vol 6 issue 2 dec 2014 - Unit Inovasi Dan Penyelidikan

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vol 6 issue 2 dec 2014 - Unit Inovasi Dan Penyelidikan
LEMBAGA PENGARANG
JURNAL PENDIDIKAN DAN LATIHAN
Jilid 6 Bil. 02
Disember 2014
ISSN: 1985-9597
Penaung
Datuk Ibrahim bin Ahmad
Ketua Pengarah
Majlis Amanah Rakyat
Ketua Editor
Kamaruzaman Jaffar, KMN
Editor
Dr. Dewi Izzwi Abdul Manan
Dr. Faridah Salleh
Dr. Fatimah Ehsan
Dr. Noorzalina Mohd Noor
Dr. Sarinah Sulaiman
Faizah Abu Bakar
Hanirus Osman
Hasmah Markom
Khairiah Abdullah
Mazni Suleiman
Rodina Kamaruddin
Roskhairul Hanafi bin Subiran
Sharida Hashim
Siti Rosezaimah Ismail
Pewasit
Prof Dr. Haslinda Abdullah, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia
Dr. Jainabee Kassim
Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6 Bil. 02, Disember 2014
Diterbitkan oleh:
Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA)
d/a: d/a Unit Inovasi dan Penyelidikan MARA
Tingkat 9, Ibu Pejabat MARA
No. 21, Jalan Raja Laut
50609 Kuala Lumpur
Tel : (03) 26134480
Faks : (03) 26910486
©Hak Cipta MARA 2014
Hak cipta terpelihara. Tiada mana-mana bahagian daripada penerbitan ini boleh
diterbitkan semula atau disimpan dalam bentuk yang boleh diperoleh semula atau
disiar dalam bentuk dengan apa cara sekalipun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi,
mekanikal, rakaman atau sebaliknya tanpa mendapat izin bertulis daripada MAJLIS
AMANAH RAKYAT (MARA).
Lembaga Pengarang Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA)
menjemput para pembaca untuk menyumbang artikel dalam bidang pendidikan dan
teknikal. Maklumat lanjut berkaitan artikel boleh dilayari melalui:
http://journal.mara.gov.my/Innovation/articles.html
ii
Kandungan
Muka surat
Prestasi dan Potensi Akademik serta Bidang Kerjaya yang Diminati
1 - 18
dan Dipilih oleh Pelajar Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)
Prof. Madya Dr. Suria Baba
Dr. Jainabee Md Kassim
Implementation of Chemistry Lecturer Junior Programme to Enhance
19 - 29
Students’ Achievement in Chemistry
Nurul Elyani Elleas
Maria Ilyana Muhammed
Siti Zubaidah Azizan
Norrisalha Mohamad Tahir
Using the Process Approach to Teach Academic Writing to First-Year
Undergraduates of University of Selangor
Dr. Zarihan Samsudin
iii
30 - 45
Jurnal Pendidikan & Latihan
ISSN : 1985-9597, Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014),
http://journal.mara.gov.my/education/articles.html
Prestasi Dan Potensi Akademik Serta Bidang Kerjaya Yang
Diminati Dan Dipilih Oleh Pelajar Maktab Rendah Sains
MARA (MRSM)
Prof. Madya Dr. Suria Baba1, Dr. Jainabee Md Kassim
1
(Universiti Malaysia Kelantan)
Abstrak
Kajian bertujuan meneroka pandangan pelajar MRSM mengenai prestasi dan potensi mereka khususnya
dalam aspek-aspek kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor, di samping meninjau bidang kerjaya yang diminati
dan yang menjadi pilihan mereka. Sampel kajian berjumlah 1170 pelajar Tingkatan I, II dan III yang dipilih
dari 14 MRSM Semenanjung Malaysia, mengikut empat zon iaitu dari Zon Utara, Tengah, Selatan dan
Timur. Pengumpulan data mengenai prestasi dan potensi menggunakan soal selidik yang dibina pengkaji
berdasarkan literatur, manakala data bagi kerjaya yang diminati dan yang dijadikan pilihan menggunakan
soal selidik Inventori Minat Kerjaya Sidek 2012 (IMKS). Perisian Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS) versi 22 digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Bagi prestasi dan potensi dari aspek kognitif, kajian
mendapati pelajar menguasai pengetahuan ilmu asas, pencapaian akademik khususnya kebolehan
berfikir secara kritis dan kreatif serta memiliki pemikiran positif. Bagi aspek afektif, pelajar memiliki nilai
perkembangan diri yang baik, manakala nilai patriotisme adalah cemerlang khususnya kecintaan kepada
Negara, kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara serta penghormatan pada rakan-rakan berlainan agama dan
budaya, tetapi hanya baik dari segi kesanggupan berkorban untuk Negara dan pemahaman tentang
Rukun Negara. Bagi aspek psikomotor, pelajar MRSM memiliki kemahiran komunikasi, kemahiran berfikir,
kemahiran kerja berpasukan, kemahiran kepimpinan dan kemahiran pembelajaran pada tahap amat
memuaskan. Kajian juga mendapati pelajar berminat dengan tujuh bidang pekerjaan, iaitu Pertanian dan
Perhutanan, Perkhidmatan Perlindungan, Seni dan Hiburan, Persuratan dan Perundangan, Perkhidmatan
Sosial, Urusniaga dan Konvensional, tetapi bidang-bidang tersebut kurang diminati untuk dijadikan pilihan
kerjaya. Pelajar didapati berminat dengan bidang-bidang Sains dan Matematik, bidang berkaitan dengan
Perubatan, Perubatan, Sukan dan Pentadbiran Perniagaan dan juga menunjukkan minat untuk memilih
kerjaya yang berkaitan bidang-bidang ini sahaja manakala bidang-bidang yang berkaitan Pekerjaan
Berkemahiran, Kejuruteraan, Perkhidmatan Persendirian, Analisis Perniagaan dan Pekerjaan Perkeranian
didapati kurang diminati sebagai pilihan kerjaya. Justeru, kajian mempunyai implikasi penting kepada
kaunselor dan kumpulan pengurusan MRSM untuk menggerak, memantau dan menilai pelajar MARA
membuat pilihan kerjaya yang tepat, sesuai dengan kebolehan, kemahiran dan personaliti pelajar, sekali
gus membantu dalam pengurusan bakat untuk mendapatkan “the right people to do the right job”.
Kata kunci: Prestasi dan potensi, kerjaya
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Pengenalan
Pemilihan bidang kerjaya khususnya dalam bidang pendidikan menjadi semakin kompleks
ketika ini ekoran terdapatnya kebolehan manusia yang pelbagai dan keperluan pelajar yang
begitu kritikal selaras dengan ciri pembangunan dan pembentukan insan yang berdaya saing.
Justeru, sekolah turut dilingkari dengan paradigma untuk memenuhi perubahan yang kian
mendesak bagi melahirkan generasi yang berpengetahuan, berkemahiran, berdaya fikir dan
beraspirasi tinggi.
Pemilihan kerjaya sesuai merupakan salah satu permasalahan terbesar dalam kalangan
remaja di Malaysia. Tidak dinafikan ramai pelajar berhadapan dengan masalah apabila mahu
membuat keputusan untuk memilih sesuatu kerjaya. Menurut pandangan Amir Awang (1983)
terdapat tiga sebab utama mengapa berlakunya kesukaran dalam membuat keputusan
mengenai pemilihan kerjaya dalam kalangan individu. Antara kesukaran yang dikemukakan
Amir Awang adalah a) masalah tidak boleh membuat keputusan disebabkan seseorang itu
mempunyai minat dalam pelbagai bidang, minat tidak jelas atau tidak mempunyai minat
langsung terhadap apa jua kerjaya; b) ketiadaan kesempurnaan semasa membuat pilihan iaitu
pelajar tidak dapat mengagak dengan baik akan personalitinya, minatnya, nilainya,
kebolehannya dan pencapaiannya menyebabkan pilihan kerjaya yang dibuat tidak setimpal
dengan sifat peribadinya; dan c) kekurangan pengetahuan dan maklumat tentang dunia
pendidikan dan pekerjaan yang akhirnya menimbulkan masalah identiti kepada para pelajar
atau para remaja.
Oleh itu, beberapa Ujian Minat Kerjaya, boleh digunakan untuk mengenal pasti potensi
minat individu terhadap sesuatu aktiviti dalam pekerjaan, khususnya berdasarkan persekitaran
kerja (Nowak 1986). Antara ujian minat kerjaya yang lazim digunakan adalah Vocational
Preference Inventory (VPI), Self-Directed Search (SDS), Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory
(SCII), Inventori Minat Kerjaya Sidek (IMKS), Borang Minat Rothwell-Miller (BMRM) dan Kuder
Preference Records-Vocational (KPRV). Alat ukuran VPI dan SDS misalnya boleh digunakan
untuk mengenal pasti minat individu sama ada dalam bidang Realistik (R), Investigatif (I), Artistik
(A), Sosial (S), Enterprising (E) atau Conventional (C).
Sehubungan itu, kajian ini dijalankan dengan tujuan untuk meneroka pandangan pelajar
MRSM Tingkatan I, II dan III di Semenanjung Malaysia mengenai prestasi dan potensi mereka
khususnya dalam aspek-aspek kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor di samping meninjau bidang
kerjaya yang diminati dan yang menjadi pilihan mereka. Sekali gus, kajian ini akan dapat
memberi maklumat terkini mengenai laluan kerjaya (career path) pelajar-pelajar MRSM.
Kajian yang telah mula dijalankan antara tahun 2013 – 2014 ini bertujuan mendapatkan
maklum balas daripada 1170 pelajar Tingkatan I, II dan III MRSM Semenanjung Malaysia,
yang dipilih daripada seramai 286 dari Zon Utara, 136 dari Zon Tengah, 328 dari Zon Selatan
dan 420 pelajar dari Zon Timur . Secara khusus, artikel ini mengemukakan dapatan kajian
berdasarkan tiga soalan seperti berikut:
i.
ii
iii.
Bagaimanakah prestasi dan potensi pelajar MRSM Tingkatan I, II dan III
berdasarkan dimensi kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor?
Apakah bidang kerjaya yang diminati oleh pelajar MRSM Tingkatan I, II dan III?
Apakah jenis pekerjaan yang dipilih oleh pelajar MRSM Tingkatan I, II dan III?
2
Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Kerangka Konseptual Kajian
Kerangka Konseptual Kajian yang dibina mengemukakan tiga dimensi (Rajah 1). Maklumat diri
dari aspek jantina, etnik, tingkatan, keputusan UPSR, PNGK, kelulusan akademik ibu/bapa dan
kerjaya ibu/bapa tergolong dalam dimensi pertama manakala dimensi kedua pula mengambil
kira tiga elemen pembangunan modal insan berkualiti iaitu Kognitif, Afektif dan
Psikomotor/Generik. Elemen Kognitif merujuk kepada aspek-aspek pengetahuan ilmu asas,
pencapaian akademik pelajar dan pemikiran pelajar. Elemen Afektif pula merujuk kepada aspekaspek nilai perkembangan diri dan nilai patriotisme, manakala elemen psikomotor merujuk
kepada kemahiran komunikasi, kemahiran berfikir, kemahiran kerja berpasukan, kemahiran
kepimpinan dan kemahiran pembelajaran.
Dimensi ketiga dalam kajian ini menggunakan Inventori Minat Kerjaya Sidek - IMKS
(2012) yang mengemukakan 17 bidang atau kluster kerjaya iaitu i) Pertanian dan Perhutanan,
ii) Perkhidmatan Perlindungan, iii) Pekerjaan Berkemahiran, iv) Kejuruteraan, v) Matematik dan
Sains, vi) Bidang Berkaitan Perubatan, vii) Perubatan, viii) Seni dan Hiburan, ix) Persuratan
dan Perundangan, x) Sukan, xi) Perkhidmatan Persendirian, xii) Perkhidmatan Sosial, xiii)
Pentadbiran Perniagaan, xiv) Analisis Perniagaan, xv) Urusniaga, xvi) Pekerjaan Perkeranian
dan xvii) Pekerjaan Konvensional.
Maklumat diri
Jantina
Etnik
Tingkatan
UPSR
PNGK
Kelulusan akademik
ibu/bapa
Pekerjaan ibu/bapa
Prestasi dan Potensi:
Kognitif:
 Pengetahuan ilmu asas
 Pencapaian akademik
 Pemikiran pelajar
Afektif:
 Nilai perkembangan diri
 Nilai patriotisme
Psikomotor/Kemahiran generik:
 Kemahiran komunikasi
 Kemahiran berfikir
 Kemahiran kerja pasukan
 Kemahiran kepimpinan
 Kemahiran pembelajaran
Bidang kerjaya
yang diminati &
dipilih pelajar
MRSM
Rajah 1. Kerangka Konseptual Kajian
Metodologi
Dari segi metodologi, rekabentuk kajian menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif, dengan soal selidik
sebagai instrumen utama bagi mengumpul maklumat daripada pelajar Tingkatan I, II dan III
MRSM di Semenanjung Malaysia. Soal selidik mengenai prestasi dan potensi dibina sendiri oleh
pengkaji berdasarkan literatur, manakala bidang kerjaya yang diminati dan yang dipilih pelajar
menggunakan soal selidik Inventori Minat Kerjaya Sidek 2012 (IMKS).
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Item soal selidik mempunyai nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi dengan konstruk
Prestasi dan Potensi pelajar keseluruhan (108 item) mempunyai nilai alfa Cronbach 0.974
(kognitif 0.939; afektif 0.917 dan psikomotor 0.960. Nilai alfa bagi Inventori Minat Kerjaya (85
item) ialah 0.969, manakala Nama Pekerjaan Dipilih (85 item) mempunyai nilai alfa 0.973.
