually paying one. To the degree that these
self-reported incidences are reflective of reality, the probability
of being suspended due to corruption is virtually zero. In
other words, despite reportedly widespread
incidence of corruption there is a
correspondingly minimal level of disciplinary
Oldest Institutions
action taken.
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Table 7: Age and Experience
(Disaggregated)
Classification
BY GENDER (*)
Male
Female
BY ORGANISATION
Region
Executive Agency
Local Gov.
Central Gov.
BY EDUCATION
< Standard 4
Doctorate
Masters
Post Graduate
Bachelors
Standard 5-8
Advanced Diploma
Ordinary Diploma
Form 1-4
Form 5-8
BY JOB CLASS
Police Officer
Prison Officer
Immigration Officer
Teacher
Public Health Officer
Stores/Supply Officer
Accountant
Registry Clerk
Typist/Secretary
Education Officer
Office Supervisor/Attendant
Medical Worker
Judicial Officer
Livestock Field Officer
Community Dev. Officer
Technician/Craftsman
Forester
Agricultural Field Officer
Village/Ward/Division Officer
Driver
Telephone Operator
Other
Kitchen Worker
Game Officer
Watchman
Age
Experience
45.0
42.3
20.4
19.7
46.1
46.0
43.9
43.2
20.2
20.4
16.6
17.0
53.8
52.7
49.9
49.4
46.5
46.2
45.7
44.7
40.7
39.1
22.6
24.4
24.0
24.0
20.3
22.8
20.6
20.5
17.1
15.1
40.0
40.6
42.3
43.4
43.4
43.8
44.0
44.0
44.1
44.2
44.4
44.4
45.4
45.4
45.7
45.7
45.8
46.2
46.5
46.5
46.6
46.9
47.4
47.5
48.3
Note: all values are in years
Institutions
Public Debt & General Services (59.4), Teacher's Service
Commission (51.5), Foreign Affairs & Intl. Co-operation (51.0),
Suspensions vary widely according to
Office of the Speaker (50.1), Occupational Safety & Health (49.8),
profession. On an aggregate level (looking
Min. Co-Operatives & Marketing (49.4), Community Dev, Women &
at total incidence), the most widely
Children (49.4), Registrar of Political Parties (49.1), Public Service
suspended profession are accountants.
Commission (48.5), Kagera Region (48.3)
Corruption studies in Tanzania typically
Youngest Institutions
identify the police, courts and revenue
Anti-Drug Commission (34.7), Bukombe District (39.5), Hanang
authorities as places where corruption is the
District (39.8), Tanzania Tree Seed (40), Ministry Home Affairsmost rampant. The data, however, shows
Police Force (40.2), Simanjiro District (40.6), Min.Home AffairsPrison Srvcs (40.9), Mkuranga District (41.1), Kiteto District (41.2),
that very few of these are suspended. For
Bariadi District (41.6)
example, there are some 22,309 police
officers but only 9 are currently suspended.
Note: Average Age, in years, in parenthesis
Disciplinary action appears more common in
the judiciary where there are some 2,010
court workers, 34 of whom are currently suspended.
Page 2-4
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
2.3 Pay, Wages, Incentives
To review, the HCMIS database tracks the following pay
related items:
„ SALARY: the statutory, gross monthly payment due
an employee based on their salary grade, scale, and
schedule
„ WAGE: the actual gross monthly payment made to an
employee. The wage differs from the salary
according to the employment status of the public
servant. For example, a public servant may be
suspended on half pay.
„ ARREARS: the amount paid an employee for previous
underpayments. Arrears are typically generated
when an employee is promoted.
„ ALLOWANCE: a fixed monthly statutory payment to
an employee; differs from “allowances” paid as per
diems, workshops, etc.
„ TAX: the amount of tax deducted from the
employee’s wage.
„ “BENEFITER”: the monthly pension (retirement)
contribution made by the employing institution, on
behalf of the public servant
„ “BENEFITEE”: the monthly pension (retirement)
contribution made by the public servant; a deduction
from his or her gross wage
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Table 9: Suspensions by Job Class
Class
Accountants
Teacher
Judiciary
Watchman/Guard
Health Worker
Works/Technicians
General Administrator
Office Attendant/Secretary
Unknown
Village/Ward/Divisional Officer
Stores/Supplies Officer
Lands Officer
Police
Records Officer
Natural Resources
Police/Prisons Administration
Immigration
Driver
Agriculture/Vet
Other Support Staff
Prison
Total
No
90
73
34
32
24
24
18
17
17
12
9
9
9
8
8
7
6
5
5
4
3
414
%
21.7%
17.6%
8.2%
7.7%
5.8%
5.8%
4.3%
4.1%
4.1%
2.9%
2.2%
2.2%
2.2%
1.9%
1.9%
1.7%
1.4%
1.2%
1.2%
1.0%
0.7%
100.0%
Note: No = Number suspended
Breakdow n of Paym ents to Public Servants
Allow ances
2%
Arrears
2%
The HCMIS does not include other forms of remuneration,
which may be quite substantial. These include:
1. SASE Payments
2. Per Diems, Workshop Allowances, honorarium, and so
forth. These are paid within “Other Charges” or may
be in the development budget or paid by donors.
3. Pay for secondment or various forms of consultancies,
task force duties, etc.
Wage
96%
2.3.1 REMUNERATION INDICATORS
Remuneration can be measured in several ways, and the method selected depends upon the
projected use of the indicator. Key factors include:
„ How to address INFLATION: when increases in wage rates do not keep pace with inflation, the
“real” level of remuneration goes down. This is typically addressed by converting Shilling wage
rates into a more stable currency (such as $US) or deflating by the inflation rate (GDP deflator).
„ Differences between GROSS and NET pay: Gross pay consists of Wages plus Allowances plus
Salary arrears. Deductions from gross pay include taxes and pension payments.
„ Differences over time or between current (cash) benefits and benefits due in the future. While
tax is a clear cost to an employee, the deduction of money for retirement is more difficult to
treat. The degree to which a deduction for pension is a benefit depends upon the real rate of
return realized on the investment (or savings).
To account for these factors, remuneration will be discussed in both Shilling and $US terms and
indicators will include:
1. GROSS PAY: Wages + Arrears + Allowances
2. NET CASH PAY: Gross Pay – Taxes – Benefiter (i.e. employee’s own pension contribution). This
indicator looks at pay from the perspective of the employee, as she picks up her salary
Page 2-5
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
3. NET ECONOMIC PAY: Gross Pay – Taxes + Benefiter + Benefitee (i.e. total pension contribution).
Looks at pay from the perspective of the employee, over the long run and assuming competent
management of his or her
retirement benefits.
Table 10: Remuneration Indicators
Pay Indicator
Average Monthly Value
Definition
2.3.2 OVERALL LEVEL OF
Wage
Tsh 130,984
$123.52
Wages only
REMUNERATION
Net Cash
Tsh 109,531
$103.29
Wage– Tax + Allowance +
Arrears - Employee Pension
Remuneration
As of September 2004 the
Contribution
average public servant
“Economic”
Tsh 146,902
$138.53
Wage–Tax + Allowance +
received a monthly wage of
Arrears + Employer Pension
Remuneration
TSH 130,984. However once
Contribution
taxes and pension
contributions are deducted, “take home” pay (in cash) totaled only Tsh 109,531. In all,
public servants paid monthly taxes of Tsh 4.2 Billion, or an average rate of 11.2% of their total
wages. As can be seen in Table 10, much of the benefits received by public servants are in the form
of pensions or retirement payments. Once pension benefits (paid by employers) are added, the
“economic” value of a public servants remuneration (assuming a 0% return on pension contributions)
becomes Tsh 146,902.19 Overall, 96% of all payments to public servants, in the PE budget, are in the
form of wages.20
On an annual basis, the average monthly wage ($123.52) is equivalent to 4.9 times the per capita
GDP in Tanzania. Therefore, while $123 is not (by any stretch of the imagination) a large sum of
money, a public servant’s salary makes them one of the richer members of Tanzanian society. This
assertion is supported by the very low
rate of voluntary exit from the Public
Wage Distribution
Service. Low exit rates imply that the
remuneration package (including legal
35%
means, such as allowances, as well as
30%
30%
illegal ones, such as misappropriation of
24%
25%
funds and corruption) constitute
20%
20%
favorable employment terms when
compared to an public servant’s
15%
12%
opportunity cost.21
10%
In terms of distribution, only 5% of all
public servants have monthly wages
above Tsh 200,000 per month and only
33% have monthly wages above Tsh
150,000 per month. At the top end of
the distribution there are 919 public
servants with salaries between Tsh
500,000 and Tsh 1 Million per month
and 598 with salaries exceeding Tsh 1
Million per month.
