15 let pozneje. - Vlada Republike Slovenije

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15 let pozneje. - Vlada Republike Slovenije
SPORAZUM O VPRAŠANJIH NASLEDSTVA - 15 LET POZNEJE
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Ljubljana, 2016 / Ljubljana, 2016
Sporazum o vprašanjih nasledstva po nekdanji Jugoslaviji je bil sklenjen
“… v interesu vseh držav naslednic in njihovih državljanov, interesu
stabilnosti v regiji ter dobrih medsebojnih odnosov…”
(iz preambule sporazuma)
The Agreement on Succession Issues among states successors to the former
Yugoslavia was concluded
“... in the interests of all successor States and their citizens and in the
interests of stability in the region and their mutual good relations ...”
(From the Preamble to the Agreement)
CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji
Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana
341.218.3
SPORAZUM o vprašanjih nasledstva - 15 let pozneje = Agreement on succession
issues - 15 years later / [uredil Grega Pajnkihar ; prevod v angleščino Tea Mejak]. - Ljubljana : Ministrstvo za zunanje zadeve Republike Slovenije = Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the
Republic of Slovenia, 2016
ISBN 978-961-6566-27-8
1. Vzp. stv. nasl. 2. Pajnkihar, Grega
284884992
Mednarodna konferenca
International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Ob otvoritvi konference
Foreword
Sporazum o vprašanjih nasledstva po
nekdanji Jugoslaviji (SFRJ) iz leta 2001
je glede na svoj zgodovinski, politični,
finančni in pravni pomen nedvomno
ena ključnih mednarodnih pogodb, ki
jih je sklenila Slovenija kot samostojna
država. Ureja namreč temeljne odnose
med novonastalimi državami v regiji, ki
izhajajo iz njihove skupne preteklosti v
Jugoslaviji.
Owing to its historical, political,
financial, and legal significance, the
2001 Agreement on Succession
Issues after the former Yugoslavia
(SFRY) undoubtedly claims its position
as one of the major treaties concluded
by independent Slovenia. It namely
regulates the fundamental relations
between newly-emerged countries
in the region stemming from their
common history within Yugoslavia.
Toda ta sporazum je še nekaj več – po
svoji vsebini in dometu presega zgolj
okvire interesov posameznih držav
naslednic. Vsebuje spekter jasnih
in inovativnih nasledstvenih določb
in s tem kot lex specialis pomeni
pomemben prispevek k razvoju
mednarodnega prava v svetovnem
merilu. Ker od vseh držav pogodbenic
zahteva dosledno in bona fides
spoštovanje, je prepoznaven temelj za
poglobitev dobrih sosedskih odnosov
in iskrenega sodelovanja v regiji.
Nastanek novih držav je v moderni
mednarodni skupnosti vezan predvsem
na ero dekolonizacije, povod za katero
je bila uveljavitev pravice narodov do
samoodločbe, ter pozneje na padec
komunističnih režimov in razpad
večnarodnostnih tvorb v Evropi. Med
njimi je jugoslovanska zgodba zaradi
več let trajajoče vojne daleč najbolj
tragična in kompleksna. To velja tudi
za ureditev vprašanj nasledstva, ki
je bila odložena za celo desetletje po
razpadu Jugoslavije, saj si je ena od
držav naslednic (Zvezna republika
However, there is something more
to this agreement: its substance
and scope transcend the bounds
of successor states’ own interests.
With a whole spectrum of clear and
innovative succession provisions,
this lex specialis marks an important
contribution to the development of
international law on a global scale.
Demanding consistent and bona fides
respect by all states parties, it is valued
as a solid foundation for enhancing
good neighbourly relations and sincere
cooperation in the region.
In the modern international community,
the creation of new states has
been associated with the period of
decolonisation, instigated by the
desire of nations to assert their right
to self-determination, and later to the
fall of communist regimes and the
disintegration of multi-national states
in Europe. Among these, due to the
years of war, Yugoslavia’s story is by
far the most tragic and complex. The
same holds true for the settlement of
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Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Jugoslavija)
želela
neupravičeno
prisvojiti njeno ekskluzivno kontinuiteto.
Ko so tudi tam politične elite privolile
v enakopravno delitev pravic in
obveznosti med vseh pet držav
naslednic – Bosno in Hercegovino,
Hrvaško, Makedonijo, Slovenijo in
Zvezno republiko Jugoslavijo – danes
Srbijo, so dozoreli pogoji za sklenitev
tega pomembnega mednarodnega
sporazuma. Tako je bil na Dunaju
29. junija 2001 pod pokroviteljstvom
mednarodne
skupnosti
in
sira
Arthurja Wattsa podpisan Sporazum o
vprašanjih nasledstva.
Dunajski dogovor ureja ključne pravice
in obveznosti po nekdanji Jugoslaviji,
od
delitve
kulturne
dediščine,
veleposlaništev in rezidenc v tujini,
finančnih sredstev in dolgov, do arhivov,
zaščite premoženja posameznikov
in pravnih oseb itd. Čeprav so
določbe sporazuma po posameznih
področjih zapletene in podrobne, je
temeljno načelo, ki je hkrati rdeča
nit sporazuma, delitev pravic in
obveznosti na pravičen in enakopraven
način. Takšna bilanca delitve mora
biti tudi končni cilj vseh prizadevanj
držav naslednic pri uresničevanju
sporazuma.
Brez
doslednega
zasledovanja načel enakopravnosti in
pravičnosti dokončna razdelitev pravic
in bremen nekdanje Jugoslavije ne
more biti uspešna.
Ob 15. obletnici podpisa sporazuma
smo se, s predsednikom državnega
zbora dr. Milanom Brglezom ter
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AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
succession issues, postponed by a
whole decade after the dissolution of
Yugoslavia, as one of the successors
(the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
unjustly
claimed
the
exclusive
continuity of the SFRY.
After its political elites agreed to
the equal distribution of rights and
obligations among all five successor
states – Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and
the FRY (today Serbia) – conditions
became ripe for the conclusion of this
important treaty. Thus, on 29 June
2001 the Agreement on Succession
Issues was signed in Vienna under
the patronage of the international
community and by Sir Arthur Watts.
The Vienna Agreement stipulates the
fundamental rights and obligations
inherited after the former Yugoslavia,
ranging from the distribution of cultural
heritage, embassies and diplomatic
residences abroad, financial assets
and debts, to archives, the protection
of of property of individuals and legal
entities, and other matters. Although
the provisions of the various chapters
are complex and detailed, the core
principle woven into the Agreement is
the just and equitable division of rights
and obligations. Such distribution
balance must be the final objective of
all successor states’ efforts. Without
full respect for equality and justice,
the chances for success of the final
distribution of the rights and burdens
that constitute our inheritance from the
former Yugoslavia are much too slight.
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
podpredsednikom vlade in ministrom
za zunanje zadeve g. Karlom Erjavcem,
odločili, da ta pomemben dogodek tudi
ustrezno počastimo. Ljubljana 7. junija
2016 gosti mednarodno konferenco
Sporazum o vprašanjih nasledstva
– 15 let pozneje, katere poudarek je
na zgodovinskih, pravnih in aktualnih
političnih vidikih sporazuma, njegovem
izvajanju ter na dosežkih in dogovorih,
uresničenih na podlagi njegovih
določil. Na ogled je razstava Zgodbe iz
zapuščine (Slovenija in nasledstvo
po Jugoslaviji) v organizaciji Arhiva
Slovenije in pod vodstvom kustosa
dr. Bojana Cvelfarja, ki predstavlja
ključne dogodke, fotografije, posnetke
in dokumentacijo v zvezi s konkretnimi
dosežki
Slovenije
na
področju
nasledstva.
V tej brošuri, ki spremlja konferenco
in razstavo, želimo poudariti pomen
sporazuma,
iz
zgodovinske
in
današnje
perspektive,
ter
tako
predstaviti že rešena vprašanja in
pridobitve Slovenije ter nakazati na
vrsto še nerešenih in nedorečenih
zadev. Glede na to, da je od podpisa
sporazuma minilo že petnajst let, bi
dejavnosti pogodbenic morale biti
usmerjene v njegovo celovito izvajanje
in uresničitev glavnega poslanstva
- ureditev pravic in obveznosti iz
preteklosti, zato da bi v prihodnosti
države v regiji, zlasti v interesu
svojih državljanov, lahko še krepile
medsebojna politična, gospodarska in
kulturna razmerja.