Skala Likert seperti berikut digunakan untuk mengukur konstruk Prestasi dan Potensi;
Kerjaya diminati dan Kerjaya dipilih:
I. Domain Kognitif:
a. Pengetahuan Ilmu Asas: Skala Likert 5 markat (1. Tidak memperolehi sama sekali, 2. Sedikit
memperolehi, 3. Sederhana memperolehi, 4. Banyak memperolehi dan 5. Banyak sekali
memperolehi).
b. Pencapaian Akademik: Skala Likert 5 markat (1. Tidak memuaskan, 2. Kurang memuaskan,
3. Memuaskan, 4. Amat memuaskan dan 5. Cemerlang).
c. Pemikiran Pelajar: Respons pelajar diukur berdasarkan dua kategori, menggunakan skala
seperti berikut:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pendapat Anda
Tidak penting
Kurang penting
Sederhana penting
Penting
Sangat penting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Status Diri Sendiri
Tidak mempunyai
Kurang mempunyai
Sederhana
Tinggi
Sangat tinggi
II. Domain Afektif: Respons pelajar bagi kedua-dua aspek iaitu i) Nilai perkembangan diri dan
ii) Nilai patriotism diukur berdasarkan Skala Likert 5 markat (1. Tidak memuaskan, 2. Kurang
memuaskan, 3. Memuaskan, 4. Amat memuaskan dan 5. Cemerlang).
III. Domain Psikomotor: Respons pelajar berdasarkan lima aspek iaitu Kemahiran Komunikasi,
Kemahiran Berfikir, Kemahiran Kerja Pasukan, Kemahiran Kepimpinan dan Kemahiran
Pembelajaran diukur berdasarkan Skala Likert 5 markat (1. Tidak memuaskan, 2. Kurang
memuaskan, 3. Memuaskan, 4. Amat memuaskan dan 5. Cemerlang).
IV. Bidang kerjaya diminati dan dipilih pelajar: Respons pelajar diukur menggunakan empat
skala 1. Tidak Minat (Not Interested), 2.
Kurang Minat (Less Interested), 3. Minat
(Interested) dan 4. Amat Minat (Very Interested).
Data soal selidik dianalisis menggunakan Perisian Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS) versi 22. Statistik deskriptif dalam bentuk frekuensi, peratusan, min dan sisihan piawai
digunakan bagi menjawab soalan kajian mengenai prestasi dan potensi pelajar MRSM
berdasarkan aspek-aspek kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor, bidang kerjaya yang diminati dan
jenis pekerjaan yang menjadi pilihan.
Perbincangan Dapatan Kajian
Perbincangan mengenai dapatan kajian meliputi profil, prestasi dan potensi pelajar, bidang
kerjaya yang diminati dan yang menjadi pilihan pelajar Tingkatan I, II dan III MRSM,
Semenanjung Malaysia. Prestasi dan potensi pelajar dikaji berdasarkan tiga aspek iaitu kognitif,
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
afektif dan psikomotor. Manakala, bidang kerjaya dan kerjaya pilihan, masing-masing dikaji
mengikut 17 bidang kerjaya yang dikenal pasti.
Profil responden pelajar meliputi jantina, tingkatan, keputusan UPSR, PNGK, kelulusan
akademik dan pekerjaan ibu serta bapa, dipilih dari 14 MRSM yang terdiri daripada seramai
1170 orang pelajar. Dari jumlah ini, seramai 623 orang adalah lelaki dan 547 perempuan;
seramai 162 pelajar Tingkatan 1; 695 pelajar Tingkatan 2 dan 313 pelajar Tingkatan 3. Mengikut
keputusan UPSR, seramai 1093 pelajar mendapat 5A, 67 mendapat 4A, 6 mendapat 3A dan 4
mendapat 2A. Seramai 420 orang pelajar mencapai PNGK antara 3.4 hingga 3.6, 395 antara
3.7 hingga 4.00; 214 antara 3.0 hingga 3.3 dan hanya 39 antara 2.7 hingga 2.9. Dari segi
kelulusan akademik ibu dan bapa, seramai 476 ibu dan 417 bapa berkelulusan SPM; 122 ibu
dan 137 bapa berkelulusan STPM; 518 ibu dan 557 bapa mempunyai ijazah. Dari segi
pekerjaan, seramai 414 ibu dan 417 bapa bekerja dengan kerajaan, 430 ibu dan 341 bapa
bekerja sendiri, 191 ibu dan 361 bapa bekerja dengan swasta.
Maklumat dalam Jadual 1 menjelaskan secara keseluruhannya, prestasi dan potensi
pelajar MRSM adalah amat memuaskan (min=4.03; SP=0.39). Pelajar mengakui banyak
memperolehi pengetahuan kognitif semasa belajar di MRSM (min=4.13; SP=0.37). Dimensi
afektif dan psikomotor pada keseluruhannya adalah amat memuaskan dengan skor min masingmasing (min=4.21; SP=0.55) dan (min=3.96; SP=0.54).
Jadual 1. Prestasi dan Potensi Pelajar Keseluruhan
Prestasi & Potensi
Min
SP
Interpretasi
Kognitif
4.13
0.37
Banyak memperolehi
Afektif
4.21
0.55
Amat memuaskan
Psikomotor
Prestasi & Potensi Keseluruhan
3.96
4.03
0.54
0.39
Amat memuaskan
Amat memuaskan
Maklumat berdasarkan Jadual 2 menjelaskan dimensi pertama prestasi dan potensi iaitu
Kognitif yang dikaji berdasarkan tiga aspek iaitu i) Pengetahuan ilmu asas, ii) Pencapaian
akademik dan iii) Pemikiran pelajar. Bagi aspek pertama, pelajar MRSM mengakui banyak
dibantu dalam memperolehi pengetahuan ilmu asas (min=4.12; SP=0.54), membuktikan
semasa mempelajari subjek-subjek di MRSM, mereka memperolehi kemahiran-kemahiran
Bahasa Malaysia Pertuturan, Bahasa Malaysia Penulisan, Bahasa Inggeris Pertuturan dan
Bahasa Inggeris Penulisan. Pelajar MRSM juga mengakui memperolehi kemahiran kepimpinan,
kemahiran menggunakan komputer, bekerja dalam kumpulan, membuat analisis dan kemahiran
menyelesaikan masalah.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Jadual 2. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Kognitif: Pengetahuan Ilmu Asas
Dimensi kognitif
Pengetahuan Ilmu Asas
Kemahiran Bahasa
Malaysia (Pertuturan)
Kemahiran Bahasa
Malaysia (Penulisan)
Kemahiran Bahasa
Inggeris (Pertuturan)
Kemahiran Bahasa
Inggeris (Penulisan)
Kemahiran kepimpinan
Kemahiran menggunakan
komputer
Kemahiran bekerja dalam
kumpulan
Kemahiran membuat
analisis
Kemahiran menyelesaikan
masalah
Pengetahuan Ilmu Asas
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TMSA
SM
SDM
BM
BSM
0
24
151
470
525
4.27
0.76
BM
1
17
173
531
448
4.20
0.74
BM
4
49
254
467
396
4.02
0.86
BM
2
37
251
534
346
4.01
0.80
BM
10
2
42
31
241
180
479
499
398
458
4.03
4.17
0.87
0.79
BM
BM
6
19
117
415
613
4.37
0.77
BM
3
39
309
528
291
3.91
0.81
BM
10
29
221
521
389
4.06
0.83
BM
1
11
133
534
491
4.12
0.54
BM
TMSA- Tidak memperolehi sama sekali: SM- Sedikit memperolehi: SDM- Sederhana
Memperolehi: BM - Banyak memperolehi: BSM - Banyak sekali memperolehi: I- Interpretasi
Penilaian pelajar MRSM terhadap aspek kedua dalam dimensi Kognitif iaitu Pencapaian
akademik (Jadual 3) adalah amat memuaskan (min=3.90 ; SP=0.54). Dapatan membuktikan
bahawa sepanjang pengalaman belajar di MRSM, pelajar secara keseluruhannya mengakui
pencapaian akademik amat memuaskan dalam aspek-aspek kualiti dalam pencapaian
akademik, prestasi pembelajaran dalam kelas, pengetahuan dalam ilmu asas, minat terhadap
pelajaran dalam kelas, motivasi dalaman untuk belajar, inisiatif terhadap pelajaran dan kualiti
tugasan yang dihasilkan. Pelajar MRSM mengakui pencapaian akademik adalah amat
memuaskan dari segi kebolehan berfikir secara kritis dan kebolehan berfikir secara kreatif,
kebolehan menggunakan teknologi dalam perkongsian maklumat, kebolehan menyampaikan
pendapat dengan jelas, kepekaan akan isu-isu alam sekitar, kemampuan mengingati isi
pelajaran, kemampuan membezakan isi penting dan isi sokongan serta kemampuan
membezakan faktor penyebab dan akibat. Dua aspek terakhir mengenai pencapaian akademik
yang didapati amat memuaskan ialah kemampuan menilai sesuatu cadangan dan kemampuan
merumuskan pengetahuan.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Jadual 3. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Kognitif: Pencapaian Akademik
Aspek kognitif
Pencapaian akademik
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
Kualiti dalam pencapaian
akademik
Prestasi pembelajaran
dalam kelas
Pengetahuan dalam ilmu
asas (Sains/Sains Sosial)
Minat terhadap pelajaran
dalam kelas
Motivasi dalaman untuk
belajar
Inisiatif terhadap pelajaran
12
112
408
454
184
3.58
0.90
AM
5
40
342
564
219
3.81
0.78
AM
2
40
251
587
290
3.95
0.78
AM
1
21
153
510
485
4.24
0.75
AM
1
30
251
520
368
4.04
0.79
AM
1
21
287
543
318
3.98
0.77
AM
Kualiti tugasan yang
dihasilkan
Kebolehan berfikir secara
kritis
Kebolehan berfikir secara
kreatif
Kebolehan menggunakan
teknologi dalam
perkongsian maklumat
Kebolehan menyampaikan
pendapat dengan jelas
Kepekaan akan isu-isu
alam sekitar
Kemampuan mengingati
isi pelajaran
Kemampuan memahami
fakta berbentuk grafik
Kemampuan aplikasi
pengetahuan
Kemampuan analisis
maklumat
Kemampuan bezakan isi
penting dan isi sokongan
Kemampuan bezakan
faktor penyebab dan
akibat
Kemampuan menilai
sesuatu cadangan
Kemampuan rumuskan
pengetahuan
Pencapaian Akademik
0
31
322
592
225
3.86
0.74
AM
2
34
358
517
259
3.85
0.79
AM
3
45
302
482
338
3.94
0.85
AM
2
36
266
535
331
3.98
0.80
AM
1
49
322
502
296
3.89
0.83
AM
6
61
392
488
223
3.73
0.84
AM
5
85
413
515
149
3.60
0.83
AM
4
35
236
556
336
4.00
0.82
AM
2
31
283
542
308
3.94
0.82
AM
4
39
397
529
196
3.73
0.81
AM
3
45
417
478
223
3.73
0.84
AM
1
40
279
550
297
3.93
0.82
AM
2
30
324
545
266
3.88
0.80
AM
3
46
361
511
246
3.80
0.83
AM
0
15
226
625
304
3.90
0.54
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan CCemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Aspek ketiga dalam dimensi Kognitif iaitu Pemikiran Pelajar memerlukan pelajar
memberi respons tentang kepentingan beberapa sifat peribadi untuk sesuatu pekerjaan serta
menilai sejauh mana sifat-sifat tersebut dimiliki (Jadual 4 & Jadual 5).
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual 4, pelajar MRSM mengakui adalah sangat penting
memiliki sifat-sifat peribadi seperti yakin diri, imej diri yang positif, boleh menyelesaikan
masalah, mahir berkomunikasi secara lisan dan bertulis, bermotivasi untuk belajar, mahir
merancang kerja, mahir bekerja dalam pasukan, boleh menyesuaikan diri, beriltizam untuk
memperbaiki diri, sanggup menerima arahan, boleh dipercayai, mahir mengurus masa, boleh
memimpin, mahir ICT dan sanggup membuat perubahan. Secara keseluruhannya, pelajar
MRSM mempunyai pemikiran bahawa sifat-sifat peribadi yang dinyatakan di atas adalah sangat
penting (min=4.66; SP=0.37).