2.3.3 AVERAGE WAGES BY VARIOUS
CATEGORIES
Salaries differ by education, gender, and
employer. As can be seen in Table 11
women make, on average, 94% of the
monthly wage of men. Education is the
major determinant of wage levels. For
8%
5%
5%
1%
0%
<75,000 <100,000 <125,000 <150,000 <175,000 <200,000 >200,000
Institutions
Lowest Paid
Judiciary (95,664), Commercial Courts (97,576), Min. Home AffairsPolice Force (98,512), Defense (103,610), Lands Tribunal (Court)
(106,360), The National Service (108,192), Min. Home Affairs-Prison
Services (108,728), Dar es Salaam City Council (109,906), Min. Natural
Resources & Tourism (109,971), Radio Tanzania (114,229)
Highest Paid
President’s Office-Public Service Mgt (207,980), Min. Co-Operatives &
Marketing (218,297), Ethics Secretariat (221,815), Planning &
Privatization (235,809), Prime Minister-Private Office (237,624), Vice
Presidents Office (260,976), President's Off.& Cabinet Sect (282,664),
Foreign Affairs & International Co-operation (289,204), Office of the
Speaker (693,081), Public Debt & General Services (1,242,471)
Note: Average Wage, in TSH, in parenthesis
19
Average “wages” depend not only on one’s definition of wages and their currencies, but the “base” or set of employees covered in the
average. For example, employees in Executive Agencies may on average receive higher wages than those in MDs and Local Authorities.
20
Furthermore, the payment of arrears is quite sporadic. During many months, no payments are made. September 2004, which is the
source of data for this chapter, had abnormally high payments of arrears.
21
The decision to serve government is not based solely on remuneration, though remuneration serves an important role.
Page 2-6
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
example, a public servant with a doctorate degree makes on average 3.7 times the wage of a public
servant with a form IV completion. Given, however,
Table 11: Disaggregated Average Wages
the very low pass rates from primary school to Form
Classification
Average
IV and Form VI, the salary differences are quite
BY GENDER
small between these categories. Finally, pay differs
Unknown
92,921
according to major job categories, again, largely as
Female
131,035
a reflection of education. Noteworthy are the low
Male
138,882
payments to members of the police force and the
BY EDUCATION
relatively high payments to teachers and extension
Up to Standard 4
82,513
officers.
Standard 5-8
125,654
2.3.4 PAY TARGETS
The Medium Term Pay Policy (MTPP) sets pay
targets from {DATES} to {}. As of September 2004,
actual pay, across all positions covered in the
policy stands at 83.78% of their targeted
values. In all there are 39 grades covered by the
policy; one has currently met its target though
employment in this cadre is very low. Performance
across all grades can be found in the annex (see
Table 18 page 6-1).
2.4 Budget
During September of 2004 total payment, to public
servants, on PE related items was Tsh 38.6 Billion.
The amount paid by Central Government was
equivalent (on an annual basis) to 4.7% of GDP.22
Looking across all government institutions monitored
in the HCMIS, per capita levels of PE payment total
roughly Tsh 15,000 per person per year.
Form 1-4
Form 5-6
Ordinary Diploma
Advanced Diploma
Bachelors Degree
Post grad Diploma
Masters Degree
Doctorate
BY JOB CLASS
Watchman
Kitchen Worker
Driver
Registry Clerk
Telephone Operator
Office Supervisor/Attendant
Typist/Secretary
Police Officer
Forester
Game Officer
Prison Officer
Technician/Craftsman
Stores/Supply Officer
Medical Worker
Village/Ward/Division Officer
Accountant
Judicial Officer
Public Health Officer
Community Development Officer
Teacher
Livestock Field Officer
Agricultural Field Officer
Education Officer
Other
Immigration Officer
129,711
134,793
161,303
223,444
274,369
317,319
380,457
475,844
69,718
77,423
80,447
81,082
84,546
88,355
88,596
98,107
102,669
104,453
106,434
107,791
108,314
109,922
111,802
126,660
133,337
141,499
142,380
142,707
149,583
150,610
152,021
159,782
184,381
Note: all figures are monthly in Tsh
22
The target is 4% GDP. Again, this DOES NOT reflect the relative size of government. Instead, the indicator is used to gauge Treasury’s
budgetary responsibility, in terms of public servants, in relation to the size of the government.
Page 2-7
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Chapter III
E M P L O Y M E N T
3. Trends
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
Se 1
p01
M
ar
-0
Se 2
p0
M 2
ar
-0
3
Se
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
Mar-04
% of Public Servants w ho are Teachers
Sep-04
Mar-04
Mar-03
Sep-03
Mar-02
Sep-00
Sep-02
80,000
Mar-04
160,000
Sep-04
85,000
Mar-03
170,000
Sep-03
90,000
Mar-02
180,000
Sep-02
95,000
Mar-01
Mar-03
Sep-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
Mar-01
Sep-01
Sep-00
Sep-04
Central Governent Em ploym ent
Local Governm ent Em ploym ent
190,000
Em ploym ent in Regional Secretariats
10,500
44
43
42
41
10,000
40
39
38
Sep-04
Sep-04
Sep-04
Mar-04
Mar-04
Mar-04
Mar-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
120,000
110,000
100,000
Mar-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
Sep-01
90,000
Mar-01
Num ber of Police Officers
23,500
22,500
21,500
Mar-03
Sep-02
Mar-02
20,500
Sep-01
Mar-04
130,000
Sep-04
Mar-03
Sep-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
Sep-01
32,000
Over the four year period from
31,000
September 2000 to September
30,000
2004, the number of Public servants
29,000
increased from 263,382 to 286,817.
28,000
This is equivalent to an annual
27,000
average percentage increase of
2.16%, a rate somewhat lower than
the overall growth rate of the
population (2.90%). Since the population is increasing faster than
the public service, the number of public servants per 100,000
population has decreased from 815 in September 2000 to 792 in
September 2004.
Mar-01
Sep-01
Sep-00
Num ber of Teachers
Medical Officers (Doctors, Nurses, etc)
33,000
Sep-00
Mar-01
9,500
37
Sep-00
3.2 Employment Trends
760.00
Mar-01
Part II of this report contains trends
and definitions for 174 different
indicators monitored in this data
set.
260,000
Sep-00
The inclusion of these months was
limited by availability of historical
data as well as the time required to
develop a standardized process
within PO-PSM for handling and
manipulating the information.
780.00
Sep-01
„
270,000
Mar-01
„
September 2000, 2001, 2002,
2003 (i.e. annual September
data)
December 2003, March 2004
(i.e. quarterly data beginning
December 2003)
All monthly data starting in May
2004
800.00
Sep-00
„
820.00
280,000
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
1
Se
p01
M
ar
-0
2
Se
p02
M
ar
-0
Se 3
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
This chapter reviews major trends in
employment, pay, and budgeting.
Monthly data covers a 4 year period
from September 2000 to September
2004. The following months have
been included:
Public Service Em ploym ent per 100,000
population
Em ploym ent in the Public Service
290,000
Sep-01
3.1 Introduction
Sep-03
A N D
Sep-03
B U D G E T ,
Sep-03
P A Y ,
Page 3-1
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
Most of this increase in employment occurred within Local
Authorities, in particular, teachers and medical staff.
During the four year period, the number of teachers
( H C M I S )
% annual
increase
14.21%
11.24%
10.59%
7.92%
6.03%
5.78%
5.53%
5.52%
5.51%
5.49%
4.74%
4.08%
3.85%
3.72%
2.32%
2.04%
1.83%
1.38%
1.17%
1.09%
0.96%
0.56%
0.31%
-0.40%
-11.27%
2.16%
Position
Education Officers/Administrators
Village/Ward/Divisional Officers
Watchmen
Drivers
Stores/Supply Officers
Registry Officers
Accountants
Teachers
Community Development Officers
Immigration Officers
Public Health Officers
Typists
Judicial Officers
Medical Officers
Game Officers
Kitchen Staff
Agriculture Officer
Livestock Officers
Foresters
Prison
Office Supervisors
Technicians/Craftsman
Police
Telephone Operators
Others
Overall
Elsewhere, there has been some decrease in employment
at the Regional Secretariats, though this trend has
stabilized and since 2003/04 the number employees has
remained roughly constant in the range of 10,000 to
10,100.