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Together with President of the National
Assembly Milan Brglez and Deputy
Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign
Affairs Karl Erjavec, we decided to
mark the fifteenth anniversary of
the Agreement appropriately. On 7
June 2016, Ljubljana is hosting an
international
conference
entitled
Agreement on Succession Issues –
15 Years Later focusing on historical,
legal, and current political aspects of the
Agreement, its implementation, as well
as achievements and arrangements
reached pursuant to its provisions.
An
accompanying
exhibition,
Legacy Stories (Slovenia and the
Succession after Yugoslavia), has
been mounted, organised by the
Archives of the Republic of Slovenia
and curated by Bojan Cvelfar, which
presents the central events, photos,
recordings and documents related to
Slovenia’s concrete achievements in
the area of succession.
This brochure is intended to highlight
the significance of the Agreement
from historical and present-day
perspectives, outlining the issues
that have been settled and pointing
to matters that remain unresolved.
As fifteen years have passed since
the conclusion of the Agreement, the
activities of the states parties should
focus on its full implementation and
main purpose – the settlement of rights
and obligations from the past, so that,
in the future, the countries in the region
will be able to even strengthen mutual
political and economic and cultural
relations, especially in the interests of
their citizens.
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nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Ob tej priložnosti se želim v imenu
gostiteljev zahvaliti kolegom iz
Državnega zbora, Ministrstva za
zunanje zadeve, Arhiva Republike
Slovenije,
Urada
Vlade
za
komuniciranje ter RTV Slovenija, ki so
sodelovali pri pripravi in organizaciji
konference in razstave.
dr. Ana Polak Petrič
visoka predstavnica Republike
Slovenije za nasledstvo
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ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
On this occasion, I would like to
thank, on behalf of the hosts, all our
colleagues at the National Assembly,
the Foreign Ministry, the Archives
of the Republic of Slovenia, the
Government Communication Office
and RTV Slovenija, who contributed to
the preparation and organisation of the
event.
Ana Polak Petrič
High Representative of the Republic
of Slovenia
for Succession Issues
Mednarodna konferenca
International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Pot do podpisa sporazuma je bila
dolga
Lengthy process to the
Agreement
Po letu 1991, ko je SFRJ razpadla, je
bilo treba urediti vprašanje njenega
nasledstva med pet enakopravnih
suverenih držav naslednic.
After the dissolution of the SFRY in
1991, the issue of its succession by
five sovereign and equal successor
states had to be settled.
Kronologija:
Chronology:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
25. junij 1991 – razglasitev
samostojnosti in neodvisnosti
Republike Slovenije
11. januar 1992 – mnenje
Badinterjeve arbitražne komisije št.
7 o priznanju Republike Slovenije
15. januar 1992 – priznanje
Republike Slovenije s strani
Evropske skupnosti
27. april 1992 – ustanovitev Zvezne
republike Jugoslavije (ZRJ)
22. maj 1992 – članstvo Slovenije
v Organizaciji združenih narodov
(OZN)
4. julij 1992 - mnenje Badinterjeve
arbitražne komisije št. 8, da je
SFRJ razpadla in več ne obstaja
1. november 2000 – članstvo ZRJ
v OZN
29. junij 2001 – podpis Sporazuma
o vprašanjih nasledstva
2. junij 2004 – začetek veljavnosti
Sporazuma
o
vprašanjih
nasledstva
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
25 June 1991 – Declaration of
independence and sovereignty of
the Republic of Slovenia
11 January 1992 – Opinion No.
7 of the Badinter Arbitration
Commission
on
international
recognition of the Republic of
Slovenia
15 January 1992 – Recognition
of the Republic of Slovenia by the
European Community
27 April 1992 – Creation of the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(FRY)
22 May 1992 – Slovenia’s
membership of the United Nations
4 July 1992 – Opinion No. 8 of the
Badinter Arbitration Commission
that the dissolution of the SFRY
is complete and that the SFRY no
longer exists
1 November 2000 – FRY’s
membership of the UN
29 June 2001 – Signing of the
Agreement on Succession Issues
2 June 2004 – Entry into force of
the Agreement on Succession
issues
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Sporazum o vprašanjih
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International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Prva udeležba
Republike Slovenije v
Organizaciji združenih
narodov
Vir: Foto BOBO
First participation
of the Republic of
Slovenia in the
United Nations
Source: Photo BOBO
8
Od razpada SFRJ do doseženega
sporazuma o ureditvi nasledstvenih
vprašanj je preteklo celo desetletje.
Dogovor pred tem ni bil mogoč, tako
zaradi oboroženih spopadov na
območju Jugoslavije ter tudi zaradi
nasprotujočih si stališč glede usode
nekdanje skupne države.
A whole decade had to pass from
the dissolution of the SFRY before
an agreement regulating succession
issues was possible. Before that, no
agreement could be reached due
to the armed conflicts on Yugoslav
territory and also conflicting views on
the status of the former common state.
Medtem ko so Slovenija, Hrvaška,
Bosna in Hercegovina ter Makedonija
trdile, da je skupna država razpadla, je
Zvezna republika Jugoslavija vztrajala,
da sama ohranja pravno kontinuiteto
SFRJ, druge republike pa so se od
nje odcepile. Diplomatska bitka o tem
vprašanju se je najbolj odločno bila v
Organizaciji združenih narodov, kjer
sta tako Varnostni svet in Generalna
skupščina pritrdila prvemu stališču.
Whereas Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia
and Herzegovina, and Macedonia
claimed that the former state had
been dissolved, the Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia insisted that it alone
constituted the legal continuity of the
SFRY and that the other republics
had seceded from the common state.
A hard diplomatic battle on the issue
was fought within the United Nations,
with both the Security Council and
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Vsebinska pogajanja o vseh vidikih
nasledstva so se zato lahko začela
šele leta 2000, ko je Zvezna republika
Jugoslavija (danes Srbija) kot nova
članica zaprosila za članstvo v OZN
in s tem privolila v enakopravno
nasledstvo vseh petih suverenih držav.
Najpomembnejšo vlogo na poti do
sklenitve sporazuma je imela Mirovna
konferenca o Jugoslaviji, sklicana
leta 1991, in z njo povezana t. i.
Badinterjeva arbitražna komisija.
Ta je v letih 1992 in 1993 sprejela 15
pravnih mnenj v zvezi z razpadom
Jugoslavije. Z vprašanji nasledstva se
je ukvarjala v mnenjih št. 1, 9 in od 11
do 15.
»… države naslednice SFRJ morajo
skupaj rešiti vse vidike nasledstva
sporazumno … države naslednice
morajo doseči pravično razdelitev …«
(iz mnenja Arbitražne komisije Mirovne
konference o Jugoslaviji št. 9).
Mednarodna konferenca o nekdanji
Jugoslaviji (ICFY) v Ženevi je znova
vzpostavila
delovno
skupino
o
nasledstvu držav, po Daytonskem
mirovnem sporazumu pa je ključno
vlogo prevzel Svet za implementacijo
miru (PIC). Ta je leta 1996 za
posebnega predstavnika za nasledstvo
imenoval sira Arthurja Wattsa, pod
pokroviteljstvom katerega je nastalo
končno besedilo Sporazuma o
vprašanjih nasledstva.
Treba je poudariti, da se je proces
dezintegracije na območju nekdanje
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
the General Assembly upholding the
former position.
Substantive
and
comprehensive
negotiations on succession were only
possible as of 2000, when the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia (today’s
Serbia) applied as a new state for
UN membership, thus agreeing to the
equal succession of all five sovereign
states.
The decisive role in reaching an
agreement was played by the Peace
Conference on Yugoslavia convened
in 1991 and the related so-called
Badinter Arbitration Commission.
In 1992 and 1993, the Arbitration
Commission
adopted
15
legal
opinions with regard to the dissolution
of Yugoslavia, specifically referring to
succession in its opinions 1, 9 and 11
to 15.