Jadual 4. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Kognitif: Pemikiran Pelajar (Pendapat)
Pendapat
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TP
KP
SP
P
SP
Yakin diri
3
1
19
169
977
4.80
0.49
SP
Mempunyai imej diri yang
positif
Boleh menyelesaikan
masalah
Mahir berkomunukasi
(lisan)
Mahir berkomunukasi
(bertulis)
Motivasi untuk terus
belajar
Mahir merancang kerj
2
1
23
203
941
4.77
0.48
SP
2
3
45
300
820
4.65
0.58
SP
2
1
36
207
924
4.75
0.52
SP
2
7
83
329
749
4.55
0.66
SP
2
7
61
209
891
4.69
0.61
SP
2
4
66
314
784
4.60
0.62
SP
Mahir bekerja dalam
pasukan
Boleh menyesuaikan diri
0
18
54
282
816
4.62
0.64
SP
0
7
53
239
871
4.68
0.58
SP
Iltizam untuk memperbaiki
diri
Sanggup menerima
arahan
Boleh dipercayai
1
3
50
180
936
4.74
0.54
SP
6
6
89
341
728
4.52
0.70
ST
2
5
35
141
987
4.80
0.51
SP
Mahir mengurus masa
0
7
40
154
969
4.78
0.52
SP
Boleh memimpin
4
4
50
226
886
4.69
0.59
SP
Mahir ICT
9
12
127
355
667
4.41
0.78
SP
Sanggup membuat
perubahan
Pemikiran
Pelajar
(Pendapat)
7
12
76
275
800
4.58
0.71
SP
2
0
12
134
1022
4.66
0.37
SP
TP- Tidak penting: KP- Kurang penting: SP- Sederhana penting:
penting: I- Interpretasi
P- Penting: SP- Sangat
Apabila diminta menilai status diri, secara keseluruhannya, pelajar MRSM mengakui
memiliki sifat-sifat peribadi pada tahap Tinggi (min=3.93 SP=0.49). Pelajar mengakui memiliki
sifat-sifat peribadi seperti yakin diri, imej diri, boleh menyelesaikan masalah, mahir
berkomunikasi secara lisan dan bertulis, bermotivasi untuk belajar, mahir merancang kerja,
mahir bekerja dalam pasukan, boleh menyesuaikan diri, beriltizam untuk memperbaiki diri,
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
sanggup menerima arahan, boleh dipercayai, mahir mengurus masa, boleh memimpin, mahir
ICT dan sanggup membuat perubahan pada tahap Tinggi.
Jadual 5. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Kognitif: Pemikiran Pelajar (Status)
Status
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
S
T
ST
Yakin diri
0
29
462
513
166
3.69
0.73
T
Mempunyai imej diri yang
positif
Boleh menyelesaikan
masalah
Mahir berkomunukasi
(lisan)
Mahir berkomunukasi
(bertulis)
Motivasi untuk terus
belajar
Mahir merancang kerja
1
26
329
572
242
3.87
0.75
T
0
46
390
543
191
3.75
0.76
T
3
43
278
510
336
3.96
0.83
T
1
20
284
561
304
3.98
0.76
T
3
39
245
508
375
4.03
0.83
T
7
60
407
481
215
3.71
0.84
T
Mahir bekerja dalam
pasukan
Boleh menyesuaikan diri
2
23
235
534
376
4.07
0.78
T
3
22
185
456
504
4.22
0.79
T
Iltizam untuk memperbaiki
diri
Sanggup menerima
arahan
Boleh dipercayai
3
18
188
478
483
4.21
0.78
T
6
50
318
430
366
3.94
0.89
T
2
14
180
516
458
4.20
0.75
T
Mahir mengurus masa
11
45
343
522
249
3.81
0.84
T
Boleh memimpin
15
53
341
495
266
3.80
0.88
T
Mahir ICT
9
84
435
430
212
3.64
0.88
T
Sanggup membuat
perubahan
Pemikiran
Pelajar
(Status)
11
35
261
472
391
4.02
0.87
T
0
9
188
654
318
3.93
0.49
T
TM- Tidak mempunyai:
tinggi: I- Interpretasi
KM- Kurang mempunyai: S- Sederhana:
T- Tinggi: ST- Sangat
Dimensi kedua prestasi dan potensi iaitu Afektif dikaji berdasarkan dua aspek iaitu i)
Nilai perkembangan diri dan ii) Nilai patriotisme. Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual 6, pelajar
MRSM mengakui secara keseluruhannya memiliki nilai perkembangan diri pada tahap amat
memuaskan (min=4.13; SP=0.57). Nilai perkembangan diri pelajar MRSM amat memuaskan
dalam kesemua aspek yang dikaji iaitu i) Tanggungjawab terhadap keluarga, ii) Mempunyai
sikap amanah, iii) Bersikap toleransi dengan warga sekolah, iv) Rajin melaksanakan tugas
kelas, v) Boleh berdikari, vi) Berfikiran rasional dalam tindakan seharian, vii) Menepati masa, viii)
Menghargai alam sekitar dan ix) Mempertimbangkan masalah secara waras.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
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Jadual 6. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Afektif: Nilai Perkembangan Diri
Aspek Afektif
Nilai Perkembangan Diri
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
Tanggungjawab terhadap
keluarga
Mempunyai sikap amanah
4
9
102
503
552
4.35
0.71
AM
4
15
192
511
448
4.18
0.78
AM
Bersikap toleransi dengan
warga sekolah
Rajin melaksanakan tugas
4
18
206
561
381
4.10
0.77
AM
6
37
296
533
298
3.92
0.83
AM
Boleh berdikari
5
13
93
435
624
4.41
0.73
AM
Berfikiran rasional dalam
tindakan seharian
Menepati masa
4
15
228
521
402
4.11
0.79
AM
6
48
346
518
252
3.81
0.84
AM
Menghargai alam sekitar
5
35
249
495
386
4.04
0.84
AM
Mempertimbangkan
masalah secara waras
Nilai perkembangan diri
4
15
173
477
501
4.24
0.78
AM
4
9
128
518
511
4.13
0.57
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan CCemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Pelajar MRSM mengakui memiliki nilai patriotisme iaitu aspek kedua dalam dimensi
Afektif, pada tahap cemerlang (min=4.37; SP=0.66). Maklumat dalam Jadual 7 menjelaskan
bahawa nilai patriotisme pelajar MRSM adalah Cemerlang dalam tiga aspek iaitu i) Kecintaan
pada Negara, ii) Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara dan iii) Penghormatan pada rakan-rakan
berlainan agama dan budaya. Bagaimanapun, nilai patriotisme pelajar MRSM dari segi
kesanggupan berkorban untuk Negara dan pemahaman tentang Rukun Negara adalah Amat
Memuaskan.
Jadual 7 Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Afektif: Nilai Patriotisme
Aspek Afektif
Nilai Patriotisme
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
Kecintaan pada Negara
9
10
130
364
657
4.40
0.79
C
Kesetiaan kepada Raja
dan Negara
Kesanggupan berkorban
untuk Negara
Pemahaman tentang
Rukun Negara
Penghormatan pada
rakan-rakan berlainan
agama & budaya
Nilai Patriotisme
4
19
119
328
700
4.45
0.78
C
9
21
186
382
573
4.27
0.78
AM
6
23
154
417
570
4.29
0.82
AM
5
21
106
369
669
4.42
0.77
C
6
10
102
333
719
4.37
0.66
C
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan
C- Cemerlang: I- Interpretasi
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
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Bagi dimensi ketiga prestasi dan potensi iaitu Psikomotor, pelajar mengakui bahawa
sepanjang belajar di MRSM, mereka menguasai kemahiran komunikasi, kemahiran berfikir,
kemahiran kerja berpasukan, kemahiran kepimpinan dan kemahiran pembelajaran pada tahap
amat memuaskan. Bagi aspek kemahiran komunikasi, penguasaan pelajar MRSM adalah Amat
Memuaskan dalam aspek-aspek seperti i) Kebolehan menyampaikan idea secara lisan, ii)
Kebolehan menyampaikan idea secara bertulis, iii) Kebolehan memberi maklum balas yang
relevan pada soalan-soalan guru, iv) Kebolehan membentang tugasan secara sistematik dalam
kelas, v) Kebolehan berinteraksi dengan ahli kumpulan dalam kelas dan vi) Kebolehan
berinteraksi dengan pelajar pelbagai kaum dalam kelas (Jadual 8).
Jadual 8. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Psikomotor: Kemahiran Komunikasi
Aspek Psikomotor
Kemahiran Komunikasi
Kebolehan menyampaikan
idea secara lisan
Kebolehan menyampaikan
idea secara bertulis
Kebolehan memberi maklum
balas yang relevan pada
soalan-soalan guru
Kebolehan membentang
tugasan secara sistematik
dalam kelas
Kebolehan berinteraksi
dengan ahli kumpulan
dalam kelas
Kebolehan berinteraksi
dengan pelajar pelbagai
kaum dalam kelas
Kemahiran komunikasi
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
3
41
308
513
305
3.91
0.82
AM
2
27
254
577
310
3.99
0.76
AM
0
43
380
510
237
3.80
0.79
AM
0
42
333
511
284
3.88
0.81
AM
2
14
164
499
491
4.25
0.74
AM
8
37
210
448
467
4.13
0.86
AM
1
26
167
553
423
3.99
0.59
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan CCemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Penguasaan pelajar MRSM dalam kemahiran berfikir seperti yang digambarkan dalam
Jadual 9 adalah Amat Memuaskan (min=3.86; SP=0.61) khususnya dalam aspek-aspek i)
Kebolehan mengenal pasti masalah dalam situasi kompleks, ii) Kebolehan membuat penilaian
terhadap masalah yang sukar, iii) Kebolehan membuat keputusan berdasarkan bukti-bukti yang
kukuh, iv) Kebolehan berhujah untuk mempertahankan sesuatu idea, v) Kebolehan menjana
idea baru, vi) Kebolehan menilai sesuatu perbincangan dan vii) Kebolehan mencari
penyelesaian alternatif.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Jadual 9. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Psikomotor: Kemahiran Berfikir
Aspek Psikomotor
Kemahiran Berfikir
Kebolehan mengenal
pasti masalah dalam
situasi kompleks
Kebolehan membuat
penilaian terhadap
masalah yang sukar
Kebolehan membuat
keputusan berdasarkan
bukti-bukti yang kukuh
Kebolehan berhujah untuk
mempertahankan sesuatu
ide
Kebolehan menjana ide
baru
Kebolehan menilai sesuatu
perbincangan
Kebolehan mencari
penyelesaian alternatif
Kemahiran Berfikir
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KMCemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
4
38
377
524
227
3.79
0.79
AM
3
37
280
546
304
3.94
0.80
AM
0
46
321
564
239
3.85
0.78
AM
3
82
307
471
307
3.85
0.89
AM
4
52
336
498
280
3.85
0.84
AM
4
35
314
553
264
3.88
0.79
AM
5
41
318
549
257
3.86
0.80
AM
2
26
290
584
268
3.86
0.61
AM
Kurang memuaskan:
M- Memuaskan:
AM- Amat memuaskan
C-
Pelajar MRSM mengakui menguasai Kemahiran kerja berpasukan yang Amat
Memuaskan secara keseluruhannya (min=4.17; SP=0.61). Secara khusus, mereka mengakui
kemahiran kerja berpasukan adalah Amat Memuaskan dalam aspek-aspek i) Kebolehan
bekerjasama dengan orang lain secara berpasukan, ii) Kebolehan memimpin dalam pasukan,
iii) Kebolehan bertolak ansur dengan ahli-ahli pasukan dan iv) Kebolehan menyelaras kerja
berpasukan. Bagaimana pun, aspek menghormati idea dan sumbangan kerja ahli pasukan
adalah pada tahap Cemerlang (Jadual 10).
Jadual 10. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Psikomotor: Kemahiran Kerja Pasukan
Aspek Psikomotor
Kemahiran Kerja Pasukan
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
Kebolehan bekerjasama
dengan orang lain secara
berpasukan
Kebolehan memimpin dalam
pasukan
Kebolehan bertolak ansur
dengan ahli-ahli pasukan
Kebolehan menghormati ide
dan sumbangan kerja ahli
pasukan
Kebolehan menyelaras kerja
berpasukan
Kemahiran Kerja Pasukan
4
19
169
467
511
4.24
0.78
AM
7
57
266
470
370
3.97
0.89
AM
2
16
161
511
480
4.24
0.74
AM
5
12
137
452
564
4.33
0.75
C
2
24
237
540
367
4.06
0.78
AM
1
20
141
484
524
4.17
0.61
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KMCemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Kurang memuaskan:
M- Memuaskan:
AM- Amat memuaskan
C-
12
Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Pelajar MRSM juga mengakui bahawa kemahiran kepimpinan dalam kalangan mereka
secara keseluruhannya adalah Amat Memuaskan (min=3.88; SP=0.67), khususnya dalam
aspek-aspek i) Kebolehan membimbing orang lain, ii) Kebolehan mengagihkan tugas dan
tanggungjawab, iii) Kebolehan mempengaruhi orang lain, iv) Kebolehan memotivasi ahli
pasukan, v) Kebolehan membuat keputusan yang sesuai untuk kepentingan bersama, vi)
Kebolehan membawa ahli kepada satu kesepakatan, vii) Kebolehan memimpin sesuatu projek
dan viii) Kebolehan memainkan peranan sebagai ketua pasukan (Jadual 11).