3.2.1 JOB GROWTH TRENDS
While the public service grew at an average annual rate of
2.16%, this growth was uneven across broad job
categories. The largest increases were registered in some
of the administrative positions, in particular those relating
to education and those at lower Local Government level
(villages and wards). The increase in drivers and
watchmen is undoubtedly linked to increased investments
in offices, vehicles and other assets.
3.2.2 GENDER TRENDS
% of the Public Service w ho are Female
% of Decision Making Posts held by
Wom en
40.50%
23.00%
40.00%
22.00%
39.50%
21.00%
39.00%
Average Age (in years)
44.40
Mar-04
Sep-04
Mar-03
Sep-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
Mar-01
Sep-01
Mar-03
Mar-02
Sep-02
Mar-01
Sep-01
Sep-00
Sep-00
38.50%
20.00%
Average Experience (in years)
20.50
44.20
43.60
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
1
Se
p01
M
ar
-0
2
Se
p02
M
ar
-0
3
Se
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
3.2.3 AGE, EXPERIENCE, SUSPENSIONS
The public service is becoming younger and somewhat less
experienced. From September 2000 the average age has decreased
from 44.3 to 43.3 year while the average years of experience has
reduced from 20.1 to 17.2. It is unclear whether this trend is due to
the push towards new recruitment (for example, the increase in
19.50
18.50
17.50
16.50
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
1
Se
p01
M
ar
-0
2
Se
p02
M
ar
-0
3
Se
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
43.80
Suspensions per 100,000 Public Servants
160
120
80
40
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
1
Se
p01
M
ar
-0
2
Se
p02
M
ar
-0
3
Se
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
44.00
Excluding upper management
43.40
43.20
positions women have gained ground
43.00
in almost all other general job
categories (see Annex Table 17 on
page 5-6). Increases in the
composition of women has been most prominent in the Judiciary,
Supplies, Teachers and Accountants.
23
S E R V I C E
Table 12: Job Growth from Sep
2000 to Sep 2004
increased by 23,812, which was roughly equivalent to the
net increase in employment in the Public Service (of
23,485). Many of these increases in the “poverty
reduction” areas occurred during 2003/04. On the other
hand, large segments, such as the police have seen no
similar increase (see Table 12).
Since September 2000, the
percentage of public servants who are
female increased from 38.65% to
39.96%.23 Despite this general
increase, improvements have been
slow in the higher decision making
areas. In fact, since September
2002, the percentage of women who
are directors, assistant directors,
permanent secretaries and
commissioners has decreased slightly
from a high of almost 23% to its
current level of 22.3%.
P U B L I C
Mar-04
A N D
Sep-04
B U D G E T ,
Sep-03
P A Y ,
Recall, however, that a large number of employees are not classified.
Page 3-2
E M P L O Y M E N T
teachers) or trends in retirement
and exits.
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Pay Trends (in Tsh)
Actual Salaries as a % of those in
the Medium Term Pay Policy
150,000
87.0%
Wage
Cash
Economic
125,000
86.0%
100,000
85.0%
84.0%
75,000
83.0%
Sep-04
Jan-04
May-04
Sep-03
Jan-03
May-03
Sep-02
Jan-02
May-02
Sep-01
50,000
Se
p03
N
ov
-0
3
Ja
n04
M
ar
-0
4
M
ay
-0
4
Ju
l-0
4
Se
p04
Though the frequency of
suspension remains low (given
perceptions on corruption or
unethical behavior), levels of
suspension are on the rise
(especially from September
2000 to September2003).
Suspensions have stabilized at
roughly 0.14% of the public
service.
I N
Jan-01
A N D
May-01
B U D G E T ,
Sep-00
P A Y ,
Table 13: Remuneration Indicators
ANNUAL AVERAGE
% INCREASE
3.3 Pay Trends
AVERAGE LEVELS
IN TSH
Sept
Sept
2000
2004
75,560
130,984
Pay Indicator
Note
$US
TSH
On a cash basis, pay has increased
Wage Earned
1
6.9%
14.7%
at an annual rate of 12.1 % from
Cash Payment
2
4.3%
12.1%
69,367
109,531
September 2000 to September
Economic Payment
3
6.5%
14.2%
86,430
146,902
2004. Average salaries rose by
Notes
over Tsh 40,000 per month, from
1. Wages only
roughly Tsh 69,000 to Tsh
2. Wage – Tax + Allowance + Arrears - Employee Pension Contribution
109,000. Most of this increase
3. Wage –Tax + Allowance + Arrears + Employer Pension Contribution
came more recently, especially
Average Fem ale Wage as a % of
since September 2003 (see the adjacent graph).
95.0%
Average Male Wage
94.5%
94.0%
93.5%
93.0%
92.5%
Se
p0
M 0
ar
-0
Se 1
p0
M 1
ar
-0
Se 2
p0
M 2
ar
-0
Se 3
p0
M 3
ar
-0
Se 4
p04
However: cash remuneration has increased more slowly than
wages, largely due to increases in tax payment. It is probable that
this has to do with “bracket creep,” when tax brackets are not
increased with inflation. Furthermore, nominal trends in Shillings
overstate the true progress because of high levels of inflation in
the early 2000’s. Looking in dollar terms, pay increases are more
modest and have averaged only 4.3% per annum since September
2003.
Central Governm ent Wage Bill (Cash) as a %
of GDP
5.0%
Gross Monthly Wage Bill in Tsh (Paid to
Public Servants Only)
50,000,000,000
4.5%
40,000,000,000
4.0%
Sep-04
Mar-04
Sep-03
Mar-03
Sep-02
Mar-02
Mar-01
20,000,000,000
Sep-01
3.0%
30,000,000,000
Sep-00
3.5%
Se
p00
M
ar
-0
1
Se
p01
M
ar
-0
2
Se
p02
M
ar
-0
3
Se
p03
M
ar
-0
4
Se
p04
If the target levels in the
medium term pay policy had
been met, average salaries
would currently stand at Tsh
157,000 per month. As can be
seen above, targets have
historically been met in the
range of 83% to 86%.
3.3.1 GENDER PAY TRENDS
Over time there has been very little change in the terms of pay between men and women. If
anything larger gaps are arising. This is likely
Table 14: Wage Bill Data
linked to education and the trend for pay levels of
Item
Value
more highly educated Public Servants to be
Wage Bill September 2000 (in Tsh)
24,190,141,539
increasing faster than pay levels for more lowly
Wage Bill September 2004 (in Tsh)
45,838,457,885
educated Public Servants. Since fewer women are
% increase in Tsh
17.3%
in these high level positions, their pay status, vis a
% increase in $US
9.5%
vis men, is slowly deteriorating.
3.4 Budgetary trends
Over the last four years, monthly expenditures on Personal emoluments increased from roughly 24
Billion Shillings to almost 46 billion Shillings. This increase (of 17.3% in Tsh or 9.5% in $US) is due
Page 3-3
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
both to increases in the number of Public Servants as well as increases in pay. The government aims
to spend roughly 4% of GDP on salaries. This figure has remained constant over time.
3.5 Summary
Looking at the four year period from September 2000 to September 2004, the following trends have
been highlighted:
„
„
„
„
„
„
The number of public servants increased from 263,382 to 286,817 or at an annual average
percentage increase of 2.1%. This is slower than the growth of the population so there are now
slightly fewer public servants per capita than there were at the beginning of the period.
Much of the increase is due to increases in teachers, whose numbers increased by over 20,000
during this period. More generally, employment increases occurred at Local Authorities, not
Regional Secretariats or Central Government. This is in line with Government’s policy of
decentralization.
The percentage of women in the public service has increased slightly, but not at upper levels of
management
The government is getting slightly younger, either due to the surge in new recruitment or
perhaps due to changes in retirement policy
Salaries, on either a pre-tax or after-tax basis have improved at an annual rate of 12-15% in
Shillings, depending on how remuneration is measured. Average take home (cash) payments
have increased by roughly Tsh 40,000 per month, from around Tsh 69,000 per month in
September 2000 to about Tsh 109,000 per month in September 2004. On a $US basis, salaries
increased at an average annual rate of 4.3% indicating that some levels of the increase have
been eroded by inflation.
Though salaries have increased, salary targets in the Medium Term Pay Policy have not been
met. Actual salaries have remained in a band of 84-86% of their targeted levels.