“... the successor states to the SFRY
must together settle all aspects of
the succession by agreement ... the
successor states must try to achieve
an equitable solution ...” (From Opinion
No. 9 of the Arbitration Commission of
the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia)
A Working Group on Succession
Issues was re-established at the
Geneva Peace Conference on the
Former Yugoslavia (ICFY), and after
the signing of the Dayton Peace
Agreement, the Peace Implementation
Council (PIC) assumed the main
role in the process, appointing Sir
Arthur Watts as Special Negotiator
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Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Jugoslavije nadaljeval še leta 2006 in
2008 z razglasitvijo samostojnosti in
neodvisnosti Črne gore in Kosova, kar
pa nima vpliva na nasledstvo po SFRJ.
10
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ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
on succession issues in 1996. Under
his leadership, the Agreement on
Succession Issues was finalised.
It has to be pointed out that the
disintegration process on the territory
of the former Yugoslavia continued in
2006 and 2008 and the declaration
of independence and sovereignty of
Montenegro and Kosovo, respectively.
However, this does not affect the
succession after the SFRY.
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
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Podpis Sporazuma o vprašanjih
nasledstva
Signing of the Agreement on
Succession Issues
Po
dolgotrajnih
pogajanjih
ob
pomoči mednarodne skupnosti, ki
so trajala skoraj deset let, so Bosna
in Hercegovina, Zvezna republika
Jugoslavija (danes Srbija), Hrvaška,
Makedonija in Slovenija v palači
Hofburg na Dunaju 29. junija 2001
podpisale Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva. Slovensko pogajalsko
delegacijo je vodil dr. Miran Mejak.
On 29 June 2001, after negotiations
facilitated
by
the
international
community that took almost a decade,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (today’s
Serbia), Macedonia, and Slovenia
signed an Agreement on Succession
Issues at Vienna’s Hofburg Palace.
Slovenian delegation at negotiations
was headed by Miran Mejak.
Sporazum dokončno opredeljuje in
določa pravično razdelitev pravic,
obveznosti, premoženja in dolgov
nekdanje Jugoslavije med njene
naslednice. Sedem prilog ureja
posamezna področja nasledstva:
The Agreement on Succession Issues
finalises the just distribution of rights,
obligations, assets and liabilities of the
former Yugoslavia among its successor
states, regulating various aspects of
succession in its seven annexes:
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva
Vir: MZZ RS
Agreement on Succession
Issues
Source: MFA RS
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Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Priloga A: Premično in
nepremično premoženje
Priloga B: Premoženje
diplomatskih in konzularnih
predstavništev
Priloga C: Finančna sredstva in
obveznosti
Priloga D: Arhivi
Priloga E: Pokojnine
Priloga F: Druge pravice, pravne
koristi in finančne obveznosti
Priloga G: Zasebno premoženje in
pridobljene pravice
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Annex A: Movable and immovable
property
Annex B: Diplomatic and consular
properties
Annex C: Financial assets and
liabilities
Annex D: Archives
Annex E: Pensions
Annex F: Other rights, interests,
and liabilities
Annex G: Private property and
acquired rights
Sporazum so podpisali zunanji
ministri držav naslednic SFRJ:
The Agreement was signed by the
foreign ministers of the successor
states to the SFRY:
•
•
•
•
•
•
za Bosno in Hercegovino dr.
Zlatko Lagumdžija
za Republiko Hrvaško Tonino
Picula
za Republiko Makedonijo Ilija
Filipovski
za Republiko Slovenijo dr. Dimitrij
Rupel
za Zvezno republiko Jugoslavijo
dr. Goran Svilanović
ter visoki predstavnik OZN za Bosno
in Hercegovino dr. Wolfgang Petritsch.
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AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
•
•
•
•
For Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zlatko Lagumdžija
For the Republic of Croatia Tonino
Picula
For the Republic of Macedonia
Ilija Filipovski
For the Republic of Slovenia
Dimitrij Rupel
For the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia Goran Svilanović
and the High Representative of
the UN for Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Wolfgang Petritsch.
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Wolfgang Petritsch, Miran Mejak, Dimitrij
Rupel in sir Arthur Watts na Dunaju,
29. junij 2001.
Vir: Foto BOBO
Sporazum je bil podpisan v sedmih
izvirnikih, od katerih so po enega
dobili vsaka država naslednica in Urad
visokega predstavnika, eden je bil
deponiran pri generalnem sekretarju
Organizacije združenih narodov.
Potem ko je sporazum kot zadnja od
podpisnic ratificirala tudi Hrvaška, je
sporazum začel veljati 2. junija 2004.
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Wolfgang Petritsch, Milan Mejak, Dimitrij
Rupel and Sir Arthur Watts in Vienna,
June 29, 2001.
Source: Photo BOBO
The Agreement was done in seven
original copies, one for each of the
successor states and one for the
Office of the High Commissioner, while
the remaining text was deposited with
the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.
After the ratification of the Agreement
by the last signatory Croatia, it entered
into force on 2 June 2004.
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nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Podpis Sporazuma o vprašanjih nasledstva,
minister dr. Dimitrij Rupel, 29. junij 2001,
Dunaj
Vir: Foto BOBO
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Signing of the Agreement on Succession
Issues, Minister Dimitrij Rupel, June 29,
2001, Vienna
Source: Photo BOBO
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Pomen sporazuma za Slovenijo in
regijo
Significance of the Agreement
for Slovenia and the region
Sporazum je ključni del enega
najpomembnejših političnih procesov
v regiji – procesa, ki je konec 20.
stoletja sledil razpadu Jugoslavije,
nastanku novih, neodvisnih držav,
tudi Slovenije, ter njihove integracije
v mednarodni skupnosti. Ker gre za
edino mednarodno pogodbo med
državami nekdanje Jugoslavije, ki ureja
pravna in vsebinska nasledstvena
vprašanja, ga nekateri, v političnem
smislu, imenujejo »Mirovna pogodba
Jugoslavije«.
The Agreement is the culmination
of one of the most important political
developments in the region towards
the end of the 20th century: the
creation of new, independent states
from the ashes of Yugoslavia, Slovenia
among them, and their integration into
the international community. Being
the first treaty involving all states that
were part of the former Yugoslavia
and regulating outstanding legal and
substantive succession issues, it is in
political sense also referred to as the
“Peace Treaty on Yugoslavia.”
Celovita uresničitev sporazuma je
temelj za stabilne, dolgoročne in
prijateljske odnose med državami
podpisnicami. Zato prizadevanja za
učinkovito reševanje še nerešenih
nasledstvenih vprašanj ostajajo ena
od prednostnih nalog slovenske
zunanje politike v regiji.
»V okviru … ciljev je izvajanje
zunanje politike Republike Slovenije
osredotočeno na naslednja prednostna
področja in območja: …
– celovita uresničitev Sporazuma o
vprašanjih nasledstva in rešitev odprtih
nasledstvenih vprašanj; «
(iz Deklaracije o zunanji politiki
Republike Slovenije, 10. julija 2015)
»RS bo nadgradila svojo prisotnost na
Zahodnem Balkanu … Za prihodnje
dvostranske odnose z državami regije
bo izrednega pomena dinamika in
kakovost reševanja nasledstvenih
The comprehensive implementation
of the Agreement is the foundation of
stable, long term and friendly relations
between the signatories. For this
reason, efforts to effectively resolve the
outstanding succession issues remain
a priority of Slovenia’s foreign
policy in the region.
“In the context of the foregoing
objectives, the implementation of
the foreign policy of the Republic of
Slovenia focuses on the following
priority areas: …
– attaining the full implementation
of the Agreement on Succession
Issues and settlement of unresolved
succession issues;”
(From the Declaration of Foreign
Policy of the Republic of Slovenia, 10
July 2015)
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vprašanj oziroma cilj dejanske in
celovite uresničitve sporazuma o
vprašanjih nasledstva, saj gre pri tem
za urejanje pomembnih medsebojnih
pravnih razmerij in znatnih finančnih
obveznosti po razpadu skupne države,
pa tudi za politično odgovornost. RS bo
pozorna na vse materialne in pravne
vidike nasledstva ter z njim povezanih
vprašanj, zlasti tistih, ki so pomembna
za njene vitalne interese.«
(iz Strateškega dokumenta zunanje
politike Republike Slovenije, 29. julija
2015)
Pomen
sporazuma
pri
krepitvi
regionalnega sodelovanja je potrjen
tudi v EU v okviru spoštovanja
mednarodnih obveznosti.