Jadual 11. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Psikomotor: Kemahiran Kepimpinan
Aspek Psikomotor
Kemahiran Kepimpinan
Kebolehan membimbing
orang lain
Kebolehan mengagihkan
tugas dan tanggungjawab
Kebolehan mempengaruhi
orang lain
Kebolehan memotivasi ahli
pasukan
Kebolehan membuat
keputusan yang sesuai
untuk kepentingan
bersama
Kebolehan membawa ahli
kepada satu kesepakatan
Kebolehan memimpin
sesuatu projek
Kebolehan memainkan
peranan sebagai ketua
pasukan
Kemahiran Kepimpinan
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
8
57
309
550
246
3.82
0.83
AM
1
44
257
518
350
4.00
0.82
AM
9
74
376
483
228
3.72
0.87
AM
4
58
312
506
290
3.87
0.85
AM
6
36
270
537
321
3.96
0.82
AM
5
47
323
497
298
3.88
0.84
AM
6
58
334
480
292
3.84
0.87
AM
11
68
274
440
377
3.94
0.93
AM
4
49
238
551
328
3.88
0.67
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan
C- Cemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Pelajar MRSM menguasai Kemahiran Pembelajaran pada tahap yang Amat Memuaskan
secara keseluruhannya (min=3.98; SP=0.61). Maklumat dalam Jadual 12 menjelaskan
kemahiran pembelajaran pelajar MRSM adalah Amat Memuaskan dalam aspek-aspek i)
Kebolehan belajar secara kendiri, ii) Kebolehan mencari maklumat dari pelbagai sumber, iii)
Kebolehan mengurus maklumat, iv) Kebolehan menilai idea baru, v) Kebolehan menilai
maklumat mengenai isu-isu semasa, vi) Kebolehan mengembangkan minda ingin tahu melalui
internet dan vii) Kebolehan mengaplikasi maklumat.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
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Jadual 12. Prestasi dan Potensi Dimensi Psikomotor: Kemahiran Pembelajaran
Aspek Psikomotor
Kemahiran Pembelajaran
Kebolehan belajar secara
kendiri
Kebolehan mencari maklumat
dari pelbagai sumber
Kebolehan mengurus
maklumat
Kebolehan menilai idea
baru
Kebolehan menilai maklumat
mengenai isu-isu semasa
Kebolehan mengembangkan
minda ingin tahu melalui
internet
Kebolehan mengaplikasi
maklumat
Kemahiran Pembelajaran
Kekerapan & Peratusan
Min
SP
I
TM
KM
M
AM
C
5
48
316
474
327
3.91
0.86
AM
1
49
238
522
360
4.01
0.82
AM
2
40
294
535
299
3.93
0.80
AM
1
39
290
559
281
3.92
0.78
AM
2
40
333
498
297
3.89
0.82
AM
3
23
180
427
537
4.25
0.80
AM
4
32
274
536
324
3.97
0.80
AM
1
18
220
568
363
3.98
0.61
AM
TM- Tidak memuaskan: KM- Kurang memuaskan: M- Memuaskan: AM- Amat memuaskan
C- Cemerlang: I- Interpretasi
Kajian ini turut meninjau bidang kerjaya yang diminati dan yang menjadi pilihan pelajar
MRSM, berdasarkan 17 tema atau kluster pekerjaan yang disenaraikan dalam Inventori Minat
Kerjaya (Sidek 2012). Pelajar menggambarkan tahap minat menggunakan empat skala iaitu 1.
Tidak Minat (Not Interested); 2. Kurang Minat (Less Interested); 3. Minat (Interested) dan 4.
Amat Minat (Very Interested).
Tinjauan mengenai minat pelajar MRSM dalam sesuatu bidang kerjaya seperti yang
dilaporkan dalam Jadual 13 menjelaskan pelajar berminat dengan bidang-bidang kerjaya seperti
i) Pertanian & Perhutanan (min=2.71; SP=0.71), ii) Perkhidmatan Perlindungan (min=2.86;
SP=0.69), iii) Sains dan Matematik (min=3.05; SP=0.72), iv) Kaitan dengan Perubatan
Matematik (min=3.00; SP=0.84), v) Perubatan (min=2.67; SP=0.94), vi) Seni dan Hiburan
(min=2.51; SP=0.84), vii) Persuratan dan Perundangan (min=2.74; SP=0.71), viii) Sukan
(min=2.86; SP=0.81), ix) Perkhidmatan Sosial (min=2.73; SP=0.79), x) Pentadbiran Perniagaan
(min=2.72;SP=0.90), xi) Urusniaga (min=2.56;SP=0.88) dan xii) Pekerjaan Konvensional
(min=2.59 ; SP=0.86).
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Jadual 13. Bidang Kerjaya Diminati Pelajar MRSM
Kerjaya Diminati
Kluster 1: Pertanian & Perhutanan
Kluster 2: Perkhidmatan Perlindungan
Kluster 3: Pekerjaan Berkemahiran
Kluster 4: Kejuruteraan
Kluster 5: Sains dan Matematik
Kluster 6: Kaitan dengan Perubatan
Kluster 7: Perubatan
Kluster 8: Seni dan Hiburan
Kluster 9: Persuratan dan Perundangan
Kluster 10: Sukan
Kluster 11: Perkhidmatan Persendirian
Kluster 12: Perkhidmatan Sosial
Kluster 13: Pentadbiran Perniagaan
Kluster 14: Analisis Perniagaan
Kluster 15: Urusniaga
Kluster 16: Pekerjaan Perkeranian
Kluster 17: Pekerjaan Konvensional
Kekerapan & Peratusan
TM
KM
M
136
459
393
68
280
463
221
404
377
263
370
333
46
223
419
95
241
333
197
313
300
209
367
347
93
352
423
101
274
399
391
340
253
126
327
402
161
311
345
257
347
326
212
315
376
278
388
344
182
337
365
TM- Tidak minat:
M- Minat:
KM- Kurang minat:
AM
182
359
168
204
482
501
360
247
302
396
186
315
353
240
267
160
286
AM- Amat minat
Min
2.71
2.86
2.43
2.40
3.05
3.00
2.67
2.51
2.74
2.86
2.21
2.73
2.72
2.45
2.56
2.33
2.59
SP
0.71
0.69
0.79
0.85
0.72
0.84
0.94
0.84
0.71
0.81
0.91
0.79
0.90
0.91
0.88
0.84
0.86
I
M
M
KM
KM
M
M
M
M
M
M
KM
M
M
KM
M
KM
M
I- Interpretasi
Bagaimanapun, pelajar MRSM kurang berminat dengan lima bidang kerjaya iaitu i)
Pekerjaan Berkemahiran (min=2.43; SP=0.79), ii) Kejuruteraan (min=2.40; SP=0.85), iii)
Perkhidmatan Persendirian (min=2.21; SP=0.91), iv) Analisis Perniagaan (min=2.45; SP=0.91)
dan v) Pekerjaan Perkeranian (min=2.33; SP=0.84).
Seterusnya, maklumat dalam Jadual 14 menunjukkan pelajar berminat untuk memilih
bdang-bidang kerjaya seperti i) Sains dan Matematik (min=2.69 ; SP=0.83), ii) Bidang Berkaitan
Perubatan (min=3.00 ; SP=0.84), iii) Perubatan (min=2.58 ; SP=0.96), iv) Sukan (min=2.86 ;
SP=0.81) dan v) Pentadbiran Perniagaan (min=2.79 ; SP=0.95).
Jadual 14. Bidang Kerjaya Pilihan Pelajar MRSM
Kerjaya Pilihan
Kluster 1: Pertanian & Perhutanan
Kluster 2: Perkhidmatan Perlindungan
Kluster 3: Pekerjaan Berkemahiran
Kluster 4: Kejuruteraan
Kluster 5: Sains dan Matematik
Kluster 6: Bidang Berkaitan Perubatan
Kluster 7: Perubatan
Kluster 8: Seni dan Hiburan
Kluster 9: Persuratan dan Perundangan
Kluster 10: Sukan
Kluster 11: Perkhidmatan Persendirian
Kluster 12: Perkhidmatan Sosial
Kluster 13: Pentadbiran Perniagaan
Kluster 14: Analisis Perniagaan
Kluster 15: Urusniaga
Kluster 16: Pekerjaan Perkeranian
Kluster 17: Pekerjaan Konvensional
Kekerapan & Peratusan
TM
KM
M
421
383
253
321
371
293
336
393
290
163
370
333
160
299
412
259
324
363
254
289
291
233
375
330
272
413
328
101
274
399
391
340
253
344
359
315
187
253
300
367
334
272
320
346
305
298
355
342
315
340
311
TM- Tidak minat:
M- Minat:
KM- Kurang minat:
AM
113
185
151
204
299
224
336
232
157
396
186
152
430
197
199
175
204
AM- Amat minat
Min
2.09
2.32
2.24
2.40
2.69
3.00
2.58
2.47
2.32
2.86
2.21
2.25
2.79
2.26
2.32
2.35
2.38
SP
0.85
0.88
0.85
0.85
0.83
0.84
0.96
0.86
0.82
0.81
0.91
0.88
0.95
0.96
0.90
0.85
0.90
I
KM
KM
KM
KM
M
M
M
KM
KM
M
KM
KM
M
KM
KM
KM
KM
I- Interpretasi
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Walau bagaimanapun, pelajar MRSM kurang berminat dengan bidang-bidang kerjaya
berikut: i) Pertanian & Perhutanan (min=2.09 ; SP=0.85), ii) Perkhidmatan Perlindungan
(min=2.32 ; SP=0.88), iii) Pekerjaan Berkemahiran (min=2.24 ; SP=0.85), iv) Kejuruteraan
(min=2.40 ; SP=0.85), v) Seni dan Hiburan (min=2.47 ; SP=0.86), vi) Persuratan dan
Perundangan (min=2.32 ; SP=0.82), vii) Perkhidmatan Persendirian (min=2.21 ; SP=0.91), viii)
Perkhidmatan Sosial (min=2.25 ; SP=0.88), ix) Analisis Perniagaan (min=2.26 ; SP=0.96), x)
Urusniaga (min=2.32 ; SP=0.90), xi) Pekerjaan Perkeranian (min=2.35 ; SP=0.85) dan xii)
Pekerjaan Konvensional (min=2.38 ; SP=0.90).
Rumusan
Kajian ini telah membuahkan beberapa dapatan yang boleh menyumbangkan maklumat kepada
Bahagian Pendidikan MARA secara amnya dan kepada pengetua Maktab Rendah Sains MARA
secara khususnya.
Pelajar MRSM mempunyai pandangan positif terhadap prestasi dan potensi bagi ketigatiga aspek iaitu kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor. Bagi dimensi kognitif, pelajar banyak
memperolehi pengetahuan ilmu asas, khususnya kemahiran bertutur dan menulis Bahasa
Melayu dan Bahasa Inggeris, di samping kemahiran-kemahiran kepimpinan, mengguna
komputer, bekerja dalam kumpulan, membuat analisis dan kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah.
Dari segi pencapaian akademik, pelajar turut berpuas hati dengan kualiti dalam pencapaian
akademik, prestasi pembelajaran dalam kelas, pengetahuan dalam ilmu asas, minat terhadap
pelajaran dalam kelas, motivasi dalaman untuk belajar, inisiatif terhadap pelajaran, kualiti
tugasan yang dihasilkan, kebolehan berfikir secara kritis dan kreatif, kebolehan menggunakan
teknologi dalam perkongsian maklumat, kebolehan menyampaikan pendapat dengan jelas dan
kepekaan akan isu-isu alam sekitar serta kemampuan memahami fakta berbentuk grafik,
kemampuan mengaplikasi pengetahuan, kemampuan menganalisis maklumat, kemampuan
membezakan isi-isi penting dan sokongan, kemampuan membezakan faktor penyebab dan
akibat, kemampuan menilai sesuatu cadangan dan kemampuan merumuskan pengetahuan.
Bagi dimensi afektif, pelajar MRSM memiliki nilai perkembangan diri seperti
tanggungjawab terhadap keluarga, bersikap amanah, toleransi dengan warga sekolah, rajin
melaksanakan tugas kelas, boleh berdikari, berfikiran rasional dalam tindakan seharian,
menepati masa, menghargai alam sekitar dan mempertimbangkan masalah secara waras.
Walaupun begitu, nilai patriotisme mereka belum pula sampai pada tahap cemerlang,
khususnya dari segi kesanggupan berkorban untuk Negara dan pemahaman tentang Rukun
Negara. Justeru, dapatan seperti ini memerlukan perhatian pihak pengurusan MARA untuk
meningkatkan semangat patriotik dalam kalangan pelajar MRSM.
Dapatan mengenai kerjaya menjelaskan bahawa pelajar MRSM meminati bidang-bidang
Pertanian dan Perhutanan, Perkhidmatan Perlindungan, Seni dan Hiburan, Persuratan dan
Perundangan, Perkhidmatan Sosial, Urusniaga dan Konvensional, tetapi mereka kurang
berminat untuk memilih kerjaya-kerjaya tersebut. Walaupun dapatan seperti ini tidak
menghairankan, memandangkan kecenderungan kurikulum MRSM pada aliran sains, tetapi
mismatch yang berlaku ini memerlukan pertimbangan pihak pengurusan MARA untuk
menyelidiki dan mencari sebab mengapa pelajar meminati bidang-bidang berkaitan tetapi
kurang berminat untuk dipilih sebagai kerjaya.
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Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Pelajar MRSM didapati kurang berminat dengan bidang-bidang Pekerjaan
Berkemahiran, Kejuruteraan, Perkhidmatan Persendirian, Analisis Perniagaan dan Pekerjaan
Perkeranian. Mereka juga kurang berminat untuk memilih jawatan-jawatan dalam bidang
tersebut. Sebagai contoh, dalam bidang Pekerjaan Berkemahiran, pelajar MRSM hanya
berminat memilih mekanik kapalterbang, tetapi kurang meminati juruteknik peralatan, mekanik
kenderaan, pelukis plan dan juruukur bahan. Dalam bidang kejuruteraan pula, pelajar hanya
berminat dengan kejuruteraan kimia, tetapi kurang berminat dengan kejuruteraan aeronautikal,
kejuruteraan awam, kejuruteraan automotif dan kejuruteraan elektrik. Justeru, adalah penting
bagi pihak pengurusan MARA mencari punca mengapa pelajar MARA kurang berminat memilih
jawatan-jawatan berkaitan terutamanya bidang Kejuruteraan.