Page 3-4
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
4. Public Sector
Institutions in Tanzania
( H C M I S )
Annex I
P A Y ,
4.1 Background
This annex brief describes the structure of
government in Tanzania, in terms of its key
institutions and institutional structure. These
institutions constitute the employer of Tanzania’s
public sector workers.
Public Sector Institutions in Tanzania can be
classified into 5 main categories:
1. Ministries (including 4 Semi-Autonomous
Departments under the President)
2. Independent Departments
3. Executive Agencies
4. Public Institutions
5. Local Authorities
There are currently 22 “pure” Ministries in
Tanzania. In addition to these there are also 4
Departments under the president which have “extra
Ministerial functions” and thus have Ministers of
State.24 Independent Departments do not have
Ministers and are thus politically answerable to the
Minister of their Parent Ministry. For example, the
Electoral Commission is answerable to the Prime
Minister’s Office. Of the 12 non-security related 5
are overseen by the Prime Minister.
In addition to these “pure” Independent
Departments, there are 2 Security Related
institutions (Prevention of Corruption Bureau,
Tanzania Intelligence and Security Services)
answerable to the President but without Ministers.
List of Ministries & Independent Departments
Ministries (22)
„
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (43), Ministry of
Communications and Transport (62), Ministry of Community
Development, Women and Children (53), Ministry of Cooperatives and Marketing (24), Ministry of Defense and National
Service (57), Ministry of Education and Culture (46), Ministry of
Energy and Minerals (58), Ministry of Finance (50), Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation (34), Ministry of
Health (52), Ministry of Home Affairs (51), Ministry of Industries
and Trade (44), Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs (41),
Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports (65), Ministry
of Lands and Human Settlements Development (48), Ministry of
Natural Resources and Tourism (69), Ministry of Science,
Technology and Higher Education (68), Ministry of Water and
Livestock Development (49), Ministry of Works (47), President's
Office and Cabinet Secretariat (30), Prime Minister's Office (25),
Vice President's Office (31)
Departments of the President having Extra Ministerial Status (4)
„
President's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government
(56), President's Office Planning and Privatization (66), President's
Office Public Service Management (32), State House (20)
Independent Departments (including 2 “Security” Organs under the
President, + 21 Mainland Regional Secretariats + 12 others)
„
“SECURITY” ORGANS UNDER THE PRESIDENT: Prevention of
Corruption Bureau, Tanzania Intelligence and Security Services
(TIS)
„
21 Regional Secretariats (under President's Office - Regional
Administration and Local Government)
„
INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS (12): Anti Drug Commission
(under Prime Minister's Office; vote = 91), Commission for
Human Rights and Good Governance (under Ministry of Justice
and Constitutional Affairs; vote = 55), Electoral Commission
(under Prime Minister's Office; vote = 61), Ethics Secretariat
(under President's Office; vote = 33), Industrial Court of Tanzania
(under Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports; vote =
60), Judiciary (under Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs;
vote = 40), Law Reform Commission (under Ministry of Justice
and Constitutional Affairs; vote = 59), National Audit Office (NAO)
(under Ministry of Finance; vote = 45), Office of the Speaker
(under Prime Minister's Office; vote = 42), Public Service
Commission (under President's Office; vote = 94), Registrar of
Political Parties (under Prime Minister's Office; vote = 27),
TACAIDs (Tanzania Commission for Aids) (under Prime Minister's
Office; vote = 92)
Finally, there are 21 Regional Secretariats having
the technical status of Independent Departments.
NOTE: Vote number in Parenthesis
Regional Secretariats have a “technocratic side,”
consisting of the office of the Regional
Administrative Secretary (RAS) together with the office of the District Administrative Secretariat, and
a “political” side, consisting of the Regional and District Commissioners.25 The office of the Regional
24
The President is also the Commander and Chief and is therefore in charge of the Armed Forces. On a day to day basis the armed forces
are managed by the Ministry of Defense and National Service.
25
The Divisional Secretary was under the “political side” but will eventually be answerable to Local Authorities.
Page 4-1
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
and District Commissioner can be considered
“mini-presidents” since they have both
executive and political roles.26
While Independent Departments are created
either by Acts of Parliament or Executive Order,
Executive Agencies are legislated under the
Executive Agencies Act (No X of Y). Executive
agencies operate at arms length from their
Parent Ministry (from which they were derived).
Currently there are 20 Executive Agencies (see
the adjacent list).
The functions and classification of these
institutions is a separate issue from whether or
not these institutions have votes (or are subvotes). The issuing of votes is a matter of
financial management and there are cases
where departments under Ministries (like the
Accountant General’s Office under Ministry of
Finance) have their own votes, but are not
separate Ministries.27
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Executive Agencies (20)
Agency for Development of Educational Management (ADEM) (with the
Parent: Ministry of Education and Culture; vote = ), Business
Registration and Licensing Agency (BRELA) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Industries and Trade; vote = ), Drilling and Dam Construction Agency
(DDCA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Water and Livestock Development;
vote = ), Eastern African Statistical Training Centre (EASTC) (with the
Parent: President's Office Planning and Privatization; vote = 280403),
Government Chemistry Laboratory (GCL) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Health; vote = ), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (with the Parent:
President's Office Planning and Privatization; vote = 280301), National
College of Tourism (NCT) (with the Parent: Ministry of Natural
Resources and Tourism; vote = 280318), National Housing and Building
Research Agency (NHBRA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Works; vote =
), Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) (with the Parent:
Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports; vote = 280315),
Tanzania Airports Authority (TAA) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Communications and Transport; vote =), Tanzania Building Agency
(TBA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Works; vote = 280314), Tanzania
Civil Aviation Authority (TCAA) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Communications and Transport; vote =), Tanzania Food and Drugs
Authority (TFDA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Health; vote = ),
Tanzania Government Flight (TGF) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Communications and Transport; vote = ), Tanzania Institute for
Accountancy (TIA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Finance; vote = ),
Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) (with the Parent: Ministry of
Communications and Transport; vote = ), Tanzania National Roads
Agency (TANROADS) (with the Parent: Ministry of Works; vote =
280716), Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC) (with the Parent:
President's Office Public Service Management; vote = ), Tanzania Tree
Seed Agency (TTSA) (with the Parent: Ministry of Natural Resources
and Tourism; vote = 280317), Weights and Measures Agency (WMA)
(with the Parent: Ministry of Industries and Trade; vote = 280311)
There are a large number of “Public
Institutions” some of which are commercial
(“Public Corporations”) and others of which are
non-commercial and thus dependent upon
NOTE: MOF transfer references are placed in Parenthesis
Government subvention. According to the
2004/05 budget there were 103 Public
Institutions receiving some form of subvention (see the next page for a list). These institutions are
generally not found in the HCMIS database. Sustainable, purely independent Public Institutions (like
the Bank of Tanzania and National Social Security Fund) are outside the government budget and
outside the HCMIS.
Table 15: List of Public Institutions Receiving Government Subventions
Ministry
Public Institution
Judiciary
„
Institute of Judicial Administration ( 280554)
Ministry of Agriculture and
Food Security
„
Freedom from Hunger ( 280705), National Sugar Institute ( 280568), Rufiji Basin Development
Authority ( 280553), Tanzania Coffee Board ( 280578), Tanzania Pesticides Research Institute (
280527), Tanzania Pyrethrum Board ( 280573), Tanzania Sisal Board ( 280114), Tanzania Tea
Board ( 280574), Tanzania Tobacco Board Tanzania Tobacco Board ( 280579)
Ministry of Communications
and Transport
„
Air Tanzania Holding Company ( 280576), Dar es Salaam Maritime Insitute ( 280535), National
Institute of Transport ( 280536), Regional Transport Authority ( 280601), Tanzania Aircraft
Authority (Tanzania Govt Freight Agency) ( 280571)
Ministry of Co-operatives and
Marketing
„
Co-operative Audit and Supervision Corporation ( 280102), Cooperative College Moshi ( 280508),
Inspection and Supervision of Cooperative Fund ( 280319)
Ministry of Defense and
National Service
„
Mzinga Factory ( 280107), Shirika la Nyumbu ( 280108)
26
This contrasts with the setup at Ministries, where Permanent Secretaries have executive roles and Ministers have political roles.