»Nerešene spore in vprašanja bi bilo
treba reševati v skladu z mednarodnim
pravom in uveljavljenimi načeli, tudi
z izvajanjem pravno zavezujočih
sporazumov, kot je sporazum o
nasledstvu.«
(iz Strateškega dokumenta zunanje
politike Republike Slovenije, 29. julija
2015)
Države naslednice čaka v prihodnje še
veliko dela pri izvrševanju Sporazuma
o vprašanjih nasledstva. Za Slovenijo
so ključna področja:
•
•
16
pravična razdelitev jamstva za
devizne vloge varčevalcev,
dokončanje delitve diplomatskokonzularnih
objektov
SFRJ
ter dopolnitev seznama teh
nepremičnin,
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“Slovenia will strengthen its presence
in the Western Balkans.... The future
of bilateral relations with Western
Balkan countries greatly depends on
the dynamics and quality of resolving
succession issues and the aim of truly
and fully implementing the Agreement
on Succession Issues, as these pave
the way to settling important legal
relations and substantial financial
obligations arising from the dissolution
of the common state, as well as
demonstrating political responsibility.
Slovenia will look into all material
and legal aspects of succession and
associated issues, in particular those
concerning Slovenia’s vital interests.”
(From the Strategic Document on
Foreign Policy of the Republic of
Slovenia, 29 July 2015).
The importance of the Agreement in
fostering regional cooperation has
also been confirmed by the EU when
referring to respect for international
commitments.
“Outstanding disputes and issues
should be solved in line with
international law and established
principles,
including
through
implementation of legally binding
agreements, inter alia the Agreement
on Succession Issues.”
(From the Council conclusions on
Enlargement and Stabilisation and
Association Process, 15 December
2015)
Much remains to be done as regards
the implementation of the Agreement
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
fizična razdelitev ali prodaja
največjih
veleposlaništev
in
rezidenc SFRJ,
delitev kulturne dediščine,
odprt in prost dostop do vseh
arhivov nekdanje SFRJ,
delitev in vračilo arhivskega
gradiva, ki pripada državam
naslednicam,
digitalizacija
skupnega
jugoslovanskega
arhivskega
gradiva,
razdelitev
dolga
SFRJ
do
mednarodnih organizacij, med
drugim do Organizacije združenih
narodov,
delitev finančnih sredstev v bankah
z mešanim kapitalom,
dosledno
varstvo
zasebnega
premoženja
in
pridobljenih
pravic državljanov in pravnih
oseb nekdanje SFRJ v državah
naslednicah.
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
on Succession Issues. For Slovenia,
the following issues are key:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A fair distribution of the guarantees
for foreign currency deposits;
The final distribution of the
remaining diplomatic and consular
properties of the SFRY and the
completion of their list;
The distribution in kind or sale of the
largest embassies and diplomatic
residencies of the SFRY;
The distribution of cultural heritage;
Free and open access to all
archives of the former SFRY;
Distribution and return of archives
pertaining to successor states;
Digitalisation of common Yugoslav
archives;
Distribution of the SFRY debt
to international organisations,
including the United Nations;
Distribution of financial assets in
banks with mixed capital;
Consistent protection of private
property and acquired rights of
citizens and legal entities of the
former SFRY in successor states.
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Zasedanja Stalnega skupnega
odbora visokih predstavnikov za
nasledstvo
Meetings of the Standing
Joint Committee of Senior
Representatives of successor
states
S 4. členom sporazuma je bil
ustanovljen Stalni skupni odbor visokih
predstavnikov držav naslednic, katerih
naloga je, da bedijo nad njegovim
učinkovitim
uresničevanjem
in
razpravljajo o nerešenih vprašanjih, ki
izvirajo iz nasledstva.
Pursuant to Article 4 of the Agreement,
a Standing Joint Committee of senior
representatives of each successor
state was established, which is
tasked with overseeing the effective
implementation of the Agreement and
discussing outstanding succession
issues.
Doslej so visoki predstavniki sprejeli
18 priporočil vladam držav naslednic.
Ker je uspešnost dela visokih
predstavnikov vezana tudi na dinamiko
njihovih srečanj, bi v prihodnje veljalo
premisliti o možnostih, ki bi skladno
s poslovnikom zagotavljale redna
srečanja dvakrat letno. Tak način
delovanja bi omogočal učinkovito
reševanje še neurejenih nasledstvenih
vprašanj.
Visoki
predstavniki
pri
svojem
delu sodelujejo s skupnimi odbori,
ustanovljenimi za posamezna področja
prilog k sporazumu. V Sloveniji od leta
1994 deluje Sklad Republike Slovenije
za nasledstvo, ki je javni sklad,
ustanovljen z namenom izvajanja
sporazuma ter uveljavljanja pravic
in poravnave obveznosti Slovenije v
postopku delitve premoženja, pravic in
obveznosti nekdanje SFRJ.
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Thus far, the senior representatives
have made 18 recommendations
to the governments of the successor
states. Since the effectiveness of
the senior representatives’ work is
also linked to the dynamics of their
meetings, then in accordance with
the rules of procedure, possibilities
should be explored of holding regular
meetings twice a year, so that
outstanding succession issues can be
effectively settled.
Senior representatives work in
cooperation with joint committees
for individual areas covered by the
Annexes. In 1994, the Succession
Fund of the Republic of Slovenia was
established as a public fund tasked
with implementing
the Agreement
and exercising Slovenia’s rights and
settling its liabilities in the division of
property, rights and obligations of the
former SFRY.
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Zasedanje visokih
predstavnikov za
nasledstvo v Sarajevu,
12. november 2015
Vir: MZZ RS
Meeting of senior
representatives for
succession issues in
Sarajevo, 12 November
2015
Source: MFA RS
Zasedanje visokih
predstavnikov za
nasledstvo v Sarajevu,
12. november 2015
Vir: MZZ RS
Meeting of senior
representatives for
succession issues in
Sarajevo, 12 November
2015
Source: MFA RS
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AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
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Dosedanji Visoki predstavniki za
nasledstvo
Senior Representatives on
Succession Issues to date
Bosna in Hercegovina
Mirsad Žuga
Vjekoslav Bevanda
dr. Nikola Špirić
Dragan Vrankić
Ljerka Marić
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mirsad Žuga
Vjekoslav Bevanda
Nikola Špirić
Dragan Vrankić
Ljerka Marić
Hrvaška
Andreja Metelko-Zgombić
dr. Snježana Bagić
dr. Božo Marendić
Croatia
Andreja Metelko-Zgombić
Snježana Bagić
Božo Marendić
Makedonija
Elena Kuzmanovska
Zoran Petrov
Nikola Todorčevski
Dušanka Hristova
Minčo Jordanov
Macedonia
Elena Kuzmanovska
Zoran Petrov
Nikola Todorčevski
Dušanka Hristova
Minčo Jordanov
Slovenija
dr. Ana Polak Petrič
dr. Miha Pogačnik
Rudolf Gabrovec
Slovenia
Ana Polak Petrič
Miha Pogačnik
Rudolf Gabrovec
Srbija
dr. Rodoljub Etinski
dr. Oliver Antić
dr. Gašo Knežević
dr. Dobroslav Mitrović
Serbia
Rodoljub Etinski
Oliver Antić
Gašo Knežević
Dobroslav Mitrović
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Kulturna dediščina
Cultural heritage
Po Prilogi A sporazuma premično in
nepremično premoženje Jugoslavije
skladno z načelom teritorialnosti
pripade tisti državi naslednici, kjer
se nahaja. Izjema so predmeti, ki
so velikega pomena za kulturno
dediščino ene od držav naslednic in
po izvoru pripadajo tej državi.
Pursuant to Annex A to the Agreement,
the movable and the immovable state
property of Yugoslavia should pass,
according to the territorial principle, to
the successor state on whose territory
it is situated, with the exception of
tangible movable property of great
importance to the cultural heritage
of one of the successor states and
which originated from the territory of
that state.