Pelajar didapati berminat dengan bidang-bidang Sains dan Matematik, Bidang Berkaitan
dengan Perubatan, Perubatan, Sukan dan Pentadbiran Perniagaan malah mereka juga
berminat untuk memilih kerjaya yang berkaitan dengan bidang-bidang tersebut. Justeru, pihak
pengurusan MARA boleh memberi perhatian khusus pada dapatan kajian yang menjelaskan
bahawa pelajar kurang berminat untuk menjadi doktor gigi dan pakar sakit puan, tetapi berminat
memilih kerjaya sebagai pegawai perubatan, pakar bedah dan doktor kanak-kanak. Dalam
bidang Sukan, pelajar MRSM berminat menjalankan tugas-tugas berkaitan sukan dan juga
berminat untuk memilih semua jenis kerjaya dalam bidang Sukan seperti ahli olahraga, pegawai
sukan, jurulatih sukan dan guru pendidikan jasmani.
Justeru, adalah penting bagi pihak pengurusan MARA mengambil kira dapatan kajian,
sekali gus mencari jawapan dan kaedah penyelesaian kepada persoalan-persoalan yang
berfokus pada perkara-perkara seperti i) Mengapa pelajar MRSM meminati bidang-bidang Sains
dan Matematik, Bidang Berkaitan dengan Perubatan, Perubatan, Sukan dan Pentadbiran
Perniagaan dan menunjukkan minat untuk memilih kerjaya yang berkaitan dengan bidangbidang tersebut; ii) Mengapa pelajar MRSM meminati bidang-bidang Pertanian dan Perhutanan,
Perkhidmatan Perlindungan, Seni dan Hiburan, Persuratan dan Perundangan, Perkhidmatan
Sosial, Urusniaga dan Konvensional, tetapi kurang berminat untuk memilih kerjaya berkaitan
dan iii) Mengapa pelajar MRSM kurang meminati bidang-bidang Pekerjaan Berkemahiran,
Kejuruteraan, Perkhidmatan Persendirian, Analisis Perniagaan dan Pekerjaan Perkeranian serta
kurang minat memilih kerjaya-kerjaya yang berkaitan bidang-bidang berkenaan.
Penutup
Dapatan kajian ini memberi maklumat kepada pihak pengurusan MARA mengenai status
semasa prestasi dan potensi serta minat dan pilihan kerjaya dalam kalangan pelajar Tingkatan I,
II dan III MRSM di Semenanjung Malaysia. Maklumat ini penting untuk pihak berwajib
mengambil kira pandangan pelajar agar kekuatan yang ada dapat diperkukuhkan, manakala
kelemahan yang dikesan dapat diperbaiki sebagai usaha untuk membantu pelajar, menentukan
minat dan membuat pilihan kerjaya secara lebih tepat, khusus dan realistik. Maklumat mengenai
minat dan pilihan kerjaya serta mismatch yang terdapat boleh diambil kira dalam membantu
pelajar membuat pilihan kerjaya yang sesuai, berasaskan minat, bakat dan kebolehan.
Sehubungan itu, pihak yang berwajib boleh membuat pertimbangan dan mengambil tindakan
untuk membantu mempertingkatkan prestasi dan potensi, di samping membimbing pelajar untuk
meminati dan membuat pilihan kerjaya yang tepat. Dengan itu, MARA bukan sahaja berjaya
menghasilkan pelajar yang cemerlang akademik, tetapi juga berjaya dalam menjuruskan laluan
kerjaya (career path) pelajarnya.
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Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
Penghargaan
Penulis ingin merakamkan penghargaan kepada MARA atas sokongan kewangan melalui Skim Geran
Penyelidikan dan Inovasi MARA (SGPIM) 2013 – 2014.
Rujukan
Carmeli, A & Gefen, D. (2005). The Relationship Between Work Commitment Models and Employee
Withdrawal Intentions, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20 (2), 63-86.
Chua, Y.P. (2006). Kaedah dan statistik penyelidikan. Kaedah Penyelidikan. Buku 1. Kuala Lumpur.
McGraw-Hill Education.
Faridah Mohd Sopah. (2001). Hubungan Antara Keselarasan Personaliti Dengan Kepuasan Kerja di
Kalangan Kaunselor Sekolah Menengah di Negeri Selangor. Projek Master yang tidak diterbitkan.
Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan. UPM, Serdang.
Gwinn, R P., Swanson, C. E., Carmeli, A & Gefen, D. (2005). The Relationship Between Work
Commitment Models and Employee Withdrawal Intentions, Journal of Managerial Psychology,
20 (2), 63-86.
Kevin A. J. et al. (2009). Identifying student potential for ICT entrepreneurship. Myer-Briggs Personaliti
Type Indicators. Jurnal of Information Technology Education, 8, 2005.
Kim
Hoque, Scott Taylor dan Emma Bell. (2005). Investors in people,: market-led voluntarism in
vocational education and training. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 43, 135-153.
Nor Asikin bt. Salleh. (2007). Memperkasa sekolah kebangsaan: organisasi pembelajaran sebagai satu
sebagai satu faktor di sekolah-sekolah berkesan. Prosiding Seminar Kebangsaan. Isu-isu
Pendidikan Negara Ketiga: Dasar dan Perlaksanaan 2007, Fakulti Pendidikan UKM. Hal. 259266.
Sidek Mohd Noah. (2005). Pengujian dan penilaian dalam kaunseling: Teori dan aplikasi. Serdang:
Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Sidek Mohd Noah. (2006). Perkembangan kerjaya: Teori dan praktis. Serdang: Penerbit Universiti Putra
Malaysia.
Sidek Mohd Noah. (2012). Inventori Minat Kerjaya SIdek - IMKS (Sidek Career Interest Inventory). SMN
Psuchological Testing & Resources. bandar Baru bangi, Selangor D.E.
http://timesandpirls.be edu/PDF/Po6_Student questinnaire.pdf. Student Questionnaire, 2006.
18
Jurnal Pendidikan & Latihan
ISSN : 1985-9597, Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014),
http://journal.mara.gov.my/education/articles.html
Implementation of Chemistry Lecturer Junior Programme to
Enhance Students’ Achievement in Chemistry
Nurul Elyani Elleas1, Maria Ilyana Muhammed1, Siti Zubaidah Azizan1,
Norrisalha Mohamad Tahir1
1
(Kolej MARA Kulim)
Abstract
This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of Chemistry Lecturer Junior
Programme (CLJP) to enhance students’ achievement in Chemistry in Kolej MARA Kulim. In addition, this
study aims to identify whether there are differences in the increase of achievement among male and
female students after CLJP was implemented. This study employed the quantitative research using the
quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test research design. A total number of 108 students of Kolej MARA
Kulim were purposively sampled. Data were analysed using paired sample t-test and independent sample
t-test. The finding showed that students’ achievement in Chemistry increased when CLJP was
implemented. It also revealed no significant difference between male and female students’ achievement.
Keyword: peer teaching, students’ achievement
Introduction
It has been perceived that knowledge management (K-Management) has become so important
in today‟s educational organization. Information practices and learning strategies known as KManagement are gaining acceptance in the field of education and can be described as a set of
practices that helps to improve the use and sharing of data or information in decision making at
the most basic level (Petrirides & Guiney, 2002). This is in line with Vision 2020 which is a
crucial agenda for Malaysia to transform Malaysian society from a knowledge society and
ultimately into a “value-based” knowledge society by the year 2020. In order to achieve this
vision, changes need to be made in how people work within their respective educational
institutions as well as on the ongoing and effective professional development. At the same time,
teachers are also required to remain abreast of a wide variety of changing standards, curricula,
and pedagogical methods.
K-Management can be used as a strategy to encounter current competitive challenges
(Chu et al., 2011). According to Hooff et al. (2003), knowledge sharing is a process where
individuals mutually exchange their knowledge and jointly create new knowledge. Increasing
knowledge sharing would have positive effect on organization performance. According to Zhao
(2010), K-Management school can facilitate the acquisition, sharing and application of
knowledge in school, especially the professional knowledge, experiences and competencies of
teachers. Unfortunately, intellectual property is often not shared because it is considered as a
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Jurnal Pendidikan & Latihan
Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
source of power (Quinn et al., 1996). Moreover, Cho et al. (2007) reported that people do not
share their knowledge under all circumstances. At the classroom level, knowledge sharing
occurs when the teachers engage students in intellectual discussions, and how the students
behave in terms of knowledge sharing behaviour is influenced on how the instructors conducts
the class (Chen et al., 2007).
According to Marinah et al. (2011) knowledge sharing will be effective through social
discussions, teamwork or work projects, as well as through individual activities such as reading
and self-reflection. As such, the establishment of conducive environment for knowledge sharing
between students and their colleagues need to be initiated. This initiative is considered important
since students experience numerous content knowledge to be covered in limited time. There are
many subjects to be taken and much syllabus to be covered within short time-span. They have
to attend classes for eight hours each day and this situation can cause cognitive overload
among them. Moreover, they also need to complete their tutorials, assignment, and laboratory
reports. At the same time, matriculation students have to be prepared for quizzes, tests and
examinations. This situation leads to a very stressful life in matriculation, and sharing knowledge
is incontrovertibly one of the helpful ways to overcome this situation.
By sharing knowledge, the time taken to do revisions can be reduced. Unfortunately,
from our observation, we believe that knowledge sharing among matriculation students is not
really practised since most of them are afraid to lose their exclusiveness. Furthermore, the
knowledge that individuals possess is considered as their intellectual property and the breadth of
knowledge gives them a personal advantage. Within a classroom context, most students may
keep their knowledge against classmates to gain a competitive advantage in grades.
Based on the Mid-Semester Examination results in Chemistry, we found that the
percentage of low achievers or failures is higher compared to high achievers (Malaysia
Examination Council, 2011). The gap between high achievers and low achievers can be caused
by either the students themselves or lecturers. One of the suggested approaches to overcome
this problem is through knowledge sharing. Thus, CLJP is introduced. We strongly believe that
when these students, also known as „junior lecturers‟ in this CLJP context, share their
knowledge with their group members, they manage to reduce the number of failures.
One of the subjects taught in Matriculation level is Chemistry which is one of the most
important branches of Science. It enables learners to understand what happens or revolves
around them. In addition, Chemistry is generally related to the matter; its atomic and electronic
structure, chemical reactions, organic chemistry and many more. Chemistry curricula commonly
incorporate many abstract concepts (Taber, 2002). These abstract concepts are very important
since more advanced chemistry concepts or theories cannot be easily understood if these
underpinning concepts are not sufficiently grasped by the students (Coll & Treagust, 2001). The
abstract nature of Chemistry along with other content learning difficulties means that Chemistry
classes require a high-level thinking skill (Taber, 2002). Many students claim that Science is
generally difficult and Chemistry is one of the most difficult subjects to learn because the
psychology for the formation of most Chemistry concepts is quite difficult from that of the normal
world (Johnstone, 2000). That is why learning Chemistry places insurmountable demands on
both the students and teachers. (Stieff & Wilensky, 2002). Sirhan (2007) concluded that
Chemistry proves to be a difficult subject for many students and sometimes repel learners from
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Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014)
continuing their studies in Chemistry. Based from the findings above, we realised that the
difficulties in learning Chemistry will demotivate the students and gradually affect their grades.
Mazur (1997) pointed out that the students must be involved in group work or peer
instruction, where the students help each other in challenging each other‟s ideas through
discussions. Through the peer tutoring, the tutors and tutees can increase their self confidence,
skills and satisfaction of knowledge obtained (Chen, Ching & Liu, 2009). Miller et al. (1995)
found that peer learning can benefit both the tutor and tutee, socially and educationally by
motivating them to learn. Besides, it is also an effective intervention for low achievers. This is
because when tutors and tutees are organized to help each other in structured ways, there are
possibilities that both groups will improve their skills and knowledge. One of the examples of
peer tutoring programme is through a programme called Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies
(PALS). Through PALS, the questioning technique that is employed within pairs generates
deeper understanding that creates meaningful abstract representations (Fuchs et al., 2007).
Basically, CLJP and PALS programme are almost similar where the tutors are chosen from
students who have obtained good results in Chemistry and they volunteer to become the tutors.
The tutors also need to meet their lecturer (who acts as the supervisor) to report the progress,
discuss problems and innovations. Basically, CLJP adopts the PALS programme. However,
several changes are made to suit the matriculation syllabus.
In order to implement peer tutoring effectively, tutors play an important role in the peer
tutoring programme. A tutor has three functions as outlined by Sobral (2007): (a) to help the
tutees in the study task; (b) to aid the colleague in teaching tasks compatible with his/her
knowledge experience; and (c) to act as a link between lecturers and tutees.
Several studies have shown that peer tutoring is effective in a range of educational
environments. Susan et al. (2008) reported that Peer Led Team Learning (PLTL) has shown
improved performance in Chemistry and attitude among students. Kunsch (2007) states that
peer tutoring in Mathematics is effective in improving Mathematical performance for students
who experience Mathematical disability. Another study by Lazaro et al. (2006) observed how the
differences between the pre- and post- scores in the peer tutoring programme were highly
significant. Some established positive outcomes were reported through Peer Assisted Study
Sessions (PASS) that helped the students‟ performance by promoting an inquiring, analytical
and creative approach in Chemistry. (Miller et al., 2010). It is also proven that peer tutoring
benefits both tutors and students in improving students‟ perseverance and retention (Tinto,
2000).
Several studies also reported similar findings on the effect of peer tutoring on academic
performance in Chemistry. Van Lanen et al. (2000) reported that when students help each other,
they tend to gain impressive grades in Chemistry. The differences between the scores before
and after peer tutoring programmes were also found highly significant (Lazaro et al., 2006).
Meanwhile, Michael Parkinson (2009) found that there is a significant increase, more than 13%
in students‟ performance in their Chemistry examination marks and the failure rates were
observed to reduce dramatically.