27
There are 10 such cases (as of the 2004/05 budget). They are: Accountant General's Department (having the Parent: Ministry of
Finance; vote = 23), Commercial Court (having the Parent: Judiciary; vote = 64), Defense (having the Parent: Ministry of Defense and National
Service; vote = 38), Lands Court (having the Parent: Judiciary; vote = 90), Ministry of Home Affairs-Police Force (having the Parent: Ministry of
Home Affairs; vote = 28), The National Service (having the Parent: Ministry of Defense and National Service; vote = 39), Public Debt and
General Services (having the Parent: Ministry of Finance; vote = 22), Vice President (having the Parent: Vice President's Office; vote = 26),
Ministry of Home Affairs-Prison Services (having the Parent: Ministry of Home Affairs; vote = 29), Immigration Department (having the Parent:
Ministry of Home Affairs; vote = 90)
Page 4-2
P A Y ,
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Ministry
Public Institution
Ministry of Education and
Culture
„
CHEWATA ( 280706), EACRATANAL ( 280402), Film Censorship Board ( 280514), Institue of Adult
Education Institute of Adult Education ( 280118), Institute of Education ( 280512), National Arts
Council ( 280515), National Correspondence Institute ( 280513), National Examination Council (
280510), National Kiswahili Council ( 280516), Tanzania Library Service (TLS) ( 280511)
Ministry of Energy and
Minerals
„
Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation ( 280714)
Ministry of Finance
„
Commission for Insurance ( 280557), Institute of Finance Management ( 280536), Joint Finance
Commission ( 280127), National Board of Accountants and Auditors ( 280538), National Institute of
Accountants Arusha ( 280573), Tanzania Revenue Authority ( 280126)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
International Co-operation
„
Centre for Foreign Relations ( 280503)
Ministry of Health
„
Bugando Medical Centre ( 280711), Kibongoto Hospital ( 280310), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical
Centre ( 280708), Mbeya Referral Hospital ( 280308), Mirembe and Isanga Institutions ( 280309),
Muhimbili Medical Centre ( 280529), Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute ( 280530), National Institute for
Medical Research (NIMRY) ( 280532), Ocean Road Cancer Institute ( 280531), Tanzania Food and
Nutrition Center ( 280533)
Ministry of Industries and
Trade
„
Board of External Trade (BET) ( 280113), Center for Agricultural Mechanisation and Rural
Technology (CAMARTEC) ( 280104), College of Business Education ( 280509), Copyright Society of
Tanzania ( 280126), London Trade Centre ( 280944), Small Industries and Development
Organisation (SIDO) ( 280109), Tanzania Bureau of Standards ( 280110), Tanzania Engineering and
Manufacturing Design Organisation (TEMDO) ( 280106), Tanzania Industrial Research and
Development Organisation ( 280103)
Ministry of Labour, Youth
Development and Sports
„
National Social Welfare Training Institute ( 280537), National Sports Council ( 200518)
Ministry of Lands and Human
Settlements Development
„
Ardhi Institute ( 280522), Land Use Planning Commission ( 280558), NHBRA ( 280316)
Ministry of Natural Resources
and Tourism and Tourism,
and Tourism
„
College of Wildlife ( 280575), Marine Park Reserve Unit ( 280554), National Museum ( 280517),
Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFiRI) ( 280551), Tanzania Forestry Research Institute
(TAFORI) ( 280550), Tanzania Tourist Board ( 280112), Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (
280116)
Ministry of Science,
Technology and Higher
Education
„
Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT) ( 280545), Higher Education Accreditation Council (
280543), Kivukoni Academy of Social Sciences ( 280404), Muhimbili University College of Health
Services ( 280544), Mzumbe University ( 280570), National Council for Technical Education (
280546), National Radiation Commission (NRC) ( 280574), Open University of Tanzania ( 280539),
Sokoine University ( 280541), Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) (
280548), University College of Lands and Architectural Studies ( 280540), University of Dar Es
Salaam ( 280524)
Ministry of Works
„
Appropriate Technology Training Institute ( 280559), Engineers Registration Board ( 280561),
Morogoro Training Institute ( 280562), National Board of Engineers and Quantity Surveyors (
280524), National Board of Material Management ( 280519), National Construction Council (NCC) (
280521)
President's Office - Regional
Administration and Local
Government
„
Hombolo Local Government Training Institute ( 280534), Kibaha Education Centre ( 280506), Local
Government Loans Board ( 280119)
President's Office Planning
and Privatization
„
Institute for Rural Development Planning ( 280538), National Business Council ( 280125), National
Productivity Council ( 280111), Parastatal Sector Reform Commission ( 280556), Tanzania
Investment Centre ( 280307)
President's Office Public
Service Management
„
ESAMI ( 280401)
Prime Minister's Office
„
Capital Development Authority ( 280520), Dakawa Development Centre ( 280552), Tanzania
Broadcasting Services ( 280577)
Vice President's Office
„
National Environmental Management Council ( 280501)
Table 16: Institutions included in the HCMIS (June 2004)
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘Agency’ [3 institutions included]
„
Lands Tribunal (Court), Law Reform Commission, Prime Minister-Private Office
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘Department’ [12 institutions included]
„
Civil Service Commission, Defence, Ethics Secretariat, Local Govt Service Commission, Planning & Privatisation, Pres.OfficePublic Service Mgt, Prime Minister-Private Office, Regional Admin. & Local Govt., State House, Teacher's Service
Commission, The National Service, Vice President
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘District’ [117 institutions included]
Page 4-3
P A Y ,
„
B U D G E T ,
A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T
I N
T H E
P U B L I C
S E R V I C E
( H C M I S )
Arumeru District, Arusha Municipal Council, Babati District, Bagamoyo District, Bariadi District, Biharamulo District, Bukoba
District, Bukoba Town Council, Bukombe District, Bunda District, Chunya District, Dar es Salaam City Council, Dodoma
District, Dodoma Municipal Council, Geita District, Hai District, Hanang' District, Handeni District, Igunga District, Ilala
District, Ileje District, Iramba District, Iringa District, Iringa Municipal Council, Kahama District, Karagwe District, Karatu
District, Kasulu District, Kibaha District, Kibaha Township, Kibondo District, Kigoma District, Kigoma Town Council,
Kilombero District, Kilosa District, Kilwa District, Kinondoni District, Kisarawe District, Kiteto District, Kondoa District,
Kongwa District, Korogwe District, Kwimba District, Kyela District, Lindi District, Lindi Town Council, Liwale District, Ludewa