Slovenija je opredelila 313 predmetov
slovenske kulturne dediščine na
ozemlju Republike Srbije, med njimi
likovna dela slovenskih avtorjev
Božidarja Jakca, Matije Jame, Riharda
Jakopiča, Lajčija Pandurja, Nikolaja
Omerze, Ivane Kobilca in drugih,
negovsko čelado iz začetka 4. st. pr.
n. št., poštno kočijo, letalo Eda V ter
izvirnike slovenskih filmov Kekec, Na
svoji zemlji, Jara gospoda in druge.
Na področju delitve kulturne dediščine
države naslednice čaka še veliko dela,
saj se pogovori o razdelitvi še niso
začeli.
Drugače je pri delitvi umetnin iz
diplomatskih
predstavništev
in
konzulatov v tujini. Ker je bila
Jugoslavija na čelu neuvrščenega
sveta, je v tujini to želela prikazati z
razkošnimi veleposlaništvi, konzulati in
rezidencami. V svojih predstavništvih
je imela tudi več kakor dva tisoč
umetniških del avtorjev iz vseh republik
in avtonomnih pokrajin.
Pogajanja za delitev umetnin so se
začela leta 2002, prve predaje so bile
Slovenia has identified 313 objects of
its cultural heritage, which are located
in Serbia, among them artwork by
Slovenian authors Božidar Jakac,
Matija Jama, Rihard Jakopič, Lajči
Pandur, Nikolaj Omerza, Ivana Kobilca
and others; a Negau helmet from early
4th century B.C. a mail coach, the Eda
V airplane, and the originals of the
Slovenian films Kekec, Na svoji zemlji,
Jara gospoda and several others.
Regarding cultural heritage, the
successor states have much work
ahead of them, since the talks on
the distribution have not yet started,
unlike the distribution of artwork from
the diplomatic and consular missions.
Yugoslavia’s prominent role at the
forefront of the Non-Aligned Movement
was reflected in luxurious embassies,
consular posts, and ambassadorial
residences abroad. Its diplomatic
missions boasted well over 2000 works
of art by artists from all six republics
and both autonomous provinces.
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opravljene leto zatem. Slovenija je
doslej prevzela že 200 umetniških del
eminentnih slovenskih avtorjev.
V sodelovanju Ministrstva za zunanje
zadeve in Narodne galerije je bila
med majem in oktobrom 2015 v
Narodni galeriji na ogled razstava
Vrnitev ambasadorjev umetnosti.
Razstava 68 izbranih umetniških del
34 slovenskih avtorjev, ki so nekoč
krasila diplomatska in konzularna
predstavništva nekdanje SFRJ v tujini,
je rezultat večletnih prizadevanj za
vrnitev tega dela kulturne dediščine.
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Negotiations on the distribution of
these works started in 2002, and the
first handovers took place in 2003. To
date, Slovenia has taken possession
of 200 works of art by eminent
Slovenian artists.
From May to October 2015, the
National Gallery in Ljubljana hosted
an exhibition organised in cooperation
with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs titled
Return of Ambassadors of Art. The
exhibition featuring 68 selected works
by 34 Slovenian artists which had
once decorated the walls of diplomatic
missions and consular posts of the
former SFRY marked the culmination
of many years of efforts to achieve the
restitution of part of Slovenia’s cultural
heritage.
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Razstava Vrnitev ambasadorjev umetnosti,
Narodna galerija, 2015,
The Return of Ambassadors of Art exhibition
in the National Gallery, 2015
Vir: Luka Hribar in Janko Dermastja, Narodna
galerija
Source: Luka Hribar and Janko Dermastja,
National Galery
Splošno stanje, v katerem so bila
dela vrnjena Sloveniji, ni zadovoljivo,
zato bo treba v prihodnje opraviti
konservatorsko-restavratorske posege.
Sanacija
poškodb
bo
ustavila
degradacijo
kulturne
dediščine,
medtem ko bo z dopolnjeno in novo
opremo
zagotovljena
primerna
reprezentativnost umetnin.
In general, these works are in an
unsatisfactory condition and several
will have to undergo conservation and
restoration. The degradation of cultural
heritage will thus be halted, while new
and modern mountings and frames
will ensure that the masterpieces are
properly presented.
Predstavljamo dve umetnini, ki ju je
prevzela Slovenija:
The following is a presentation of two
works already handed over to Slovenia:
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Maksim Sedej (1909–1974)
V kuhinji, 1948
olje, platno
Rezidenca nekdanje SFRJ v Parizu
Vir: Bojan Salaj in Janko
Dermastja,
Narodna galerija
Maksim Sedej (1909–1974)
In the Kitchen, 1948
Oil on canvas
Residence of the former SFRY,
Paris
Source: Bojan Salaj and Janko
Dermastja,
National Gallery
Slika Maksima Sedeja V kuhinji je
bila leta 1948 odkupljena z razstave v
Moderni galeriji in je kot reprezentativno
delo enega najvidnejših likovnih
ustvarjalcev tistega časa pri nas
zastopala državo v svetovni prestolnici
umetnosti v Parizu.
24
The painting In the Kitchen by Maksim
Sedej, one of the most eminent
Yugoslav contemporary artists of the
time, was purchased directly from the
1948 exhibition in the Modern Gallery
to represent the state in the world
capital of art in Paris.
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V slikarjevi domači kuhinji se srečamo
z njegovo družino, ki je z rojaki delila
povojno pomanjkanje. Žena Ana
in njuni štirje otroci so bili Sedejev
največji navdih. Njihov dom je bil
očetov atelje: stena z vrati, miza, stol
in krožnik s te slike se ponovijo na
več drugih. Simbolika treh starostnih
obdobij: z otrokom, materjo in babico,
spremembe v odtenkih barvnih
ploskev, ki so drugače enotne, in
stvaren izsek iz vsakdanjika so del
Sedejevega »barvnega realizma«, ko
se je umetnik postavil na mejo med
osebno vizijo in starejšo umetnostjo.
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The artist’s family is portrayed in their
kitchen, sharing the misery of their
compatriots in the aftermath of the
world war. His wife, Ana, and their
four children were Sedej’s greatest
inspiration. The artist used their home
as his studio: the wall with the door, the
chair and plate in this painting are found
in several others. The child, mother
and grandmother, symbolising three
different ages, the different shades of
otherwise uniformly coloured surfaces,
and a realistic fragment of every-day
life are characteristic of Sedej’s ‘colour
realism’, in which the artist walks the
line between personal vision and
earlier art.
Nikolaj Omersa (1911–1981)
Pogled skozi okno v Piranu,
1960–1970 olje, platno
Rezidenca nekdanje SFRJ na
Dunaju
Vir: Bojan Salaj in Janko
Dermastja,
Narodna galerija
Nikolaj Omersa (1911–1981)
A View through a Window in
Piran, 1960–1970
Oil on canvas
Residence of the former SFRY,
Vienna
Source: Bojan Salaj and Janko
Dermastja,
National Gallery
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Nikolaj Omersa je eden najboljših
slovenskih krajinarjev po drugi svetovni
vojni. Med njegovimi priljubljenimi
motivi je bil poleg Ljubljane tudi Piran,
kjer so ga pritegnili ozke mestne uličice,
barke in zaliv. Sončni morski prizor
je umetnik gradil z navidezno mrežo:
steni, jambori, jadra in svetilnika so
vertikalne silnice, tlakovano nabrežje,
pomola in oddaljena obala pa
horizontalne.
Za Omerso je bil prelomen študijski
obisk Pariza leta 1951. Tam se
je spoznal z dediščino francoskih
umetnikov z začetka 20. stoletja, ki
so posegali po močnih barvah, širokih
potezah in se izogibali podrobnostim.
Omersa se je odvrnil od temačnih,
težkih tonov socialistično-realistične
umetnosti, začel uporabljati živahne
modernistične barve in pomagal
uveljaviti oseben umetniški pogled na
svet tudi v nekdanji državi.
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Nikolaj Omersa is considered a leading
Slovenian landscapist after World War
II. In addition to Ljubljana, he frequently
painted scenes from Piran, where he
was inspired by the narrow alleys, the
boats, and the bay. The sunlit seaside
impression takes the form of a virtual
grid; the pairs of walls, masts, sails
and lighthouses indicate vertical lines,
while the paved waterfront, piers and
the distant coast take a horizontal
direction.