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Research Objectives
The objectives of the study are:
1.
To investigate the effect of CLJP on students‟ achievement score in Chemistry.
2.
To examine the differences between male and female students on the Chemistry
achievement scores after the CLJP is implemented.
Research Questions
Is there any effect of CLJP on students‟ achievement score in Chemistry?
Is there any difference between male and female students on the Chemistry achievement
scores after the CLJP is implemented?
1.
2.
Research Hypothesis
There is no significant improvement on students‟ achievement score in Chemistry after the
implementation of CLJP.
There is no significant difference on the Chemistry achievement scores between male and
female students after the CLJP is implemented.
1.
2.
Research Methodology
This study employed the quantitative research approach which applies the experimental pre-test
and post-test research design. The design is shown in Figure 1.
O1
X
O2
Figure 1
Legend :
O1
X
O2
= Pre-test (Mid Semester Exam)
= Intervention (CLJP)
= Post-test (A test which have the same questions
as in the Mid Semester Exam)
This study adopted the Action Research Technique. This technique involved several steps
namely (a) Planning, (b) Action, (c) Observation; and (d) Reflection, and explained as follows:

Planning: In this step, a group of lecturers teaching Chemistry subject in Kolej MARA
Kulim carried out a meeting to discuss problems related to the quality of the results in
Chemistry during the Mid-Semester Exam. The results indicate that something needs to
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be done to overcome the problem and there is a consensus agreeing to implement the
CLJP. A permission from the college Director was warranted before the study started.
This step involved in selecting the sample of this study and developing the instrument to
measure students‟ achievement in Chemistry. The targeted samples are students who
obtained poor results in their standardized quizzes. The standardized quizzes were given
to the students once the lecturers completed covering lectures after each chapter. Based
from the results, a total number of 108 students from four lecture classes were purposely
selected. Meanwhile, students that had higher score were chosen as the Lecturer
Juniors. The Lecturer Juniors were then trained to help their peers for the mastery of
Chemistry content as stipulated in the matriculation syllabus.

Action : In short, this program carried out as follows:
Step 1
High achiever students from each class were selected by their respective lecturer to be a
tutor which is also known as Junior Lecturers. They will act as the tutor for four to five
students in a group. They have to attend Training for Trainer session (TOT) conducted
by the lecturer. The purpose of this session is to help tutors to understand the answer
scheme of each question which will later be discussed with other group members.
Step 2
The Junior Lecturer would meet their group members after academic hours (8pm to
10pm) once a week and they discussed the solutions of the questions given by the
lecturers. The questions were adapted by the lecturers using past years‟ examination
questions. In this meeting, the Junior Lecturers did not only help their group members to
answer the question, but they were also expected to understand certain related
concepts. On that day, two lecturers on duty would monitor the meeting which was held
concurrently for all classes. The lecturer also helped Junior Lecturers if they faced any
problems. The Junior Lecturers were required to submit a report to their lecturer on the
next day of meeting. At the end of semester, the certificate of recognition was given to
the Junior Lecturer as a token of appreciation.
Step 3
The pre-test which is Mid Semester Examination was conducted on 4 August 2011. The
paper contains four subjective questions. Each question was set from four different
chapters which are Matter, Atomic Structure, Periodic Table and Chemical Bonds. After
the examinations, the 8-week intervention was carried out by implementing CLJP. On the
ninth week, students were given post-test which comprised the same items as in the pre
test. The results from the two examinations were compared to investigate the
effectiveness of the CLJP in improving the students‟ achievement in Chemistry.

Observation : The results from both pre-test and post-test were compared to
investigate the effectiveness of the intervention program.
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
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Reflection
: Based from the data analysed, the researchers reflected on the
effectiveness of this programme.
Research Analysis and Finding
Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. The inferential statistical analysis was carried out
using paired sample t-test in order to determine the improvement of students‟ achievement in
pre test and post test. Independent sample t-test was performed to investigate the significant
differences on the academic performances among male and female students when the CLJP
was implemented.
The findings of the study are as explained below:
1. Achievement Differences between Pre and Post Test
To answer Research Question 1, paired sample t-test was performed. The achievement score is
categorized into low (M= 0.0-1.6), moderate (M= 1.7-3.3), good (M= 3.4-5.0) and excellent (M=
5.1-6.7). Table 1 showed that the post test mean score is higher (M= 6.45, SD=1.75) compared
to the pre test mean score (M= 1.83, SD=0.87). The result also indicated that the difference is
significant t(107)= -27.62, p=.00, p<0.05 as shown in Table 2. Thus, the null hypothesis is
rejected. It shows that there is significant improvement on students‟ achievement score in
Chemistry after the implementation of CLJP
Table 1. Mean score students’ achievement in pre test and post test
Dimension
Mean score
pre test
post test
Standard
deviations
0.87
1.75
1.83
6.45
Table 2. Paired Sample T-Test Analysis on Students’ Achievement
Mean
Standard Dev
95% CI
Lower
Upper
Post-pre
-4.62
1.74
-4.95
-4.29
*Paired sample t test significant at significant level .05
t
-27.62
df
Sig (2 tailed)
107
0.00
2. Achievement Difference among Male and Female Students
With regard to Research Question 2, the independent sample t-test was conducted in order to
examine the difference between the males and females on the test gain score. The result
indicates that there was no significant difference between the males and females t(106) =.95,
p=.344 (p>.05) as shown in Table 3. Thus, the null hypothesis which showed no significant
differences on the Chemistry achievement scores between male and female students after the
implementation of CLJP failed to be rejected.
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Table 3. Analysis achievement in pre test and post test among male and female students
Dimension
Levene Test
F
Sig
t
df
gain score Equal .881 .350 .950 106
variance
assumed
Equal
1.06 72.5
variance
not assumed
equal mean t test
sig
Mean
(2 tailed) Diff
.344
.290
.35149
.35149
Std Error
95% CI
Diff
Lower
Upper
.3699
-.3821
1.085
.3295
-.3053
1.154
*Independent sample t test significant at significant level .05
Discussion, Reflection and Recommendation
In summary, the researchers who were the lecturers of this study were impressed by the positive
improvement of students‟ achievement from moderate (M=1.83, SD=0.87) to (M= 6.45,
SD=1.75) excellent level after the implementation of CLJP. This finding is similar as reported by
Coe, McDougall and McKeown (1999) which stated that there is a positive effect of peer tutoring
in Chemistry. This study also reported that the positive impact of this programme is the same
between male and female students. Thus, this showed that this programme benefited all
students regardless of their gender.
However, the sample of this study involved students who were studying in Kolej MARA
Kulim in academic year 2011/2012. As such, the findings and the results cannot be generalized
to the Matriculation colleges nationwide. The findings obtained only applicable for the four
classes which were the sample in the study. The result analysis only focuses on four chapters in
Chemistry (Matter, Atomic Structure, Periodic table and Chemical Bonds). Other than that, the
students‟ achievement in Chemistry for the intact group might also be influenced by other factors
such as surrounding, student's personality, lecturers‟ commitment in teaching and learning
process in class and etc. The researchers also planned to get the reflection from the junior
lecturers, their group members and also the Chemistry lecturers. However, time constraint has
become the limitation factor in this study.
From this study, it is noted that the implementation of this programme had created closer
relationship among the students. It happened because the co-operation and the rapport that
had actually existed among the high and low achievers students. In the class, students no longer
worked individually because they had tried to improve their achievement as a group. This
innovative approach can improve students‟ examination results with enjoyment and enthusiasm.
From the observation, it is found that students are more comfortable with the informal
language used by their friends rather than formal language used by their lecturers. Thus, the
contents can be delivered easily. The success of CLJP is not just a measurement to improve
grades. Rather, it lies in its potential to encourage higher order thinking skill, independent
learning, creativity, team work, confidence and communication among the students. Relying on
students to teach their peers does not mean repudiates the role and duty of the lecturers.
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Furthermore, lecturers have to guide and monitor the junior lecturer in their Training of Trainer
classes (TOT). In fact, the lecturers, as a mentor and trainer, bear a heavy responsibility to
ensure that the junior lecturer understand the concepts of the lessons, and in turn, right
instructions and explanations can be delivered to their group members.
Based on the positive impact of this programme, it is recommended that besides having
discussion in a small group, this programme can be expanded to bigger groups where the junior
lecturers would conduct lectures after academic hours. Even though the topics would have been
taught by their Chemistry lecturers in formal classes, the help of junior lecturers would enable
their peers to understand the content of the topic better. This method works more effectively
because the teaching and learning are carried out in an informal, friendly and approachable way.
Indirectly, interesting learning environment is inculcated.
Other than that, junior lecturers are suggested to form discussion groups among
themselves. The purpose of this group is to provide a place for high achiever students to
strengthen their knowledge. It will be better if the discussions are held before they meet their
group members so that they will become more prepared for the topic that they are going to
discuss.
Lastly, it is suggested that for further research, the qualitative analysis be carried out to
understand better the impact of this programme to the students other than their academic
achievement. It is suggested that reflections be taken from the perspectives of lecturers, junior
lecturers and students.
Conclusions
It should be noted that this Chemistry Lecturer Junior Programme is one approach which can
help students to improve their academic achievement in Chemistry. Thus, this programme
should be continued in the next, new sessions for the betterment of students‟ performance.
However, certain adjustments should be carried out to this programme to improve students‟
behavioural and social aspect, not only focusing on the academic aspect. The impact of
Chemistry Lecturer Junior Programme will lead to holistic learning environment and collaborative
interaction.
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ISSN : 1985-9597, Jilid 6, Bil. 02 (Dis 2014),
http://journal.mara.gov.my/education/articles.html
Using the Process Approach to Teach Academic Writing to
First-Year Undergraduates of University of Selangor
Zarihan Samsudin, Ed.D
(Kolej Poly-Tech MARA, Kuala Lumpur)
Abstract
This current study is an experimental research to find out whether the process approach is able to
develop the skills needed by first-year undergraduates to write academic texts. An intact group of 25
first-year Bachelor of Education TESL students in University of Selangor who were taking the course
of Academic Writing Skills had participated in this study. Using t-tests, the results from the
participants’ pre-test were compared with the results of their post-test which was administered to them
after the treatment sessions. Based on the findings, the study reveals that the process approach helps
to develop the participants’ skills in writing academic texts because it is the way to teach the process
of writing that closely resembles the natural writing process.
Keywords – Academic writing skills, process approach, natural writing process, undergraduates
1. Introduction
Writing has always been regarded as a burdensome and demanding endeavor (Chitravelu,
Sithamparam, & Teh, 2005). As such, learners are often unhappy and anxious when they are
assigned any writing task. Moreover, “very little help is given on how to write a formally
structured and coherent product” (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod and Rosen, 1975, p. 27).
As a result, learners are unable to meet the demand of their writing assignments, thus
intensifying their dread of writing. Fortunately, recent developments in writing pedagogy and
a renewed interest in the field of writing have come to acknowledge the complexities and
difficulties involved in learning to write. Conceding that many beginning writers are dubious
about the writing process as they do not know how writers behave (Shaughnessy, 1977),
White and Arndt (1991) propose that teachers and educators learn more about the writing
process.
White and Arndt (1991) claimed that they have evidence which they had obtained
from differing types of observations of writers. The transcripts from these observations
disclose that there is much more to writing than just learning and utilizing linguistic or
rhetorical rules. More precisely, writing is an act of solving a problem which involves
processes like generating ideas, discovering a „voice‟ with which to write, planning, goalsetting, monitoring and evaluating what is going to be written as well as what has been
written, and searching for language with which to express exact meanings. Furthermore,
writers normally do not know at the outset exactly what it is they intend to write as many
ideas only come forth during the act of writing itself (White and Arndt, 1991). Hence, the
growing popularity of an approach in the writing pedagogy, which is often referred to as the
process approach, is being perceived as the answer to all of these problems.
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The ability to write academic texts is of foremost importance to students in institutions
of higher learning because their academic performance greatly depends on it. Unfortunately,
many students are unable to master the skills to write academic texts even after they have
undergone a course in academic writing during their first semester at the university. This
problem is common among undergraduates of many Malaysian universities, hence, those of
University of Selangor (UNISEL).
In view of this, many local institutions of higher learning try to help their
undergraduates to deal with these problems by insisting that they take a subject called
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at the beginning of their courses. The belief is that
EAP could at least provide the rudiments to write an academic paper stipulated by all
disciplines. Prompted by the realization of the problems faced by undergraduates in writing
academic texts in English, this study, therefore, seeks to find out whether the process writing
approach can be employed to help undergraduates of UNISEL to develop the ability to write
academic texts.
This current study is an experimental research to find out whether the process
approach is able to help to develop the skills needed by first-year undergraduates to produce
academic texts. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify whether there are any
improvements in the students‟ ability in writing academic text after they have been taught
using the process approach.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Academic Writing
For most researchers in the academic discourse, mastery of academic writing is the main
goal of composition pedagogy. Unfortunately, many students of various disciplines are not
able to do so, thus, they are pleading for assistance to master academic writing. Responding
to such concerns, many researchers started to investigate college students‟ initiation into
academic discourses and their ways of thinking (Durst, 2006).
Beginning from the middle to late 1980s, these researchers undertook studies to
examine the demands of the specific writing tasks and situations students were confronted
with in colleges and universities, and how they comprehended and managed academic
writing in general. Harowitz (1986), for example, tried to narrow down the gap between the
skills needed in content courses and those of English for Academic Purpose (EAP) which
emphasize more on types of rhetorical skills required to complete writing tasks in university
writing classes. Leki and Carson (1994), on the other hand, studied the reactions of the
students‟ faculty to their writing, students‟ writing needs and their perceptions of these needs
while Johns (2006), Flowerdew (2005), and Cotterall and Cohen (2003) discussed the
methods, challenges and possibilities of teaching research skills to students who studied
English language.