District, Lushoto District, Mafia District, Mafinga District, Magu District, Makete District, Manyoni District, Masasi District,
Maswa District, Mbarali District, Mbeya District, Mbeya Municipal Council, Mbinga District, Mbozi District, Mbulu District,
Misungwi District, Mkasi District, Mkuranga District, Monduli District, Morogoro District, Morogoro Municipal Council, Moshi
District, Moshi Municipal Council, Mpanda District, Mpwapwa District, Mtwara District, Mtwara Town Council, Muheza
District, Muleba District, Musoma District, Musoma Town Council, Mwanga District, Mwanza City Council, Nachingwea
District, Neatu District, Newala District, Ngara District, Ngorongoro District, Njombe District, Nzega District, Pangani
District, Rombo District, Ruagwa District, Rufiji District, Rungwe District, Same District, Sengerema District, Serengeti
District, Shinyanga District, Shinyanga Municipal Council, Sikonge District, Simanjiro District, Singida District, Singida Town
Council, Songea District, Songea Town Council, Sumbawanga District, Sumbawanga Town Council, Tabora District, Tabora
Town Council, Tandahimba District, Tanga Municipal Council, Tarime District, Temeke District, Tunduru District, Ukerewe
District, Ulanga District, Urambo District
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘Independent Department’ [14 institutions included]
„
Accountant General's Dept, Anti-Drug Commission, Commercial Courts, Electoral Commission, Exchequer & Audit
Department, Human Rights & Good Governance, Industrial Court of Tanzania, Judiciary, Min.Home Affairs-Police Force,
Min.Home Affairs-Prison Srvcs, Office of the Speaker, Public Debt & General Services, Radio Tanzania, Registrar of Political
Parties
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘Ministry’ [24 institutions included]
„
Agriculture & Food Security, Community Dev,Women & Children, Foreign Affairs & Intl.Co-optn, Justice & Constitutional
Affrs, Lands & Human Settlements Dev., Min Communication & Transport, Min of Defence & National Svc, Min. CoOperatives & Marketing, Min.Labour, Youth Dev.& Sports, Min.Natural Resources&Tourism, Ministry of Education, Ministry
of Energy & Minerals, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Industries & Trade,
Ministry of Works, President's Off.& Cabinet Sect, Prime Minister's Office, Science,Technology & Higher Ed, Vice Presidents
Office, Water & Livestock Development
Company = 2000; Organisation Type = ‘Region’ [21institutions included]
„
Arusha Region, Coast Region, Dar es Salaam Region, Dodoma Region, Iringa Region, Kagera Region, Kigoma Region,
Kilimanjaro Region, Lindi Region, Manyara Region, Mara Region, Mbeya Region, Morogoro Region, Mtwara Region, Mwanza
Region, Rukwa Region, Ruvuma Region, Shinyanga Region, Singida Region, Tabora Region, Tanga Region
Company = 2001; Organisation Type = ‘Agency’ [4 institutions included]
„
DSM Inst. of Technology, Muhimbili Medical Centre, Muhumbili Univ Coll Hlth & Scs, Ocean Road Cancer Institute
Company = 2001; Organisation Type = ‘Department’ [2 institutions included]
„
Defence, Muhimbili Medical Centre
Company = 2001; Organisation Type = ‘Executive Agency [12 institutions included]
„
National Bureau of Statistics, National College of Tourism, Occupational Safety & Health, Tanzania Airports Authority,
Tanzania Building Agency, Tanzania Civil Aviation Auth., Tanzania Govt. Freight Agency, Tanzania Inst. Of Accountancy,
Tanzania Meteorological Agency, Tanzania Tree Seed, Weights & Measures Agency
Company = 2001; Organisation Type = ‘Other Government Organisation’ [9 institutions included]
Bugando Hospital, K. C. M. C. Hospital, Local Auth. Provident Fund, Public Service Pension Fund, RUBADA, Tanzania
Broadcasting Commissn, Tanzania Investment Centre, Tanzania News Agency, Tanzania School of Journalism
Page 4-4
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
S U M M A R I E S
5. Selected Gender Data
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Annex II
S E R V I C E
5.1 Female Oriented Jobs
Female Jobs
1. Child Day-Care Assistant
2. Sen Maternal&Child HlthAide(I)
3. Maternal&Child Health Aide (I)
4. Maternal&Child Health Aide(II)
5. Sen Maternal&Child Hlth Ai(II)
6. Principl Nurse Midwife & PHN-B
7. Princ Maternal&Child H Ade(II)
8. Typist (I)
9. Typist (II)
10. Senr Nurse Midwife & PHN-B (I)
11. Sen Nurse Midwife & PHN-B(III)
12. Senior Telephone Operator (II)
13. Sen Nurse Midwife & PHN-B (II)
14. Telephone Operator (II)
15. Personal Secretary (II)
16. Personal Secretary (III)
17. Nurse Midwife & PHN-B (III)
18. Nurse Midwife & PHN-B (I)
19. Nurse Midwife & PHN-B (II)
20. Personal Secretary (I)
21. Nursing Officer (III)
22. Telephone Operator (I)
23. Registration Assistant (II)
24. Office Management Secretry(II)
25. Nursing Officer (IV)
26. Senior Nursing Officer (III)
27. Nursing Officer (I)
28. Senior Nursing Officer (I)
29. Nursing Officer (II)
30. Senior Nursing Officer (II)
31. Library Attendant (II)
32. Office Management Secretary(I)
F
32
708
627
437
823
240
37
636
1,420
117
754
24
132
104
165
130
587
997
991
116
209
114
38
97
117
175
360
60
272
212
16
203
M
0
10
10
9
20
10
2
40
93
9
61
2
11
10
16
13
64
109
116
17
47
26
9
23
31
47
100
18
83
66
5
65
Total
32
718
637
446
843
250
39
676
1,513
126
815
26
143
114
181
143
651
1,106
1,107
133
256
140
47
120
148
222
460
78
355
278
21
268
%F
100.0%
98.6%
98.4%
98.0%
97.6%
96.0%
94.9%
94.1%
93.9%
92.9%
92.5%
92.3%
92.3%
91.2%
91.2%
90.9%
90.2%
90.1%
89.5%
87.2%
81.6%
81.4%
80.9%
80.8%
79.1%
78.8%
78.3%
76.9%
76.6%
76.3%
76.2%
75.7%
5.2 Male Oriented Jobs
Male Jobs
1. Permanent Secretary
2. Education Officer (II)
3. Land Assistant (IV)
4. Agricultural Field Asst (I)
5. Corporal Of Prison
6. Sen Ag/Livestock Resch Offr(I)
F
6
13
6
20
699
11
M
18
39
18
61
2,137
34
Total
24
52
24
81
2,836
45
%F
25.0%
25.0%
25.0%
24.7%
24.6%
24.4%
Page 5-1
S E R V I C E
Male Jobs
7. Medical Doctor (III)
8. Msaidizi Misitu (III)
9. District Executive Director
10. Afisa Mtendaji Wa Kijiji (I)
11. Livestock Field Assistant (II)
12. Medical Assistant (II)
13. Sen Ag/Livestock Economist (I)
14. Senior Livestock Field Asst(I)
15. Sen Agricult Field Officer (I)
16. Accountant (I)
17. Veterinary Laboratory Tech(IV)
18. Princ Assistant Medical O(III)
19. Supplies Officer (II)
20. Senior Accountant (II)
21. Senior Administrtv Officer (I)
22. Princpl Education Officer (II)
23. Senior Office Supervisor (I)
24. Msaidizi Misitu (IV)
25. Medical Assistant (I)
26. Sergeant Of Prison
27. Staff Sergeant Of Prison
28. Judge - The High Court
29. Member of Parliament
30. Livestock Field Assistant (I)
31. Accountant (II)
32. Pharmaceutical Technician (II)
33. Msaidizi Misitu Mwandamizi (I)
34. Radio Technician (IV)
35. Medical Laboratory Technicn(I)
36. Assistant Examiner Accounts(I)
37. Agricult Field Officer (IV)
38. Senior Trade Officer (I)