Omersa’s study visit to Paris in 1951
marked a turning point in his career,
introducing him to the legacy of early
20th century French artists, who
employed vivid colours and broad
brushstrokes and avoided detail.
Omersa thus broke away from the
dreary and heavy tones of socialist
realism and took on bold modernist
colours. He was instrumental in
affirming a personal artistic view of the
world in the former state.
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Diplomatska in konzularna
predstavništva
Diplomatic missions and
consular posts
Delitev diplomatskih in konzularnih
predstavništev SFRJ je zaradi velike
vrednosti premoženja v tujini izrednega
pomena pri uresničevanju sporazuma.
Given the considerable value of
the property abroad, the division of
diplomatic missions and consular posts
of the SFRY is one of key aspects of
the implementation of the Agreement.
Priloga B sporazuma navaja večino
objektov Jugoslavije po svetu, od
katerih jih Sloveniji pripada 14
odstotkov. Na obsežneam seznamu,
ki se lahko še dopolnjuje, je 123
veleposlaništev,
konzulatov
in
rezidenc.
Delo na tem področju je eno
najuspešnejših, saj je ocenjeno, da
je v procesu delitve Slovenija dobila
okoli 70 odstotkov kvote diplomatskih
in konzularnih predstavništev, ki ji
pripada po sporazumu.
Sloveniji je že s podpisom sporazuma
pripadla stavba veleposlaništva SFRJ
v Washingtonu, ki jo Slovenija danes
uporablja kot veleposlaništvo in
rezidenco v ZDA.
Annex B thereto lists the majority of
state property all around the world,
allocating a share of 14% to Slovenia.
The lengthy list, which is not yet
exhaustive, includes 123 embassies,
consular
posts
and
diplomatic
residencies.
The work in this area is quite effective,
and in the distribution process Slovenia
has already received about 70 % of
the quota of diplomatic missions and
consular posts as per the Agreement.
Upon signing the Agreement, Slovenia
was allocated the building of the SFRY
Embassy in Washington, D.C., which
today hosts the Slovenian Embassy
and the Ambassador’s residence.
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International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Veleposlaništvo v
Washingtonu
Vir: MZZ RS
Embassy in Washington,
D.C
Source: MFA RS
Doslej je Slovenija prevzela tudi te
objekte nekdanje SFRJ:
•
•
•
28
generalni konzulat v Celovcu
generalni konzulat v Milanu
rezidenco v Rimu
To date, it has taken possession the
following propriety of the former SFRY:
•
•
•
Consulate-General in Klagenfurt,
Consulate-General in Milan,
Residence in Rome.
Na zasedanju Skupnega odbora za
delitev diplomatskih in konzularnih
predstavništev nekdanje SFRJ so
se 5. aprila 2016 države naslednice
dogovorile in potrdile roke za predajo
šestih objektov nekdanje SFRJ, ki jih
bo Slovenija prevzela še v letu 2016:
At its meeting in Skopje on 4 and 5
April 2016, the Joint Committee for
the Distribution of Diplomatic and
Consular Property of the Former SFRY
confirmed the dates for the handover of
six of the former SFRY which Slovenia
is to take over in 2016:
•
•
•
•
•
•
vilo v Brasilii
generalni konzulat v Sao Paolu
veleposlaništvo v Rabatu
Villa in Brasilia
Consulate-General in Sao Paulo
Embassy in Rabat, Morocco
Mednarodna konferenca
International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
•
•
veleposlaništvo in rezidenca v Dar
es Salaamu
rezidenco v Bamaku
Države naslednice so se prav tako
dogovorile, da bodo v najkrajšem času
skupaj prodale nepremičnine SFRJ
v New Yorku, Bonnu, Tokiu in Bernu,
izkupiček pa si bodo razdelile v skladu
z nasledstvenim delitvenim ključem,
saj na drugačen način delitve teh
objektov ni mogoče dokončati.
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
•
•
Embassy and residence in Dar es
Salaam
Residence in Bamako
The successor states also agreed to
promptly sell SFRY-owned properties
in New York, Bonn, Tokio, and Bern
and divide the proceeds in accordance
with succession division quotas, since
otherwise their distribution cannot be
finalised.
Generalni konzulat v
Celovcu
Vir: MZZ RS
Consulate-General in
Klagenfurt
Source: MFA RS
29
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Rezidenca SFRJ v Rimu
Vir: MZZ RS
Residence of the SFRY in
Rome
Source: MFA RS
30
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Delitev finančnih sredstev in
obveznosti
Priloga C, ki ureja delitev finančnih
sredstev in obveznosti, je v očeh
javnosti
pogosto
videna
kot
najpomembnejši del sporazuma. Po
eni strani zaradi finančnega vidika, ki
je vselej občutljiva tema, in po drugi
strani zaradi žgočega vprašanja starih
deviznih varčevalcev, ki je že dolga
leta predmet nesoglasja med državami
naslednicami.
V tej prilogi gre za eno najbolj
zapletenih vprašanj nasledstva, tudi
zato, ker so morale države naslednice
prevzeti obveznosti nekdanje skupne
države do mednarodnih finančnih
organizacij in tujih komercialnih
upnikov precej pred začetkom delitve
skupnega finančnega premoženja. Po
razpadu države je varnostni svet OZN
sprejel gospodarske sankcije proti
Zvezni republiki Jugoslaviji, ki so bile
dopolnjene s prepovedjo razpolaganja
s finančnimi sredstvi Narodne banke
Jugoslavije (NBJ) in SFRJ, vendar so
bile v praksi le-te različno spoštovane
oziroma izvajane.
Tik pred dunajskim dogovorom so
države naslednice 10. aprila 2001
dosegle
sporazum
o
razdelitvi
premoženja nekdanje NBJ pri Banki za
mednarodne poravnave (BIS) v Baslu
(delnice ter zlato in druga devizna
sredstva). Pri tem so soglašale z
uporabo delitvenega ključa, ki ga je
določil Mednarodni denarni sklad.
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Financial assets and liabilities
Among the public, Annex C on the
distribution of financial assets and
liabilities is often seen as the crux
of the Agreement, both due to the
financial aspect, which is always a
delicate matter, and due to the burning
issue of the old foreign currency
deposits, which has for many years
been an apple of discord between the
successor states.
This Annex regulates one of the most
complex issues, since the successor
states had to take on the liabilities
of the former common state to
international financial organisations
and foreign commercial creditors long
before the division of the common
financial assets. Additionally, after the
dissolution of the common state, the UN
Security Council imposed economic
sanctions on the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, blocking the assets of the
National Bank of Yugoslavia and the
SFRY in 1995, which were in practice
respected in various manners.
On 10 April 2001, shortly before the
Vienna agreement, the successor
states agreed on the division of
property of the former National Bank
of Yugoslavia with the Bank for
International Settlements (BIS) in
Basel (shares, gold and other foreign
currency reserves). They agreed to
accept the proportions for distribution
proposed by the International Monetary
Fund.
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Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
S sporazumom so se države naslednice
dogovorile, da je treba razdeliti vsa
razpoložljiva finančna sredstva, ki jih
je SFRJ imela v tujini (gotovina, zlato,
hranilne vloge in vrednostni papirji).
Določile so deleže, skladno s katerimi
se finančna sredstva delijo – Sloveniji
tako pripada 16 odstotkov vseh
finančnih sredstev. Odbor držav
naslednic, pristojen za ta vprašanja, je
delo začel takoj po podpisu sporazuma
in je na svojih zasedanjih, na katerih
je sprejel že 36 resolucij, rešil številna
vprašanja.
Sloveniji je bil že vrnjen pripadajoči
del premoženja Jugoslavije v obliki
gotovine, zlata in drugih dragih
kovin, deviznih depozitov pri tujih
komercialnih bankah in vrednostnih
papirjev.
Skupno
premoženje
Slovenije, pridobljeno na osnovi
Priloge C sporazuma, je ocenjeno
na 200 milijonov evrov. Države
naslednice čaka še delitev sredstev v
bankah s t. i. mešanim kapitalom.
Leta 2013 so se države naslednice
dogovorile o razdelitvi dolga SFRJ
do Mednarodne agencije za jedrsko
energijo (IAEA). Gre za pomemben
dosežek, ki bi se lahko uporabljal kot
zgled za reševanje drugih vprašanj
dolga nekdanje skupne države do
mednarodnih organizacij, kar še čaka
države naslednice v prihodnosti.