In addition, many researchers agree with Flowerdew (2005a) and Cotterall and
Cohen (2003) that in order to write academic texts efficiently, students need to first learn
several complex strategies and skills which they learn and use in content classes. Johns
(2006) and Cotterall and Cohen (2003) pointed out that students require instructions on how
to choose, evaluate, and integrate information and its sources into their own writing. It is also
found that besides the skills to read and respond to texts in university content classes are
inadequate; students also need to have the skills to manipulate data from different sources
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like interviews and questionnaires (Cotterall and Cohen, 2003; Spack, 1988; Horowitz,
1986)). Spack (1988), nonetheless, recommended students learn to formulate and test
generalizations, observe and report noteworthy pieces of information, or produce points of
reference for comparing homogenous phenomena. Horowitz (1986) asserted that students
are sometimes required to relate theory to data that they obtain from their research.
2.2 The Writing Process in Academic Context
According to Spack (1988), the process of composing academic texts requires strategies
such as planning, pre-writing, drafting, consulting, revising, and editing. Spack (1988)
referred to planning as the process of assigning of tasks and constructing timetable for
studying and composing while pre-writing is the process of gathering, exploring, and
organizing information. Drafting, on other hand, is the process of structuring of ideas into
linear discourse. Consulting is the process of ensuring aims and objectives are achieved.
Last but not least, the process of revising and that of editing are carried out together during
phases called re-writing that occur recursively throughout the act of composing (Spack,
1988; Shih, 1986).
Speaking of recursiveness, the composing process itself is, in fact, recursive (Flower
and Hayes, 1981). According to White and Arndt (1991), the complex and recursive nature of
writing and the reciprocal action of the different phases of writing occur concurrently.
Humans do not think in a linear manner, but writing is linear and because of this a writer
needs to know how to match his thoughts to his intended messages in an appropriate
manner. It is extremely rare for writers to know exactly what they will write ahead of time.
This is because many ideas only emerge once they have begun to write. They then retract
and revise, and make alterations in words or structures they have used before they move
forward to proceed with their writing. Writers normally do this repeatedly until they are
satisfied with the end result. Since writing entails a process of creating meaning through
generating, constructing, and improving one‟s ideas, writing practice in the ESL classroom
should mirror the same process where focus and sufficient time are provided for students to
revise and re-draft their text with the teacher interposing to facilitate the process of writing.
The writer is allowed to visit and revisit each stage of the writing process as many times as
he finds necessary and as he does this, he makes changes and alterations in order to get his
message across as effectively as possible. As discovered by Perl (1980), the success of
writing greatly depends upon the recursive quality of composing.
The new millennium, however, marks a different trend in composing. Al Husseini
(2014), for example, feels that ESL students should learn several of those complex strategies
and skills practiced in university content classes so that they can write academic texts
effectively. Baxter, Hughes and Tight (1998), DeLyser (2003), and Antoniou and Moriarty
(2008) claimed that although writing is the basis of an academic practice, writing is a skill that
is seldom explicitly taught. Consequently, many academics have to battle not only with
technical writing skills but with the emotions that writing arouses and with the demanding
process of developing a sense of self as an academic writer. It needs not be like this.
Cameron, Nairn, and Higgings (2009) identify three strategies that can help learners to make
sense of academic writing and its relationship with writing. One of the strategies is to confront
and talk about the emotional turmoil that writing arouses so that they can take charge of such
emotions in order to help them in the writing process. The second strategy is to address
procedural know-how explicitly and disclose what goes on in the process of writing. This
renders information about strategies for productive writing to novices, and convinces them
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that what they perceive as failings (for example, having to write and rewrite again and again)
are actually the means of producing good writing. The third strategy is to provide novices
with opportunity to assume themselves as experienced writers in the presence of others.
Santangelo, Harris, and Graham (2007) also pointed out that the reason why many
students find writing extremely difficult and frustrating is because they are not able to learn
and apply the strategies used by skilled writers. They found that Self-Regulated Strategy
Development (SRSD) has led to significant and meaningful improvements in writing
knowledge and skills as students learn strategies that can help them manage the writing
process. In addition, SRSD also increased motivation and self-regulation which occurred due
to a few reasons. The first of these reasons was the collaboration among students that took
place during instruction enhanced their sense of ownership over the strategy and allowed
them to make sense of why the use of strategy was beneficial. Secondly, introducing selfregulation techniques into instruction made the students see how their effort and attitudes
influenced learning. Finally, positive reinforcement by the teachers fostered students‟ belief in
their ability to improve. Similarly, Weisendanger, Perry, and Braun (2011) came up with a
strategy called Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose (SCPC). They conclude that SCPC is a
strategy that supports students‟ development of creative writing and construction of text in a
sequential manner. However, for the strategy to be fully mastered and utilized effectively by
most of the learners, repeated practice and varying amount of gradually reduced teacher
support are necessary. Independent mastery, then, can only be achieved with repeated use
of SCPS with prompting and continued support from teachers (Weisendanger, Perry, and
Braun, 2011).
Another researcher who has high regard for the use of strategy is Keen (2010) who
used a certain concept called strategic revision to analyze drafts and revise texts in order to
look into strategies and techniques deployed in the process of revision. The findings of
Keen‟s study indicate that some students are aware of a range of goals for writing and are
able to use these goals as reference points when redrafting in response to peer
assessments. Besides that, students are capable of generalizing from specific examples to
identify characteristics of interesting and effective writing. Yet, there are students who can
use the characteristics selectively and creatively as writing goals. Other than that, there are
indications to show that students can produce peer assessments which are quite accurate to
be used by writers in redrafting their accounts. In fact, some students may have combined
peer assessments, judgments, and recommendations with goals attained from their
knowledge of writers‟ motivation or assessment criteria or of both, to create strategies for
enhancing or creating drafts of their writing. The findings further showed that students were
able to use a range of types of alteration to develop their drafts. There are even students
who can use one or more of these alteration types strategically. Finally, there is also an
indication to show that some students are able to redraft in order to affect shifts in major
elements in texts or sections of text (Keen, 2010).
Last but not least, Watson (2010) carried out a study to investigate the use of
reflective journaling in the teaching of academic writing as a strategy to enhance students'
understanding of the different expository methods employed as part of the writing process.
The results of Watson's (2010) study indicate an overall improvement in students'
conceptualization of the expository method. Throughout his study, Watson was able to see
how reflective journals reveal what their writers had learnt, how writers had learnt to express
themselves in journals, how journals can help people learn. The study also brought up the
usefulness of reflective journaling by promoting thorough understanding of a situation, clearly
identifying goals, viewing and assessing possible options and thinking before acting
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(Nicholls, 2001). Liuoliene and Metiueniene (2009) who had also done a study on reflective
journaling, however, found that it is not just a log of events but a collection of specific topics
that provide favorable conditions for learning via reflection. This type of journaling
encourages learners to participate actively in the learning process which facilitates the
exploration of self-constructs of meaning. In other words, reflective journaling is a strategy
that can be used to help learners to acquire knowledge through the questioning of
instructional or learning practices geared towards the formulation of meaning (Liuoliene and
Metiueniene, 2009).
2.3 The Process Approach
The process approach views composing a piece of writing as a process in which the writer
explores, generates ideas, and continuously moves back and forth to uncover and
reconstruct his ideas in an attempt to define meaning (Zamel, 1983 a). Composing is thinking
(Raimes, 1983 a), thus, in the context of a writing class, the process approach entails the
provision of an assertive, supportive, and collaborative workshop setting within which
students, with sufficient time and little intervention, can work through their composing
processes. The teacher‟s role is only to facilitate students to develop workable strategies for
“getting started (finding topics, generating ideas and information, focusing, planning
structure, and procedure), for drafting (encouraging multiple drafts), for revising (adding,
deleting, modifying, and rearranging ideas), and for editing (attending to vocabulary,
sentence structure, grammar, and mechanics)” (Silva, 1990, p. 15).
In addition, the process approach also acknowledges that writing is a complex,
recursive, and creative process and regards these characteristics of writing as a set of
behaviors that is indistinguishable in the broad outlines for first and second language writers
(Friedlander, 1990). According to Mather and Jaffe (2002), writing should be viewed as
process that consists of stages that are interactive, overlapping and recursive. These stages
are prewriting (planning), writing (composing), rewriting (revising and editing), and sharing.
During prewriting, students are helped to generate topics through brainstorming and sharing
of ideas with others. They also consider the purpose for the writing as well as the audience it
is written for. Once they have decided on a topic, they start writing their first draft. Any time
during this writing stage, students may go back to researching for information for the topic
they have chosen when they find they do not have enough information about it or selecting a
new topic if they realize they are not interested in their earlier chosen topic. During the
rewriting stage, students revise their draft focusing their attention on their organization of
ideas and selection of vocabulary. Besides that, they proofread for mistakes and correct
errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and usage. Mather and Jaffe (2002)
recommend teachers to help their students at this stage by encouraging them to do peerediting, using a thesaurus, learning to use proof reading symbols, learning an editing strategy
or using a revision guide.
Another important feature of composing in academic context is collaborative learning.
Holmes (2004) came up with some suggestions to develop activities that involved discussion
and collaboration in an effort to make writing a more positive and effective experience. Ariza
Martinez (2005) found that brainstorming was very helpful in generating many ideas or words
that were related to a specific topic and that the activities of using picture sequence and
cartoons fostered personal expressions that proved to be a catalyst for vocabulary
development. Ariza Martinez also noticed that the adolescent low-achievers who were
extremely weak in writing who had participated in her study liked the process writing positive,
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motivating and collaborative atmosphere. Therefore, EFL and ESL writing classes have
started to accept and make use of the process approach because it is found successful
(Onozawa, 2010).
3.
Methodology
The research that employs the true experimental design described in Cresswell (2012) was
carried out on a class of 25 first year students of Bachelor of Education (TESL) of University
of Selangor who were taking the course of “Academic Writing Skills”. There was only one
class of first year students of Bachelor of Education (TESL) who were taking the course for
the second semester of the 2011/2012 session, the researcher was not able to select the
participants through random sampling, instead the researcher had to opt for convenience
sampling. The sampling method was chosen due to the fact that the courses offered for that
particular semester were all fixed and to choose participants at random was not possible as it
would disrupt the students‟ and department‟s schedules. In addition, the research was going
to take up the whole semester; it was easier to use the students of one class as they were
easily accessible and were unlike to withdraw from the study. This group consisted of twentyfive students, eight males and seventeen females.
As shown in Table 3.1, the participants were given three weeks of class time to write
the essay for the pre-test. They were allowed to collect materials for the test but were not
allowed to write the essay at home. All materials and writing drafts were kept in a folder and
had to be submitted to the lecturer at the end of every class session. The pre-test essays
had to be handed over to the lecturer at the end of the class session on the third week. Next,
the intervention or treatment was administered to the participants over a period of seven
weeks from Week 4 to Week 10, with each weekly lesson consisting of three hours. The
skills imparted to the participants during each weekly lesson is as stated in Table 3.2.
Table 3.1. Adaptation of One Group Designs – True-Experimental Design
(Source: Cresswell, 2010, p. 310)
Pre and Post-test Design
Time
Before the experiment
1st – 3rd
4th to 10th week of
11th – 13th
week of
research
week of
research
research
Select Experimental Group
Pretest
Experimental Treatment
Posttest
Table 3.2. Weekly Schedules of Skills Taught Using the Process Approach
Week
Skills Taught
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Topic selection.
Selection and organisation of information.
Outlining.
Drafting.
Drafting (continued).
Revising: Editing and Proofreading.
Revising: Editing and Proofreading (continued).
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The instructor who taught the participants was given special training on how to teach
using the process approach. Then the instructor was provided with the relevant teaching
materials which can be referred to in the references section.
Lastly, the post-test was administered on the participants in the eleventh week. In the
post-test, the participants were allowed to apply all the strategies that they had learned in the
process approach. For example, students were allowed to do group revision or conferencing
in class during the revision, editing, and proofreading stage during class session on Week
11, 12 and 13 before the final written product was finalized and submitted at the end of that
class session along with all materials and drafts that were to be kept in a folder. The
materials and drafts were later analysed. The composing behaviors of the participants during
the pre-test and post-test were also noted. Thus, data from the pre-test and post-test were
triangulated with the data obtained from the observations of the participants‟ composing
behaviors and data obtained from analysing participants‟ folders.
First, the instructor was asked to provide participants‟ pre-test and post-test scores.
Subsequently, an examiner who had more than twenty years of experience in marking was
engaged to moderate the scores provided by the instructor. The marking scheme used to
mark the participants‟ pre-test and post-test scripts was adopted from Hughey, Wormuth,
Hartfield and Jacobs (1983) which was taken from a book entitled Teaching ESL
Composition - Principles and Techniques written by Jane B. Hughey, Deanna R. Wormuth,
V. Faye Hartfield, and Holly L. Jacobs in 1983. The participants‟ essays were evaluated in
terms of content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics.
The first set of which was obtained from the pre and post –tests was analyzed using
the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows Version 19.0. Two different
types of data analysis methods were utilized, which included descriptive statistics, by
portraying frequencies and percentages and differential statistics by using a paired-sample ttest. On the other hand, the second set of data for this study was obtained from observations
of the participants‟ composing behaviors during the pre-test and the post-test. This set of
qualitative data was analyzed manually by matching the behaviors of the participants with the
patterns of behaviors of expert writers. Last but least, the third set of data was obtained from
the participants‟ writing folders. These folders were also manually analyzed for evidences of
participants‟ use of the strategies learnt from the process approach. The second and third
sets of data were used next used to strengthen the first set or statistical data.