39. Gardener (II)
40. Wdr/Wdrs - Of Prison
41. Immigration Officer (III)
42. Ag/Livestock Research Offr(I)
43. Principal Accountant (III)
44. Senior Craftsman (III)
45. Assistant Agric Tutor (II)
46. Co-Operative Officer (II)
47. District Magistrate (II)
48. Sen Co-Operative Officer (I)
49. Division Secretary (II)
50. Assistant Medical Officer (II)
51. Launderer (I)
52. Agricult Field Officer (III)
53. Immigration Officer (II)
54. Land Surveyr/TownPlan/Val(III)
55. Afisa Uvuvi Msaidizi Mkuu (II)
56. Mvuvi Msaidizi (II)
57. Senior Medical Assistant (II)
58. Planning Officer (III)
59. Senior Agricultural Officr(II)
60. Planning Officer (II)
61. Supplies Officer (I)
62. Afisa Misitu Msaidizi (IV)
63. Livestock Field Officer (II)
64. Director
65. Senior Livestock Field Off(II)
66. Senior Gardener (II)
67. Assistant Medical Officer (I)
F
18
26
16
24
29
280
5
15
49
33
8
7
23
22
6
31
14
8
60
223
189
6
44
16
39
9
18
7
10
5
144
6
6
856
21
17
11
31
7
7
8
11
6
52
10
84
26
8
4
4
35
10
10
10
9
14
140
22
92
5
21
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
M
56
81
50
76
92
894
16
48
157
106
26
23
76
73
20
104
47
27
207
774
658
21
154
56
137
32
64
25
36
18
522
22
22
3,178
78
64
42
119
27
28
32
44
24
212
41
346
108
34
17
17
149
43
43
43
39
61
610
96
404
22
94
%F
24.3%
24.3%
24.2%
24.0%
24.0%
23.9%
23.8%
23.8%
23.8%
23.7%
23.5%
23.3%
23.2%
23.2%
23.1%
23.0%
23.0%
22.9%
22.5%
22.4%
22.3%
22.2%
22.2%
22.2%
22.2%
22.0%
22.0%
21.9%
21.7%
21.7%
21.6%
21.4%
21.4%
21.2%
21.2%
21.0%
20.8%
20.7%
20.6%
20.0%
20.0%
20.0%
20.0%
19.7%
19.6%
19.5%
19.4%
19.0%
19.0%
19.0%
19.0%
18.9%
18.9%
18.9%
18.8%
18.7%
18.7%
18.6%
18.5%
18.5%
18.3%
Total
74
107
66
100
121
1,174
21
63
206
139
34
30
99
95
26
135
61
35
267
997
847
27
198
72
176
41
82
32
46
23
666
28
28
4,034
99
81
53
150
34
35
40
55
30
264
51
430
134
42
21
21
184
53
53
53
48
75
750
118
496
27
115
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Page 5-2
S E R V I C E
Male Jobs
68. Livestock Officer (II)
69. Principal Administrt Offr (I)
70. Senior Rural Medical Aide (I)
71. Princ Ag/Livestck ReschOff(II)
72. Senior Planning Officer (I)
73. Gardener (I)
74. Livestock Field Assistant(III)
75. District Commissioner
76. Health Officer (III)
77. Livestock Field Officer (I)
78. Senior Rural Medical Aide(III)
79. Livestock Field Officer (III)
80. Senior Technician (I)
81. Senior Accountant (III)
82. Senior Medical Officer (I)
83. Princ Immigration Officer(III)
84. Technician (I)
85. Senior Accountant (I)
86. Mtendaji Wa Kata (III)
87. Co-Operative Officer (I)
88. Senior Veterinary Officer(III)
89. Principal Primary Court Magist
90. Sergeant Major Of Police
91. Assistant Dental Officer (II)
92. Livestock Field Officer (IV)
93. Askari Wanyamapori Mwandamz(I)
94. Senior Health Officer (I)
95. Msaidizi Misitu Mkuu
96. Senior Cultural Officer (I)
97. Minister
98. Land Surveyor/TownPlan/Val(II)
99. Assistant Inspector Of Prison
100. Assistant Trade Officer (II)
101. Senior Land Officer (I)
102. Princ Assistant Medical Of(II)
103. Senior Medical Officer (II)
104. Division Secretary (IV)
105. Examiner Of Accounts (III)
106. Sen Land Surv/TownPlan/Val(II)
107. Land Surveyor/TownPlanr/Val(I)
108. Station Sergeant Of Police
109. Afisa Uvuvi Msaidizi (III)
110. Sen Land Survr/TownPlan/Val(I)
111. Princ Community Dev Offr (III)
112. Principal Trade Officer (II)
113. Mkuu Wa Masoko Msaidizi (II)
114. Senior Planning Officer (II)
115. Sergeant Of Police
116. Technical Auxilliary (I)
117. Afisa Mfugaji Nyuki Msaidiz(I)
118. Assistant Commissioner -Prison
119. Princ Ag/Livestock Rsch Off(I)
120. Sen Assistant Medical Offic(I)
121. Technician (IV)
122. Senior Livestock Field Off (I)
123. Senior Craftsman (II)
124. Afisa Misitu Msaidizi (III)
125. Afisa Uvuvi Msaidizi (IV)
126. Technician (III)
127. Immigration Officer (I)
128. Inspector Of Prison
F
6
10
8
4
6
4
32
17
47
65
151
26
37
17
7
4
67
22
62
11
4
9
7
6
65
21
8
4
4
4
16
49
4
4
4
4
50
9
9
9
106
5
4
4
4
7
11
164
18
4
6
3
6
189
28
12
10
6
121
9
20
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
M
27
45
36
18
27
18
146
78
216
303
704
122
174
80
33
19
321
107
303
54
20
45
35
30
331
108
42
21
21
21
86
264
22
22
22
22
275
50
50
50
590
28
23
23
23
41
65
980
108
24
36
18
36
1,151
171
75
63
38
768
58
129
%F
18.2%
18.2%
18.2%
18.2%
18.2%
18.2%
18.0%
17.9%
17.9%
17.7%
17.7%
17.6%
17.5%
17.5%
17.5%
17.4%
17.3%
17.1%
17.0%
16.9%
16.7%
16.7%
16.7%
16.7%
16.4%
16.3%
16.0%
16.0%
16.0%
16.0%
15.7%
15.7%
15.4%
15.4%
15.4%
15.4%
15.4%
15.3%
15.3%
15.3%
15.2%
15.2%
14.8%
14.8%
14.8%
14.6%
14.5%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.1%
14.1%
13.8%
13.7%
13.6%
13.6%
13.4%
13.4%
Total
33
55
44
22
33
22
178
95
263
368
855
148
211
97
40
23
388
129
365
65
24
54
42
36
396
129
50
25
25
25
102
313
26
26
26
26
325
59
59
59
696
33
27
27
27
48
76
1,144
126
28
42
21
42
1,340
199
87
73
44
889
67
149
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Page 5-3
S E R V I C E
Male Jobs
129. District Administrative Secr.
130. Executive Engineer (III)
131. Afisa Mfugaji Nyuki Msadz (II)
132. Sen Livestock Field Asst (II)
133. Principal Trade Officer (III)
134. Sen Assistant Medical Offr(II)
135. Corporal Of Police
136. Pharmaceutical Technician (IV)
137. Police Constable
138. Inspector Of Police
139. Land Assistant (II)
140. Assistant Co-Operative Off (I)
141. Sen Assistant Accountant (II)
142. Senior Rural Medical Aide (II)
143. Askari Wanyamapori (I)
144. Senior Medical Assistant (I)
145. Principal Health Officer (II)
146. Askari Wanyamapori (II)
147. Mtendaji Wa Kata (II)
148. Health Officer (II)
149. Superintendent Of Prison
150. Mtendaji Wa Kata (I)
151. Assistant Technician
152. Senior Supplies Officer (II)
153. Senor Division Secretary (III)
154. Auditor (III)
155. Senior Craftsman (I)
156. Afisa Wanyamapori Msaidiz(III)
157. Radio Technician (III)
158. Askari Wanyamapori Mwandmz(II)
159. Executive Engineer (I)
160. Senior Supplies Officer (III)
161. Assistant Commissioner -Police
162. Agricultural Officer (III)
163. Senior Technician (II)
164. Superintendent Of Police
165. Afisa Uvuvi Msaidizi (II)
166. Craftsman (I)
167. Mtendaji Wa Kata (IV)
168. Technical Auxilliary (II)
169. Assist. Superintendent -Police
170. Mkaguzi Wa Mji Msaidizi (I)
171. Principal Co-Operative Off(II)
172. Mvuvi Msaidizi Mwandamizi (I)
173. Examiner Of Accounts (II)
174. Askari Wanyamapori (III)
175. Technician (II)
176. Sen Co-Operative Officer (II)
177. Technical Auxilliary (III)
178. Afisa Mfugaji Nyuki Msadz(IV)
179. Senior Immigration Officer (I)
180. Assistant Inspector Of Police
181. Division Secretary (I)
182. Senior Land Officer (II)
183. Senior Veterinary Officer (II)
184. Forest Officer (I)
185. Internal Auditor (III)
186. Principal Livestck Field O(II)
187. Senior Geologist (II)
188. Veterinary Officer (I)
189. Craftsman (III)
F
11
11
7
7
5
8
361
3
1,873
27
3
3
3
9
26
7
5
21
56
31
10
58
143
3
4
4
6
3
4
19
10
4
5
4
32
14
8
9