Dogovor glede ureditve poplačila
deviznih varčevalcev je vse do zadnjega
ogrožal podpis sporazuma na Dunaju.
Zdajšnja ureditev v 2. in 7. členu
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AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Pursuant to the Agreement, all
available financial assets held by the
SFRY abroad (cash, gold, deposit
accounts, and securities) are to be
distributed according to the proportions
set, with Slovenia being allocated 16
% of all financial assets. The relevant
Committee of the states successors
took up its work immediately in 2001
and, during its sessions, tackled
numerous issues and passed almost
36 resolutions.
Slovenia has already received its
portion of Yugoslavia’s assets in
cash, gold and other precious metals,
foreign currency deposits with foreign
commercial banks, and securities.
The total assets pertaining to Slovenia
based on Annex C to the Agreement
are estimated at 200 million euros.
The successor states still have to
distribute the financial assets in banks
with mixed capital.
In 2013, they agreed on the distribution
of the SFRY debt to the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This
important achievement could be
used as a model for tackling other
issues related to the debt of the
former common state to international
organisations, which remain to be
settled.
The actual signing of the Vienna
agreement was uncertain to the very
last minute due to the unresolved
question of foreign currency deposits.
The present arrangement of Annex
C, Articles 2 and 7, is a compromise,
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
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International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Priloge C je kompromis, ki je omogočil
dogovor, ob zavezi držav naslednic,
da bodo vprašanje dokončno uredile
v nadaljevanju pod pokroviteljstvom
Banke za mednarodne poravnave
(BIS) v Baslu.
making possible the conclusion of
the Agreement and including the
commitment of the successor states
to settle this issue later under the
auspices of the Bank for International
Settlements.
»O prevzemu jamstev SFRJ ali
Narodne banke Jugoslavije za devizne
hranilne vloge ... se nemudoma začnejo
pogajanja, pri čemer je zlasti treba
upoštevati zaščito deviznih hranilnih
vlog posameznikov. Ta pogajanja bodo
potekala pod pokroviteljstvom Banke
za mednarodne poravnave.« (iz 7.
člena Priloge C sporazuma).
“Guarantee by the SFRY or its NBY
of hard currency savings ... shall be
negotiated without delay taking into
account in particular the necessity of
protecting the hard currency savings of
individuals. This negotiation shall take
place under the auspices of the Bank
for International Settlements.” (From
Article 7 of Annex C)
Prvi krog pogajanj pod pokroviteljstvom
Banke za mednarodne poravnave se je
začel že jeseni 2001 in se končal brez
dogovora. Slovenija si je odtlej vztrajno
prizadevala za nadaljevanje pogovorov
med podpisnicami sporazuma.
The first round of negotiations under the
auspices of the Bank for International
Settlements began in autumn 2001
and was concluded without producing
an arrangement. Since then, Slovenia
has been trying to resume the talks
between the signatories.
Ker se meddržavna pogajanja zaradi
nasprotovanja
nekaterih
držav
naslednic niso uspešno končala, so
posamezni varčevalci, katerih devizne
vloge so ostale nepoplačane zaradi
neenotnih pogledov in ukrepov držav
naslednic, sprožili številne sodne
postopke. V letu 2014 je Evropsko
sodišče za človekove pravice odločilo
v korist varčevalcev. Slovenija je
že pričela z implementacijo sodbe.
Ne glede na to vprašanje pravične
razdelitve tega dolga nekdanje SFRJ
med države naslednice ostaja še
danes nerešeno.
Due to the failure of inter-state
negotiations as a result of the
opposition of certain successor states,
individual savers whose deposits had
not been repaid in light of the diverging
views and legislation of the successors
initiated numerous court proceedings.
In 2014, the European Court of Human
Rights ruled in favour of the savings
deposit holders. Slovenia already
started with the implementation of the
judgment. Nevertheless, the issue of
a just distribution of this debt of the
former SFRY among the successor
states remains unresolved.
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Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Večnamenska ladja Triglav
Triglav patrol boat
Med drugim je Slovenija na podlagi
»ruskega« klirinškega dolga pridobila
večnamensko ladjo Triglav.
As part of the settlement of the
“Russian” clearing debt, Slovenia
acquired the Triglav patrol boat.
Ladja Triglav, posadka
Vir: Osebni
arhiv porbl. Andrej Pečar
Crew of Triglav patrol boat
Source: Personal Archives
of Andrej Pečar
Ladja Triglav ob prevzemu
Vir: Osebni
arhiv porbl. Andrej Pečar
Triglav patrol boat at
takeover
Source: Personal Archives
of
Andrej Pečar
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International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
Osnovne naloge ladje so vojaške,
tj. obramba akvatorija in obalnega
prostora Slovenije ter zaščita morja
in varovanje plovnih poti v okviru
zavezništva Nato, vendar je Triglav
namenjen tudi za naloge zaščite in
reševanja.
V pet mesečni mednarodni operaciji
EU proti tihotapcem migrantov v
Sredozemlju (EUNAVFOR MED) je
Slovenska vojska s Triglavom preplula
12.000 navtičnih milj. Od oktobra 2015
je v 58 operativnih dneh na morju
izvedla devet reševanj in rešila 1072
ljudi, med katerimi se jih je več kot 500
vkrcalo na krov Triglava.
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Primarily used for military tasks – i.e.
the defence of the Slovenian waters
and coastline, and the protection of the
sea and of waterways within NATO –
the Triglav is also tasked with search
and rescue missions.
In a five-month international operation
organised by the EU (EUNAVFOR
MED) to target the trafficking of people
in the Mediterranean, the Triglav
covered 12,000 nautical miles. From
October 2015, during 58 days of
active operation, the Slovenian Armed
Forces crew performed nine rescue
operations, saving 1,075 people, 500
of whom were taken aboard the Triglav.
35
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Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
36
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Arhivi
Archives
Sporazum (Priloga D) ureja delitev,
ohranjanje in kopiranje arhivskega
gradiva nekdanje SFRJ, predvsem je
pomembno, da predvideva tudi prost
in neoviran dostop arhivistov držav
naslednic do njih.
The Agreement (Annex D) provides for
the distribution, retention, and copying
of the archives of the former SFRY,
guaranteeing free and unhindered
access to archivists from interested
successor states.
Arhivsko gradivo nekdanje SFRJ
obsega dokumente, ki jih je izdelala
ali prejela SFRJ ali ena od prejšnjih
ustavnih oblik jugoslovanske države
od 1. decembra 1918 do 30. junija
1991, ne glede na to kje so. To so
lahko dokumenti v fizični obliki ali pa
gre za filmske, avdio in video trakove
ter druge posnetke ali pa za vse
oblike računalniških zapisov. Arhivsko
gradivo je pomemben del kulturne
dediščine.
The archival documents of the former
SFRY are documents drafted or
received by the SFRY or any preceding
constitutional form of the Yugoslav
state from 1 December 1918 to 30
June 1991, regardless of their location.
The State archives comprise written
documents, film, audio and video
tapes and other recordings, as well as
any form of computerised records. The
archives are an important element of
cultural heritage.
Arhiv Republike Slovenije že več
let opravlja raziskovanje v Arhivu
Jugoslavije in Diplomatskem arhivu,
v zadnjem času tudi v Vojnem arhivu
v Beogradu. Med evidentiranjem in
pregledovanjem arhivskega gradiva
nastajajo dragocene kopije. Dostopnost
skupnega
jugoslovanskega
arhivskega gradiva se je v zadnjih
letih izboljšala. Raziskovalci pa se še
vedno srečujejo s težavo, da nekateri
jugoslovanski arhivi niso bili prevzeti v
Arhiv Jugoslavije, temveč se še vedno
hranijo pri ustvarjalcih, ne omogočajo
povsem neoviranega dostopa skladno
s sporazumom (Narodna banka
Jugoslavije, Ministrstvo za obrambo,
varnostne službe itd).