4.
4.1
Findings
Pre- and Post-Tests
Using several differential analyses of the t-test, the participants‟ performances in the six main
criteria related to this study were analyzed. These criteria were content, organization,
vocabulary, language use, mechanics, and the overall results to find out whether there were
any significant differences between the performances of the participants in the six criteria in
the pretest and their performances in the same criteria in the post-test (before and after
employing the process approach).
Table 4.3.1 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of content.
Findings from the analysis indicate that the participants‟ post-test results had a significantly
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higher score than those of their pre-test, t (24) =-39.2, p=.000, d=-7.85. The difference is
large according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.1
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pre-test and the Post-test of
the Participants in Terms of Content
Type
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
15.12
21.24
-6.12
-39.179
24
.000
Table 4.3.2 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of organization.
Findings from the analysis indicate that the participants‟ post-test results had a significantly
higher score than those of their pre-test, t (24) =-14.5, p=.000, d=-2.91. The difference is
large according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.2
Type
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pre-test and the Post-test of
the Participants in Terms of Organization
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
10.04
12.76
-2.72
-14.525
24
.000
Table 4.3.3 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of vocabulary.
Findings from the analysis indicate that the respondents‟ post-test results had a significantly
higher score than those of their pre-test, t (24) =-22.2, p=.000, d=-4.45. The difference is
large according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.3
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pre-test and the Post-test of
the Participants in Terms of Vocabulary
Type
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
10.44
13.72
-3.28
-22.249
24
.000
Table 4.3.4 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of language use.
Findings from the analysis indicate that the participants‟ post-test results had a significantly
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higher score than those of their pre-test, t (24) =-20.8, p=.000, d=-4.16. The difference is
large according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.4
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pre-test and the Post-test of
the Participants in Terms of Language Use
Type
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
11.56
14.80
-3.24
-20.799
24
.000
Table 4.3.5 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of mechanics.
Findings from the analysis indicate that the participants‟ post-test results had a significantly
higher score than those their pre-test, t (24) =-12.6, p=.000, d=-2.53. The difference is large
according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.5
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pre-test and the Post-test of
the Participants in Terms of Mechanics
Type
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
2.40
3.88
-1.48
-12.629
24
.000
Table 4.3.6 shows the t-test differential analysis between the performances of the
participants in the pre-test and their performances in the post-test in terms of the overall
results. Findings from the analysis indicate that the participants‟ post-test had a significantly
higher score than their pre-test, t (24) =-45.2, p=.000, d=-9.04. The difference is large
according to Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.
Table 4.3.6
The t-Test Differential Analysis between the Pretest and the Posttest of
the Participants in Terms of the Overall Results
Type
Mean
Mean diff.
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
Pretest
Posttest
49.56
66.40
-1.68
-45.179
24
.000
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4.2
Data from Observation
4.2.1
During the Pre-Test
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A few of the participants were seen scribbling on their drafts while the others embarked
almost immediately on their essays. Although they were advised to read up and bring
materials for their content, only some of them did so. There were participants who brought
only thesauruses and dictionaries but there were several who did not bother to bring anything
except some papers to write the essay on. These were the ones who wrote and stopped and
wrote again on the same paper or on a new sheet of paper. While some of the participants
were seen discussing with their friends, others were asking their friends to provide them with
specific words or to correct their sentences or to correct the spelling of words or their
grammar that they were unsure of. No one bothered to edit or revise anybody‟s work before
handing in their work.
4.2.2
During Post-Test
All the participants brought many kinds of materials ranging from magazines and journal
articles to newspaper clippings to books. They also brought dictionaries, thesauruses, their
notes and handouts that were given to them during the treatment sessions. The process of
writing could be seen taking place in stages that are interactive, overlapping and recursive.
During the pre-writing stage, the participants were seen reading the materials and making
notes while others discussed and exchanged opinions with their friends. Then, they
constructed outlines before they started writing their essays. Based on the outline, they
wrote their drafts and stopped to refer to materials or their friends or to discuss with their
friends. A few participants were seen to go forth and back amidst their writing. Although
revision and edition were done throughout the entire process of writing the final drafts, the
participants still carried out peer revising and proofreading before they submitted their essays
to the instructor.
4.3.
Analyses of Pre-Test Materials and Drafts
Five participants brought articles retrieved from the internet, two brought magazine articles
and two brought newspaper clippings. No one brought any books except five who brought
either a dictionary or thesaurus.
Twelve participants had more than one draft in their folder. Four of the drafts were
trial and error sheets of the participants‟ essays; six were drafts containing content points
while the remainders were midway-abandoned essays. Not a single outline was found in any
of the participants‟ folders. There were no peer revised or edited drafts. All revision and
edition were undertaken by individual participant himself or herself.
4.3.2
Analyses of Post-Test Materials and Drafts
All the participants brought more than one kind of material. Twenty-one participants brought
magazine or journal articles; twenty brought articles retrieved from the internet; fifteen
brought newspaper clippings; and twenty-four brought photocopied pages of books and
encyclopedias. Ten participants brought either a dictionary or a thesaurus.
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All the participants had more than one draft in their folders. Each of them had draft
showing brainstorming of content points; outline; first draft; a second draft; peer conferencing
draft; his/her own revised or edited draft; and peer revised or edited draft.
5.
Discussions
Based on the paired sample t-test analysis of the participants, it was found that the
respondents‟ post-test results had a higher score than those of their pretest in terms of all
criteria namely, content, organization, vocabulary, language use, mechanics, and overall
results. This means that the process approach has contributed towards the improvement of
scores in the participants‟ performance. There are a number of reasons why the researcher
makes this assertion.
First and foremost, the participants‟ marks for content and organization at the posttest are higher than their marks for the same criteria at the pre-test because the pre-writing
phase of the process approach was like the pre-writing stage mentioned in the review of
related literature above, that is, it was a process of gathering, exploring, and organizing of
information (Spack, 1988). They were taught to obtain ideas through brainstorming
techniques like listing, clustering, and free writing; and also through library and internet
searches. This is in line with what Johns (2006) and Cotterall and Cohen (2003) pointed out
that students require instructions on how to choose, evaluate, and integrate information and
its sources into their own writing. As for organization, they were taught to create outlines of
the information that they had decided to include in their essays. Other than that, the process
approach to teaching writing advocates the use of strategies which is in accord with names
such as Al Husseini (2014), Weisendanger, Perry, and Braun (2011), Keen (2010), Cameron,
Nairn, and Higgings (2009), Santangelo, Harris, and Graham (2007), Flowerdew (2005), and
Cotterall and Cohen (2003). Examples of strategies that are utilized in the process approach
are brainstorming for pre-writing, refreshing students‟ memory on problematic grammatical
items, outlining, conferencing during drafting, teacher and peer editing during editing and
revising.
Furthermore, there are also other recommendations that are put forth by these
researchers that are upheld and practiced by the process approach employed in this study.
Al Husseini (2014) and Cameron, Nairn and Higgings (2009), for example, recommended
that students be provided with procedural know-how and what goes on in the process of
writing. Weisendanger, Perry, and Braun (2011) and
Santangelo, Harris, and Graham
(2007), on the other hand, proposed that students be given varying amount of gradually
reduced teacher support. Then, there is Keen who maintained that students can produce
peer assessments which are quite accurate and some students may combine peer
assessments, judgments and recommendations with goals attained from their knowledge of
writers‟ motivation or assessment criteria or of both, to create strategies for enhancing drafts
of their writing. Flowerdew(2005) and Cotterall and Cohen(2003) asserted that students use
some complex strategies and skills which they have learn in content classes to write
academic texts.
Other than that, the participants‟ marks for vocabulary, language use, mechanics and
overall results at the post-test are higher than their marks for the same criteria at the pre-test
because they had been taught and encouraged to constantly upgrade and refine their essays
in terms of ideas (content) as well as language use during all the stages in the treatment
sessions. This shows that the process approach resembles the real composing process
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which is recursive (Friedlander, 1990; Flower and Hayes, 1981). The observation made by
the researcher during the post-test also reveals that the participants went back and forth
while they were writing until they were satisfied with the end product, hence, providing the
evidence that the process approach is in line with Mather and Jaffe‟s (2002) claim that writing
is a process that consists of stages that are interactive, overlapping and recursive. It also
proves the truth of what White and Arndt (1991) said about humans do not think in a linear
manner, but writing is linear and because of this a writer needs to know how to match his
thoughts to his intended messages in an appropriate manner. This is because many ideas
only emerge once they have begun to write and that was why the participants retracted and
revised, and made alterations in words or structures they had used before they moved
forward to proceed with their writing. The process approach to teaching writing
acknowledges this process of creating meaning through generating, constructing, and
improving one‟s idea. In other words, the process approach mimics the recursive nature of
the natural writing process, thus providing the participants with the opportunity to revise and
improve their content as well as language use, hence higher marks for their overall results.
Therefore, this proves that the success of the writing as noted by Perl (1980) greatly
depends upon the recursive quality of composing.
In addition, the instructor who was using the process approach in this study helped
and encouraged the participants to do peer-editing, using a thesaurus through the use of
proofreading symbols and an editing strategy (Mather and Jaffe, 2002). Unsurprisingly,
when the participants‟ drafts were done, the analyses showed that the participants were
able to produce accurate peer assessments when they were instructed to redraft their essays
(Keen, 2010). In a way, the positive reinforcement given in a facilitative rather than the
teacher-like authoritarian nature of the instructor helped to foster the participants‟ belief in
their ability to improve (Santangelo, Harris, and Graham, 2007).
Another feature of the process approach worth mentioning here is collaborative
learning. Many of the activities in the process approach in this study involved discussion and
collaboration in an effort to make writing a more positive and effective experience (Holmes,
2004). This study also reveals that brainstorming was very helpful in generating many ideas
or words that are related to a specific topic. Brainstorming is proven to be a catalyst for
vocabulary development.
Many participants who were weak in writing liked the process
writing which provided positive, motivating and collaborative atmosphere (Ariza Martinez,
2005). Hence, not only EFL and ESL writing classes should make use of the process
approach but academic writing classes should also do the same because it is found
successful (Onozawa, 2010).
6.
Conclusion
The process approach as found by this study had encouraged and enlivened the
recursiveness of natural writing and helped the participants to perform better in their writing
especially content-wise. This suggests that teachers should encourage their student writers
to revise and refine their ideas even when in the stage of writing their final draft so that they
can produce a good academic text. Another way of putting this is teachers should always
encourage their students to develop the best work they can possibly produce. One of the
reasons why the participants performed better in their content is because they were taught
new ways to thoroughly search for ideas to include in their essays. This indicates that
teachers need to acquaint their students with the various means of obtaining information.
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Undergraduates need to write comprehensive academic texts within their own disciplines so
that they can obtain better grades in their CGPAs. Thus, this is indeed a better way to start
teaching undergraduates how to write a comprehensive academic text than to teach them
how to research comprehensively for their subject matter. In this way, not only will they
accumulate knowledge in the subject matter, but they will also improve their language skills.
Another reason why the participants did better in terms of content indirectly implies
that undergraduates need to be taught and coached on how to write a thesis statement and
topic sentences as well as how to develop them. Teachers should not only analyze these
statements but guide their development as well with the hope that their students can imitate
and learn to do these difficult tasks on their own. Academic writing is not about accuracy of
language, per se, but about the fluency of it. The importance of correctness of form is
undeniable, but the ability to get the message across is even more significant in academic
writing. So, teachers should insist on accuracy but should not be preoccupied or obsessed
by it to the point where they overlook a student's brilliant subject-matter and skills to write
academic text
7.
Limitations of the Study
Due to the intensiveness of the instruction and monitoring at every step of the way in
producing an academic text through the process approach, only one group consisting of 25
participants was involved in this study. Secondly, the participants selected were only
Bachelor of Education (TESL) students. Thirdly, due to the setting of the class schedule and
courses offered for that semester, the participants were the only ones who were taking the
Academic Writing Skills course in UNISEL. These are the reasons why the selection of the
method of sampling was that of convenience sampling rather than that of random sampling.
Therefore, the findings of this research cannot be generalized to all students undertaking
similar or different programs in UNISEL or other universities.
8.
Recommendations for Further Research
The sample size of this research was only 25 students of Bachelor of Education (TESL) in
University of Selangor. Furthermore, due to some restrictions in this study, random sampling
was not possible, instead convenience sampling was selected. Therefore, the findings of this
research cannot be generalized to all students of institutions of higher learning in Malaysia or
elsewhere. As such, for the purpose of generalization of the findings, a larger scale research
involving a bigger sample size from various programs and institutions of higher learning is
suggested for future studies. In addition, it is suggested that future studies could explore
employing a more robust sampling methodology.
Other than that, there were only five components of the written essays were
assessed, namely: content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. This
study did not assess the ability of students in citing information from other sources and
writing references specifically. This could be another area to dwell upon in future research for
this type of writing as citation and referencing are important parts of writing an academic text.
The ability of writing an academic text should be developed not only at tertiary level
but should start with students at school level. As writing folios is part of the evaluation of
students‟ performance in schools in subjects like History, Geography and Living Skills, it is
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appropriate to teach students in schools how to write academic texts. Therefore, it is
suggested that the use of the process approach to teach academic writing in schools could
also be experimented by future researchers.
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