16
11
31
2
3
2
2
12
79
4
11
2
4
33
5
2
2
3
2
4
2
2
27
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
M
71
72
46
46
33
53
2,403
20
12,906
188
21
21
21
64
185
50
36
152
406
225
74
432
1,079
23
31
31
47
24
33
167
90
36
46
37
301
136
78
88
158
109
309
20
30
20
20
121
800
41
115
21
42
347
53
22
22
34
24
48
24
24
327
%F
13.4%
13.3%
13.2%
13.2%
13.2%
13.1%
13.1%
13.0%
12.7%
12.6%
12.5%
12.5%
12.5%
12.3%
12.3%
12.3%
12.2%
12.1%
12.1%
12.1%
11.9%
11.8%
11.7%
11.5%
11.4%
11.4%
11.3%
11.1%
10.8%
10.2%
10.0%
10.0%
9.8%
9.8%
9.6%
9.3%
9.3%
9.3%
9.2%
9.2%
9.1%
9.1%
9.1%
9.1%
9.1%
9.0%
9.0%
8.9%
8.7%
8.7%
8.7%
8.7%
8.6%
8.3%
8.3%
8.1%
7.7%
7.7%
7.7%
7.7%
7.6%
Total
82
83
53
53
38
61
2,764
23
14,779
215
24
24
24
73
211
57
41
173
462
256
84
490
1,222
26
35
35
53
27
37
186
100
40
51
41
333
150
86
97
174
120
340
22
33
22
22
133
879
45
126
23
46
380
58
24
24
37
26
52
26
26
354
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Page 5-4
S E R V I C E
Male Jobs
190. Health Officer (I)
191. Assistant Superintendent Prisn
192. Afisa Uvuvi M Mwandamizi (II)
193. Senior Superintendent - Police
194. Mortuary Attendant (IV)
195. Afisa Misitu M Mwandamizi (I)
196. Askari Wanyamapori (IV)
197. Afisa Misitu M Mwandamizi (II)
198. Senior Health Officer (II)
199. Principal Auditor (I)
200. Craftsman (II)
201. Afisa Mfugaji Nyuki M Mwdz(II)
202. Afisa Misitu Msaidizi (II)
203. Executive Engineer (II)
204. Senr Technical Auxilliary (II)
205. Principal Co-Operative Of(III)
206. Principal Technician (II)
207. Principal Medical Officer (I)
208. Senior Forest Officer (II)
209. Senior Superintendent Of Priso
210. Afisa Mtendaji Wa Kijiji (II)
211. Sen Technical Auxilliary (III)
212. Afisa Misitu Msaidizi (I)
213. Senior District Magistrate(II)
214. Senior Launderer (III)
215. Afisa Wanyamapori M Mwndmz(II)
216. Plant Operator (III)
217. Principal Technician (I)
218. Irrigation Technician (III)
219. Station Sergeant Of Fire
220. Watchman (I)
221. Watchman (II)
222. Ambassador
223. Afisa Uvuvi Msaidizi (I)
224. Watchman (III)
225. Boat/Ferry Operator (III)
226. Senior Executive Engineer(III)
227. Afisa Uvuvi M Mwandamizi (I)
228. Senior Watchman (II)
229. Corporal Of Fire
230. Senior Watchman (III)
231. Senior Executive Engineer (II)
232. Senior Driver (I)
233. Driver (IV)
234. Driver (III)
235. Driver (I)
236. Driver (II)
237. Plant Operator (II)
238. Principal Driver
239. Principal Watchman
240. Sergeant Of Fire
241. Sergeant Major Of Fire
242. Sen Irrigation Technician (II)
243. Afisa Wanyamapori Msaidizi(IV)
244. Irrigation Technician (II)
245. Irrigation Technician (I)
246. Senior Watchman (I)
247. Fire Constable
248. Senior Executive Engineer (I)
249. Senior Driver (II)
250. Afisa Wanyamapori Msaidizi(II)
F
7
10
4
9
2
7
7
11
6
2
11
2
10
9
3
3
4
2
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
35
40
1
1
74
1
2
1
7
1
13
1
1
17
6
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D E L I V E R Y
M
85
124
51
115
26
92
95
150
82
28
157
29
147
134
45
46
62
31
31
48
43
86
114
23
23
24
49
26
26
53
951
1,112
28
28
2,149
31
69
35
296
43
630
55
69
1,508
562
203
429
31
33
42
51
36
23
34
25
30
92
48
28
120
40
Total
92
134
55
124
28
99
102
161
88
30
168
31
157
143
48
49
66
33
33
51
45
90
119
24
24
25
51
27
27
55
986
1,152
29
29
2,223
32
71
36
303
44
643
56
70
1,525
568
204
431
31
33
42
51
36
23
34
25
30
92
48
28
120
40
S U R V E Y S
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
%F
7.6%
7.5%
7.3%
7.3%
7.1%
7.1%
6.9%
6.8%
6.8%
6.7%
6.5%
6.5%
6.4%
6.3%
6.3%
6.1%
6.1%
6.1%
6.1%
5.9%
4.4%
4.4%
4.2%
4.2%
4.2%
4.0%
3.9%
3.7%
3.7%
3.6%
3.5%
3.5%
3.4%
3.4%
3.3%
3.1%
2.8%
2.8%
2.3%
2.3%
2.0%
1.8%
1.4%
1.1%
1.1%
0.5%
0.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
Page 5-5
S E R V I C E
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Table 17: % of Females in Various Broad Job
Categories
Position
Judicial Officers
Stores/Supplies Officers
Teachers
Accountants
Village/Ward/Divisional Officers
Immigration Officers
Telephone Operators
Community Development Officer
Office Supervisors
Public Health Officers
Foresters F
Typists
Agricultural Officer
Livestock Officers
Medical Officers
Education Officers/Administrators
Watchmen
Drivers
Police
Technicians/Craftsmen
Game Officers
Prisons Officers
Kitchen Staff
Registry Staff
Others
Overall
Sep
2000
51.25%
28.99%
43.59%
36.61%
12.40%
22.04%
85.53%
52.59%
54.11%
15.59%
19.42%
92.43%
24.97%
17.51%
67.44%
33.31%
2.66%
0.57%
12.70%
12.27%
9.99%
23.09%
43.60%
69.22%
34.82%
38.65%
Sep
2004
54.35%
31.29%
45.27%
37.94%
13.66%
23.23%
86.64%
53.67%
55.13%
16.44%
20.24%
93.24%
25.66%
18.11%
68.00%
33.80%
3.11%
0.91%
12.72%
12.28%
9.99%
22.09%
42.03%
67.65%
25.03%
39.96%
Increase
3.11%
2.30%
1.68%
1.34%
1.26%
1.19%
1.11%
1.07%
1.02%
0.85%
0.82%
0.81%
0.69%
0.60%
0.56%
0.49%
0.45%
0.35%
0.01%
0.01%
0.00%
-1.00%
-1.57%
-1.57%
-9.79%
1.31%
Page 5-6
D E L I V E R Y
6. Other Data
S U R V E Y S
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Annex III
S E R V I C E
6.1 Education
Highest Educational Attainment
Up to Standard 4
No
3,916
%
1.37%
Standard 5-8
108,365
37.78%
Form 1-4
95,115
33.16%
Ordinary Diploma
17,862
6.23%
Form 5-6
4,565
1.59%
Advanced Diploma
3,396
1.18%
Bachelors Degree
3,338
1.16%
Postgrad Diploma
742
0.26%
1,888
0.66%
Masters Degree
Doctorate
159
0.06%
Un-known
47,471
16.55%
286,817
100%
Total
6.2 Pay Targets
Table 18: Pay Targets by Grade
Salary
Scale
Employees
Actual
Target
%
TGS A 1
2163
65,390
74,860
87%
TGS B 1
13362
80,325
83,480
96%
TGS B 2
447
82,790
86,050
96%
TGS B 4
22
87,130
88,620
98%
TGS B 6
67
91,470
91,268
100%
TGS C 1
11596
107,727
127,776
84%
TGS C 2
2652
110,280
137,832
80%
TGS C 3
2699
112,700
147,888
76%
TGS C 7
121
122,260
158,248
77%
TGS D 1
6638
139,170
162,362
86%
TGS D 2
3085
142,528
193,654
74%
TGS E 1
5554
178,428
199,463
89%
TGS E 2
1716
182,448
208,960
87%
TGS E 3
348
186,330
218,457
85%
TGS F 1
5064
236,255
265,427
89%
TGS G 1
1723
307,350
362,973
85%
TGS G 2
82
314,150
404,605
78%
TGS G 4
17
327,750
446,238
73%
TGS G 5
10
334,550
487,870
69%
Page 6-1
S E R V I C E
TGS G 7
10
348,150
529,502
66%
TGS H 1
455
405,100
551,741
73%
TGS H 10
7
525,790
763,371
69%
TGS H 12
2
552,610
798,643
69%
TGS H 2
17
418,510
587,013
71%
TGS H 4
11
445,330
622,284
72%
TGS H 5
10
458,740
657,556
70%
TGS H 6
5
459,828
692,828
66%
TGS H 8
6
498,970
728,100
69%
TGS I 1
89
608,840
847,360
72%
TGS I 2
3
636,590
919,205
69%
TGS I 3
14
664,340
991,049
67%
TGS J 1
361
750,000
1,071,324
70%
TGS K 1
259
830,000
1,225,218
68%
TGS L 1
62
930,000
1,555,936
60%
TGS M 1
7
1,050,000
1,685,079
62%
TGS N 1
58
1,123,000
1,824,940
62%
TGS O 1
7
1,210,000
1,976,410
61%
TGS P 1
38
1,284,000
2,140,452
60%
TGS Q 1
4
1,400,000
2,318,110
60%
D E L I V E R Y
S U R V E Y S
S U M M A R I E S
2 0 0 3 / 0 4
Note: “Actual” salary is the average across all employees in
that grade. % = Actual ÷ Target
Page 6-2

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