For a number of years, Slovenian
archivists have been conducting
research in the Archives of Yugoslavia
and the Diplomatic Archives, and
recently also in the Military Archives
in Belgrade. During the recording and
searching of archives, valuable copies
are produced. In recent years, access
to common Yugoslav archives has
improved, being hindered by the fact
that certain documents have not been
submitted to the Archives of Yugoslavia
and are still held by their sources, who
do not allow full unhindered access
in accordance with the Agreement
(the National Bank of Yugoslavia, the
Ministry of Defence, security services,
etc.).
Mednarodna konferenca
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
International Conference
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Pooblaščenci držav naslednic
po prilogi D
na sestanku glede digitalizacije
skupne
arhivske dediščine
v Skopju, 16. september 2015
vir: Državni arhivi Makedonije
Authorised representatives of
successor states under
Annex D at a meeting on the
digitalisation
of common archival heritage in
Skopje, 16 September 2015
Source: Macedonian State
Archives
Pridobitev arhivskega gradiva je nujna
za normalno delovanje držav, pogosto
tudi z vidika zaščite vitalnih nacionalnih
interesov. Slovenija je že leta 2006
pripravila
seznam
arhivskega
gradiva, ki večinoma obsega skupno
arhivsko dediščino, manjši del pa
je predmet vračanja v originalu.
Seznam se z rednim evidentiranjem v
beograjskih arhivih nenehno izboljšuje
in dopolnjuje.
Slovenija je identificirala tudi 126
mednarodnih pogodb nekdanje
Jugoslavije, ki se nanašajo samo na
slovensko ozemlje in katerih izvirniki
v skladu z določbami sporazuma
pripadejo Sloveniji (na primer pogodbe
o državni meji, meddržavnih služnostih
The acquisition of certain archival
documents is essential for the
unhindered administration of states,
and also for protecting vital national
interests. In 2006, the Slovenian side
prepared a list of archives, largely
constituting common archival heritage,
only a small part of which is subject
to the restitution of original copies.
Through continuous recording in the
Belgrade archives, the list is being
constantly updated.
Slovenia has also identified 126
treaties of the SFRY relating only to
Slovenian territory, the original copies
of which should pass to Slovenia
pursuant to the Agreement (i.e.
agreements relating to state borders,
37
Mednarodna konferenca
International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
in vodnogospodarskih vprašanjih).
Aktivnosti za vrnitev arhivskega
gradiva se bodo nadaljevala tudi v
prihodnje.
interstate servitudes and international
watercourses). In future, activities for
the restitution of Slovenian archives
will continue.
Poglobljeno sodelovanje med državami
naslednicami na področju arhivov je v
letu 2014 s podpisom pisma o nameri v
Ljubljani pripeljalo do zagona projekta
digitalizacije
skupne
arhivske
dediščine, v katerem sodelujejo vse
države naslednice. Pri tem je Arhiv
Republike Slovenije prevzel pobudo pri
pripravi in izvedbi pilotne digitalizacije.
Glavni cilji projekta so:
The currently improved cooperation
between successor states in the field of
archives led to the signing in 2014 of a
letter of intent on a project to digitalise
the common archival heritage with the
participation of all successor states. In
this regard, the Archives of the Republic
of Slovenia have taken the lead in the
preparation and implementation of
a pilot digitalisation phase. The main
objectives are:
•
•
•
•
•
digitalizirati
arhivsko
gradivo
na podlagi mednarodnih in
nacionalnih standardov,
povečati
njegovo
dostopnost
v skladu s pravili stroke in
nacionalnimi zakonodajami,
zagotoviti varnostne kopije in s tem
zaščititi izvirno arhivsko gradivo,
okrepiti arhivsko sodelovanje
v regiji z delitvijo in izmenjavo
strokovnih in tehničnih virov,
poskrbeti za lažje izvajanje
sporazuma.
Izvedba projekta digitalizacije je
velikega pomena za prihodnje rodove,
saj bo to pripomoglo k njihovemu
ozaveščanju in dostopu do skupne
jugoslovanske arhivske dediščine.
38
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
•
•
•
•
•
To digitalise archives according
to international and national
standards;
To enhance access to archives in
accordance with professional rules
and national laws;
To procure back-up copies and
thus protect the originals;
To enhance archival cooperation
in the region by sharing and
exchanging
professional
and
technical resources;
To facilitate the implementation of
the Agreement.
The digitalisation project will be of
the utmost significance for future
generations for providing them with
comprehensive
information
and
enabling their access to the common
Yugoslav archival heritage.
Mednarodna konferenca
International Conference
Sporazum o vprašanjih
nasledstva - 15 let pozneje
AGREEMENT ON SUCCESSION
ISSUES - 15 YEARS LATER
Pokojnine
Pensions
Vprašanje pokojnin je na podlagi
sporazuma zgledno urejeno. Vse
države naslednice so med seboj
sklenile
dvostranske
sporazume,
s katerimi so bilateralno uredile
vprašanja pokojnin. Tako so vprašanja,
ki jih ureja Priloga E, med državami
naslednicami v celoti urejena.
The issue of pensions was positively
settled on the basis of the Agreement,
with all successor states concluding
the relevant bilateral agreements.
Consequently, all the issues between
successor states in Annex E have
been completely resolved.
Zasebno premoženje in
pridobljene pravice
Premoženje, ki je bilo v državi naslednici
in do katerega so bili upravičeni
državljani in druge pravne osebe SFRJ
na dan 31. decembra 1990, morajo
države naslednice priznati, varovati
in ga znova vzpostaviti v skladu
s sprejetimi standardi in normami
mednarodnega prava ne glede na
narodnost, državljanstvo, začasno ali
stalno prebivališče teh oseb.
Po načelu nediskriminacije je treba
spoštovati vse pogodbe, ki so jih
sklenili državljani ali pravne osebe
SFRJ.
Private property and acquired
rights
Property located in a successor state
and to which citizens or other legal
persons of the SFRY were entitled
on 31 December 1990 must be
recognised, protected and restored
by that state in accordance with the
established standards and norms of
international law and irrespective of
the nationality, citizenship, residence
or domicile of those persons.
According to the principle of nondiscrimination, all contracts concluded
by citizens or legal entities of the SFRY
must be respected.
39
PUBLIKACIJA
Sporazum o vprašanjih nasledstva – 15 let pozneje /
Agreement on Succession Issues – 15 Years Later
Izdalo in založilo / published by
Uredil / Edited by
Jezikovni pregled / Language editing
Prevod v angleščino / English translation
Oblikovanje kataloga / Design
Prelom / Layout
Tisk / Printed by
Naklada / Circulation
Ministrstvo za zunanje zadeve Republike Slovenije / Ministry of Foreign Affairs of
the Republic of Slovenia
Grega Pajnkihar
Tea Mejak (SL), Philip Burt (EN)
Tea Mejak
Damir Kolar, Urad Vlade RS za komuniciranje / Government communications
office of the Republic of Slovenia
Damir Kolar, Urad Vlade RS za komuniciranje / Government communications
office of the Republic of Slovenia
Tisk24 d.o.o.
1000 izvodov / 1000 copies
© Ministrstvo za zunanje zadeve Republike Slovenije, 2016
© Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia, 2016
Projekt so podprli Ministrstvo za zunanje zadeve Republike Slovenije, Državni zbor Republike Slovenije, Urad Vlade Republike
Slovenije za komuniciranje in Sklad Republike Slovenije za nasledstvo.
The project was funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia, the National Assembly of the Republic of
Slovenia, the Government Communication Office and the Succession Fund of the Republic of Slovenia
CIP – Kataložni zapis o publikaciji
Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana
Razpad SFRJ
Mirovna konferenca o Jugoslaviji
Dissolution of the SFRY
Peace Conference on Yugoslavia
Badinterjeva arbitražna komisija
15 pravnih mnenj o razpadu SFRJ
Badinter Arbitration Commission
15 legal opinions on the dissolution of SFRJ
Svet za implementacijo miru
imenuje Sir Arthurja Wattsa kot
posebnega pogajalca za nasledstvo
The Peace Implementation Council
appointing Sir Arthur Watts as
Special Negotiator on succession
Podpis Sporazuma o vprašanjih
nasledstva
Signing of the Agreement on
Succession Issues
Končana ratifikacija v državah podpisnicah
Sporazum začne veljati
Ratification by all signatories
The Agreement entered into force

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